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1

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases. PMID:18973662

Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

2008-01-01

2

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

3

Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract.  

PubMed

A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains. PMID:25710891

Ramesh, P S; Kokila, T; Geetha, D

2015-05-01

4

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied

R. Haque; B. Bin-Hafeez; I. Ahmad; S. Parvez; S. Pandey; S. Raisuddin

2001-01-01

5

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

6

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO). Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700?mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700?mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P < 0.001) increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:25215258

Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Ojha, Shreesh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer S.

2014-01-01

7

Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential. PMID:23889914

2013-01-01

8

Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

2014-12-01

9

An in-vivo comparative evaluation of two herbal extracts Emblica officinalis and Terminalia Chebula with chlorhexidine as an anticaries agent: A preliminary study  

PubMed Central

Aim: To compare the effect of 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinallis with chlorhexidine as an anticaries mouthwash – an in vivo study. Methodology: 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis were prepared. Forty five high caries risk patients were divided into group 1,2,3 [ n=15]and asked to rinse with 20% aqueous extract of Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis, 0.2% Chlorhexidine for 40 seconds respectively. Salivary samples were collected for pH, buffering capacity before and after rinsing at repeated intervals of 10, 30,60 and 90 minutes and except for microbial analysis for which it was collected before and 90 minutes after rinsing. The pH and the buffering capacity analysis was done using chairside kit and percentage of reduction of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus were tabulated and statistically analyzed. Results: For salivary pH, Group 2 showed the highest peak value followed by group 1. For salivary buffering capacity, there was no significant difference between any of the groups. For microbial count, highest percentage of reduction was seen in group 2 followed by group 1 and 3. However group 3 was more efficient at 90 minutes followed by group 1 and group 2. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of Embilica officinalis extract and Terminalia chebula was more effective anticaries mouthwash but with less time of action than chlorhexidine. PMID:24347891

Velmurugan, Arumugam; Madhubala, Manavalan Madhana; Bhavani, Sreekrishnapillai; Satheesh Kumar, Kasinathan Subbaian; Sathyanarayana, Srinivasan Sai; Gurucharan, Natanasikamani

2013-01-01

10

Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract.  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplementation with extract of fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (a rich source of vitamin C) to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene. Age-matched Swiss albino mice were fed by gavaging the fruit extract daily for 28 days. From day 9, one dose of the carcinogen was given on alternate days up to a total of eight doses. On day 29, all mice were transferred to normal diet. Control sets received the extract alone, the carcinogen alone and olive oil alone. All mice were sacrificed at 12 weeks and 14 weeks after the end of the experiment. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow after the usual colchicine-hypotonic-fixative-air drying-Giemsa staining schedule. Cytogenetic end points screened were the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of damaged cells induced. The cytotoxic effects were significantly lower in the mice given the fruit extract with the carcinogen than in those given the carcinogen alone. PMID:9374371

Nandi, P.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A.

1997-01-01

11

Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

2014-01-01

12

Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors  

PubMed Central

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

2013-01-01

13

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

14

Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

Nurzy?ska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

2014-05-01

15

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

2009-01-01

16

Biodeterioration in Emblica based Medicinal products and their Aflatoxin contamination.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, Emblica officinalis Gaerth. Syn Phyllanthus emblica linn. has been selected on account of its large scale use in manufacture of indigenous drugs. Among the various fungal, species, Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant and frequent species in most of food stuffs studied. The total population of Aspergillus. flavus was recorded in range of 20.30 × 10(3) - 89.50 × 10(3) colonies/g in dried Aonla, 8.00 - 42.25 × 10(3) colonies/g in dried Aonla, 8.00 - 42.25 × 10(3) colonies/g Triphala, 1.25 × 10(3) - 19.83 × 10(3) colonies/g in hair oil and 1.20- 27.00 × 10(3) colonies/g in Aonla syrup. Minimum 26.66% percentage incidence of aflatoxin contamination was recorded in samples where the frequency of Aspergillus flavus was 91.50%. PMID:22557430

Choudhary, G P

2011-01-01

17

Glandular hairs and essential oils in micropropagated plants of Salvia officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Micropropagation of Salvia officinalis L. (the common sage) plants to verify their ability to produce the typical volatile oil is described. The morphology of the glandular hairs and the chemical composition of the essential oils from in vitro shoots and micropropagated plants have been studied. For comparative purposes, volatile constituents from field grown mother plants and derived rooted cuttings have

Pinarosa Avato; Irene Morone Fortunato; Claudia Ruta; Roberta D’Elia

2005-01-01

18

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Pińa, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

2012-01-01

19

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

20

Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2013-01-01

21

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds,\\u000a the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds,\\u000a two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL),\\u000a were investigated in suspension cultures of

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2010-01-01

22

In vitro screening for anti-cholinesterase and antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ayurvedic medicinal plants used for cognitive disorders.  

PubMed

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman's microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

2014-01-01

23

In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders  

PubMed Central

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

2014-01-01

24

Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.  

PubMed

Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. PMID:24147363

Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

2013-01-01

25

Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).  

PubMed

Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. PMID:25447532

Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2014-12-20

26

Plant growth, essential oil yield and composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) fruits cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the effect of different NaCl concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) on plant growth, essential oil production and composition of Salvia officinalis fruits. The first results showed that increasing NaCl levels to 100mM reduced significantly the plant growth by 65%. While, the essential oil yield increased significantly from control to 75mM and decreased

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Mohamed Hammami; Mohamed Elyes Kchouk; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

27

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

28

Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

29

Thesinine-4?- O-?- d-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4?-O-?-d-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of dried seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

Martina Herrmann; Holger Joppe; Gerhard Schmaus

2002-01-01

30

Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce endothelial dysfunction via increased oxidative stress and that it plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Phyllanthus emblica (Emblica officinalis, amla) is known for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. The present study compared the effects of an aqueous extract of P. emblica (highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolyzable tannins, ie, emblicanin A, emblicanin B, pedunculagin, and punigluconin) versus those of atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Eligible patients were randomized to receive either P. emblica 250 mg twice daily, P. emblica 500 mg twice daily, atorvastatin 10 mg in the evening and matching placebo in the morning, or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in endothelial function identified on salbutamol challenge at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary efficacy parameters were changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione), high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, the lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Laboratory safety parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Eighty patients completed the study. Treatment with P. emblica 250 mg, P. emblica 500 mg, or atorvastatin 10 mg produced significant reductions in the reflection index (?2.25%±1.37% to ?9.13%±2.56% versus ?2.11%±0.98% to ?10.04%±0.92% versus ?2.68%±1.13% to ?11.03%±3.93%, respectively), suggesting improvement in endothelial function after 12 weeks of treatment compared with baseline. There was a significant improvement in biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation compared with baseline and placebo. Further, the treatments significantly improved the lipid profile and HbA1c levels compared with baseline and placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion Both atorvastatin and P. emblica significantly improved endothelial function and reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without any significant changes in laboratory safety parameters. PMID:23935377

Usharani, Pingali; Fatima, Nishat; Muralidhar, Nizampatnam

2013-01-01

31

Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms.

Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirda?, Arif; Akp?nar, Abdullah

2015-01-01

32

Evaluation of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe levels in Rosmarinus officinalis labaiatae (Rosemary) medicinal plant and soils in selected zones in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinal plant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinal plant samples and soil samples were collected from three different\\u000a zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma’an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical\\u000a treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy

Abdul-Wahab O. El-Rjoob; Adnan M. Massadeh; Mohammad N. Omari

2008-01-01

33

The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25–50 mg\\/kg), similar to clinically effective

Zhong-Qi Zhang; Li Yuan; Ming Yang; Zhi-Pu Luo; Yi-Min Zhao

2002-01-01

34

Drying Sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) Plants and Its Effects on Content, Chemical Composition, and Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) were studied under different drying methods of plant material. Results obtained showed that dried plant\\u000a material yielded more essential oils than did the fresh one. The highest EO yields were obtained by infrared drying at 45 °C\\u000a (0.39%) followed by air drying (0.30%) and oven drying at 45 °C (0.26%). The

Ibtissem Hamrouni Sellami; Iness Bettaieb Rebey; Jazia Sriti; Fatma Zohra Rahali; Ferid Limam; Brahim Marzouk

35

Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.  

PubMed

This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

2014-11-01

36

Bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae related to the drying treatment of the plant material.  

PubMed

In this study, chemical composition, physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis extracted from plant material with different drying treatments against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae were assessed. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for mites and bees was estimated using a complete exposure method test. The broth microdilution method was followed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils against P. larvae. Physicochemical properties were similar in both the essential oils, but the percentage of components showed certain differences according to their drying treatment. ?-Myrcene and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents in the oils. The LC50 for complete exposure method at 24, 48 and 72 h was minor for mites exposed to R. officinalis essential oil dried in oven conditions. MIC values were 700-800 µg mL(-1) and 1200 µg mL(-1) for R. officinalis dried in air and oven conditions, respectively. The results reported in this research show that oil toxicity against V. destructor and P. larvae differed depending on the drying treatment of the plant material before the distillation of essential oil. PMID:20623426

Maggi, M; Gende, L; Russo, K; Fritz, R; Eguaras, M

2011-02-01

37

Enzymatic synthesis of valerena-4,7(11)-diene by a unique sesquiterpene synthase from the valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).  

PubMed

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular medicinal plant in North America and Europe. Its root extract is commonly used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic. Among dozens of chemical constituents (e.g. alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) found in valerian root, valerena-4,7(11)-diene and valerenic acid (C15 sesquiterpenoid) have been suggested as the active ingredients responsible for the sedative effect. However, the biosynthesis of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene hydrocarbon skeleton in valerian remains unknown to date. To identify the responsible terpene synthase, next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) was used to generate ? 1 million transcript reads from valerian root. From the assembled transcripts, two sesquiterpene synthases were identified (VoTPS1 and VoTPS2), both of which showed predominant expression patterns in root. Transgenic yeast expressing VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 produced germacrene C/germacrene D and valerena-4,7(11)-diene, respectively, as major terpene products. Purified VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 recombinant enzymes confirmed these activities in vitro, with competent kinetic properties (K(m) of ? 10 ?m and k(cat) of 0.01 s(-1) for both enzymes). The structure of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene produced from the yeast expressing VoTPS2 was further substantiated by (13) C-NMR and GC-MS in comparison with the synthetic standard. This study demonstrates an integrative approach involving next-generation sequencing and metabolically engineered microbes to expand our knowledge of terpenoid diversity in medicinal plants. PMID:22776156

Pyle, Bryan W; Tran, Hue T; Pickel, Benjamin; Haslam, Tegan M; Gao, Zhizeng; MacNevin, Gillian; Vederas, John C; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2012-09-01

38

Microsatellite markers for the invasive plant species white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe specific primers and conditions to amplify eight tetranucleotide, one trinucleotide, and one dinucleotide microsatellite DNA loci isolated from an enriched genomic library of Melilotus alba, an invasive plant species throughout North America. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2...

39

Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goatstrue is a member of the abaceae family, native to Europe and western Asia. It contains the toxic alkaloid galegine. The objective of the study was to describe galegine concentration in aboveround goatsrue plant parts and total galegine pools over phenological growth stages. Twenty goatsrue plan...

40

Effect of blanching on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla (Emblica officinalis) shreds.  

PubMed

The effect of hot water blanching treatment on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla shreds was studied at drying air temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C with the air velocity of 1.2 m/s. The drying time decreased with the increase in air temperature and blanching. The drying process was observed in falling rate. Drying after blanching reduced the vitamin C content of aonla shreds by 69.36% whereas it decreased by 27.78% in unblanched shreds. Eight commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying behavior of aonla shreds. The Midilli model described the drying behaviour of unblanched aonla shreds at all temperatures better than other models whereas two-term model described the drying kinetics of blanched aonla shreds satisfactorily. The effective diffusivities of the unblanched and blanched aonla shreds were determined using Fick's law of diffusion. The activation energy was found to be 47.21 kJ/mol for unblanched and 43.98 kJ/mol for blanched aonla shreds. PMID:24966422

Gupta, R K; Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Pradeep; Vishwakarma, R K; Patil, R T

2014-07-01

41

Chemical composition of some medicinal plant products of indigenous origin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical compositions of leaves of neem (Azadirachta indica), sajna (Moringa oleifera), arjun (Terminalia arjuna), tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), turmeric (Curcuma longa); rhizomes of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric; fruits of amla (Emblica officinalis), haritaki (Terminalia chebula), bohera (Terminalia belerica) and bulbs of garlic (Allium sativum) of indigenous origin were determined. Proximate and mineral components (Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P), Sodium (Na), Potassium

S. Bhowmik; S. D. Chowdhury; M. H. Kabir; M. A. Ali

2008-01-01

42

Determination of toxic metals by ICP-MS in Asiatic and European medicinal plants and dietary supplements.  

PubMed

The potentially toxic metals content was determined in selected plants, used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (Angelica sinensis, Bacopa monnieri, Bupleurum sinensis, Curcuma longa, Cola accuminata, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Mucuna pruriens, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Pueraria lobata, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Schisandra sinensis, Scutellaria baicalensis, Siraitia grosvenorii, Terminalia arjuna and Terminalia chebula), and some European herbs (Echinacea purpurea, Hypericum perforatum, Vitis vinifera). Samples were mineralized in a closed microwave system using HNO3 and the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Al, As, Ba, Ni and Sb were determined by ICP-MS method. Some relevant aspects of potential toxicity of metallic elements and their compounds were also discussed. Results of metal content analysis in dietary supplements available on Polish market, containing studied plants, are presented as well. The results were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. PMID:25467854

Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kurzawa, Marzanna; Sz?yk, Edward

2015-04-01

43

Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

C Jagetia, Ganesh

2007-03-01

44

In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.  

PubMed

Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 ?g/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

2011-12-01

45

Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.  

PubMed

Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists. PMID:24955655

Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

2014-07-16

46

[Chemical constituents of Nauclea officinalis].  

PubMed

In order to study the chemical constituents in the water extract of the stem of Nauclea officinalis, column chromatography over D101 macroporous resin and silica gel and an automatic purification system were used to isolate and purify the chemical constituents from the extract. Nine compounds were obtained. By analysis of the physicochemical properties and spectral data, their structures were identified as naucleamide G (1), 3, 4-dimethoxyphenol-beta-D-apiofuranosyl (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), kelampayoside A (3), 3alpha, 5alpha-tetrahydrodeoxycordifoline lactam (4), naucleamide A-10-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5), pumiloside (6), 3-epi-pumiloside (7), strictosamide (8) and vincosamide (9), separately. Among them, compound 1 is a new compound, compound 2 was found in plants of the genus Nauclea for the first time, and compounds 3 and 4 were isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:23672026

Zhu, Fen-Xia; Wang, Jing-Jing; Song, Jie; Ding, Shu-Min; Jia, Xiao-Bin

2013-02-01

47

officinalis) Abstract ITo  

E-print Network

--""."-- - -t- -- I ' REPORTS I Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Se as to avoid oilier cuttlefish. Those in die small tank hovered more and sat on die bottom less, showed more-cultured cuttlefish (sepia officinalis) have been the that are sufficiently large to permit a s~udy of this kind; we

Boal, Jean

48

[Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].  

PubMed

Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract". PMID:7672742

Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

1995-07-10

49

Comparison of some antioxidant properties of plant extracts from Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Stevia rebaudiana.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds from plants are known for their antioxidant properties and have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress. However, under normal circumstances, the body only receives a very small amount of these substances in the diet. We have investigated the effect of extracts from known and frequently used plants as part of diet, food seasoning, medicinal tea, and sweetener at different concentrations on the ability to scavenge free radicals, to affect antioxidant enzymes, and finally in the survival of cancer cell lines. We found extract concentrations of about 100 ?g.ml(-1) more indicative in the assessment of all parameters investigated. Ginseng possessed a very good ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, while stevia also manifested significant effects against hydroxyl radicals. Both extracts also showed NO decomposition ability. The antioxidant defense system against the excessive production of radicals in mitochondria was sufficient. In contrast, the range of operating concentrations for sage and oregano mainly presented no significant effects against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together with the significantly reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase, this led to the depletion of glutathione. The demonstrated modulation of redox state capability was sufficient to affect the viability of all tested cancer cell lines, but especially A-549, CEM and HeLa by oregano extract. Results support the promising role of the tested extracts as a source of compounds for further in vivo studies with the ability to powerfully interfere with or modify the redox state of cells according to the type of disease, which is expected to be associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24737278

Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka; Fejer?áková, Andrea; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Porá?ová, Janka

2014-08-01

50

Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla. PMID:24748729

Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

2014-01-01

51

Evaluation of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute and chronic stress is a risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent marker for cardiovascular disease. Cold pressor test (CPT) is known to be associated with substantial activation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants were randomized to receive either two capsules of P. emblica extract 250 mg (containing aqueous extract of P. emblica, highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolysable tannins emblicanin-A, emblicanin-B, pedunculagin and punigluconin) or two capsules of placebo twice daily for 14 days. Pharmacodynamic parameters such as heart rate, augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), radial and aortic blood pressure (BP) were recorded before and after CPT at baseline and end of treatment. After washout period of 14 days, subjects crossed over to the other treatment and the same test procedure was repeated again. Safety assessments were done at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: A total of 12volunteers completed the study. Compared with baseline and placebo, P. emblica extract produced a significant decrease of mean percent change in the indices of arterial stiffness (AIx, radial and aortic BP) and increase in SEVR, an index of myocardial perfusion with CPT. Both treatments were well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Proprietary P. emblica extract, showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections. PMID:24497739

Fatima, Nishat; Pingali, Usharani; Pilli, Raveendranadh

2014-01-01

52

In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19191025

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

2009-08-01

53

Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

Stefan Andersson

1988-01-01

54

Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

55

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.  

PubMed

India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620

Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot

2003-01-01

56

Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: Doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To examine the growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica ) and Terminalia bellerica (T. bellerica ) extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells and their synergistic effect with doxorubicin or cisplatin. METHODS: HepG2 and A549 cells were treated with P. emblica and T. bellerica extracts either alone or in combination with doxorubicin or

Chariya Hahnvajanawong

57

Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and ? aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

2015-04-01

58

Isolation of chemically induced mutants in borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 ?6,9,12) has been reported to be helpful in the treatment of a wide range of disorders. Borage\\u000a (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant of renewed interest because the seeds are an important source of GLA. The failure to retain mature\\u000a seeds until harvest limits the total seed and GLA yield per plant and is the

A. De Haro-Bailón; M. Del Rio

1998-01-01

59

FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EMERGENCIA DE PLÁNTULAS DE BORRAJA (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) FACTORS INFLUENCING BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDLING EMERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Borago officinalis L. seeds and the whole plant are used as medicinal plants. Gamma linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid from the omega-6 family is present in its seeds. Objectives: To analyze the effect of the seeding depth, seed maturity, germination promoters, and\\/or stratification on the emergence percentage, vigor index and time to reach a 50% emergence were

Alejandro Solís; Rosemarie Wilckens; Maritza Tapia; Susana Fischer; Daniel Sorlino; Marisol Berti

60

Anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property.  

PubMed

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named 'Triphala' (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced with Fe(2+)/ascorbate were food to be 85.5, 27, 74 and 69 micro g/ml, respectively. The concentration needed for the inhibition of hydoxyl radical scavenging were 165, 71, 155.5 and 151 micro g/ml, and that for superoxide scavenging activity were found to be 20.5, 40.5, 6.5 and 12.5 micro g/ml, respectively. Oral administration of the extracts (100 mg/kg body weight) reduced the blood sugar level in normal and in alloxan (120 mg/kg) diabetic rats significantly within 4 h. Continued, daily administration of the drug produced a sustained effect. PMID:12065146

Sabu, M C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2002-07-01

61

Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

DOEpatents

cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

1999-01-01

62

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

63

Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

2013-01-01

64

Vegetation of waste disposal areas at a coal-fired power plant in Kansas. [Agropyron elongatum, Festuca arundinacea, Melilotus officinalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, Populus deltoides, Juniperus virginiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of scrubber sludge and fly ash waste from coal-fired power plants is a costly problem for utilities. Current regulations call for the retired waste areas to be covered with topsoil, then seeded to produce a protective vegetative cap. We conducted field tests over a 3-yr period to determine if a vegetative cover could be established without first adding topsoil

D. W. Mulhern; R. J. Robel; J. C. Furness; D. L. Hensley

2009-01-01

65

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

66

Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.  

PubMed

Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

2006-05-01

67

Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Althaea officinalis radix hydroalcoholic extract.  

PubMed

The objectives were to study the potential of Althaea officinalis radix in production of silver NPs, and the effect of the extract ethanol concentration on the produced NPs. Seventy and ninety-six percent hydroalcoholic extracts were prepared by percolation of the plant powder. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator and then freeze-dried. Silver ions were determined using atomic absorption analysis. The NPs were characterized by Nano-Zeta Sizer and TEM. Both of 70% and 96% of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. officinalis radix successfully synthesized spherical and poly-dispersed silver NPs. The conversion was fast and almost completed in 5 h. PMID:25058031

Korbekandi, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Chitsazi, Mohammad Reza; Bahri Najafi, Rahim; Badii, Akbar; Iravani, Siavash

2014-07-24

68

Fungi threatening the cultivation of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in south-eastern Poland  

Microsoft Academic Search

S u m m a r y In 2004-2006 there were studies conducted on fungi colonizing and harming different parts of plants on plantations of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grouped in south-eastern Poland. Fungi were isolated from roots, the stem base and leaves. The surface was disinfected by means of a mineral medium. Fungi from genera Fusarium, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma

BEATA ZIMOWSKA

69

Phyllanthus emblica L. Enhances Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Wound Healing and Sprouting  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of impaired wound healing and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants from natural sources decrease oxidative stress and protect against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the antioxidant constituents and capacity of Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) fruit in freeze-dried power form. The pharmacological properties of PE were investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the aspects of endothelial cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, wound healing, cell migration, in vitro angiogenesis, and VEGF gene expression. The ASC content of PE was 1.574% + 0.046% (w/w) as determined by HPLC and the total phenolic content was 36.1%?± 0.7% gallic acid equivalent when measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The FRAP assay revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity at 3,643 + 192.5?µmole/mg. PE at 0.1 to 10?µg/mL did not significantly influence endothelial cell proliferation, but at higher concentrations PE decreased cell survival to 62%. PE significantly promoted NO production, endothelial wound closure, endothelial sprouting, and VEGF mRNA expression. Therefore, PE is a candidate for antioxidant supplement that promotes endothelial function and restores wound healing competency. PMID:23606890

Chularojmontri, Linda; Suwatronnakorn, Maneewan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

2013-01-01

70

Protective effects of phyllanthus emblica leaf extract on sodium arsenite-mediated adverse effects in mice.  

PubMed

Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). 'Control' mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated 'SA' and 'SA+PLE' were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity. PMID:25797979

Sayed, Sadia; Ahsan, Nazmul; Kato, Masashi; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Rashid, Abdur; Akhand, Anwarul Azim

2015-02-01

71

Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

2014-01-01

72

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The

Anupam Ghosh; Bidus Kanti Das; Arup Roy; Biplab Mandal; Goutam Chandra

2008-01-01

73

Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

2013-01-01

74

Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200?g of each part was soaked in 1000?mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000?ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC(50) value of 30.71?ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC(50) value of 298.93?ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC(50) values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67?ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants. PMID:22536188

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

2012-01-01

75

Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200?g of each part was soaked in 1000?mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000?ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71?ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93?ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67?ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants. PMID:22536188

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

2012-01-01

76

PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA LEAF EXTRACT ON SODIUM ARSENITE-MEDIATED ADVERSE EFFECTS IN MICE  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). ‘Control’ mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated ‘SA’ and ‘SA+PLE’ were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity. PMID:25797979

SAYED, SADIA; AHSAN, NAZMUL; KATO, MASASHI; OHGAMI, NOBUTAKA; RASHID, ABDUR; AKHAND, ANWARUL AZIM

2015-01-01

77

Antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) occurs after the administration of intravenous iodinated contrast agents. Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the most important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of the extract from Phyllanthus emblica (PE) in preventing CI-AKI. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected into eight groups, were given water (control) or PE extract (125 or 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 5 days before the induction of CI-AKI. Renal function and oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in plasma and renal tissue. Kidney sections were performed for histopathological examination. Results In the contrast media (CM) group, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were demonstrated which correlated with severity of tubular necrosis, peritubular capillary congestion and interstitial edema. Moreover, an increase in MDA and a decrease in TAC SOD and CAT activity in CM group were significantly changed when compared with the control (P?

2014-01-01

78

The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceiçăo, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

2014-01-01

79

Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.  

PubMed

Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria. PMID:22594260

Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Stanojevi?, Dragana D; Comi?, Ljiljana R

2012-01-01

80

Nystagmus and related phenomena in Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Intakte Exemplare vonSepia officinalis zeigen nach Drehung um alle drei Hauptachsen Augen- und Kopfbewegungen vom Typus des «Nach-Nystagmus». Diese postrotatorischen Reflexe können nicht optisch ausgelöst sein; sie beweisen vielmehr das Vorhandensein eines echten Rotationssinnes. Es wird angenommen, dass dieser auch hier seinen Sitz in den Statocysten mit ihren hochdifferenzierten Cristae hat.

S. Dijkgraaf; A. H. CONNEY; I. A. MICHAELSON; J. J. BURNS; J. Pharm

1963-01-01

81

Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.  

PubMed

Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

2010-08-01

82

Pro-oxidant/antioxidant behaviours of ascorbic acid, tocopherol, and plant extracts in n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid rich oil-in-water emulsions.  

PubMed

This study investigated the oxidative stability of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 HUFA) rich (35% n-3 HUFA) oil-in-water emulsions (10 wt% oil) with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts. Ascorbic acid, ?-tocopherol, and the extracts of Indian gooseberry fruit (Emblica officinalis) (IGFE) and sweet basil leaves (Ocimum basilicum L.) (SBLE) were used for the study as antioxidants. The progress of oxidation in the systems was evaluated at 35 °C over 120 h against a control (without antioxidant) by monitoring the formation of primary (conjugated dienes) and secondary (volatile carbonyl compounds) oxidation products. Volatile carbonyl compounds were trapped as derivatives of pentafluorophenyl hydrazine and quantified by headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis. About 40 volatile carbonyls were successfully identified by this method. trans,trans-2,4-Heptadienal, trans,cis-2,4-heptadienal, 3,5-octadien-2-one, and 1-penten-3-ol were predominant. The volatile carbonyl compounds and conjugated dienes were formed at low rates in emulsion systems in which ?-tocopherol and natural plant extracts had been introduced, compared to the control. Emulsion systems containing ascorbic acid showed low stability, as indicated by the oxidation products that were formed at high rates compared to the control. These results indicated that ascorbic acid activated the oxidation reactions in n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions, while natural plant extracts that were rich in polyphenols and ?-tocopherol were active as antioxidants. The present study further demonstrated the applicability of the polar paradox theory in the determination of stability for n-3 HUFA rich water emulsions with commercial antioxidants and natural plant extracts. PMID:23871062

Jayasinghe, Chamila; Gotoh, Naohiro; Wada, Shun

2013-12-01

83

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

84

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

85

Investigation of ?-Linolenic Acid and Stearidonic Acid Biosynthesis During a Life Cycle of Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the levels of ?-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) in various parts of the\\u000a borage plant (Borago officinalis L.) to elucidate ?6-desaturase activity. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) composition during germination of the seeds and\\u000a FA composition of various borage parts were determined as well as FA compositions of neutral lipids (NL), polar lipids

Kathrin Stähler; Siew-Young Quek; Matthew R. Miller

86

Anti-inflammatory activity of leaf extract of Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory activity of a 50% methanol extract of the leaves of Verbena officinalis L. was investigated on topical and oral administration. In the TPA-induced ear inflammation model, the extract showed a high reduction of edema, but in the carrageenin-induced rat paw edema the effect observed was less at the two doses employed. These results confirm the use of this plant in folk medicine as a topical anti-inflammatory, herbal drug. PMID:23196030

Calvo, M I; Vilalta, N; San Julián, A; Fernández, M

1998-12-01

87

Comparative Responses of Borago officinalis and Echium vulgare to Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, and fixed oil content of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants were studied in two field experiments. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate at 0.75 and 110 kg N hectare; phosphorus as calcium super-phosphate at 50 and 75 kg P2O5 hectare; compost at 1.32

S. F. Hendawy; S. El-Gengaihi

2010-01-01

88

Soil chemical limitations to growth and development of Veronica officinalis L. and Carex pilulifera L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Veronica officinalis and Carex pilulifera, widespread plants of acid soils in Europe, were grown in 50 soils of natural and seminatural ecosystems representing a wide\\u000a range of soil chemical properties. The experiment was performed in a greenhouse at a soil moisture content of 55–65% WHC,\\u000a ca. 60% R.H. of the air, temperature 14–16C at night and 19–21C by day; additional

Germund Tyler

1996-01-01

89

Antiinflammatory activity and chemical composition of extracts of Verbena officinalis.  

PubMed

In an attempt to locate the biologically active fraction(s) of the plant Verbena officinalis Linn. (Verbenaceae), a preliminary screening of successive petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts of aerial parts for antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan paw oedema model was carried out. All three extracts were found to exhibit antiinflammatory activity with the chloroform extract being the most active. Chemical investigations of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts led to the isolation of beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, 3-epiursolic acid, 3-epioleanolic acid, and minor triterpenoids of derivatives of ursolic acid and oleanolic acids. Chromatographic purification of the methanol extract yielded two iridoid glucosides, verbenalin and hastatoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside, verbascoside and beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside. PMID:10960904

Deepak, M; Handa, S S

2000-09-01

90

Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100–150 g) were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe), and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os). The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb–Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone. PMID:25624694

Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

2014-01-01

91

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

92

A new triterpenoid from Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

To investigate the chemical constituents of Verbena officinalis L., five triterpenoid constituents were isolated and elucidated as 3?,19,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, namely, 4-epi-barbinervic acid (1), 2?,3?-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3?,24-dihydroxyurs-12-en- 28-oic acid (3), 3?,24-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), using spectroscopic methods and comparing with published data. Compounds 2 and 4 were obtained from V. officinalis for the first time, and compound 1 is a new triterpenoid compound, which exhibits significantly higher antitumor activity against human hepatoma cell line Bel 7402 in vitro than the blank control. PMID:23061751

Shu, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Qun; Chou, Gui-Xin

2013-01-01

93

[Monomeric Indole Alkaloids from Kopsia officinalis.].  

PubMed

Ten monomeric indole alkaloids have been identified from the roots of KOPSIA OFFICINALIS. Four of them are known: (-)-kopsinine 1, (+)-5,22-dioxokopsane 2, (-)-tetrahydroalstonine 4, and (-)-quebrachamine 3; and six are new: (-)-isoeburnamine 5 (enantiomer of the known alkaloid (+)-isoeburnamine), (-)-N-methoxycarbonyl-12-methoxykopsinaline 7, (-)-N-methoxycarbonyl-11,12-methylenedioxy kopsinaline 8, (-)-N-methoxycarbonyl-11,12-dimethoxykopsinaline 9, (-)-11,12-methylenedioxykopsinaline 10, and (-)-12-methoxykopsinaline 11. PMID:17404997

Feng, X Z; Kan, C; Potier, P; Kan, S K; Lounasmaa, M

1983-08-01

94

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts August 2000) Abstract -- The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen

Boyer, Edmond

95

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

96

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-01-01

97

Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco  

PubMed Central

We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600?mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000?mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400?mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

2012-01-01

98

Two new iridoids from Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (5) by means of various column chromatography steps. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Verbeofflin I (1) is the new class of secoiridoid in the family Verbenaceae. PMID:25045888

Shu, Jicheng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

2014-01-01

99

Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.  

PubMed

Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

2013-01-01

100

A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 ?g DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals. PMID:22847363

Aleksi?, Jelena M; Stojanovi?, Danilo; Banovi?, Bojana; Jan?i?, Radiša

2012-12-01

101

Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.  

PubMed

In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. PMID:19809971

Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

2010-03-01

102

Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed. PMID:15291464

del Bańo, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuńo, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

2004-08-11

103

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

104

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

HERRERA, JAVIER

2004-01-01

105

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

106

Experimental determination of the sorption isotherms of mint ( Mentha viridis), sage ( Salvia officinalis) and verbena ( Lippia citriodora)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mint (Mentha viridis), verbena (Lippia citriodora) and sage (Salvia officinalis) are the most produced and consumed aromatic herbs in Morocco. The sorption isotherms of the three plants were determined within the range of 10–90% relative air humidity at three different temperatures (25°C, 40°C and 50°C), using saturated salt solutions method. Henderson's equation was fitted to the experimental data and the

M Kouhila; A Belghit; M Daguenet; B. C Boutaleb

2001-01-01

107

In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

108

Experimental anti-ulcer activity of Veronica officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

In indomethacin-induced ulcers in albino rats, the anti-ulcerogenic effects of some extracts prepared from Veronica officinalis L. were investigated. The extracts had a significant anti-ulcerogenic activity. In ulcer healing experiments performed in rats by administering reserpine, the extracts were found to enhance the regeneration of the gastric mucosa. These results seem to confirm the popular observations according to which the decoction from Veronica officinalis L. possessed useful properties in the treatment of gastric ulcers. PMID:4021513

Scarlat, M; Sandor, V; T?ma?, M; Cuparencu, B

1985-05-01

109

Native or Exotic? Double or Single? Evaluating Plants for Pollinator-friendly Gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of dawn-to-dusk studies, we examined the nature and accessibility of nectar rewards for pollinating insects by monitoring insect visits and the secretion rate and standing crop of nectar in the British native plant species Salvia pratensis, Stachys palustris, S. officinalis, Lythrum salicaria, Linaria vulgaris, the non-native Calendula officinalis, Petunia×hybrida, Salvia splendens, and the possibly introduced Saponaria officinalis.

Sarah A. Corbet; Jennie Bee; Kanchon Dasmahapatra; Stephan Gale; Elizabeth Gorringe; Beverly La Ferla; Tom Moorhouse; Andrea Trevail; Yfke Van Bergen; Maria Vorontsova

2001-01-01

110

Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds  

PubMed Central

In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2014-01-01

111

Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.  

PubMed

Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

2014-08-01

112

How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

2014-03-01

113

Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

114

Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), ?-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and ?-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC?? values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied. PMID:23240623

Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

2013-01-01

115

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

116

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

117

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

118

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

119

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 28, 14 days after experimental animals done hyperlipidemia. The degenerative changes were observed in hyperlipidemic rats, light and electron microscopically. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum cholesterol, total lipid, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a significant decrease in the levels of liver tissue glutathione (GSH), a significant increase in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in this group. On the other hand, the administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract reduced total cholesterol, total lipid, ALT, AST and ALP levels in serum, and LPO levels in liver tissue, moreover increased glutathione levels in the tissue. As a result, it was suggested that Melissa officinalis L. extract exerted an hypolipidemic effect and showed a protective effect on the liver of hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:15946812

Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Yesilyaprak, B

2005-07-14

120

Assessment of Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis L.) Extract Activity in Relation to Human Corneal Cells Using In Vitro Tests  

PubMed Central

Background: Euphrasia officinalis L. is an herb traditionally used in folk medicine, mainly in the treatment of eye disorders. Aims: The present study analyzed the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis L. (ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T). Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were tested using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Neutral Red, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ELISA tests, respectively. Moreover, nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant extracts. Results: We show that the biological effect depended on both the concentration and the extraction solvent used. Heptane extracts, distinct from those in ethanol and ethyl acetate, were toxic to 10.014 pRSV-T cells at low concentrations (25 ?g/mL) and did not demonstrate free radical scavenging effects. All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture medium for 24 h. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, not the heptane extract. PMID:25207164

Paduch, Roman; Wo?niak, Anna; Niedziela, Piotr; Rejdak, Robert

2014-01-01

121

How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

2014-01-01

122

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

123

Effects of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids on the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), known to be nematotoxic in vitro, represent a class of secondary plant metabolites from hundreds of plant species worldwide. Pot experiments with the commercially\\u000a available PA-containing plants Ageratum houstonianum, Borago officinalis, Senecio bicolor, and Symphytum officinalis demonstrate that Meloidogyne hapla is not per se repelled by these plants as all species were infested with nematodes. However, the

Tim C. Thoden; Johannes Hallmann; Michael Boppré

2009-01-01

124

Establishment of Salvia officinalis L. hairy root cultures for the production of rosmarinic acid.  

PubMed

Shoots of Salvia officinalis, a medicinally important plant, were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains ATCC 15834 and A4 which led to the induction of hairy roots in 57% and 37% of the explants, respectively. Seven lines of hairy roots were established in WP liquid medium under light and dark conditions. The transformed nature of the root lines was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction using rolB and rolC specific primers. Transformed root cultures of Salvia officinalis showed variations in biomass and rosmarinic acid production depending on the bacterial strain used for transformation and the root line analyzed. Both parameters (growth and rosmarinic acid content) of ATCC 15834-induced lines were significantly higher than the A4-induced lines. The maximum accumulation of rosmarinic acid (about 45 mg g(-1) of dry weight) was achieved by hairy root line 1 (HR-1) at the end of the culture period (45-50 days). The level was significantly higher than that found in untransformed root culture (19 mg g(-10 of dry wt). PMID:16869492

Grzegorczyk, Izabela; Królicka, Aleksandra; Wysoki?ska, Halina

2006-01-01

125

Cloning of two glutamate dehydrogenase cDNAs from Asparagus officinalis: sequence analysis and evolutionary implications.  

PubMed

Two different amplification products, termed c1 and c2, showing a high similarity to glutamate dehydrogenase sequences from plants, were obtained from Asparagus officinalis using two degenerated primers and RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction). The genes corresponding to these cDNA clones were designated aspGDHA and aspGDHB. Screening of a cDNA library resulted in the isolation of cDNA clones for aspGDHB only. Analysis of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence from the full-length cDNA suggests that the gene product contains all regions associated with metabolic function of NAD glutamate dehydrogenase (NAD-GDH). A first phylogenetic analysis including only GDHs from plants suggested that the two GDH genes of A. officinalis arose by an ancient duplication event, pre-dating the divergence of monocots and dicots. Codon usage analysis showed a bias towards A/T ending codons. This tendency is likely due to the biased nucleotide composition of the asparagus genome, rather than to the translational selection for specific codons. Using principal coordinate analysis, the evolutionary relatedness of plant GDHs with homologous sequences from a large spectrum of organisms was investigated. The results showed a closer affinity of plant GDHs to GDHs of thermophilic archaebacterial and eubacterial species, when compared to those of unicellular eukaryotic fungi. Sequence analysis at specific amino acid signatures, known to affect the thermal stability of GDH, and assays of enzyme activity at non-physiological temperatures, showed a greater adaptation to heat-stress conditions for the asparagus and tobacco enzymes compared with the Saccharomyces cerevisiae enzyme. PMID:10791819

Pavesi, A; Ficarelli, A; Tassi, F; Restivo, F M

2000-04-01

126

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

1989-01-01

127

Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate. PMID:23738442

Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

2013-04-01

128

Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts and isoquercitrin on the fermentation of diets varying in forage contents by rumen microorganisms in batch culture.  

PubMed

The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen microbes were studied in batch culture. The orchard grass hay:barley ratios in the three experimental diets were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 on a DM basis. The production rates of all volatile fatty acids except isobutyrate were strongly influenced by the composition of the diet and to a lesser extent, by plant extracts, with significant interactions between both factors. When hay was the only substrate, the addition of L. officinalis and E. arvense enhanced the fermentation rate by 50%, through an increased release of acetate and propionate. On the contrary, with the two other diets, the fermentation rate was strongly lowered by isoquercitrin. Gas outputs were not significantly influenced by plant extracts. PMID:11140815

Broudiscou, L P; Lassalas, B

2000-01-01

129

Isolation of a Previously Unidentified Polysaccharide (MAR10) from Hyssop officinalis That Exhibits Strong Activity Against Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A polysaccharide (MAR-10) was isolated from the aqueous extract of the plant Hyssop officinalis and examined for its activity against HIV-1 (SF strain) in HUT78 T cell line and primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MAR-10, in a concentration-dependent manner,inhibited HIV-1 replication as demonstrated by the inhibition of HIV-1 p24 antigen and syncytia formation. Furthermore, MAR-10 had no significant

S. Gollapudi; H. A. Sharma; S. Aggarwal; L. D. Byers; H. E. Ensley; S. Gupta

1995-01-01

130

Phytostabilization of amended soils polluted with trace elements using the Mediterranean shrub: Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

We evaluate the mid-term effects of two amendments and the establishment of R. officinalis on chemical and biochemical properties in a trace element contaminated soil by a mine spill and the possible use of this plant for stabilization purposes. The experiment was carried out using containers filled with trace element polluted soil, where four treatments were established: organic treatment (biosolid compost, OAR), inorganic treatment (sugar beet lime, IAR), control with plant (NAR) and control without plant (NA). Amendment addition and plant establishment contributed to restore soil chemical (pH, total organic carbon, and water soluble carbon) and biochemical properties (microbial biomass carbon and the enzymatic activities: aryl-sulphatase and protease). The presence of rosemary did not affect soluble (0.01 M CaCl2) Cd and Zn and decreased trace element EDTA extractability in amended soils. There were no negative effects found on plant growth and nutrient content on polluted soils (NAR, OAR, and IAR). Trace element contents were within normal levels in plants. Therefore, rosemary might be a reliable option for successful phytostablization of moderate trace element contaminated soils. PMID:19810354

Madejón, P; Burgos, P; Cabrera, F; Madejón, E

2009-08-01

131

Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-03-01

132

Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.  

PubMed

In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and ?-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and ?-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

2015-04-01

133

Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.  

PubMed

Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

2004-01-01

134

BLOOD GAS TRANSPORT IN THE CEPHALOPOD, SEPIA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Blood gas transport was studied in unrestrained free-swimming cuttle- fish, Sepia officinalis, following cannulations of an efferent branchial (arterial) vessel and the vena cava cephalica with indwelling catheters. In well-aerated water the arterial pOi averaged about ioo-oo mmHg and was fully saturated with O2. Mixed venous pOi varied between 17 and 40 mmHg, typically corresponding to blood O2 utilizations

KJELL JOHANSEN; OLE BRIX; GUNNAR LYKKEBOE

1982-01-01

135

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions. PMID:20803381

Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

2010-09-01

136

Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves.  

PubMed

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered as excellent and readily available sources of natural antifungal and antioxidant compounds. PMID:18498054

Casanova, E; García-Mina, J M; Calvo, M I

2008-09-01

137

Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

138

Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.  

PubMed

Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2008-08-25

139

The feeding and conversion of leaf litter by the pillbug armadillo officinalis (isopoda, oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and food conversion of the pillbug Armadillo officinalis Duméril 1816, fed on the leaves of Myoporum serratum or Carthamus lanatus for 30 days, were determined. A steady increase in the body mass of A. officinalis fed on either diet was observed during the initial 15 days of the experimental period, with a decrease thereafter. A sigmoid growth pattern

G. Achuthan Nair; Mahmoud Mahdy Fadiel

1991-01-01

140

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences a case study using  

E-print Network

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences ­ a case study Journal of Marine Science, 60: 1149­1158. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish

Pierce, Graham

141

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet

Hanlon, Roger T.

142

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

E-print Network

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard to the cuttlefishŐs visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration

Hanlon, Roger T.

143

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

144

Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

145

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra coloration Cephalopod a b s t r a c t Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

California at Irvine, University of

146

Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

147

First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

1 First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Thomas in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques (110m Ag, 241 Am, 109 Cd, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 75 Se and 65 Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

148

Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 ?M) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

2013-07-01

149

Planting depth for oilseed calendula  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

150

Transformation of Althaea officinalis L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of transgenic roots expressing the anti-HIV microbicide cyanovirin-N.  

PubMed

The marshmallow plant (Althaea officinalis L.) has been used for centuries in medicine and other applications. Valuable secondary metabolites have previously been identified in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic 'hairy' roots in this species. In the present study, transgenic roots were produced in A. officinalis using A. rhizogenes. In addition to wild-type lines, roots expressing the anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide candidate, cyanovirin-N (CV-N), were generated. Wild-type and CV-N root lines were transferred to liquid culture and increased in mass by 49 and 19 % respectively over a 7 day culture period. In the latter, the concentration of CV-N present in the root tissue was 2.4 ?g/g fresh weight, with an average secretion rate into the growth medium of 0.02 ?g/ml/24 h. A. officinalis transgenic roots may therefore in the future be used not only as a source of therapeutic secondary metabolites, but also as an expression system for the production of recombinant pharmaceuticals. PMID:23852261

Drake, Pascal M W; de Moraes Madeira, Luisa; Szeto, Tim H; Ma, Julian K-C

2013-12-01

151

Effect of Time of Harvesting on Yield and Quality of Melissa Officinalis L. in Doon Valley, India  

PubMed Central

A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %). PMID:25425760

Singh, S.; Haider, S. Z.; Chauhan, N. K.; Lohani, H.; Sah, S.; Yadav, R. K.

2014-01-01

152

Effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of melissa officinalis L. In doon valley, India.  

PubMed

A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %). PMID:25425760

Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Chauhan, N K; Lohani, H; Sah, S; Yadav, R K

2014-09-01

153

Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of ?- and ?-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including ?-, ?-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to ?- and ?-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed. PMID:23843295

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

2013-09-01

154

Alaska Melilotus invasions: distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Present distributions of Melilotus alba and M. officinalis in Alaska were determined from surveys for alien plant species conducted from 2002 – 2005 by various State and Federal agencies. Data was entered into the Alaska Exotic Plant Information Clearinghouse (AKEPIC) statewide alien plant datab...

155

Ritual plants of Muslim graveyards in northern Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article surveys the botanical composition of 40 Muslim graveyards in northern Israel, accompanied by an ethnobotanical study of the folkloristic traditions of the use of these plants in cemeteries. Three groups of plants were found to be repeated systematically and were also recognized for their ritual importance: aromatics herbs (especially Salvia fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis), white flowered plants (mainly

Amots Dafni; Efraim Lev; Sabine Beckmann; Christian Eichberger

2006-01-01

156

Iridoids and sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Two new iridoids, volvaltrates A and B (1 and 2), and three new sesquiterpenoids, E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenal (3), E-(-)-3beta,4beta-epoxyvalerenyl acetate (4), and mononorvalerenone (5), together with five known iridoids and two known sesquiterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic evidence. Compound 1 was an unusual iridoid with an oxygen bridge connecting C-3 and C-10, forming a cage-like structure, and compound 5 was a mononorsesquiterpenoid. PMID:19691292

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, He-Zhong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2009-09-01

157

Biased morph ratios and skewed mating success contribute to loss of genetic diversity in the distylous Pulmonaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In heterostylous plant species, skewed morph ratios are not uncommon and may arise from a range of factors. Despite the recognized importance of skewed morph ratios on overall reproductive success within populations, little is known about the impact of skewed morph ratios on population genetic diversity and differentiation in heterostylous species. This study specifically aimed to clarify the effect of population size and morph bias on population genetic diversity and differentiation in the temperate forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. This species is characterized by a distylous breeding system and shows morph-specific differences in reproductive success. Methods Genetic diversity was determined for 27 P. officinalis populations in northern Belgium by using eight recently developed microsatellite markers. Multiple regressions were used to assess the relationship between genetic diversity, morph bias and population size, and FST-values were calculated for short- and long-styled morphs separately to study genetic differentiation as a function of morph type. Key Results For all genetic measures used, morph bias was more important in explaining patterns of genetic diversity than population size, and in all cases patterns of population genetic diversity followed a quadratic function, which showed a symmetrical decrease in genetic diversity with increasing morph bias. However, probably due to the reproductive advantage of L-morphs relative to S-morphs, maximum genetic diversity was found in populations showing an excess of L-morphs (60·7 % L-morph). On the other hand, no significant difference in pairwise genetic distances between populations was observed between L- (0·107) and S-morphs (0·106). Conclusions Our results indicate that significant deviations from equal morph ratios not only affect plant reproductive success but also population genetic diversity of heterostylous plant species. Hence, when defining conservation measures for populations of heterostylous plant species, morph ratios should be considered as an important trait affecting their long-term population viability. PMID:22021814

Meeus, Sofie; Honnay, Olivier; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

2012-01-01

158

The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

159

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. PMID:19441067

Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

2009-12-01

160

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - Săo Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, Săo José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

2009-01-01

161

Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.  

PubMed

Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2?mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5?-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500?µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5?-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5?µg/mL and 5??M, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

2013-02-01

162

Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set  

PubMed Central

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

2014-01-01

163

Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-? release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

2013-01-01

164

Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses.

Anwarul Hassan Gilani; Samra Bashir; Arif-ullah Khan

2007-01-01

165

1H and 13C NMR signal assignment of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae).  

PubMed

The NMR signal assignments of a series of structurally divergent benzylisoquinolines isolated from Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae, Papaverales), namely adlumine, corlumine, corydamine, cryptopine, fumarophycine, O-methylfumarophycine, hydrastine, parfumine, protopine and sinactine, are presented. PMID:15366062

Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Ellmerer, Ernst; Stuppner, Hermann

2004-10-01

166

Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naďve and scopolamine-treated rats  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naďve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naďve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naďve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

2014-01-01

167

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-09-01

168

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism. PMID:16667656

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

169

Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168

Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

2001-04-15

170

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

171

Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils of two valerianaceous species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Calarene (25.31%), aristolone (13.35%), ?-selinene (7.32%) and ?-maaliene (6.70%) were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%), ?-pinene (14.81%), and ?-humulene (8.19%) were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 ?g/mL to 400 ?g/mL, and IC(50) values from 36.93 ?g/mL to 374.72 ?g/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, ?-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. PMID:20877232

Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Jianglin; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhilong; Wang, Jingguo; Han, Jianguo; Yu, Zhu; Yang, Fuyu

2010-09-01

172

Sesquiterpenoids and lignans from the roots of Valeriana officinalis L.  

PubMed

Two new guaiane-type sesquiterpenoids, valerol A (1) and kessyl 3-acetate (2), together with nine known compounds, valeracetate (3), anismol A (4), orientalol C (5), spatulenol (6), 4?,10?-epoxyaromadendrane (7), (+)-8-hydroxypinoresinol (8), pinorespiol (9), pinoresinol 4-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (10), and 8-hydroxypinoresinol 4'-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (11) were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis. The structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR). These compounds were evaluated for inhibitory activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells. PMID:22006719

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Ma, Qing-Yun; Liu, Yu-Qing; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Huang, Sheng-Zhuo; Jiang, He-Zhong; Chen, Zhong-Quan; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2011-10-01

173

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

174

Plant coexistence alters terpene emission and content of Mediterranean species  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is evidence that secondary metabolism may modulate plant interactions and is modified by different biotic stress agents, such as herbivores or pathogens. However, it is poorly understood whether secondary metabolism is altered during competition among plants. The intraspecific and interspecific coexistence of some Mediterranean potted seedlings, namely Rosmarinus officinalis, Pinus halepensis, Cistus albidus and Quercus coccifera was investigated through

Elena Ormeńo; Catherine Fernandez; Jean-Philippe Mévy

2007-01-01

175

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

PubMed

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

176

Effect of citric acid on metals mobility in pruning wastes and biosolids compost and metals uptake in Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

To assess metal mobility in pruning waste and biosolids compost (pH 6.9 and total concentration of metals in milligram per kilogram of Cd 1.9, Cu 132, Fe 8,513, Mn 192, Pb 81, and Zn 313), shrubs species Atriplex halimus and Rosmarinus officinalis were transplanted in this substrate and irrigated with citric acid (4 g L(-1), pH 2.9) and nutrient solution daily for 60 days. Citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of soluble Mn and Fe in the nutrient substrate solution measured by suction probes, while other metals did not vary in concentration (Cu and Zn) or were not observed at detectable levels (Cd and Pb). In plants, citric acid significantly increased the concentrations of Cu (2.7 ± 0.1-3.3 ± 0.1 mg kg(-1)), Fe (49.2 ± 5.2-76.8 ± 6.8 mg kg(-1)), and Mn (7.2 ± 1.1-11.4 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1)) in leaves of R. officinalis, whereas the concentration of only Mn (25.4 ± 0.3-42.2 ± 2.9 mg kg(-1)) was increased in A. halimus. Increasing Fe and Mn solubility by citric acid addition indicates the possibility of using it to improve plant nutrition. The mobility of metals in this substrate was influenced for the concentration of the metal, the degree of humification of organic matter and its high Fe content. PMID:22968295

Tapia, Y; Eymar, E; Gárate, A; Masaguer, A

2013-05-01

177

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.  

PubMed

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3)?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2)?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

2011-01-01

178

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Miss Quinn

2005-05-02

179

EXTRACTION ET ETUDE DES HUILES ESSENTIELLES DE LA SALVIA OFFICINALIS.L CUEILLIE DANS DEUX REGIONS DIFFERENTES DE LA TUNISIE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction and a study of essential oils of Salvia officinalis from two different regions in Tunisia. The composition of the essential oils of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis, obtained by hydrodistillation, collected from two areas in Tunisia, was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The essential oils of the organic phase and those extracted from the aqueous phase, obtained from

S. FELLAH; M. ROMDHANE; M. ABDERRABA

180

Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis: radiotracer experiments2  

E-print Network

1 Biokinetics of Hg and Pb accumulation in the encapsulated egg of the1 common cuttlefish Sepia of the eggs of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (50 d29 at 17°C). 203 Hg and 210 Pb were accumulated).55 In the English Channel, the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis lives offshore during the56 winter season

Boyer, Edmond

181

Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.  

PubMed

Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

2011-11-01

182

Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

183

Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

2012-10-01

184

Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

2013-01-01

185

ESTs library from embryonic stages reveals tubulin and reflectin diversity in Sepia officinalis (Mollusca — Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

New molecular resources regarding the so-called “non-standard models” in biology extend the present knowledge and are essential for molecular evolution and diversity studies (especially during the development) and evolutionary inferences about these zoological groups, or more practically for their fruitful management. Sepia officinalis, an economically important cephalopod species, is emerging as a new lophotrochozoan developmental model. We developed a large set of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from embryonic stages of S. officinalis, yielding 19,780 non-redundant sequences (NRS). Around 75% of these sequences have no homologs in existing available databases. This set is the first developmental ESTs library in cephalopods. By exploring these NRS for tubulin, a generic protein family, and reflectin, a cephalopod specific protein family,we point out for both families a striking molecular diversity in S. officinalis. PMID:22548232

Bassaglia, Yann; Bekel, Thomas; Da Silva, Corinne; Poulain, Julie; Andouche, Aude; Navet, Sandra; Bonnaud, Laure

2012-05-01

186

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484

Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y

1997-12-01

187

Aqueous extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. inhibits neutrophil influx and cytokine secretion.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. phenolic compounds have attracted considerable attention because of their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, including its ability to treat inflammatory disorders. In this work, we investigated the in vivo and in vitro effects of R. officinalis aqueous extract on neutrophil trafficking from the blood into an inflamed tissue, on cell-derived secretion of chemical mediators, and on oxidative stress. Anti-inflammatory activity was investigated using carrageenan-induced inflammation in the subcutaneous tissue of male Wistar rats orally treated with the R. officinalis extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg). The leukocyte influx (optical microscopy), secretion of chemical mediators (prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), TNF-?, interleukin 6 (IL-6), leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the anti-oxidative profile (super oxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) spectrophotometry) were quantified in the inflamed exudate. N-Formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine-induced chemotaxis, lipopolysaccharide-induced NO2 (-) production (Greiss reaction), and adhesion molecule expression (flow cytometry) were in vitro quantified using oyster glycogen recruited peritoneal neutrophils previous treated with the extract (1, 10, or 100 µg/mL). Animals orally treated with phosphate-buffered saline and neutrophils incubated with Hank's balanced salt solution were used as control. R. officinalis extract oral treatment caused a dose-dependent reduction in the neutrophil migration as well as decreased SOD, TBARS, LTB4, PGE2, IL-6, and TNF-? levels in the inflamed exudate. In vitro treatment with R. officinalis decreased neutrophil chemotaxis, NO2 (-) production, and shedding of L-selectin and ?2 integrin expressions. Results here presented show that R. officinalis aqueous extract displays important in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory actions by blocking pathways of neutrophil migration and secretion, suggesting its therapeutic application to acute inflammatory reactions. PMID:25319517

Silva, Ana Mara de Oliveira E; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Santin, José Roberto; de Melo, Illana Louise Pereira; Pedrosa, Gabriela Vieira; Genovese, Maria Ines; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

2015-01-01

188

In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.  

PubMed

The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

2015-03-01

189

Extracts of medicinal herb Sanguisorba officinalis inhibit the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type one  

PubMed Central

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been successful in reducing HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality since its introduction in 1996. It, however, fails to eradicate HIV-1 infection thoroughly. The high cost of life-long HAART and the emergence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected individuals have brought renewed pressure for the discovery of novel antivirals and alternative medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the mainstreams of complementary and alternative medicine, and serves as rich resources for new drug development. Despite almost 100 plant-derived compounds are in clinical trials, few target HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (SOE) has anti-HIV-1 activities. Using a cell-based assay and single-cycle luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with envelopes from HIV-1 or control viruses, we found that SOE exhibited significant inhibitory ability against both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 (ADA and HXB2) with respective IC50 values of 1.91±0.16 ?g/ml and 3.70±0.53 ?g/ml. Interestingly, SOE also inhibited SIV infection but failed to block vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), SARS-CoV and influeunza H5N1 pseudoviruses. Furthermore, we showed that SOE had no effects on post-entry events of HIV-1 replication. It blocked entry by acting on viral envelope directly because SOE pre-treatment with the virus but not with cell lines expressing viral receptors showed the maximal inhibitory activity. In addition, SOE was able to inhibit reverse-transcription-inhibitor-resistant viruses (K103N, Y188L, and K103N/Y188L/G190A) and a protease-inhibitor-resistant strain (PI-2840). Our findings demonstrated SOE as a novel and specific entry inhibitor, which shed lights on the discovery of anti-HIV-1 drugs from traditional herbal medicines. PMID:25191092

Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Zheng, Xiao; Nishiura, Kenji; Ng, Jenny; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Li

2014-01-01

190

Carotenoid Isomerase Is Key Determinant of Petal Color of Calendula officinalis*  

PubMed Central

Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5? position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462–464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

2012-01-01

191

Extracts of medicinal herb Sanguisorba officinalis inhibit the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type one.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been successful in reducing HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality since its introduction in 1996. It, however, fails to eradicate HIV-1 infection thoroughly. The high cost of life-long HAART and the emergence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected individuals have brought renewed pressure for the discovery of novel antivirals and alternative medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the mainstreams of complementary and alternative medicine, and serves as rich resources for new drug development. Despite almost 100 plant-derived compounds are in clinical trials, few target HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (SOE) has anti-HIV-1 activities. Using a cell-based assay and single-cycle luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with envelopes from HIV-1 or control viruses, we found that SOE exhibited significant inhibitory ability against both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 (ADA and HXB2) with respective IC50 values of 1.91±0.16 ?g/ml and 3.70±0.53 ?g/ml. Interestingly, SOE also inhibited SIV infection but failed to block vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), SARS-CoV and influeunza H5N1 pseudoviruses. Furthermore, we showed that SOE had no effects on post-entry events of HIV-1 replication. It blocked entry by acting on viral envelope directly because SOE pre-treatment with the virus but not with cell lines expressing viral receptors showed the maximal inhibitory activity. In addition, SOE was able to inhibit reverse-transcription-inhibitor-resistant viruses (K103N, Y188L, and K103N/Y188L/G190A) and a protease-inhibitor-resistant strain (PI-2840). Our findings demonstrated SOE as a novel and specific entry inhibitor, which shed lights on the discovery of anti-HIV-1 drugs from traditional herbal medicines. PMID:25191092

Liang, Jianguo; Chen, Jianping; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Zheng, Xiao; Nishiura, Kenji; Ng, Jenny; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Li

2013-12-01

192

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

2010-12-01

193

Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.  

PubMed

Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-01-01

194

The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4?. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4? by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

2014-01-01

195

The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4?. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300?mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4? by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

2014-01-01

196

Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

2014-01-01

197

Nutrient antioxidants in some herbs and Mediterranean plant leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hexane extracts obtained by percolation from the leaves of nine Mediterranean plants (Daphne oleoides, Myrtus communis, Pelargonium zonale, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia terebinthus, Quercus pubescens, Rhamnus lucioides, Sideritis syriaca, Smilax aspera) and from five leaf spices (Rosmarinum officinalis, Coridothymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pomifera) were examined for the presence of tocopherols by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance

Anila Demo; Christos Petrakis; Panagiotis Kefalas; Dimitrios Boskou

1998-01-01

198

Antimicrobial activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895

Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S

2007-01-01

199

CHLOROSIS IN WILD PLANTS: IS IT A SIGN OF IRON DEFICIENCY?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorosis in crops grown on calcareous soil is mainly due to iron (Fe) deficiency and can be alleviated by leaf application of soluble Fe or diluted acids. Whether chlorosis in indigenous plants forced to grow on a calcareous soil is also caused by Fe deficiency has, however, not been demonstrated. Veronica officinalis, a widespread calcifuge plant in Central and Northern

Angelika Zohlen

2002-01-01

200

Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

1999-01-01

201

Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

1992-01-01

202

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

2006-01-01

203

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

204

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones the identification of sex pheromones, 576 59-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids and Coumarins from the Roots of Althaea officinalis.  

PubMed

From the roots of ALTHAEA OFFICINALIS two flavonoid glycosides were separated. Phenolic acids and coumarins were investigated chromatographically. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of acid hydrolysis and spectroscopic methods (UV, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR) as hypolaetin 8-glucoside and the new flavonoid sulphate - isoscutellarein 4'-methyl ether 8-glucoside-2''-SO (3)K. PMID:17226162

Gudej, J

1991-06-01

206

[Urine metabonomic study of intervention effects of Morinda officinalis how. on 'kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'].  

PubMed

To investigate the intervention effects of Morinda officinalis How. on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' induced by hydrocortisone in rats, the metabolic profiles of rat urine were characterized using proton nuclear magnetic resonance and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of rats with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' under administration of M. officinalis at different time points. Meanwhile, the intervention effects of M. officinalis on urinary metabolic potential biomarkers associated with 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' were also discussed. The experimental results showed that in accordance to the increased time of administration, an obvious tendency was observed that clustering of the treatment group moved gradually closed to that of the control group. Eight potential biomarkers including citrate, succinate, alpha-ketoglutarate, lactate, betaine, sarcosine, alanine and taurine were definitely up- or down-regulated. In conclusion, the effectiveness of M. oficinalis on 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome' is proved using the established metabonomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve energy metabolism, transmethylation and transportation of amine. Meanwhile, the administration of M. officinalis can alleviate the kidney impairment induced by 'Kidney-yang deficiency syndrome'. PMID:24475714

Zou, Zhong-jie; Xie, Yuan-yuan; Gong, Meng-juan; Han, Bin; Wang, Shu-mei; Liang, Sheng-wang

2013-11-01

207

Antioxidant activity and sensory evaluation of a rosmarinic acid-enriched extract of Salvia officinalis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An extract of S. officinalis (garden sage) was developed using supercritical fluid extraction, followed by hot water extraction. The resulting extract was enriched in polyphenols, including rosmarinic acid (RA), which has shown promising health benefits in animals. The extract contained RA at a conc...

208

Seeding date and nitrogen fertilization effects on the performance of borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, borage (Borago officinalis L.) has been the subject of increasing agricultural interest because of the potential market for gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an unusual fatty acid extracted from the seed. GLA is an omega-6 essential fatty acid which has been identified as having several beneficial therapeutic effects such as treatment of atopic eczema, diabetes, cyclic mastalgia, heart disease, arthritis,

R El Hafid; S. F Blade; Y Hoyano

2002-01-01

209

Effect of harvesting time on phenolic compounds and antiradical scavenging activity of Borago officinalis seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage seeds (Borago officinalis L.) were sampled in Amdoun region (North of Tunisia) during their ripening stage in order to analyse their phenolic compounds and to ascertain their antiradical scavenging activity. The harvesting time effect on some physical properties of borage seed was significant. The increase of dry weight (from 10 to 90%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that

B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; J. Sriti; I. Jellali; R. Ksouri; B. Marzouk

2010-01-01

210

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

211

Growth and calcification in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis under elevated seawater pCO2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ocean acidification and associated changes in seawater carbonate chemistry negatively influence calcification processes and depress metabolism in many calcifying marine invertebrates. We present data on the cephalopod mollusc Sepia officinalis, an invertebrate that is capable of not only maintaining calcification, but also growth rates and metabolism when exposed to elevated par- tial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2). During a 6

Magdalena A. Gutowska; Hans O. Pörtner; Frank Melzner

2008-01-01

212

Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

Ocean acidification and temperature rise: effects on calcification during early development officinalis. Egg swelling increased in response to acidification or warming, leading to an increase in egg acidification; global warming; Ca-45 hal-00855750,version1-30Aug2013 #12;INTRODUCTION Marine calcifying

Boyer, Edmond

213

Pimenta officinalis Lindl. (pimento, myrtle pepper) from early modern latrines in Gdansk (northern Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits, seeds and embryos of Pimenta officinalis Lindl. syn. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) have been found in Gdansk (northern Poland) in latrines dated to the 18th century. This is one of the first few records of allspice from European archaeobotanical material. The paper presents morphological criteria used for the identification of allspice or myrtle pepper remains and briefly summarises

Monika Badura

2003-01-01

214

Behavioural responses of juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to local water movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological studies have shown that the epidermal head and arm lines in cephalopods are a mechanoreceptive system that is similar to the fish and amphibian lateral lines (Budelmann BU, Bleckmann H. 1988. A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: Water waves generate microphonic potentials in the epidermal head lines of Sepia officinalis and Lolliguncula brevis. J. Comp. Physiol. A 164:1–5.); however,

Spogmai Komak; Jean G. Boal; Ludovic Dickel; Bernd U. Budelmann

2005-01-01

215

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect. PMID:25314292

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2014-01-01

216

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

217

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

218

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

219

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CRUDE EXTRACTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS GROWN IN EASTERN ETHIOPIA  

E-print Network

The aim of my research was to screen secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extracts of the leaves Vernonia amygdalina and Plantago lanceolata, and acetone extracts of the leaves Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus schimperi against two bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) and two fungi (Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum) using paper disc diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tannins, phenolic compounds, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and triterpenes in the plants investigated. The plant extracts were found to be more effective on bacteria than fungi. The bioassay has indicated that the inhibition effect of the extracts was proportional to the concentration. The acetone leaf extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis possess higher antibacterial properties than Vernonia amygdalina, Plantago lanceolata and Thymus schimperi. Phytochemical investigation results showed that the highest antibacterial potential of Rosmarinus officinalis may be attributed to flavonoids, phenolic compounds and triterpenes.

Kesatebrhan Haile Asressu

220

Effect of body mass, temperature and food deprivation on oxygen consumption rate of common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Predictions of short and long term changes in Sepia officinalis metabolism are useful, since this species is both economically important for aquaculture and also is an ideal experimental\\u000a laboratory organism. In this study standard and routine oxygen consumption rates of newly hatched and juvenile laboratory\\u000a raised cuttlefish S. officinalis ranging between 0.04 and 18.48 g dry body mass (Dm), were measured

Panagiotis Grigoriou; Christopher Allan Richardson

2009-01-01

221

Isolation of a previously unidentified polysaccharide (MAR-10) from Hyssop officinalis that exhibits strong activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1.  

PubMed

A polysaccharide (MAR-10) was isolated from the aqueous extract of the plant Hyssop officinalis and examined for its activity against HIV-1 (SF strain) in HUT78 T cell line and primary cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. MAR-10, in a concentration-dependent manner, inhibited HIV-1 replication as demonstrated by the inhibition of HIV-1 p24 antigen and syncytia formation. Furthermore, MAR-10 had no significant direct toxicity or effect on lymphocyte functions or CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts. In addition, MAR-10 has broad spectrum anti-glycosidase activity. Our study demonstrates that MAR-10 contains strong anti-HIV-1 activity that may be useful in the treatment of patients with HIV-1 infection. PMID:7741735

Gollapudi, S; Sharma, H A; Aggarwal, S; Byers, L D; Ensley, H E; Gupta, S

1995-05-01

222

Possible mechanisms of dose-dependent cough suppressive effect of Althaea officinalis rhamnogalacturonan in guinea pigs test system.  

PubMed

The rhamnogalacturonan, isolated from the roots of medicinal plant Althaea officinalis L., showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vitro and in vivo conditions. It possessed dose-dependent cough suppression effect comparable with opioid agonist codeine. However, reactivity of the airways smooth muscle, measured in vitro as well as in vivo conditions was not significantly affected by rhamnogalacturonan and thus bronchodilatory activity did not participate in the cough suppression effect of polysaccharide tested. Moreover, the cough suppression effect of the polymer was not significantly modified by pretreatment of K(+)(ATP) ion channels with selective antagonist and therefore activation of this type of ion channels is not involved in the mechanism of rhamnogalacturonan cough suppressive ability. On the contrary, pretreatment of animals with selective 5-HT(2) receptors antagonist significantly decreased rhamnogalacturonan antitussive efficacy. From this point of view it seems that the cough suppression effect of the polymer is associated with the serotonergic 5-HT(2) receptor's function. PMID:19447256

Sutovská, M; Nosálová, G; Sutovský, J; Franová, S; Prisenznáková, L; Capek, P

2009-07-01

223

Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The ?-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. PMID:23790930

Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

2013-11-15

224

Might Flowers of Invasive Plants Increase Native Bees Carrying Capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared the native bees visiting the flowers of three species of invasive plants (Tamarix spp., Melilotus albus, M. officinalis) with those visiting seven native plant species in mid-summer at three sites in Capitol Reef National Park, UT, USA. Overall, as many species of bees visited the flowe...

225

Effects of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris on oxidant-induced DNA damage and antioxidant status in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (SO) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) are medicinal plants well known for their curative powers. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abilities of sage and thyme have not been fully understood yet. In this study we investigated the composition and the quantitative estimation of plant extracts, the protective effects of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide- and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-induced DNA damage, and levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) in human HepG2 cells. To measure antioxidative activity of plant extracts we used three assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The results showed that the oxidant-induced DNA lesions were significantly reduced in cells pre-treated with the plant extracts studied. The observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both elevation of GPx activity in cells pre-treated with SO and TV and antioxidant activity of SO and TV. PMID:23870948

Kozics, Katarína; Klusová, Veronika; Sran?íková, Annamária; Mu?aji, Pavol; Slame?ová, Darina; Hunáková, Lubica; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Horváthová, Eva

2013-12-01

226

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

SRowley

2006-04-28

227

Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

2008-01-01

228

Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. PMID:23987388

You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

2013-10-15

229

Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenes with NGF-potentiating activity from Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia.  

PubMed

Three new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenal F (1), volvalerenal G (2) and volvalerenic acid D (3), along with five known compounds 4-8, were isolated from the CHCl? soluble partition of the ethanol extract of Valeriana officinalis var. latiofolia. The structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidence, including their 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra, as well as mass spectrometry. The eight germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids showed nerve growth factor (NGF) potentiating activity, which mediates the neurite outgrowth in PC 12D cells. This study intends to reveal the chemical basis of the use of V. officinalis var. latiofolia as a dietary supplement. PMID:24241156

Chen, Heng-Wen; Chen, Li; Li, Bin; Yin, Hai-Long; Tian, Ying; Wang, Qiong; Xiao, Yan-Hua; Dong, Jun-Xing

2013-01-01

230

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

231

Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

JEAN GEARY BOAL

1996-01-01

232

Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

1999-01-01

233

Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

1999-01-01

234

Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

1992-01-01

235

Phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by in vitro shoots of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under four different cytokinin supplementations by culturing nodal segments excised from aseptically germinated seedlings. The highest rates of shoot proliferation and linear shoot growth occurred with the supplementation of 1.5 mg\\/l benzyladenine and 0.05 mg\\/l dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. However, under these conditions, the specific production of total antioxidant phenolics was the

Paula C Santos-Gomes; Rosa M Seabra; Paula B Andrade; Manuel Fernandes-Ferreira

2002-01-01

236

Is self-compatibility the main breeding system in borage (Borago officinalis L.)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polygenic postzygotic self-incompatible system reported in borage (Borago officinalis L.) is refuted. The behaviour of pollen tubes after self- and cross-pollination, analysis of the crossability coefficient,\\u000a seed set after continuous generations of self-pollination and the effects of inbreeding depression in borage were studied.\\u000a Evidence of self-compatibility was established. The influence of protandry in a self-compatible system is also discussed.

C. Montaner; E. Floris; J. M. Alvarez

2000-01-01

237

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

238

Germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Eight new germacrane-type sesquiterpenoids, volvalerenals A-E (2-6) and volvalerenic acids A-C (7-9), along with four known compounds, were isolated from a chloroform extract of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. The structures and relative configurations of 2-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The effects of all compounds isolated on acetylcholinesterase were evaluated. PMID:20812738

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Chen, Rui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2010-09-24

239

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

2012-01-01

240

Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

241

Shh and Pax6 have unconventional expression patterns in embryonic morphogenesis in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).  

PubMed

Cephalopods show a very complex nervous system, particularly derived when compared to other molluscs. In vertebrates, the setting up of the nervous system depends on genes such as Shh and Pax6. In this paper we assess Shh and Pax6 expression patterns during Sepia officinalis development by whole-mount in situ hybridization. In vertebrates, Shh has been shown to indirectly inhibit Pax6. This seems to be the case in cephalopods as the expression patterns of these genes do not overlap during S. officinalis development. Pax6 is expressed in the optic region and brain and Shh in gut structures, as already seen in vertebrates and Drosophila. Thus, both genes show expression in analogous structures in vertebrates. Surprisingly, they also exhibit unconventional expressions such as in gills for Pax6 and ganglia borders for Shh. They are also expressed in many cephalopods' derived characters among molluscs as in arm suckers for Pax6 and beak producing tissues, nuchal organ and neural cord of the arms for Shh. This new data supports the fact that molecular control patterns have evolved with the appearance of morphological novelties in cephalopods as shown in this new model, S. officinalis. PMID:19683074

Navet, Sandra; Andouche, Aude; Baratte, Sébastien; Bonnaud, Laure

2009-10-01

242

Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.  

PubMed

Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. PMID:20042323

Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

2010-07-01

243

Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp?=?0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P?=?0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL?=?0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS?=?0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS. PMID:24134743

2013-01-01

244

[Detection of viral infection pathogens in medicinal plants grown in Ukraine].  

PubMed

Monitoring of viral infection on medicinal plant plantations is carried out. Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Valeriana officinalis L., Plantago major L. with symptoms of viral infection were revealed. Viral nature of symptoms was proved with biotesting method. Morphology and sizes of virus particles, detected in Panax ginseng method. Morphology and sizes of virus particles, detected in Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer, Valeriana officinalis L., Plantago major L., were determined with electron microscopy method. The paper is presented in Ukrainian. PMID:19938607

Mishchenko, L T; Korenieva, A A; Molchanets', O V; Bo?ko, A L

2009-01-01

245

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblings’ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

NRICH team

2012-01-01

246

Acid-base regulatory ability of the cephalopod (Sepia officinalis) in response to environmental hypercapnia.  

PubMed

Acidification of ocean surface waters by anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions is a currently developing scenario that warrants a broadening of research foci in the study of acid-base physiology. Recent studies working with environmentally relevant CO(2) levels, indicate that some echinoderms and molluscs reduce metabolic rates, soft tissue growth and calcification during hypercapnic exposure. In contrast to all prior invertebrate species studied so far, growth trials with the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis found no indication of reduced growth or calcification performance during long-term exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2). It is hypothesized that the differing sensitivities to elevated seawater pCO(2) could be explained by taxa specific differences in acid-base regulatory capacity. In this study, we examined the acid-base regulatory ability of S. officinalis in vivo, using a specially modified cannulation technique as well as (31)P NMR spectroscopy. During acute exposure to 0.6 kPa CO(2), S. officinalis rapidly increased its blood [HCO(3)(-)] to 10.4 mM through active ion-transport processes, and partially compensated the hypercapnia induced respiratory acidosis. A minor decrease in intracellular pH (pH(i)) and stable intracellular phosphagen levels indicated efficient pH(i) regulation. We conclude that S. officinalis is not only an efficient acid-base regulator, but is also able to do so without disturbing metabolic equilibria in characteristic tissues or compromising aerobic capacities. The cuttlefish did not exhibit acute intolerance to hypercapnia that has been hypothesized for more active cephalopod species (squid). Even though blood pH (pHe) remained 0.18 pH units below control values, arterial O(2) saturation was not compromised in S. officinalis because of the comparatively lower pH sensitivity of oxygen binding to its blood pigment. This raises questions concerning the potentially broad range of sensitivity to changes in acid-base status amongst invertebrates, as well as to the underlying mechanistic origins. Further studies are needed to better characterize the connection between acid-base status and animal fitness in various marine species. PMID:19838713

Gutowska, Magdalena A; Melzner, F; Langenbuch, M; Bock, C; Claireaux, G; Pörtner, H O

2010-03-01

247

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus

M. Tognolini; E. Barocelli; V. Ballabeni; R. Bruni; A. Bianchi; M. Chiavarini; M. Impicciatore

2006-01-01

248

Use of rotary shadowing electron microscopy to investigate the collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix of cuttle-fish ( Sepia officinalis) and chicken cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Collagen fibrils isolated from sternal cartilage of chick embryo and chondrocranium of cuttle-fish (Sepia officinalis) were examined with the electron microscope after rotary shadowing. The aim was to determine whether collagen fibrils from S. officinalis cartilage contained collagen molecules similar to the type IX collagen of vertebrate cartilage. Cartilage from both sources presented a highly variable appearance and only occasionally

C. Rigo; A. Bairati

1998-01-01

249

Temperature and pCO2 effect on the bioaccumulation of radionuclides and1 trace elements in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2  

E-print Network

in the eggs of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis2 3 T. Lacoue-Labarthe1,2,3,* , S. Martin2, , F of the common cuttlefish Sepia42 officinalis. The lowered accumulation of essential 60 Co and 54 Mn of an enhanced swelling of the cuttlefish egg under elevated CO2.48 49 Keywords: cephalopod, ocean acidification

250

Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts  

PubMed Central

The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

2010-01-01

251

[Plant anatomical and phytochemical evaluation of Salvia species].  

PubMed

Plant-anatomical and phytochemical investigations were carried out on three Salvia species: S.officinalis L., S.sclarea L., S.pratensis L. It was established that the structure of the glandular hairs of the three species doesn't differ from each other but the characteristics of the covering hairs are different. The covering hairs of sage (Salvia officinalis) consist of 1-4 cells and have protective function. The hairs of the other two Salvia species are bristle hairs. The highest essential oil content was found in sage and the lowest one in S. pratensis. The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils of Salvia species was also various but the qualitative composition of leaf, calix and petal of the same Salvia species was characteristical standard; significant differences were found only in their quantitative composition. Sclareol diterpene alcohol was the main component of the hexane extract obtained from clary sage flowering herb. In polyphenol ingredients Salvia officinalis was the richest. The results demonstrated that the 20% ethanol is the best of the 20, 40, 70% alcoholic solvents, for the extraction of polyphenol compounds. It was established that the rosmarinic acid depside was the main component of polyphenols. Mineral elements were also analysed in the Salvia species leaves as well in the alcoholic and wateric extracts of sage. The magnesium content was considerable in S. pratensis, the zinc content was the highest in S. officinalis. PMID:9703703

Then, M; Lemberkovics, E; Marczal, G; Szentmihályi, K; Szöke, E

1998-05-01

252

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-01-01

253

Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

2013-11-01

254

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in cotyledons and microsomal preparations of the developing seeds of common borage (Borago officinalis).  

PubMed

The developing seeds of Borago officinalis (common borage) accumulate a triacylglycerol oil that is relatively rich in the uncommon fatty acid gamma-linolenate (octadec-6,9,12-trienoic acid). Incubation of developing, whole, cotyledons with [14C]oleate and [14C]linoleate showed that the gamma-linolenate was synthesized by the sequential desaturation of oleate----linoleate----gamma-linolenate. Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing cotyledons contained an active delta 6-desaturase enzyme that catalysed the conversion of linoleate into gamma-linolenate. Experiments were designed to manipulate the [14C]linoleate content of the microsomal phosphatidylcholine. The [14C]linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine labelled in situ was converted into gamma-linolenoyl phosphatidylcholine in the presence of NADH. The substrate for the delta 6-desaturase in borage was, therefore, the linoleate in the complex microsomal lipid phosphatidylcholine, rather than, as in animals, the acyl-CoA. This was further confirmed in experiments that compared the specific radioactivity of the gamma-linolenate, in acyl-CoA and phosphatidylcholine, that was synthesized when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was incubated with microsomal membranes, NADH and non-radioactive gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. The delta 6-desaturase was positionally specific and only utilized the linoleate in position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the positional distribution of fatty acids in the endogenous microsomal sn-phosphatidylcholine showed that, whereas position 1 contained substantial linoleate, only small amounts of gamma-linolenate were present. The results shed further light on the synthesis of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants and in particular its relationship to the regulation of the acyl quality of the triacylglycerols in oilseeds. PMID:3028375

Stymne, S; Stobart, A K

1986-12-01

255

Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis on the survivability of random-patterned skin flaps: An experimental study.  

PubMed

Improving survival of skin flaps used in soft-tissue reconstruction is clinically an important goal, and several systemic and local agents have been used for this purpose. However, a substance that prevents the flap necrosis has not yet been defined. This study aimed to investigate whether a Rosmarinus officinalis extract could improve the skin flap survival. In this study, 21 Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rectangular 8 × 2 cm random-pattern flaps were elevated from the back of the rats. Group I was considered the control group. In Group II, a 0.5-cc of Rosmarinus officinalis oil was applied with an ear bud to the flap area 30 minutes before the flap elevation. After suturing the flaps to their location, the oil was administered twice a day for a week. In Group III, 0.5 cc of the oil was applied twice a day to the area that was elevated for a week until surgery. At the end of the week, the flaps were sutured to their location, and wiped postoperatively twice a day for a week with the oil. Mean percentage of these areas was found to be 29.81%, 58.99%, and 67.68% in Group I, Group II, and Group III, respectively. The mean percentage of the flap survival areas and vessel diameters were significantly greater in the Groups II and III than in the control group (p < 0.05). The results revealed that the topical use of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract can increase the flap survivability. PMID:24702647

Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Alpagan Mustafa; Okur, Mehmet Ihsan; Dadaci, Mehmet; Yoruk, Ebru

2015-04-01

256

Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl?, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC?? value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC?? 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC?? 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC?? 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC?? 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-01

257

Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.  

PubMed

Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ?24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. PMID:24549606

Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

2014-09-01

258

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

259

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.  

PubMed

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

2014-06-01

260

Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

261

In vivo and in vitro lipid accumulation in Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of 13 accessions of borage (Borago officinalis) varied in total fatty acid content from 28.6 to 35.1% seed weight, with linoleic, ?-linolenic, oleic and palmitic as the\\u000a predominant fatty acids, averaging 38.1%, 22.8%, 16.3% and 11.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. There was an inverse\\u000a relation between ?-linolenic acid (25.0 to 17.6%) and oleic acid (14.5 to 21.3%). Fatty

Anna Whipkey; James E. Simon; Jules Janick

1988-01-01

262

Selected Kinetic Properties of Polyphenol Oxidase Extracted from Rosmarinus Officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenol oxidase from Rosmarinus officinalis L. (PPO, EC 1:14:18.1) was extracted and partially purified by using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation and dialysis. Stable and highly active PPO extracts were obtained using 0.5% (w\\/v) PEG and 0.5% (w\\/v) Triton X-100 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer 7.0. KM values were found to be as 14.3 mM for catechol. Four isoenzymes of Rosemary PPO were

Tulin Aydemir

2010-01-01

263

Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

2014-01-01

264

Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.  

PubMed

Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarăes, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2014-07-01

265

Quantification of gallic acidin fruits of three medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Triphala is a traditional herbal formulation consisting of dried fruits originating from three medicinal plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica and Phyllanthus emblica. It is used in folk medicine for the treatment of headaches, dyspepsia and leucorrhoea. There are some reports regarding Triphala's pharmacological effects including its anti-cancer, radioprotective, hypocholesterolaemic, hepatoprotective and anti-oxidant activities. The most important components of these plants are the tannins and gallic acid which they contain. Gallic acid being a compound with tannin structure existing in the Triphala fruit. In this research, the gallic acid content contained in the three plants constituting Triphala was determined. Plant fruits were purchased from available Iranian markets. Milled and powdered fruits from each plant were extracted with 70% acetone and subjected to a reaction with rhodanine reagent in the process forming a colored complex. The complex's absorbance was measured at 520 nm and the amount of gallic acid was determined using its calibration curve. According to the results, the highest amount of gallic acid was observed in Phyllanthus embelica (1.79-2.18%) and the lowest amount was found in Terminalia chebula (0.28-0.80%). Moreover, differences between plant samples from different markets places were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). These differences can possibly be due to the source of plant preparation, storage condition and period of Triphala storage. In general, the rhodanine assay is a simple, rapid and reproducible method for the standardization of Triphala as gallic acid. PMID:24250348

Vazirian, Mahdi; Khanavi, Mahnaz; Amanzadeh, Yaghoub; Hajimehdipoor, Homa

2011-01-01

266

Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

2014-08-01

267

@ PLANTS  

E-print Network

maple, rock maple, dwarf maple, Uses Rocky Mountain maple is planted to a limited extent to improve wildlife habitat, to stabilize slopes, and to provide low-maintenance landscaping. The striking red bark and contrasting light green leaves, turning red in the fall, make it a desirable ornamental shrub. Rocky Mountain maple is a highly valued big game browse species. Moose, elk, mule deer, and whitetailed deer to varying degrees throughout the year eat its leaves and twigs, but it is especially important as a winter food source. Post-wildfire brush fields, with Rocky Mountain maple as an important component, are prime winter range and provide both cover and food for moose, elk, and deer. The species also provides considerable cover and nesting habitat for many game birds, songbirds, and small mammals, especially where the maples grow more densely in open habitats. In commercial timber operations, shrub fields of Rocky Mountain maple often interfere with seedling establishment and early growth of conifers, and the maple is removed. The easily bendable stems were used by various American Indian tribes to make drying racks, drum hoops, snowshoe frames, spears, pegs, toys, and masks. The fibrous bark was woven into mats and rope. A bark decoction was used as a poison antidote.

Rocky Mountain; James L. Reveal

268

Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

2013-10-10

269

Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

2011-01-01

270

Fungi associated with the aerial parts of Malaysian mangrove plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf surface fungi associated with nine species of mangrove plants includingAvicennia alba, A. officinalis, Bruguiera parviflora, Ceriops tagal, Rhizophora apiculata, R. mucronata, Sesuvium portulacastrum,\\u000a Sonneratia alba, andXylocarpus mollucensis were studied using direct observation techniques and leaf washings. Over 40 fungal taxa were isolated from the leaf washings.\\u000a Of these, species ofAspergillus, Choanephora, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Nigrospora, Penicillium, Pestalotiopsis, Trichoderma,

A. J. Kuthubutheen

1981-01-01

271

Sulfate uptake by salinity?tolerant plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

High soluble?sulfate (SO4) concentrations affect water quality, soil chemistry, plant sulfur (S) levels, and possibly ruminant?animal health. The objective of this greenhouse pot study was to determine the potential for accumulating high levels of S by tansy mustard (Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britton), kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.), yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis L.), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex

H. F. Mayland; C. W. Robbins

1994-01-01

272

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

2012-01-01

273

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

274

The extraction process optimization of antioxidant polysaccharides from Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis L.) roots.  

PubMed

Response surface methodology (RSM) with a central composite rotatable design (CCRD) based on five levels was employed to model and optimize four experimental operating conditions of extraction temperature (10-90°C) and time (6-30h), particle size (6-24mm) and water to solid (W/S, 10-50) ratio, obtaining polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis roots with high yield and antioxidant activity. For each response, a second-order polynomial model with high R(2) values (>0.966) was developed using multiple linear regression analysis. Results showed that the most significant (P<0.05) extraction conditions that affect the yield and antioxidant activity of extracted polysaccharides were the main effect of extraction temperature and the interaction effect of the particle size and W/S ratio. The optimum conditions to maximize yield (10.80%) and antioxidant activity (84.09%) for polysaccharides extraction from A. officinalis roots were extraction temperature 60.90°C, extraction time 12.01h, particle size 12.0mm and W/S ratio of 40.0. The experimental values were found to be in agreement with those predicted, indicating the models suitability for optimizing the polysaccharides extraction conditions. PMID:25603144

Pakrokh Ghavi, Peyman

2015-04-01

275

Effects of differential extraction of Verbena officinalis on rat models of inflammation, cicatrization and gastric damage.  

PubMed

Verbena officinalis L. is used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders, skin burns, abrasions, and gastric diseases. Extracts obtained with different solvents (methanol, VoME; enriched flavonoids, VoEF; supercritical CO2, VoCO2) were evaluated for anti-inflammatory, gastroprotective and cicatrizing activities. Additionally, the antioxidant capacity was determined in vitro. In order to confirm the activities investigated, histological observations were performed. All extracts induce a remarkable anti-inflammatory activity. The gastric damage is significantly reduced by all extracts administered, whereby the most pronounced protection is observed for the VoCO2 and VoEF extracts. Finally, a wound healing effect is obtained particularly by the CO2 extract, suggesting the presence of some lipophilic active principles. Histological evidence confirms the results evaluated with the animal procedures. The results obtained after oral administration of V. officinalis extracts are also in agreement with the antioxidant capacity evaluated in vitro, confirming the relationship between pharmacological activities and antiradical efficacy. PMID:17354166

Speroni, E; Cervellati, R; Costa, S; Guerra, M C; Utan, A; Govoni, P; Berger, A; Müller, A; Stuppner, H

2007-03-01

276

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L.  

PubMed

Verbena officinalis has traditionally been used in herbal medicine in Navarra, Spain, in the treatment of topical inflammation. Due to the anti-inflammatory activity of Verbena officinalis 50% methanolic extract in i.p. and topical administration, the effects of several formulations were prepared and studied using carrageenan-induced edema and formalin testing. Piroxicam gel and methyl salicylate ointment were studied as positive control for anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity, respectively. The edema inhibition of the preparations containing extract at the doses of 1-3% w/w were significantly different from the control group. The anti-inflammatory effect of VO-3% was similar to the effect of piroxicam gel 3 h after carrageenan injection. The analgesic activity of topical preparation with more than 2.5% w/w was observed in the early phase. This activity was observed in concentrations of more than 2% w/w in the late phase. The topical analgesic activity of the extract was less than the analgesic activity of methyl salicylate ointment. PMID:16723201

Calvo, M I

2006-10-11

277

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

278

Subcellular localization and function of melanogenic enzymes in the ink gland of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed Central

The ink gland of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis has traditionally been regarded as a convenient model system for investigating melanogenesis. This gland has been shown to contain a variety of melanogenic enzymes including tyrosinase, a dopachrome-rearranging enzyme and peroxidase. However, whether and to what extent these enzymes co-localize in the melanogenic compartments and interact is an open question. Using polyclonal antibodies that recognize the corresponding Sepia proteins, we have been able to demonstrate that peroxidase has a different subcellular localization pattern from tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme. Whereas peroxidase is located in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and in the matrix of premelanosomes and melanosomes, tyrosinase and dopachrome-rearranging enzyme are present in the rough endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi transport system, at the level of trans-Golgi cisternae, trans-Golgi network and coated vesicles, and in melanosomes on pigmented granules. These results fill a longstanding gap in our knowledge of the melanin-producing system in Sepia and provide the necessary background for dissection at the molecular level of the complex interaction between melanogenic enzymes. Moreover, the peculiar and complex organization of melanin in an invertebrate such as Sepia officinalis is surprising and could provide the basis for understanding the process in more evolved systems such as that of mammals. PMID:9169609

Palumbo, A; di Cosmo, A; Gesualdo, I; Hearing, V J

1997-01-01

279

Improved neuroprotective effects by combining Bacopa monnieri and Rosmarinus officinalis supercritical CO2 extracts.  

PubMed

Ethnobotanical evidence suggests that herbs such as brahmi (Bacopa monnieri) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) may possess antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. We compared the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of supercritical extract of Bacopa monnieri and rosemary antioxidant extract obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis as well as their combination to examine the effects on human glial (U-87 MG) and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cells. Bacopa monnieri extract, rosemary antioxidant extract, and their combination (1:1) are not cytotoxic in both glial and embryonic mouse hypothalamus cell lines up to 200 ?g/mL concentration. The combination of extracts of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant has better antioxidant potential and antilipid peroxidation activity than either agent alone. Although the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant showed almost similar inhibition of phospho tau expression as Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract alone, the combination has better inhibitory effect on amyloid precursor protein synthesis and higher brain-derived neurotrophic factor production in hypothalamus cells than single agents. These results suggest that the extract of Bacopa monnieri + rosemary antioxidant is more neuroprotective than Bacopa monnieri or rosemary antioxidant extract. PMID:24647092

Ramachandran, Cheppail; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Escalon, Enrique; Melnick, Steven J

2014-04-01

280

De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Oryza officinalis Leaf Transcriptome by Using RNA-Seq  

PubMed Central

Although endeavors have been made to identify useful wild rice genes that can be used to improve cultivated rice, the virtual reservoir of genetic variation hidden within the wild relatives of cultivated rice is largely untapped. Here, using next-generation sequencing technology, we investigated the leaf transcriptome of a wild rice O. officinalis with CC genome. Approximately 23 million reads were produced in the species leaf transcriptome analysis and de novo assembly methods constructed 68,132 unigenes. Functional annotations for the unigenes were conducted using sequence similarity comparisons against the following databases: the nonredundant nucleotide database, the nonredundant protein database, the SWISS-PROT database, the Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins database, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, the Gene Ontology Consortium database, and the InterPro domains database. In addition, a total of 476 unigenes related to disease resistance were identified in O. officinalis, and these unigenes can serve as important genetic resources for cultivated rice breeding and quality improvement. The present study broadens our understanding of the genetic background of non-AA genomic wild rice species and it also provides a bridge to extend studies to other Oryza species with CC genomes. PMID:25713814

Bao, Ying; Xu, Si; Jing, Xiang; Meng, Lu; Qin, Zongyan

2015-01-01

281

Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

2008-09-01

282

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

283

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

2014-01-01

284

Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask. PMID:18280145

Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

2008-10-01

285

Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer. PMID:23741248

SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2012-01-01

286

Sponging up metals: Bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.  

PubMed

The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

2015-03-01

287

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-11-01

288

Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

2002-01-01

289

Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarăes; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

2008-01-01

290

Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

2006-01-01

291

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

292

Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

M. R. Dunn

1999-01-01

293

Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honokiol and magnolol are the main constituents simultaneously identified in the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. In the present study, we reported on the antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol in well-validated models of depression in rodents: forced

Qun Xu; Li-Tao Yi; Ying Pan; Xing Wang; Yu-Cheng Li; Jian-Mei Li; Cai-Ping Wang; Ling-Dong Kong

2008-01-01

294

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

295

First Field Trials of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Andalusia (Southern Spain) as a Source of “Biological” Gamma Linolenic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is cultivated in the north of Spain for fresh edible production and is gathered from natural populations for its fresh flowers with saline, cucumber-like flavor. It is considered as a weed in the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, the agroecological mediterranean conditions in the south of Spain are adequate for growing borage as an oilseed crop for

C. Gálvez; A. De Haro

2002-01-01

296

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

297

Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

2007-01-01

298

The influence of relative plant density and floral morphological complexity on the behaviour of bumblebees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the combined effects of varying the relative density and the relative floral morphological complexity of plant\\u000a species on the behaviour of their bumblebee pollinators. Three species of bumblebee (Bombus pascuorum, B. terrestris and B. hortorum) were observed foraging on experimental arrays consisting of pair-wise combinations of four plant species: Borago officinalis, Phacelia tanacetifolia (both with simple flowers), Antirrhinum

Jane C. Stout; John A. Allen; Dave Goulson

1998-01-01

299

Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model  

PubMed Central

The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-?. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

2014-01-01

300

Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

1997-01-01

301

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

302

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12  

PubMed Central

The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

1981-01-01

303

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

304

Development and Essential Oil Content of Secretory Glands of Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. Images Fig. 1 PMID:16663786

Venkatachalam, K. V.; Kjonaas, Robert; Croteau, Rodney

1984-01-01

305

Hemocyte morphology and phagocytic activity in the common cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).  

PubMed

Little is known about the immune system of cephalopods, in spite of their many highly derived characters within the molluscan clade, including a vertebrate-like high-pressure closed circulatory system. Further the economic importance of cephalopod fisheries, potential for aquaculture, and use as ecotoxicology models demand a thorough understanding of their immune system. In this study, we present a comprehensive characterization of hemocytes in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Cytological stainings, electron microscopy- and flow cytometry-observations highlight a single granulocyte population with various densities of eosinophilic granules and unstained vesicles. These hemocytes contain acid phosphatase-, lysozyme- and proPO system enzymes, and have high activity in bead phagocytosis assays. Interestingly, bead pre-incubation in plasma results in time-dependent aggregation perhaps resulting from hemocyanin-coating, and decrease in phagocytosis. This study provides the basis for understanding hemocyte-mediated immunity in the common cuttlefish, and essential background for future studies on cephalopod immunity. PMID:25066968

Le Pabic, Charles; Goux, Didier; Guillamin, Maryline; Safi, Georges; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Koueta, Noussithé; Serpentini, Antoine

2014-10-01

306

Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil inhibits in vivo and in vitro leukocyte migration.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), popularly known as rosemary, is used for food flavoring and in folk medicine as an antispasmodic, analgesic, antirheumatic, diuretic, and antiepileptic agent. Few studies have shown the anti-inflammatory effects of rosemary essential oil (REO). This study evaluated the effects of REO on leukocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. REO was analyzed by using gas chromatography-mass spectometry, and the main components identified were camphor (27.59%), 1,8-cineole (15.74%), ?-pinene (16.58%), and ?-myrcene (10.02%). In rats, administration of REO reduced the number of leukocytes that rolled, adhered, and migrated to the scrotal chamber after carrageenan injection. All doses of REO tested significantly inhibited leukocyte chemotaxis induced by casein. The effects of REO on leukocyte migration highlight an important mechanism of the anti-inflammatory action of rosemary. PMID:21663474

Nogueira de Melo, Gessilda Alcantara; Grespan, Renata; Fonseca, Jefferson Pitelli; Farinha, Thiago Oliveira; Silva, Expedito Leite; Romero, Adriano Lopes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar A; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

2011-09-01

307

Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.  

PubMed

In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

2015-01-01

308

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine receptor binding assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from sage leaves ( Salvia officinalis L.) revealed three flavones and two abietane diterpenes functioning as benzodiazepine receptor-active components. Structural elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was performed by UV, EI-MS, ESI(pos)-MS/MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The flavones apigenin, hispidulin and cirsimaritin competitively inhibited 3H-flumazenil binding to the benzodiazepine receptor with IC50 values of 30, 1.3 and 350 microM, respectively. In addition, the affinities of the newly discovered diterpene receptor ligands, i. e., 7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol, were characterized. 7-Methoxyrosmanol exhibited an IC50 value of 7.2 microM and galdosol showed the strongest binding activity to the benzodiazepine receptor with an IC50 value of 0.8 microM. PMID:12624814

Kavvadias, Dominique; Monschein, Vanessa; Sand, Philipp; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

2003-02-01

309

Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2013-10-01

310

Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and ?-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

2012-02-01

311

Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte and an applied voltage of 30 kV. Electrospray MS measurements were performed in the positive ionization mode with isopropanol-water (1:1, v/v) as sheath liquid at a flow rate of 3 microl/min. Alkaloids were detected as [M+H](+)-ions and showed typical fragmentation patterns in MS/MS experiments. The developed assay was used for the quantification of seven isoquinoline alkaloids representing different structural subtypes in Fumariae herba extracts and F. herba containing phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:16378615

Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Stuppner, Hermann

2006-04-21

312

In vitro antioxidant activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions extracted from Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

Sulfated polysaccharides (F1, F2) from seaweed Corallina officinalis were isolated through anion-exchange column chromatography. Their chemical characteristics were determined by GC, HPLC, FT-IR and UV spectra. F1 and F2 contained only two monosaccharides, namely galactose and xylose. The antioxidant activities of F1, F2 and the de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2) in vitro were investigated, including hydroxyl radicals scavenging effect, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical activity and reducing power. As expected, antioxidant assay showed that the two sulfated polysaccharide fractions (F1, F2) possessed considerable antioxidant properties and had more excellent abilities than de-sulfated polysaccharides (DF-1, DF-2). PMID:21896282

Yang, Yuling; Liu, Dan; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yan; Wang, Shusheng

2011-12-01

313

The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect. PMID:24741277

Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

314

Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.  

PubMed

To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

2014-03-01

315

Inhibitory mechanism of an extract of Althaea officinalis L. on endothelin-1-induced melanocyte activation.  

PubMed

It is known that expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases in the epidermis after UVB irradiation, and that this plays an important role during the induction of pigmentation both as a mitogen and as a melanogen for normal human melanocytes (NHMC). When ET-1 acts on NHMC via the endothelin B receptor (ET(B)R) on their cell surface, mobilization of intracellular calcium is induced, which is followed by activation of Raf-1 located upstream of mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK). We have continued the search for new agent which inhibit this calcium mobilization and we have found that an extract of Althaea officinalis L. has such an action. In this study, we investigated the precise inhibitory mechanism of this botanical extract on the ET-1-induced activation of melanocytes. Treatment of NHMC with this extract abrogated the stimulatory effect of ET-1 on proliferation and also on activation of MAPK in the intracellular signal transduction pathway, but did not affect the binding of ET-1 to the ET(B)R or the production of Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate (IP3). Further, when this extract was used to treat normal human keratinocytes (NHKC), secretion of ET-1 by those cells was reduced. Taken together, these findings indicate that an extract of A. officinalis inhibits both the secretion of ET-1 from NHKC and the action of ET-1 on NHMC mainly by suppressing the ET-1-induced calcium mobilization without the modification of IP3 production, which in turn suggests that this extract is a useful ingredient for a whitening agent. PMID:11853172

Kobayashi, Akemi; Hachiya, Akira; Ohuchi, Atsushi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori

2002-02-01

316

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

317

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

PubMed

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

318

Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.  

PubMed

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

2004-01-01

319

Identification of the major compounds in extracts of Verbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) by HPLC with post-column derivatization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A qualitative reversed-phase HPLC method has been developed for the analysis of 50% MeOH extracts ofVerbena officinalis L. (Verbenaceae) leaves. The method enables separation of the main constituents: iridoids, flavonoids and phenolic acid derivatives.\\u000a Simultaneous detection at different wavelengths, measurement of the UV spectrum of each separated compound during elution\\u000a and co-injection of reference substances facilitated easy and rapid identification

M. I. Calvo; A. San Julian; M. Fernández

1997-01-01

320

The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

321

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

322

Verbena officinalis essential oil and its component citral as apoptotic-inducing agent in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.  

PubMed

We evaluated the pro-apoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and of its main component citral, on lymphocytes collected from normal blood donors and patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The number of apoptotic cells was greater in CLL patients than in healthy subjects at all different times of incubation (4, 8 and 24 hours) for samples treated with Verbena officinalis essential oil (A) and citral (B) as well vs controls at different concentrations (0.1% and 0.01%). The greater pro-apoptotic ability was shown by both essential oil of Verbena officinalis and citral at lower concentrations (after 4 h A 0.1%: 17.8% vs 37.1%; A 0.01%: 15.8% vs 52%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%; after 8 h A 0.1%: 23% vs 38%; A 0.01%: 22.2% vs 55%; B 0.1%: 32% vs 42.2%; B 0.01%: 22% vs 54.3%; after 24 h A 0.1%: 5% vs 20.7%; A 0.01%: 25.8% vs 47.2%; B 0.1%: 18.4% vs 46.4%; B 0.01%: 15.8% vs 54.2%). Patients carrying deletion 17p13 (p53 mutation) showed a reduced ability to undergo apoptosis with respect to patients with other genomic aberrations or normal karyotype. The proapoptotic activity of Verbena officinalis essential oil and citral is thought to be due to a direct procaspase 3 activation. These data further support evidence that indicate natural compounds as a possible lead structure to develop new therapeutic agents. PMID:20074474

De Martino, L; D'Arena, G; Minervini, M M; Deaglio, S; Fusco, B M; Cascavilla, N; De Feo, V

2009-01-01

323

?-Linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain ?-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3?6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w\\/w) were crystallized at 4°C, ?24°C and ?70°C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl

Juan Carlos López-Martínez; Pablo Campra-Madrid; José Luis Guil-Guerrero

2004-01-01

324

Characterization of an Alien Chromosome of Oryza officinalis Transferred the Genomic and Cytological Environment of Oryza sativa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distant hybridization between rice species and their genome interactions have become the hot points of genetic research. The\\u000a new formed hybrid was unstable and many of the alien chromosomes would be excluded out in the meiosis procedure. In this study,\\u000a we investigated the phenomenon that the monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Oryza officinalis (CC)–Oryza sativa (AA) inherited in the

Gang Li; Ming Tang; Wei Hu; Guangcun He; Hong Liu; Xuequn Liu; Rui Qin

2010-01-01

325

In vitro propagation of the Garden Heliotrope, Valeriana officinalis L.: influence of pre-chilling and light on seed germination.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis is an important medicinal herb commonly found in Kashmir valley. This study forms an important preliminary step for in-vitro micro propagation of V. officinalis from breaking the seed dormancy, inducing rapid seed germination and its subsequent micro propagation. We investigated the influence of pretreatment of V. officinalis seeds with reduced temperature and light on seed germination and in-vitro propagation. Culture of explants from cultivated seeds have demonstrated its potential for in vitro propagation and plantlet regeneration. Individual as well as combinations of treatments such as temperature and light availability influenced the germination of seeds variedly. Unchilled seeds of V. officinalis were given dip in GA3 (200 ppm) for 24, 48 and 120 h. Seeds treated with GA3 for 24 h and kept in darkness showed the best results, i.e. 48%. Seeds pretreated with GA3 for 120 h and incubated in dark showed 40% germination. Pre-chilling up to 72 h and kept in light showed maximum germination of 60% followed by 40% kept in darkness. Pre-chilling for 48 h resulted in 40 and 25% seed germination in light and darkness, respectively. GA3 pre-treatment for 72 h and 24 h pre chilling were most effective in inducing seed germination. Maximum shoot response was obtained on MS enriched with BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L) combinations using shoot tips as explants. Multiple shoot regeneration from shoot apices was recorded on BAP (1 mg/L) and BAP (1 mg/L) + IAA (0.1 mg/L). PMID:25872250

Bhat, B; Sharma, V D

2015-03-01

326

Volvalerelactones A and B, two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented skeleton from Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Volvalerelactones A and B (1 and 2), two new sesquiterpenoid lactones with an unprecedented 3/7/6 tricyclic ring system, were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic data and single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallography, and the absolute configuration was assigned by computational methods. The possible biosynthetic pathways of 1 and 2 were also proposed. PMID:21591723

Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Hu, Jiang-Miao; Chen, Rui; Ma, Qing-Yun; Dai, Hao-Fu; Liu, Yu-Qing; Xie, Ming-Jin; Zhou, Jun; Zhao, You-Xing

2011-06-17

327

An HPLC-DAD Method for Simultaneous Quantitative Determination of Four Active Hydrophilic Compounds in Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex.  

PubMed

Magnoliae officinalis cortex (MOC), derived from Magnolia officinalis and its variation M. officinalis var. biloba, is an important traditional Chinese medicine. In our previous work, 11 hydrophilic ingredients of MOC were isolated and structurally elucidated and four, namely syringin (SG), magnoloside A (MA), magnoloside B (MB) and magnoflorine (MF), showed bioactive effects. Herein, we describe an HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of MA, MB, MF and SG in MOC for the first time. The chromatographic separation of samples was performed on an Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm) by gradient elution with water-acetic acid (pH 3.0) and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelengths were set at 265 nm for MF and SG, and 328 nm for MA and MB. The average recovery of the four compounds was from 97.63 to 103.84%. Nearly 100 MOC samples harvested from eight habitats were analyzed in which the contents of the tested compound varied in the range of 0.016-0.350% (MF), 0.010-0.337% (SG), 0.017-3.009% (MB) and 0.077-2.529% (MA). The analysis also indicated that MOC contains a significant amount of phenylethanoid glycosides. This was an unexpected finding because previously lignan was considered to be the main component of MOC. PMID:25085894

Yan, Renyi; Yu, Shengxian; Liu, Hongliang; Xue, Zhenzhen; Yang, Bin

2015-04-01

328

Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32–102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L. PMID:22701291

Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Hanyu; Cao, Gang; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Bao-Chang

2012-01-01

329

Among-Population Variation in Microbial Community Structure in the Floral Nectar of the Bee-Pollinated Forest Herb Pulmonaria officinalis L  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial communities in floral nectar have been shown to be characterized by low levels of species diversity, yet little is known about among-plant population variation in microbial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the microbial community structure (yeasts and bacteria) in floral nectar of ten fragmented populations of the bee-pollinated forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. We also explored possible relationships between plant population size and microbial diversity in nectar, and related microbial community composition to the distance separating plant populations. Culturable bacteria and yeasts occurring in the floral nectar of a total of 100 plant individuals were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene, respectively. A total of 9 and 11 yeast and 28 and 39 bacterial OTUs was found, taking into account a 3% (OTU0.03) and 1% sequence dissimilarity cut-off (OTU0.01). OTU richness at the plant population level (i.e. the number of OTUs per population) was low for yeasts (mean: 1.7, range: 0–4 OTUs0.01/0.03 per population), whereas on average 6.9 (range: 2–13) OTUs0.03 and 7.9 (range 2–16) OTUs0.01 per population were found for bacteria. Both for yeasts and bacteria, OTU richness was not significantly related to plant population size. Similarity in community composition among populations was low (average Jaccard index: 0.14), and did not decline with increasing distance between populations. Conclusions/Significance We found low similarity in microbial community structure among populations, suggesting that the assembly of nectar microbiota is to a large extent context-dependent. Although the precise factors that affect variation in microbial community structure in floral nectar require further study, our results indicate that both local and regional processes may contribute to among-population variation in microbial community structure in nectar. PMID:23536759

Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Brys, Rein; Willems, Kris; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart

2013-01-01

330

Floral display size and spatial distribution of potential mates affect pollen deposition and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

In animal-pollinated plants, both the spatial distribution of flowering individuals and the number of flowers that an individual displays affect pollen deposition rates and female reproductive success. Heterostylous species are likely to be particularly sensitive to the contingencies of spatial distribution, as they are reproductively subdivided into distinct mating groups, which usually exhibit self- and intra-morph incompatibility and differ in floral morphology. In this paper, we explore the joint effects of both spatial distribution of potential mates and floral display size on morph-specific pollen deposition rates and seed set patterns in two natural populations of Pulmonaria officinalis, a distylous species with a weak self-incompatibility system. Both total stigmatic pollen load and the proportion of legitimate pollen decreased with increasing spatial isolation. Legitimate (intermorph) pollen transfer was, however, asymmetric and decreased more rapidly with decreasing proximity to a compatible legitimate mating partner in the S-morph than in the L-morph. Total stigmatic pollen loads per flower increased with increasing floral display size, indicating that large plants are disproportionately more visited than smaller individuals. However, because legitimate pollen deposition decreased with increasing floral display size, these results also suggest that larger numbers of flowers increase the degree of geitonogamous pollination. In both the L- and S-morph, seed set significantly decreased with increasing isolation from a legitimate mating partner, but in the L-morph seed set was less dependent on the spatial distribution of the S-morph. In addition, seed set significantly increased with floral display size in the L-morph, but not in the S-morph. These findings indicate that the spatial distribution of potential mates and variation in floral display size may cause morph-specific differences in pollen deposition rates and female reproductive success. PMID:20636902

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H

2010-07-01

331

Promotion and computation of inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity of herbal cream by incorporating indigenous medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts. PMID:24783796

Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

2014-01-01

332

DeliveredbyPublishingTechnologyto:MichaelSimpsonIP:146.244.235.95on:Fri,27Sep201318:36:45 Copyright(c)AmericanSocietyforPlantTaxonomists.Allrightsreserved.  

E-print Network

DOI 10.1600/036364413X670313 Phylogenetic Systematics of the Mesa Mints: Pogogyne (Lamiaceae) Michael). Members of the genus are commonly known as mesa mints, from their common occurrence in vernal pool important plants, such as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), mint (Mentha species), catnip (Nepeta

Simpson, Michael G.

333

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260?nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia

2013-01-01

334

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.  

PubMed

The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260?nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

Chovanová, Romana; Mikulášová, Mária; Vaverková, Stefánia

2013-01-01

335

Approche thérapeutique des dermatophyties par les huiles essentielles de plantes aromatiques marocaines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé: Dans le cadre de la recherche de substances naturelles antifongiques, nous avons testé l’effet fongitoxique in vitro (action fongicide et\\/ou fongistatique) de diverses huiles essentielles provenant de plantes aromatiques et médicinales marocaines. Les huiles essentielles extraites du thym (Thymus vulgaris L.), du romarin (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) et de la menthe pouliot (Mentha pulegium L.) ont été testées vis-ŕ-vis de

D. Ouraďni; A. Agoumi; M. I. Alaoui; K. Alaoui; Y. Cherrah; M. Alaoui Belabbas

2005-01-01

336

Mythobotany, pharmacology, and chemistry of thujone-containing plants and derivatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thujone, C10H16O, is the primary constituent of essential oils derived from a variety of plants, including wormwood, Artemisia absinthium;\\u000a mugwort, Artemisia vulgaris; sage, Salvia officinalis; clary, Salvia sclarea; tansy, Tanacetum vulgare; and yellow cedar or\\u000a the tree of life, Thuja occidentalis. While oils derived from the individual species may vary in the modifying constituents\\u000a which they contain, the pharmacological effects

Michael Albert-Puleo

1978-01-01

337

Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina).  

PubMed

Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:11025172

Hernández, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

2000-11-01

338

Attenuation of Schistosoma mansoni cercarial infectivity to albino mice by methanol extract of some plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study elucidates the activity of certain plants’ methanol extract: Anagallis arvensis, Solanum nigrum (green fruits), Chenopodium ambrosioides, Calendula officinalis and Sesbania sesban, on the infectivity of S. mansoni cercariae to albino mice. Then, some parasitological parameters, e.g. the worm load\\/mouse, number of ova\\/g tissue in liver and intestine and the developmental stages of ova in the small intestinal wall

E. G. Kamel; M. A. El-Emam; S. S. M. Mahmoud; F. M. Fouda; F. E. Bayaumy

2010-01-01

339

Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

2008-09-01

340

Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.  

PubMed

In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

Aberoumand, Ali

2009-01-01

341

Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, ?-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and ?-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 ?g mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in ?-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 ?g mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 ?g mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 ?g mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE. PMID:25104041

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

2015-02-01

342

Lack of Nephroprotective Efficacy of Althaea Officinalis Flower Extract Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. Methods: 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3rd day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Results: Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM. PMID:25538830

Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

2014-01-01

343

Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

344

Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.  

PubMed

Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

2015-04-01

345

Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

346

Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

Mäthger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

347

An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1?4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the ? configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone. PMID:23664938

Capek, P; Matulová, M

2013-08-01

348

Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.  

PubMed

In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with ?-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg ? g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg ? dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg ? g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg ? dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions. PMID:24040627

D?ugosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wi?niewska, Anita; P?czkowski, Cezary

2013-01-01

349

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in developing seeds of borage (Borago officinalis L.).  

PubMed

delta 6-desaturation of [14C]linoleoyl-CoA or [14C]oleoyl-CoA leading to the synthesis of gamma-linolenic acid was studied in vitro with microsomal fractions from developing seeds of Borago officinalis. Time course of the reaction, effects of protein and precursor concentrations and nucleotide requirements were examined. These parameters allowed us to improve the in vitro delta 6-desaturation assay. We observed that the precursors were acylated mainly in phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, and then desaturated. NADH was absolutely required when [14C]oleoyl-CoA was the precursor, but not when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was the precursor although it stimulated the reaction. The in vitro delta 6-desaturase activity was found mainly in phosphatidylcholine, associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER) from embryos. No activity was observed in ER from seed coat or seedling. During maturation of the seeds, delta 6-desaturase reached its highest activity 14 to 16 days after pollination. PMID:8394742

Galle, A M; Joseph, M; Demandre, C; Guerche, P; Dubacq, J P; Oursel, A; Mazliak, P; Pelletier, G; Kader, J C

1993-08-20

350

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.  

PubMed

A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. PMID:25618718

Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

2015-03-01

351

Nitric oxide mediates the glutamate-dependent pathway for neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis chromatophore organs.  

PubMed

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH(2)-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-07-30

352

Evidence of early nervous differentiation and early catecholaminergic sensory system during Sepia officinalis embryogenesis.  

PubMed

Within Mollusca, cephalopods exhibit a particularly complex nervous system. The adult brain is formed from the fusion of several "typical" molluscan ganglia but it remains poorly understood how these ganglia emerge, migrate, and differentiate during embryogenesis. We studied the development of both central and peripheral nervous system by antibodies raised against alpha-tubulin and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in Sepia officinalis embryos to visualize neurites and catecholamine-containing neurons, respectively. In early embryos, when organs start delineating, some ganglia already exhibited a significant fiber network. TH-like immunoreactivity was detected in these fibers and in some primary sensory neurons in the embryo periphery. These data attest to the occurrence of an early embryonic sensory nervous system, likely effective, transient in part, and in relation to the perception of external cues. Concerning the peripheral nervous network, the stellate ganglia emerged as a plexus of numerous converging axons from TH-like immunoreactive sensory cells, first at the mantle edge, and then in the whole mantle surface. Later, TH-immunopositive motor fibers, originating from the stellate ganglia, penetrated the circular muscles of the mantle. These patterns reveal the setup of a mantle midline with likely attractive and repulsive properties. Our findings seem to challenge the widespread, still accepted, view of a late differentiation of cephalopod ganglia, and provides significant data for further investigations about axonal guidance during cephalopod development. PMID:19795495

Baratte, S; Bonnaud, L

2009-12-01

353

Nitric Oxide Mediates the Glutamate-dependent Pathway for Neurotransmission in Sepia officinalis Chromatophore Organs  

PubMed Central

Chromatophore organs are complex and unique structures responsible for the variety of body coloration patterns used by cephalopods to communicate and camouflage. They are formed by a pigment-containing cytoelastic sacculus, surrounded by muscle fibers directly innervated from the brain. Muscle contraction and relaxation are responsible for expansion and retraction of the pigment-containing cell. Their functioning depends on glutamate and Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2-related peptides, which induce fast and slow cell expansion, respectively, and 5-hydroxytryptamine, which induces retraction. Apart from these three substances and acetylcholine, which acts presynaptically, no other neuroactive compounds have so far been found to be involved in the neuroregulation of chromatophore physiology, and the detailed signaling mechanisms are still little understood. Herein, we disclose the role of nitric oxide (NO) as mediator in one of the signaling pathways by which glutamate activates body patterning. NO and nitric-oxide synthase have been detected in pigment and muscle fibers of embryo, juvenile, and adult chromatophore organs from Sepia officinalis. NO-mediated Sepia chromatophore expansion operates at slower rate than glutamate and involves cGMP, cyclic ADP-ribose, and ryanodine receptor activation. These results demonstrate for the first time that NO is an important messenger in the long term maintenance of the body coloration patterns in Sepia. PMID:20516065

Mattiello, Teresa; Fiore, Gabriella; Brown, Euan R.; d'Ischia, Marco; Palumbo, Anna

2010-01-01

354

First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to provide a first insight on the incorporation of eight metals in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques ((110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily with radiolabelled crabs for two weeks; it then started to spawn every three days. Among the eight tracers, only (110m)Ag, (75)Se and (65)Zn were significantly transferred to the eggs. The radiotracer distribution among the egg compartments showed that (75)Se and (65)Zn were accumulated mainly in the vitellus whereas (110m)Ag was found in similar proportion in the vitellus and the eggshell. During the embryonic development, (75)Se and (65)Zn contained in the vitellus were progressively transferred to the embryo, likely to supply its metabolic needs in these essential elements. Although it has no known biological functions, Ag contained in both vitellus and eggshell was also transferred to the embryo. Overall, our results showed that transfer of Ag, Se, and Zn does actually occur from a female cuttlefish to its eggs, at least during the last two weeks before spawning. PMID:18342895

Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas; Warnau, Michel; Oberhänsli, François; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Jeffree, Ross; Bustamante, Paco

2008-01-01

355

Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity. PMID:24137206

HU, MINGDONG; ZHANG, HUIFENG; FENG, BO; LIU, KE; GUO, SHUYING

2013-01-01

356

Sucrose incubation increases freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cell suspensions.  

PubMed

The freezing tolerance of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) embryogenic cells, as determined by electrolyte leakage, was increased by the incubation of samples in medium containing 0.8 M sucrose. To elucidate the mechanism involved, we investigated the changes in soluble carbohydrates, cell ultrastructure and proteins accompanying the increase in freezing tolerance following incubation in sugar-rich medium. During sugar incubation, the intracellular sucrose content increased from 67 mol g-1FW to 429 mol g-1FW; it was also metabolized into fructose and glucose, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Microscopy revealed that sugar incubation induced plasmolysis of embryogenic cells and drastic changes in cell ultrastructure with the appearance of rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Furthermore, immunoblotting analysis with anti-dehydrin antiserum revealed that a dehydrin-like protein appeared only when maximal freezing tolerance was induced by sugar incubation. These results suggest that freezing tolerance of asparagus embryogenic cells is increased by a complex mechanism involving notably changes in cell ultrastructure and accumulation of certain sugars and proteins during sugar incubation. PMID:12050778

Jitsuyama, Y; Suzuki, T; Harada, T; Fujikawa, S

2002-01-01

357

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

358

[The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].  

PubMed

Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

1994-01-01

359

Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties. PMID:25105335

Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

2015-02-01

360

Plant performance on Mediterranean green roofs: interaction of species-specific hydraulic strategies and substrate water relations  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have highlighted the ecological, economic and social benefits assured by green roof technology to urban areas. However, green roofs are very hostile environments for plant growth because of shallow substrate depths, high temperatures and irradiance and wind exposure. This study provides experimental evidence for the importance of accurate selection of plant species and substrates for implementing green roofs in hot and arid regions, like the Mediterranean area. Experiments were performed on two shrub species (Arbutus unedo L. and Salvia officinalis L.) grown in green roof experimental modules with two substrates slightly differing in their water retention properties, as derived from moisture release curves. Physiological measurements were performed on both well-watered and drought-stressed plants. Gas exchange, leaf and xylem water potential and also plant hydraulic conductance were measured at different time intervals following the last irrigation. The substrate type significantly affected water status. Arbutus unedo and S. officinalis showed different hydraulic responses to drought stress, with the former species being substantially isohydric and the latter one anisohydric. Both A. unedo and S. officinalis were found to be suitable species for green roofs in the Mediterranean area. However, our data suggest that appropriate choice of substrate is key to the success of green roof installations in arid environments, especially if anisohydric species are employed. PMID:25603968

Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilň, Patrizia; Lo Gullo, Maria A.; Andri, Sergio; Savi, Tadeja; Nardini, Andrea

2015-01-01

361

Plant performance on Mediterranean green roofs: interaction of species-specific hydraulic strategies and substrate water relations.  

PubMed

Recent studies have highlighted the ecological, economic and social benefits assured by green roof technology to urban areas. However, green roofs are very hostile environments for plant growth because of shallow substrate depths, high temperatures and irradiance and wind exposure. This study provides experimental evidence for the importance of accurate selection of plant species and substrates for implementing green roofs in hot and arid regions, like the Mediterranean area. Experiments were performed on two shrub species (Arbutus unedo L. and Salvia officinalis L.) grown in green roof experimental modules with two substrates slightly differing in their water retention properties, as derived from moisture release curves. Physiological measurements were performed on both well-watered and drought-stressed plants. Gas exchange, leaf and xylem water potential and also plant hydraulic conductance were measured at different time intervals following the last irrigation. The substrate type significantly affected water status. Arbutus unedo and S. officinalis showed different hydraulic responses to drought stress, with the former species being substantially isohydric and the latter one anisohydric. Both A. unedo and S. officinalis were found to be suitable species for green roofs in the Mediterranean area. However, our data suggest that appropriate choice of substrate is key to the success of green roof installations in arid environments, especially if anisohydric species are employed. PMID:25603968

Raimondo, Fabio; Trifilň, Patrizia; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Andri, Sergio; Savi, Tadeja; Nardini, Andrea

2015-01-01

362

Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used to Cure Jaundice by Traditional Healers of Mashhad, Iran  

PubMed Central

Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; TaghavizadehYazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

2014-01-01

363

Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of mashhad, iran.  

PubMed

Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Taghavizadehyazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

2014-01-01

364

Study on spectrum-effect relationship of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and their formula.  

PubMed

Rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and fructus Aurantii Immaturus compose dachengqi tang (DCQT), a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is used for acute intestinal obstruction and has been proven to be effective and economic. However, the ingredients of TCM are complicated, and it is unclear which ingredients are the most important for its effects. In this paper, the relationship between the spectra and effects is discussed to provide a powerful method and some insights into the quality control of the herbs and their formula. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint analysis was performed to investigate the chemical structures in different batches of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and DCQT. Hierarchical clustering analysis was employed to evaluate the similarities between fingerprints. Animal model of small intestinal propulsion was established to study the purgative functions of the herbs and DCQT. The relationship between the chemical ingredients and the effects was explored by regression analysis. HPLC fingerprint analysis results demonstrated variations between ingredients in different batches of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and DCQT. The origin, collection time and preparation process may have contributed to these differences. Small intestinal propulsion results showed that, compared with the control group, the positive and therapeutic groups including single herbs and formula were significantly effective (P < 0.05). Spectrum-effect relationship results indicated that seven peak ingredients, hesperidin, aloe-emodin, honokiol, rhein, magnolol, emodin and sennoside A, were inducted in the regression equation, among which, the influence of sennoside A was the largest and most positively associated with the effects. The data analysis results indicated that many ingredients contributed to the purgative effects, among which, sennoside A might be the most important effective component; therefore, sennoside A should be determined for quality control. Furthermore, the spectrum-effect relationship is simple, operative and suitable for the quality evaluation of TCM. PMID:23118210

Xie, Rui-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Shi, Zhi-Na; Li, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhi-Cheng

2013-07-01

365

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

366

Permeability of Rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and Ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis Extracts across Caco-2 Cell Monolayers  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general. Aim of the study To investigate the permeabilities of RA and UA as pure compounds and in P. vulgaris and S. officinalis ethanol extracts across human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers. Materials and methods The permeabilities and Phase II biotransformation of RA and UA as pure compounds and in herbal extracts were compared using Caco-2 cells with HPLC detection. Results The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) for RA and RA in P. vulgaris extracts was 0.2 ± 0.05 × 10?6 cm/s, significantly increased to 0.9 ± 0.2 × 10?6 cm/s after ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment. Papp for UA and UA in S. officinalis extract was 2.7 ± 0.3 × 10?6 cm/s and 2.3 ± 0.5 × 10?6 cm/s before and after ?-glucuronidase/sulfatase treatment, respectively. Neither compound was affected in permeability by the herbal extract matrix. Conclusion RA and UA in herbal extracts had similar uptake as that found using the pure compounds, which may simplify the prediction of compound efficacy, but the apparent lack of intestinal glucuronidation/sulfation of UA is likely to further enhance the bioavailability of that compound compared with RA. PMID:21798330

Qiang, Zhiyi; Ye, Zhong; Hauck, Cathy; Murphy, Patricia A.; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Hendrich, Suzanne

2011-01-01

367

Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC. PMID:21413146

Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

2011-03-01

368

Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.  

PubMed

To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), ?-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and ?-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between ?-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and ?-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, ?-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and ?-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. PMID:24443430

Steševi?, Danijela; Risti?, Mihailo; Nikoli?, Vuko; Nedovi?, Marijana; Cakovi?, Danka; Šatovi?, Zlatko

2014-01-01

369

Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. PMID:25394634

Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

2014-12-15

370

Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated in the development of several pathophysiologies including diabetic cataract. Earlier we have reported that some common dietary agents have antiglycating activity and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was one of the few prominent agents that effectively prevented AGE formation in vitro. In this study we investigated the potential of ginger to prevent diabetic cataract in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar-NIN rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bodyweight) and the control rats received vehicle alone. While a set of diabetic animals received AIN-93 diet, another set received either 0.5 or 3% ginger in their diet for a period of two months. Cataract progression was monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscope. At the end of two months, the animals were sacrificed to evaluate non-enzymatic glycation and osmotic stress in the eye lens. Results Slit-lamp examination revealed that feeding of ginger not only delayed the onset but also the progression of cataract in rats. Molecular analyses indicated that feeding of ginger significantly inhibited the formation of various AGE products including carboxymethyl lysine in the eye lens. In addition, ginger also countered hyperglycemia-induced osmotic stress in the lens. Conclusions The results indicated that ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Thus, ingredients of dietary sources, such as ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications. PMID:20806076

Saraswat, Megha; Suryanarayana, Palla; Patil, Madhoosudan A.; Balakrishna, Nagalla

2010-01-01

371

Life Table and Consumption Capacity of Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, Fed Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, two-sex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (?), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day-1, 1.0811 day-1, 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day-1, 1.0781 day-1, 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

2014-01-01

372

Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family  

PubMed Central

Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

2012-01-01

373

Total phenolic content and antioxidative properties of commercial tinctures obtained from some Lamiaceae plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant level of commercial tinctures from three Lamiaceae plants, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, and Melissa officinalis, have been determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the 2.2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging technique and ABTS assay. Total phenolic content was expressed as GAE (gallic acid equivalent) and ranged from 0.24 to 3.99 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, calculated as TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ranged from 23.5 to 35.6 micromol Trolox/mL, while in the DPPH method, the EC50 value ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 mL/assay. Radical scavenging activity was correlated with total phenolic content. Correlations between ABTS and F-C methods, DPPH and F-C methods and ABTS and DPPH methods were calculated. The obtained results can be useful as additional information about the antioxidant activity of galenical preparations. PMID:23413570

Kowalczyk, Adam; Biskup, Izabela; Fecka, Izabela

2012-12-01

374

Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas.  

PubMed

Thirteen elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 11 different wild edible plants (WEP) (Amaranthus retroflexus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus, Glebionis coronaria, Sonchus spp., Borago officinalis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Sinapis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lagopus and Portulaca oleracea) collected from countryside and urban areas of Bari (Italy) were determined. B.officinalis and P.rhoeas could represent good nutritional sources of Mn and Fe, respectively, as well as A.retroflexus and S.arvensis for Ca. High intake of Pb and Cd could come from P.lagopus and A.retroflexus (1.40 and 0.13mgkg(-1) FW, respectively). WEP may give a substantial contribution to the elements intake for consumers, but in some cases they may supply high level of elements potentially toxic for human health. Anyway, both ANOVA and PCA analyses have highlighted the low influence of the harvesting site on the elements content. PMID:25660854

Renna, Massimiliano; Cocozza, Claudio; Gonnella, Maria; Abdelrahman, Hamada; Santamaria, Pietro

2015-06-15

375

Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were ?-thujone, camphor, borneol, ?-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. PMID:23291326

Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

2013-05-01

376

Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

Behbahani, Mandana

2014-01-01

377

Influence of temperature, hypercapnia, and development on the relative expression of different hemocyanin isoforms in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis expresses several hemocyanin isoforms with potentially different pH optima, indicating their reliance on efficient pH regulation in the blood. Ongoing ocean warming and acidification could influence the oxygen-binding properties of respiratory pigments in ectothermic marine invertebrates. This study examined whether S. officinalis differentially expresses individual hemocyanin isoforms to maintain optimal oxygen transport during development and acclimation to elevated seawater pCO(2) and temperature. Using quantitative PCR, we measured relative mRNA expression levels of three different hemocyanin isoforms in several ontogenetic stages (embryos, hatchlings, juveniles, and adults), under different temperatures and elevated seawater pCO(2). Our results indicate moderately altered hemocyanin expression in all embryonic stages acclimated to higher pCO(2), while hemocyanin expression in hatchlings and juveniles remained unaffected. During the course of development, total hemocyanin expression increased independently of pCO(2) or thermal acclimation status. Expression of isoform 3 is reported for the first time in a cephalopod in this study and was found to be generally low but highest in the embryonic stages (0.2% of total expression). Despite variable hemocyanin expression, hemolymph total protein concentrations remained constant in the experimental groups. Our data provide first evidence that ontogeny has a stronger influence on hemocyanin isoform expression than the environmental conditions chosen, and they suggest that hemocyanin protein abundance in response to thermal acclimation is regulated by post-transcriptional/translational rather than by transcriptional modifications. PMID:22791630

Strobel, Anneli; Hu, Marian Y A; Gutowska, Magdalena A; Lieb, Bernhard; Lucassen, Magnus; Melzner, Frank; Pörtner, Hans O; Mark, Felix C

2012-12-01

378

A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.  

PubMed

A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, ?-pinene, p-cymene, ?-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15?days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth. PMID:23368893

Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

2013-05-01

379

Studies on the feeding attractants for fishes and shellfishes. XXVI. Probable feeding attractants in allspice Pimenta officinalis for black abalone Haliotis discus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attraction activity of allspice Pimenta officinalis was statistically estimated based on the exploratory and feeding behaviour of the black abalone Haliotis discus. The ether fraction (oils) from the water extract of allspice was the most attractive. The essential oil of allspice was separated into four fractions (phenolic, acidic, neutral and basic) by extraction using a mixture of pentane-dichloromethane (1:1,

Katsuhiko Harada; Taiko Miyasaki; Shigeyasu Kawashima; Haruyasu Shiota

1996-01-01

380

Concentration and distribution of heavy metals in tissues of two cephalopods, Eledone cirrhosa and Sepia officinalis , from the French coast of the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Ag, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) were measured in the tissues (digestive gland, branchial hearts, gills, digestive tract, kidney, genital tract, muscle, skin, shell) of the two cephalopods Eledone cirrhosa (d'Orb.) and Sepia officinalis (L.) collected from the French coast of the English Channel in October 1987. The

P. Miramand; D. Bentley

1992-01-01

381

Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalis) eggs: specific activity and effects of Ag, Cd, Cu exposures2  

E-print Network

1 Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalisP) and cathepsin24 activities throughout the cuttlefish embryo development. The enzyme activity kinetics25 appeared-11Oct2010 #12;3 Introduction40 41 Among cephalopods, Sepioidea (cuttlefishes) lay singly medium size

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

382

Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses to the Ag and Cu exposure2  

E-print Network

Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses in the cuttlefish embryo sampled at the end of the26 organogenesis and few hours before hatching. Various modulators demonstrated the28 evidence of a true phenoloxidase activity in the cuttlefish embryo. However, SDS and LPS29

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

383

Essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: assessment of safety in mammalian cells and its antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5-50.3%) and camphor (8.8-25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

Abu-Darwish, M S; Cabral, C; Ferreira, I V; Gonçalves, M J; Cavaleiro, C; Cruz, M T; Al-bdour, T H; Salgueiro, L

2013-01-01

384

Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).  

PubMed

This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. PMID:22741923

Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

2013-08-01

385

Delta 6- and delta 12-desaturase activities and phosphatidic acid formation in microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of common borage (Borago officinalis).  

PubMed

Microsomal membrane preparations from the maturing cotyledons of common borage (Borago officinalis) exhibit delta 12- and delta 6-desaturase activities, which resulted in the synthesis of linoleate and gamma-linolenate respectively. The desaturase enzymes utilized the complex lipid substrate phosphatidylcholine. The activity of these enzymes was sufficiently high to allow the monitoring of the mass changes in the endogenous oleate, linoleate and gamma-linolenate in the microsomal phosphatidylcholine in the presence of NADH (i.e. under desaturating conditions). The results illustrate that the delta 12-desaturase uses the oleate substrate at both the sn-1 and -2 positions of sn-phosphatidylcholine, whereas the delta 6-desaturase is almost totally restricted to the linoleate at position 2 of the complex lipid. Estimate of the acyl-substrate pool size at position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine for both desaturases indicated that some 50% of the oleate and linoleate was available to the enzymes. The microsomes (microsomal fractions) had a somewhat impaired Kennedy [(1961) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 20, 934-940] pathway for the formation of triacylglycerols when compared with other oil-rich plant species that have been studied [Stymne & Stobart (1987) The Biochemistry of Plants: a Comprehensive Treatise (Stumpf, P.K., ed.), vol. 10, chapter 8, pp. 175-214, Academic Press, New York]. In the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and acyl-CoA, large quantities of phosphatidic acid accumulated in the membranes. Acyl-selectivity studies on the glycerol-acylating enzymes showed that gamma-linolenate could be acylated to both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. However, stereochemical analysis of the acyl components of the sn-triacylglycerol obtained from mature seeds indicated that, whereas no gamma-linolenate was present at the sn-1 position, it accounted for over 50% of the fatty acids at position sn-3. The results indicate that the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20) may show a strong selectivity for gamma-linolenoyl-CoA and hence result in the efficient removal of this fatty acid from the acyl-CoA pool in vivo, leaving negligible substrate for utilization by the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.15). PMID:3421914

Griffiths, G; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

1988-06-15

386

Genetic diversity patterns and functional traits of Bradyrhizobium strains associated with Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. in Caribbean islands and Amazonian forest (French Guiana).  

PubMed

Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. is a legume tree native to the Caribbean islands and South America growing as a dominant species in swamp forests. To analyze (i) the genetic diversity and (ii) the symbiotic properties of its associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, root nodules were collected from P. officinalis distributed in 16 forest sites of the Caribbean islands and French Guiana. The sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) showed that all bacteria belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Bacteria isolated from insular zones showed very close sequence homologies with Bradyrhizobium genospecies V belonging to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum super-clade. By contrast, bacteria isolated from continental region displayed a larger genetic diversity and belonged to B. elkanii super-clade. Two strains from Puerto Rico and one from French Guiana were not related to any known sequence and could be defined as a new genospecies. Inoculation experiments did not show any host specificity of the Bradyrhizobium strains tested in terms of infectivity. However, homologous Bradyrhizobium sp. strain-P. officinalis provenance associations were more efficient in terms of nodule production, N acquisition, and growth than heterologous ones. The dominant status of P. officinalis in the islands may explain the lower bacterial diversity compared to that found in the continent where P. officinalis is associated with other leguminous tree species. The specificity in efficiency found between Bradyrhizobium strains and host tree provenances could be due to a coevolution process between both partners and needs to be taken in consideration in the framework of rehabilitation plantation programs. PMID:24595907

Le Roux, Christine; Muller, Félix; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Dreyfus, Bernard; Béna, Gilles; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou M

2014-08-01

387

Determination of phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by calli and cell suspensions of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) calli were established by culturing internodal segments, excised from aseptic seedlings, on MS basal medium gellied with agar and supplemented with 0.05 mg/L dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in presence of benzyladenine (BA) or zeatin (ZEA) or kinetin (KIN), at 1.5 mg/L. Suspended cells were established by transferring one callus to 50 mL of liquid MS basal medium devoid of agar and containing the same type of hormonal supplementation used in respective calli growth. The highest growth of calli and suspensions occurred with 1.5 mg/L ZEA. However, with this cytokinin supplementation, as well as with 1.5 mg/L KIN, both in presence of 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D, suspensions differentiated small root shaped structures. Well shaped, majority single cell suspensions were formed under the effect of 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L KIN. Calli grown with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.5 mg/L BA and suspended cells grown with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and ZEA or KIN at 1.5 mg/L, or KIN at 0.5 mg/L, were searched for phenolics production. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified in calli: gallic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, hesperetin, epirosmanol, hispidulin, genkwanin, carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate. With the exception for genkwanin and epirosmanol all of these phenolic compounds were also produced by the sage suspension cultures grown in the presence of 1.5 or 0.5 mg/L KIN. Genkwanin was the only phenolic absent in the suspensions grown with 1.5 ZEA. Suspended cells, grown with 0.5 mg/L KIN, and calli cultures showed the highest specific accumulation of the total phenolics, with rosmarinic acid representing 94-97%. PMID:14593803

Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

2003-09-01

388

Evaluation of the immunomodulatory effects of five herbal plants.  

PubMed

A group of medicinal plants including, Silybum marianum, Matricaria chamomilla, Calendula officinalis, Cichorium intybus and Dracocephalum kotschyi which grow in Iran, were extracted with ethanol 70% and the mitogenic activity was examined both on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and thymocytes. Effect of these extracts on proliferative responsiveness of human lymphocytes to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and on the mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) was also investigated. The results obtained indicated that none of the extracts had a direct mitogenic effect on human lymphocytes or thymocytes (stimulation index, SI<0.07). Among the plants studied, C. intybus and C. officinalis showed a complete inhibitory effect on the proliferation of lymphocytes in the presence of PHA (SI range 0.01-0.49). A dose dependent inhibitory effect was obtained in the case of D. kotschyi. Extract of M. chamomilla showed almost no stimulatory effect. A significant decrease in proliferation assay due to 0.1-10 microg/ml of S. marianum was observed (SI<0.46, P<0.05). In MLR, a markedly stimulatory effect with some lower concentrations of all the extracts except Dracocephalum was detected. The highest stimulatory effect was due to 100 microg/ml of S. marianum (SI 2.82). Treatment of mixed lymphocytes with 0.1-10 microg/ml of C. officinalis (SI range 1.34-1.80) and 10 microg/ml of M. chamomilla and C. intybus (SI 2.18 and 1.70, respectively) strongly increased the cell proliferation. In conclusion, this in vitro study revealed the capacity of all the extracts except Dracocephalum to enhance the proliferation of lymphocytes after stimulation with the allogenic cells. PMID:10967468

Amirghofran, Z; Azadbakht, M; Karimi, M H

2000-09-01

389

Natural products: a safest approach for obesity.  

PubMed

Obesity is recognized as a social problem, associated with serious health risks and increased mortality. Numerous trials have been conducted to find and develop new anti-obesity drugs through herbal sources to minimize adverse reactions associated with the present anti-obesity drugs. The use of natural products as medicine has been documented for hundreds of years in various traditional systems of medicines throughout the world. This review focuses on the medicinal plants such as Achyranthus aspera, Camellia sinensis, Emblica officinalis, Garcinia cambogia, Terminalia arjuna, etc., being used traditionally in Ayurvedic, Unani, Siddha and Chinese, etc., systems of medicine. The review also highlights recent reported phytochemicals such as escins, perennisosides, dioscin, gracillin, etc., and the various extracts of the plants like Nelumbo nucifera, Panax japonicas, Cichorium intybus, Cyperus rotundus, Paeonia suffruticosa, etc., which have been successfully identified for the treatment of obesity. PMID:22821661

Vasudeva, Neeru; Yadav, Neerja; Sharma, Surendra Kumar

2012-06-01

390

Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.  

PubMed

The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

2012-01-01

391

Assessment of air pollution tolerance levels of selected plants around cement industry, Coimbatore, India.  

PubMed

Being the second largest manufacturing industry in India, cement industry is one of the major contributors of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Since plants are sensitive to air pollution, introducing suitable plant species as part of the greenbelt around cement industry was the objective of the present study. Suitable plant species were selected based on the Air pollution tolerance index (APTI) calculated by analyzing ascorbic acid (AA), pH, relative water content (RWC) and total chlorophyll (TChl) of the plants occuring in the locality. Plants were selected within a 6 km radius from the industry and were graded as per their tolerance levels by analyzing the biochemical parameters. From the statistical analysis at 0.05 level of significance a difference in the APTI values among the 27 plant species was observed, but they showed homogenous results when analysed zone wise using one-way analyses of variance. Analyses of individual parameters showed variation in the different zones surrounding the cement industry, whereas the APTI value (which is a combination of the parameter viz. AA, RWC, TChl, pH) showed more or less same gradation. Significant variation in individual parameters and APTI was seen with in the species. All the plants surrounding the cement industry are indicative of high pollution exposure comparable to the results obtain for control plants. Based on the APTI value, it was observed that about 37% of the plant species were tolerant. Among them Mangifera indica, Bougainvillea species, Psidum quajava showed high APTI values. 33% of the species were highly susceptible to the adverse effects of SPM, among which Thevetia neriifolia, Saraca indica, Phyllanthus emblica and Cercocarpus ledifolius showed low APTI values. 15% each of the species were at the intermediary and moderate tolerance levels. PMID:23029915

Radhapriya, P; NavaneethaGopalakrishnan, A; Malini, P; Ramachandran, A

2012-05-01

392

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

2006-02-23

393

Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine. PMID:23737825

Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

2013-01-01

394

Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts--in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork.  

PubMed

The antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts was assessed in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork. In the in vitro experiment, the anti-oxidative capacity of ethanol-water extract of Melissa officinalis (MW), ethanol-propylene-glycol extracts of M. officinalis (MP), Origanum vulgaris (O) and Salvia officinalis (S) at different dilutions was analysed. Furthermore a 2% essential oil concentrate was added to Origanum (OSi) and Salvia (SSi). In the two in vivo experiments in total 104 Slovak White Meaty pigs were fed with plant extracts (MW and O) at different doses with/without additional vitamin E. In the in vitro experiment Melissa (MW) showed a higher antioxidant potential compared to Origanum and Salvia assessed by TEAC assay. Addition of essential oil to Origanum improved substantially the anti-oxidative capacity. In the in vivo experiment the highest muscle anti-oxidative effect was obtained by feeding 60 ml Origanum. Small improvement in muscle antioxidant potential was observed by feeding Melissa or Origanum in combination with vitamin E. By feeding 10 ml Melissa, Origanum or Salvia the meat quality parameters such as pH(1) and pH(24), drip loss and shear force was not affected. After 5 days storage of meat the redness value was positively affected. PMID:20488625

Lahucky, Rudolf; Nuernberg, Karin; Kovac, Lubomir; Bucko, Ondrej; Nuernberg, Gerd

2010-08-01

395

Chemical composition and repellency of essential oils from four medicinal plants against Ixodes ricinus nymphs (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

In our search for effective tick repellents from plant origin, we investigated the effect of essential oils of four medicinal and culinary plants belonging to the family Lamiaceae on nymphs of the tick Ixodes ricinus (L.). The essential oils of the dry leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) (L.), Mentha spicata (Spearmint) (L.), Origanum majorana (Majoram) (L.), and Ocimum basilicum (Basil) (L.) were isolated by steam distillation and 15 microg/cm2 concentration of oils was tested against ticks in a laboratory bioassay. The oils of R. officinalis, M. spicata, and O. majorana showed strong repellency against the ticks 100, 93.2, and 84.3%, respectively, whereas O. basilicum only showed 64.5% repellency. When tested in the field, the oils of R. officinalis and M. spicata showed 68.3 and 59.4% repellency at a concentration of 6.5 microg/cm2 on the test cloths. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and the major compounds from the most repellent oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, linalool, 4-terpineol, borneol, and carvone. PMID:23025188

El-Seedi, Hesham R; Khalil, Nasr S; Azeem, Muhammad; Taher, Eman A; Göransson, Ulf; Pĺlsson, Katinka; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

2012-09-01

396

Salvianolic acid Y: a new protector of PC12 cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced injury from Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

Salvianolic acid Y (TSL 1), a new phenolic acid with the same planar structure as salvianolic acid B, was isolated from Salvia officinalis. The structural elucidation and stereochemistry determination were achieved by spectroscopic and chemical methods, including 1D, 2D-NMR (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC) and circular dichroism (CD) experiments. The biosynthesis pathway of salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid Y (TSL 1) was proposed based on structural analysis. The protection of PC12 cells from injury induced by H2O2 was assessed in vitro using a cell viability assay. Salvianolic acid Y (TSL 1) protected cells from injury by 54.2%, which was significantly higher than salvianolic acid B (35.2%). PMID:25569522

Gong, Jun; Ju, Aichun; Zhou, Dazheng; Li, Dekun; Zhou, Wei; Geng, Wanli; Li, Bing; Li, Li; Liu, Yanjie; He, Ying; Song, Meizhen; Wang, Yunhua; Ye, Zhengliang; Lin, Ruichao

2015-01-01

397

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-01-01

398

Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of terminalia and phyllantus emblica using UPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Terminalia is a genus of large trees of the flowering plant family Combretaceae, comprising around 100 species distributed in tropical regions of the world. The fruits and bark of different species of Terminalia have been used since ancient times for the treatment of various ailments. Some of its sp...

399

Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68??g/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79??g/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95??g/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88??g/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28??g/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38??g/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67??g/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70??g/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-01-01

400

Larvicidal activity of some Labiatae (Lamiaceae) plant extracts from Turkey.  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of the aerial parts from five Labiatae (Lamiaceae) species, obtained from Antalya, Turkey, were tested for larvicidal activity against the house mosquito Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Third and fourth instar mortality from six concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of each plant extract were compared against the organophosphorus insecticide, temephos which is currently used for larval control. All plant extracts showed high larvicidal activity in 24 h exposure tests. Teucrium divaricatum Sieber was the most toxic, followed by Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., Melissa officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L. and Mentha pulegium L. with LC(50) values of 18.6, 26.8, 39.1, 62.7 and 81.0 ppm, respectively. This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of these five plant species against C. pipiens. PMID:17009204

Cetin, Huseyin; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Yanikoglu, Atila; Gokceoglu, Mustafa

2006-12-01

401

Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities. PMID:22436096

Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

2008-01-01

402

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log?K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol?h(-1) and g?h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg?L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L. PMID:21809949

Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

2012-01-01

403

Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression  

PubMed Central

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg?1) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg?1 bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg?1 bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

404

Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression.  

PubMed

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg(-1)) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1) bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg(-1) bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

405

Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit ( Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

406

The detection of radical scavenging compounds in crude extract of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) by using an on-line HPLC-DPPH method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid evaluation of antioxidant activity of crude borage (Borago officinalis L.) extract was determined by using DPPH free radical method. This borage extract resulted in a rapid decrease of the absorbance and showed very high hydrogen-donating capacity towards the 2,2?-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. A new HPLC-DPPH on-line method was applied for a screening of several radical scavenging components in this

Michael Murkovic

2002-01-01

407

The effects of feeding with shrimp or fish fry on growth and mantle lipid composition of juvenile and adult cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) aged 60-day-old (age-group I) and 120-day-old (age-group II) were fed with live shrimp and live fish fry for 60 days, in order to study the diet influence on growth, mantle lipid composition, and astaxanthin content in the skin. The most noteworthy difference was the higher growth observed in shrimp-fed cuttlefish with respect to

Eduardo Almansa; Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Noemi Tejera; António Lorenzo; José P. Andrade

2006-01-01

408

Octopine metabolism in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis : Octopine production by muscle and its role as an aerobic substrate for non-muscular tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The metabolism of the glycolytic end product, octopine, was investigated in vivo in the cuttlefish,Sepia officinalis. Octopine was the major mantle muscle end product produced during hypoxia, exhaustive swimming, or exhaustive swimming followed by hypoxia (muscle octopine rose from 0.2 to 3.7, 8.6, and 13.4 µmol\\/g wet wt. respectively). Octopine concentration was inversely correlated with muscle glycogen and arginine phosphate

Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

1979-01-01

409

The use of Artemia sp. or mysids as food source for hatchlings of the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.); effects on growth and survival throughout the life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twoexperiments were conducted to determine the effects ofArtemia sp. or mysids on growth and survival ofS. officinalis hatchlings, and their effect throughout thelife cycle. For experiment I, for the first 20 days, one group was fed adultArtemia sp. and the other was fed mysid shrimp(Paramysis nouvelli). Eggs laid by females in both groupswere counted and weighed, and hatchlings were weighed,

Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2001-01-01

410

Effects of feeding live or frozen prey on growth, survival and the life cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding live or frozen grass shrimp (Palaemonetes varians) to the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were determined in two experiments. During Experiment I, two populations of 30 cuttlefish (aged 90 days old) were fed either\\u000a live or frozen grass shrimp. Cuttlefish fed live shrimp grew larger, matured earlier, had a shorter life cycle (255 days)\\u000a than the ones fed

Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

411

The effects of temperature in the life cycle of two consecutive generations of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), cultured in the Algarve (South Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presently culturing the 4th generation of thecuttlefish, Sepia officinalis in our laboratory. A firstgeneration (F1) was grown from eggs collected from the wild (Ria Formosa–South Portugal) during the summer, at mean temperatures of 27°C ± 3°. In the present study, a second generation(F2), originated from eggs laid in the laboratory by females from F1 wascultured between the start

Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2002-01-01

412

PRODUCCIÓN DE Bacillus thuringiensis H-14 var. israelensis UTILIZANDO ESPÁRRAGO (Asparagus officinalis) Y SU USO POTENCIAL PARA EL CONTROL DE LA MALARIA EN LA LIBERTAD - PERÚ  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To standardize a culture medium using asparagus infusion (Asparagus officinalis) for the massive production of Bacillus thurigiensis (Bti) H-14 var. israelensis and to determine Bti bio-larvicide effect upon Anopheles sp. in natural breeding sites in Laredo district from January to December, 2000. Materials and methods: Three media based on white asparagus infusion were tested: M1: 100-mL infusion, pH: 9;

Franklin Vargas V; Judith Roldán R; Gina Zavaleta E; Miriam Gil F; Cynthia Ampuero R; Ana Burga; Bertha Moreno; Carlos Vergara D; Palmira Ventosilla L; Cayetano Heredia

2001-01-01

413

Variability in the Content of Gamma-Linolenic Acid and Other Fatty Acids of the Seed Oil of Germplasm of Wild and Cultivated Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two hundred and six Borago officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) accessions of cultivated and wild germplasm collections from different origins were evaluated for gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and other fatty acids and seeds characters. GLA showed an important range of variation, from 8.7% to 28.6% of the seed oil. Oleic, linoleic and erucic acid also showed wide ranges of variation. White flowered cultivated

Antonio De Haro; Vicente Domínguez; Mercedes del Río

2002-01-01

414

Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover) causes large changes in community and ecosystem processes in both the presence and absence of a cover crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-native species are hypothesized to decrease native species establishment and cover crops are hypothesized to decrease\\u000a non-native species abundance. Although many studies have compared invaded to non-invaded habitats, relatively few studies\\u000a have experimentally added non-native species to directly examine their effects. In a greenhouse mesocosm experiment, we tested\\u000a the effects of non-native forbs (Melilotus officinalis, Verbascum thapsus, and Lespedeza cuneata),

Timothy L. Dickson; Brian J. Wilsey; Ryan R. Busby; Dick L. Gebhart

2010-01-01

415

Comparative in vitro study on the anti-herpetic effect of phytochemically characterized aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis grown at two different locations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae) from two different locations (Garden and Swabian Mountains) were examined in vitro on RC-37 cells for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts for HSV plaque formation were determined in dose–response studies.

P. Schnitzler; S. Nolkemper; F. C. Stintzing; J. Reichling

2008-01-01

416

Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.  

PubMed

The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211

Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

1999-05-01

417

Functional Identification of Valerena-1,10-diene Synthase, a Terpene Synthase Catalyzing a Unique Chemical Cascade in the Biosynthesis of Biologically Active Sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis*  

PubMed Central

Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [13C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312

Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S. Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Weerasooriya, Aruna D.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C. Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A. Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Coates, Robert M.; Watt, David S.; Chappell, Joe

2013-01-01

418

Functional identification of valerena-1,10-diene synthase, a terpene synthase catalyzing a unique chemical cascade in the biosynthesis of biologically active sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [(13)C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312

Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G; Weerasooriya, Aruna D; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A; Coates, Robert M; Watt, David S; Chappell, Joe

2013-02-01

419

Antibacterial potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of triphala components against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria--a preliminary report.  

PubMed

"Triphala", the Ayurvedic wonder is used traditionally for the treatment of different types of diseases since antiquity. The hydroalcoholic extracts of the three components of Triphala powder demonstrated varying degrees of strain specific antibacterial activity against multidrug-resistant uropathogenic bacteria. Terminalia chebula fruit extract was active against all the test isolates followed by Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis. There was a close association between antibacterial activity and total phenolic content of Triphala components.The test plant extracts were also found to be non-toxic on human erythrocyte membrane at recommended and even higher doses. The preliminary results of the present study may help in developing effective and safe antimicrobial agents from Triphala components for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:24377130

Bag, Anwesa; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Pal, Nishith Kumar

2013-09-01

420

The effects of intellan and cytacon on hematological and biochemical parameter in rabbits: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Several plants have been selected based on their use in traditional systems of medicine, and research has identified a number of natural compounds that could act as Nootropicagents. In this study a herbal product Intellan containing Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Coriandum sativum, Amomum subulatum, Emblica officinalis and another product Cytacon (Cyanocobalamine) were selected The study was designed on animal models to explore the effects on different parameters. For this the animals were given chronic dosing for 6-8 weeks during and after which the parameters were observed to determine their effects. The purpose of focusing on such formulations is to do hematological screening in long-term use. The hematological parameter included hemoglobin/HCT, total leucocyte count, platelets. The lymphocytes and the monocytes counts were increased significantly by intellan, while cyanocobalamine increases RBC counts, platelet counts, monocyte counts, hematocrit etc significantly. The SGPT, SGOT were found increased in both of these drugs. PMID:25176357

Anser, Humera; Najam, Raheela; Khan, Saira Saeed; Riaz, Bushra; Sarfaraz, Sana

2014-09-01

421

Geitonogamy: a mechanism responsible for high selfing rates in borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage, a species traditionaly defined as allogamous, has revealed a high selfing rate although a mechanism of protandry has\\u000a been confirmed in this plant. Studies investigating flower behaviour showed that several flowers open every day and that others\\u000a are also receptive at the same time within a plant. Moreover, pollinator behaviour, mainly by bees, contributes to the selfing\\u000a rate because

C. Montaner; E. Floris; J. M. Alvarez

2001-01-01

422

Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.  

PubMed

There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

2007-08-01

423

In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.  

PubMed

Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions. PMID:22593711

Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

2012-01-01

424

In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions. PMID:22593711

Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

2012-01-01

425

Plants 1: Plant Parents  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the first of two lessons about reproduction in plants. This lesson covers how most plants normally reproduce - sexually. The second Science NetLinks lesson in this series, Plant Propagation, teaches how plants can be forced to reproduce asexually. In this lesson, students will learn the parts of the flower and the process of sexual reproduction in plants.

Science Netlinks

2001-10-20

426

Effect of Triphala on dental bio-film  

Microsoft Academic Search

The free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity of Triphala- the herbal product made of equal proportion of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, were evaluated. Ethanol extracts of the formulation were tested for its total antioxidant activity using improved ABTS radical cation decolorizing assay and antibiotic assay against Streptococcus mutans (predominantly involved in bio-film formation on human teeth).

L. Jagadish; V. Kaviyarasan

427

Development and quality evaluation of aonla mouth freshner  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nutritive and palatable mouth freshners were prepared from dehydrated aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) pulp of ‘Desi’ and ‘Banarsi’ cultivars by mixing carboxy methyl cellulose, gums, arecanut, cardamom, sugar and milk\\u000a powder at different proportions as a substitute for pan masala, tobacco and gutka. Mouth fresheners developed were packed in high density polyethylene pouches (HDPE, 100 gauge), stored at ambient conditions

Vishal Singh Barwal; Vivek Garg; Rakesh Sharma

2010-01-01

428

Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and ziziphora (Ziziphora bungeana Yur.). The results of radio-activation analysis were compared with the results of standard spectral analysis performed in another laboratory and the accuracy of the procedures developed was evaluated on the basis of the results.

Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, K.; Badalov, N.B.

1987-06-01

429

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 11 plants, used in Danish folk medicine for improvement of memory and cognition, and 3 Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibitory activity in dose-dependent manner was observed for extracts of Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida ssp. slivenensis. Extracts of Ruta graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Petroselinum crispum and Mentha spicata exhibited moderate inhibition of the enzyme, defined as more than 15% at 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:16280217

Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Gudiksen, Lene; Jäger, Anna K

2006-04-01

430

Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa ( Melissa officinalis), nettle ( Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile ( Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

2009-01-01

431

Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.  

PubMed

Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved. PMID:24582035

Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, Joăo; Gaspar, Miguel

2014-08-01

432

Protective effect of supercritical fluid rosemary extract, Rosmarinus officinalis, on antioxidants of major organs of aged rats.  

PubMed

Rosemary leaves, "Rosmarinus officinalis", possess a variety of antioxidant, anti-tumoral and anti-inflammatory bioactivities. We hypothesized that rosemary extract could enhance antioxidant defenses and improve antioxidant status in aged rats. This work evaluates whether supplementing their diet with supercritical fluid (SFE) rosemary extract containing 20% antioxidant carnosic acid (CA) reduces oxidative stress in aged rats. Aged Wistar rats (20 months old) were included in the study. Rats were fed for 12 weeks with a standard kibble (80%) supplemented with turkey breast (20%) containing none or one of two different SFE rosemary concentrations (0.2% and 0.02%). After sacrifice, tissue samples were collected from heart and brain (cortex and hippocampus). Enzyme activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were quantitatively analyzed. Lipid peroxidation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined. Rosemary decreased lipid peroxidation in both brain tissues. The levels of catalase activities in heart and cortex were decreased in the rosemary-treated groups. The SFE rosemary-treated rats presented lower NOS levels in heart and lower ROS levels in hippocampus than the control rats. Supplementing the diet of aged rats with SFE rosemary extract produced a decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation and ROS levels that was significant for catalase activity in heart and brain, NOS in heart, and LPO and ROS levels in different brain tissues. These observations suggest that the rosemary supplement improved the oxidative stress status in old rats. PMID:19289162

Posadas, S J; Caz, V; Largo, C; De la Gándara, B; Matallanas, B; Reglero, G; De Miguel, E

2009-01-01

433