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1

Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants ( Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was

M. I Alam; A Gomes

2003-01-01

2

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

2002-07-01

3

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis and Chyavanaprash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatoprotective activity of Emblica officinalis (EO) and Chyavanaprash (CHY) extracts were studied using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced liver injury model in rats. EO and CHY extracts were found to inhibit the hepatotoxicity produced by acute and chronic CCl4 administration as seen from the decreased levels of serum and liver lipid peroxides (LPO), glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Chronic

Jeena K Jose; Ramadasan Kuttan

2000-01-01

4

Beneficial effects of flavonoids from Sesamum indicum, Emblica officinalis and Momordica charantia.  

PubMed

Flavonoids from Sesamum indicum (gingili), Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) and Momordica charantia (bittergourd) were analysed for their biological activities. Of the three sources, flavonoids isolated from Emblica officinalis exerted the maximum beneficial action by eliciting highly potent hypolipidaemic and hypoglycaemic activities. Moreover these flavonoids were effective in raising the haemoglobin levels in rats. PMID:11113993

Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

2000-12-01

5

Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis fruit extract against arsenic induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Arsenic, an important human toxin, is naturally occurring in groundwater and its accumulation in plants and animals have assumed a menacing proportion in a large part of the world, particularly Asia. Epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between chronic arsenic exposure and various adverse health effects, including cardiovascular diseases, neurological defects and cancer of lung, skin, bladder, liver and kidney. The protective role of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (500 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in adult Swiss albino mice against arsenic induced hepatopathy. Arsenic treated group (NaAsO(2), 4 mg/kg b.wt.) had a significant increase in serum transaminases and lipid peroxidation (LPO) content in liver, whereas significant decrease was recorded in hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and serum alkaline phosphatase activity. Combined treatment of Emblica and arsenic (pre and post) declined the serum transaminases and LPO content in liver whereas significant increase was noticed in SOD, CAT, GST and serum alkaline phosphatase activities. Liver histopathology showed that Emblica fruit extract had reduced karyolysis, karyorrhexis, necrosis and cytoplasmic vacuolization induced by NaAsO(2) intoxication. Thus it can be concluded that pre- and post-supplementation of E. officinalis fruit extract significantly reduced arsenic induced oxidative stress in liver. PMID:19428342

Sharma, Ambika; Sharma, Mukesh Kumar; Kumar, Madhu

2009-06-15

6

Spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and its amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract.  

PubMed

The present study was carried out to evaluate the spermatotoxic effect of ochratoxin and it's amelioration by Emblica officinalis aqueous extract. When male albino mice were treated with ochratoxin (50 and 100 microg/0.2 mL of olive oil/animal/day for 45 days, orally) alterations in various reproductive parameters were observed (sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate), when further treated with the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (2 mg/animal/day for 45 days) amelioration was noted in ochratoxin-induced spermatotoxic effect. Oral administration of ochratoxin for 45 days caused, as compared to vehicle control (Group 2), dose-dependent significant (p < 0.05) reduction in cauda epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and fertility rate (Groups 4, 5). Oral administration of aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis alone did not cause any significant changes in above mentioned parameters (Group 3). However, Emblica officinalis aqueous extract along with ochratoxin treatment caused significant recovery in all the sperm parameters as well as in fertility rate (Groups 6, 7) in comparison with ochratoxin alone treated animals (Groups 4, 5). Amelioration was higher in high dose ochratoxin plus extract treated animals than that of respective low dose. When normal human sperm cell suspension was treated with ochratoxin (in vitro), various morphological alterations were observed. These were mitigated further, when treated with aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis. PMID:20050533

Chakraborty, Devjani; Verma, Ramtej

2009-01-01

7

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:22033422

Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2012-06-01

8

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice.  

PubMed

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied on immunological parameters and kidney and liver antioxidants. Plant extract treatment at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight per os (p.o.) for 10 days resulted in the modulation of these parameters in normal as well as CP (50 mg/kg)-treated animals. Plant extract in particular was very effective in reducing CP-induced suppression of humoral immunity. Plant extract treatment in normal animals modulated certain antioxidants of kidney and liver. In CP-exposed animals, plant pretreatment provided protection to antioxidants of kidney. Not only were the reduced glutathione levels significantly (p<0.001) increased but plant extract treatment resulted in restoration of antioxidant enzymes in CP-treated animals. It is suggested that E. officinalis or its medicinal preparations may prove to be useful as a component of combination therapy in cancer patients under CP treatment regimen. PMID:11936579

Haque, R; Bin-Hafeez, B; Ahmad, I; Parvez, S; Pandey, S; Raisuddin, S

2001-12-01

9

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis).  

PubMed

Alkaloids are important sources of drug that's why we have conducted our research to find out the biological activity of the alkaloids of a plant that is the Amlaki. Alkaloids were extracted from the methanolic extract of the fresh ripe fruits of Amlaki (Emblica officinalis) through solvent-solvent partitioning method with n-hexane and chloroform. The chloroform soluble fraction of the crude methanolic extract of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids was subjected to antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp lethality bioassay for observing cytotoxic activity. The chloroform soluble fraction of the methanolic extract exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against some Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria and strong cytotoxicity having a LC50 of 10.257 +/- 0.770 microg mL(-1). It is concluded that the chloroform soluble fraction of the ripe fruits of Amlaki containing alkaloids are biologically active. PMID:19899327

Rahman, S; Akbor, M M; Howlader, A; Jabbar, A

2009-08-15

10

Modulation of acute cadmium toxicity by Emblica officinalis fruit in rat.  

PubMed

The efficacy of Emblica officinalis in modifying the acute cytotoxicity of cadmium in male rats was evaluated. Oral administration of Emblica fruit juice (500 mg/kg, b.w.) for 8 days followed by a single toxic dose of Cd as CdCl2 (3 mg/kg,b.w. ip), considerably reduced the mortality in rats as well as prevented to some extent the cadmium induced histopathological damage in testis, liver and kidneys. Biochemical investigation also revealed reduced levels of Cd induced serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase and gamma glutamyltranspeptidase. The enhanced levels of Cd and lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and testes and metallothionein and total sulphydryl in liver and kidney by Cd were significantly reduced by Emblica pretreatment. These results suggest cytoprotective potential of Emblica fruit in acute cadmium toxicity which could be due to its multiple role in biological system. PMID:12622203

Khandelwal, S; Shukla, L J; Shanker, R

2002-05-01

11

Effect of Emblica officinalis (Gaertn) on lens regeneration in the frog, Rana cyanophlyctis (Schneider).  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (Amla) accelerated cell proliferation and dedifferentiation of pigmented epithelial cells of dorsal iris and consequently induced lens regeneration in R. cyanophlyctis. Further it enhanced the percentage of lens regeneration not only in young tadpoles but also is adult frogs. Lens regeneration ability declined with the age of animals in both control as well as treated groups. PMID:19405379

Banot, Jayshree; Lata, Garima; Jangir, O P; Sharma, Manshi; Rathore, Vijay Singh; Saini, S K; Nagal, Amit

2009-03-01

12

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

13

Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.  

PubMed

Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism. PMID:23978895

Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-10-01

14

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO). Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700?mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700?mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P < 0.001) increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:25215258

Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Ojha, Shreesh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer S

2014-01-01

15

Cytoprotective activity of Amla (Emblica officinalis) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative injury in murine macrophages.  

PubMed

The cytoprotective and immunomodulating properties of Emblica officinalis (Amla) against chromium (VI) induced oxidative damage are reported. Chromium (VI) at 1 micro g/mL concentration was highly cytotoxic. It enhanced free radical production and decreased reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in macrophages. The presence of Amla resulted in an enhanced cell survival, decreased free radical production and higher antioxidant levels similar to that of control cells. Further, chromium (VI) treatment resulted in decreased phagocytosis and gamma-interferon (gamma-IFN) production while Amla inhibited chromium induced immunosuppression and restored both phagocytosis and gamma-IFN production by macrophages significantly. PMID:12722158

Sai Ram, M; Neetu, D; Deepti, P; Vandana, M; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

2003-04-01

16

Gastroprotective effects of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis on in vivo test models in rats.  

PubMed

An ethanol extract of 'Amla' Emblica officinalis Gaertn. was examined for its antisecretory and antiulcer activities employing different experimental models in rats, including pylorus ligation Shay rats, indomethacin, hypothermic restraint stress-induced gastric ulcer and necrotizing agents (80% ethanol, 0.2 M NaOH and 25% NaCl). Oral administration of Amla extract at doses 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg significantly inhibited the development of gastric lesions in all test models used. It also caused significant decrease of the pyloric-ligation induced basal gastric secretion, titratable acidity and gastric mucosal injury. Besides, Amla extract offered protection against ethanol-induced depletion of stomach wall mucus and reduction in nonprotein sulfhydryl concentration. Histopathological analyses are in good agreement with pharmacological and biochemical findings. The results indicate that Amla extract possesses antisecretory, antiulcer, and cytoprotective properties. PMID:12403160

Al-Rehaily, A J; Al-Howiriny, T A; Al-Sohaibani, M O; Rafatullah, S

2002-09-01

17

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies\\u000a showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g\\/kg\\u000a b.wt\\/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol\\u000a administration also significantly lowers

V. Damodara Reddy; P. Padmavathi; S. Gopi; M. Paramahamsa; N. Ch. Varadacharyulu

2010-01-01

18

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-07-01

19

Induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lines by Emblica officinalis polyphenols and its effect on chemical carcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Plant-derived phenolic compounds manifest many beneficial effects and can potentially inhibit several stages of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) polyphenol fraction (EOP) on the induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lineses and its modulatory effect on N- nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced liver tumors in rats. The results indicate that EOP treatment could induce apoptosis in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and CeHa cell lines At 200 microg/ml dose EOP induced membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and intenucleosomal breaks as evident from the morphology and DNA ladder pattern obtained in gel electrophoresis. The results also suggested that EOP treatment could decrease the liver tumour development induced by NDEA. Animals administered (oral) with NDEA (0.02%, 2.5 ml/rat, 5 days a week, 20 weeks) developed visible liver tumours by the end of the 20th week and the liver weight raised to 5.2 +/- 1.1 g/ 100 g body weight. Only 11% of the animals treated with EOP (60 mg/kg, oral, 5 days a week for 20 weeks) developed visible liver tumours by this period and the liver weights were reduced to 3.2 +/- 0.7 g/ 100 g body weight. gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was raised to 88.4 +/- 16.2 U/l in serum of NDEA treated group was reduced to 48.4 +/- 14.8 U/l by EOP treatment. Elevated levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), bilirubin, liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in the NDEA administered group were significantly reduced by EOP treatment. The EOP was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. EOP also inhibited DNA topoisomerase I in Saccharomyces cervisiae mutant cell cultures and the activity of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase. PMID:12866570

Rajeshkumar, N V; Pillai, M Radahakrishna; Kuttan, R

2003-06-01

20

Alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver microsomes: Protective effect of Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced oxidative damage in liver microsomes was investigated in rats. EFE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) and alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day, 20%, w/v) were administered orally to animals for 60 days. Alcohol administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls with decreased sulfhydryl groups in microsomes, which were significantly restored to normal levels in EFE and alcohol co-administered rats. Alcohol administration also markedly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in the liver microsomes, which were prevented with EFE administration. Further, alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of cytochrome P-450, Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and also membrane fluidity. But, administration of EFE along with alcohol restored the all above enzyme activities and membrane fluidity to normal level. Thus, EFE showed protective effects against alcohol-induced oxidative damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation and restoring the various membrane bound and antioxidant enzyme activities to normal levels, and also by protecting the membrane integrity in rat liver microsomes. In conclusion, the polyphenolic compounds including flavonoid and tannoid compounds present in EFE might be playing a major role against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24393670

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hymavathi, Reddyvari; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2014-06-01

21

Protective effect of an extract of Emblica officinalis against radiation-induced damage in mice.  

PubMed

The radioprotective effect of Emblica officinalis extract (EOE) was studied in mice. Swiss albino mice were exposed to gamma rays (5 Gy) in the absence (control) or presence (experimental) of EOE, orally 100 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 7 consecutive days. A specimen of small intestine (jejunum) was removed from the mice and studied at different autopsy intervals from 12 hours to 30 days. In control animals, crypt cell population, mitotic figures, and villus length were markedly reduced on day 1; these later started to increase progressively but did not attain the normal level even at the last autopsy interval. The animals receiving EOE prior to irradiation had a higher number of crypt cells and mitotic figures when compared with non-drug-treated control at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiation of animals resulted in a dose-dependent elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione as well as catalase concentration in the intestine at 1 hour post-irradiation. In contrast, EOE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione and catalase levels. PMID:19223372

Jindal, Archana; Soyal, Dhanraj; Sharma, Abhilasha; Goyal, P K

2009-03-01

22

Effect of Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus and Picrorrhiza kurroa on N-nitrosodiethylamine induced hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Extracts of Emblica officinalis (EO), Phyllanthus amarus (P. amarus) and Picrorrhiza kurroa (P. kurroa) significantly inhibited hepatocarcinogenesis induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in a dose dependent manner. The anticarcinogenic activity of these extracts were evaluated by their effect on tumour incidence, levels of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, levels of liver cancer markers and liver injury markers. Animals treated with NDEA alone showed 100% tumour incidence and significantly elevated tissue levels of drug metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase (GST) and aniline hydroxylase (AH). Treatment of extracts significantly reduced these levels. Levels of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) were also found to be elevated both in serum and tissues of tumour bearing animals, while they were significantly reduced in the treated group. Similar reduction was seen in tissue levels of reduced glutathione. Serum levels of lipid peroxide (LPO), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (OPT), which are markers of liver injury, were also elevated. Morphology of liver tissue and levels of marker enzymes indicated that these extracts offered protection against chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:10211933

Jeena, K J; Joy, K L; Kuttan, R

1999-02-01

23

Protective effect of a 50% hydroalcoholic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis against anti-tuberculosis drugs induced liver toxicity.  

PubMed

The present report showed the hepatoprotective property of a 50% hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (fruit) (EO-50) against antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs-induced hepatic injury. The biochemical manifestations of hepatotoxicity induced by rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), either given alone or in combination were evaluated. In vitro studies were done on suspension cultures of rat hepatocytes while sub-acute studies were carried out in rats. The hepatoprotective activity of EO-50 was found to be due to its membrane stabilizing, antioxidative and CYP 2E1 inhibitory effects. PMID:15934014

Tasduq, S A; Kaisar, P; Gupta, D K; Kapahi, B K; Maheshwari, H S; Jyotsna, S; Johri, R K

2005-03-01

24

Emblica officinalis Gaertn. attentuates N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced apoptosis, autophagy, and inflammation in rat livers.  

PubMed

Inflammation and oxidative stress contribute to liver injury. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) is rich in vitamin C, gallic acid, flavonoids, and tannins, which may protect against hepatoxicity-induced liver injury. We elucidated the effects of supplementary Amla (100?mg/kg of body weight) on N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced injury by evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses in the liver and bile, the degree of accumulated leukocytes and Kupffer cell infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal stains, apoptosis and autophagy, plasma aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and ?-glutamyl transpeptidase (?-GT) levels, and antioxidant/oxidant enzymes in rats. Amla was more potent than vitamin C in scavenging O??·, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric oxide. N-Nitrosodiethylamine increased ROS production in liver and bile, hepatic Kupffer cell and leukocyte infiltration, 3-nitrotyrosine and 4-hydroxynonenal accumulations, apoptosis and autophagy, and plasma ALT, AST, and ?-GT levels in the rats, decreased hepatic manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase protein expressions, and enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) protein expressions. Amla significantly preserved MnSOD and catalase expressions and decreased iNOS and CYP2E1 protein expressions in N-nitrosodiethylamine-treated livers. Amla decreased N-nitrosodiethylamine-enhanced hepatic apoptosis and autophagy appearances via down-regulation of the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and Beclin-1 expression. Thus Amla supplementation counteracts N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced liver injury via its antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-autophagy properties. PMID:21761987

Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Lin, Bor-Ru; Chien, Chiang-Ting; Ho, Chien-Hsin

2011-01-01

25

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

26

Biosynthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, their phase transfer and transmetallation in an organic solution.  

PubMed

The design, synthesis and characterization of biologically synthesized nanomaterials have become an area of significant interest. In this paper, we report the extracellular synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles using Emblica Officinalis (amla, Indian Gooseberry) fruit extract as the reducing agent to synthesize Ag and Au nanoparticles, their subsequent phase transfer to an organic solution and the transmetallation reaction of hydrophobized silver nanoparticles with hydrophobized chloroaurate ions. On treating aqueous silver sulfate and chloroauric acid solutions with Emblica Officinalis fruit extract, rapid reduction of the silver and chloroaurate ions is observed leading to the formation of highly stable silver and gold nanoparticles in solution. Transmission Electron Microscopy analysis of the silver and gold nanoparticles indicated that they ranged in size from 10 to 20 nm and 15 to 25 nm respectively. Ag and Au nanoparticles thus synthesized were then phase transferred into an organic solution using a cationic surfactant octadecylamine. Transmetallation reaction between hydrophobized silver nanoparticles and hydrophobized chloroaurate ions in chloroform resulted in the formation of gold nanoparticles. PMID:16245525

Ankamwar, Balaprasad; Damle, Chinmay; Ahmad, Absar; Sastry, Murali

2005-10-01

27

Antiulcerogenic effect of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis: an experimental study.  

PubMed

The ulcer protective potential of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (EOE) was assessed in different acute gastric ulcer models in rats induced by aspirin, ethanol, cold restraint stress and pyloric ligation and healing effect in chronic gastric ulcers induced by acetic acid in rats. EOE, 10-50 mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effects in all the above acute ulcer models (36.0-98.3% protection, P < 0.2 to P < 0.001) and significant ulcer healing effect in dose of 20 mg/kg after 5 (control ulcer index: 20.2+/-2.3 mm(2)/rat, % healing 59.6%, P < 0.001) and 10 (control UI: 11.0+/-1.7, % healing 65.5%, P < 0.01) days treatment. Further study on gastric mucosal factors showed that it significantly decreased the offensive factors like acid (acid output-control 118.7+/-12.1 microEq/4 h, EOE% decrease 65.9%, P < 0.01) and pepsin (peptic output-control 738.8 micromol/4 h, EOE% decrease 46.2%, P < 0.001) and increased the defensive factors like mucin secretion (TC:P ratio-control 1.21+/-0.15, EOE% increase 95.0%, P < 0.01), cellular mucus (TC:P ratio-control 1.16+/-0.13, EOE% increase 53.4%, P < 0.05) and life span of mucosal cells (DNA content of gastric juice-control 77.3+/-8.7 microg/m per 100 g body weight, EOE% decrease 42.1%, P < 0.05). EOE showed significant antioxidant effect in stressed animals (control UI 35.8+/-2.5, antioxidant status: LPO 0.58+/-0.03 nmol MDA/mg protein, SOD and CAT 227.8+/-6.3 and 18.4+/-1.2 U/mg protein respectively; EOE% decrease in UI 88.2%, mucosal LPO 69.0%, SOD 53.1% and increase in mucosal CAT 59.8%, P < 0.001 respectively) and did not have any effect on cell proliferation in terms of DNA microg/mg protein or glandular weight. The results showed that EOE had significant ulcer protective and healing effects and this might be due to its effects both on offensive and defensive mucosal factors. PMID:12169398

Sairam, K; Rao, Ch V; Babu, M Dora; Kumar, K Vijay; Agrawal, V K; K Goel, R K

2002-09-01

28

Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

2013-01-01

29

Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study.  

PubMed

The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have strong anti-oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive agent. Chromium (Cr) treatment results in enhanced cytotoxicity, free radical production, lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels. There was a significant inhibition of both lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation. Chromium also inhibited Con A stimulated interleukin-2 and gamma-interferon production significantly. Further, there was enhanced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in the presence of Cr. Amla significantly inhibited Cr-induced free radical production and restored the anti-oxidant status back to control level. Amla also inhibited apoptosis and DNA fragmentation induced by Cr. Interestingly, Amla relieved the immunosuppressive effects of Cr on lymphocyte proliferation and even restored the IL-2 and gamma-IFN production considerably. PMID:12020921

Sai Ram, M; Neetu, D; Yogesh, B; Anju, B; Dipti, P; Pauline, T; Sharma, S K; Sarada, S K S; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, Devendra; Selvamurthy, W

2002-06-01

30

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol administration also significantly lowers the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione as compared with control rats. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats significantly brought the plasma enzymes towards near normal level and also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver. Our data indicate that the tannoid, flavonoid and NO scavenging compounds present in EFE may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes of animals with alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:21966117

Damodara Reddy, V.; Padmavathi, P.; Gopi, S.; Paramahamsa, M.

2010-01-01

31

Emblica officinalis Exerts Antihypertensive Effect in a Rat Model of DOCA-Salt-Induced Hypertension: Role of (p) eNOS, NO and Oxidative Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone\\u000a acetate\\/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA\\/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may\\u000a influence DOCA\\/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced\\u000a in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg\\/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing

Jagriti BhatiaFauzia; Fauzia Tabassum; Ashok Kumar Sharma; Saurabh Bharti; Mahaveer Golechha; Sujata Joshi; Abhay Krishna Srivastava; Dharamvir Singh Arya

2011-01-01

32

Reduction of hexachlorocyclohexane-induced oxidative stress and cytotoxicity in rat liver by Emblica officinalis gaertn.  

PubMed

The effect of prefeeding of dehydrated E. officinalis (amla) powder at 5 and 10% levels on hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH)-induced changes in multicomponent antioxidant system and lipid peroxides in rat liver was studied. HCH induced significant elevation in hepatic malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides. The prefeeding of amla at 10% level could decrease the formation of these lipid peroxides significantly. The HCH abuse resulted in a significant reduction in hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PDH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities with an elevation in the activities of glutathione peroxidase and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). On the other hand, the HCH-induced impairment in hepatic catalase, G-6-PDH and SOD activities were modulated by amla at the 10% level of intake. Prefeeding of amla at 5 and 10% levels appeared to reduce the HCH-induced raise in renal GGT activity. The results show the elevation of hepatic antioxidant system and reduction of cytotoxic products as a result of prefeeding of amla, which were otherwise affected by the HCH administration. PMID:17569287

Anilakumar, K R; Nagaraj, N S; Santhanam, K

2007-05-01

33

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis ethanolic extract against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.  

PubMed

Ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was evaluated for protection against genotoxicity induced by the rodent carcinogen, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA). Oral administration of EO fruit extract in various concentrations (100, 250, 500 mg/kg b.wt) for seven consecutive days prior to a single intraperitoneal injection of DMBA decreased the frequency of bone marrow micronuclei induced in Swiss albino mice. Significant increases in the liver antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and detoxifying enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST), were found in the fruit extract treated group. The extract also reduced the hepatic levels of the activating enzymes cytochrome (Cyt) P450 and Cyt b5. These increased in the carcinogen treated group, which emphasizes its protective effect against the carcinogen. There was a dose-dependent effect of the extract against the genotoxin with the maximum effect at 500 mg/kg b.wt. The protection afforded by EO may be associated with its antioxidant capacity and through its modulatory effect on hepatic activation and detoxifying enzymes. PMID:15625778

Banu, S Mumtaz; Selvendiran, K; Singh, J Prince Vijeya; Sakthisekaran, D

2004-11-01

34

Emblica officinalis extract induces autophagy and inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, growth of mouse xenograft tumors.  

PubMed

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen - CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K

2013-01-01

35

Plants Beneficial to the Aging Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of edible plants and\\/or their constituents have been shown to delay the degenerative changes in the brain associated with aging. These plants included Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Astragalus membranaceus, Boschniakia rossica, Clitoria ternatea, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Capsicum annum, Cyanum wildfordii, Emblica officinals, Ginkgo biloba, Heteropteris aphrodisiaca, Panax ginseng, Pegasus laternarius, Polygonum multiflorum, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Scutellaria baicalensis, Valeriane officinalis, Withania

T. B. Ng; H. X. Wang; F. Liu; L. X. Xia

2006-01-01

36

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

37

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

2009-01-01

38

Different kinds of male flowers in the dioecious plant Asparagus of officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis L. the female plants bear flowers that are all strictly of the same type, with well-developed pistils and collapsed and consistently sterile rudiments of anthers, while male plants, on the contrary, show a great variety of vestigial female organs, from small, rudimentary ovaries with no style and stigma, up to pistils provided with a

M. G. Galli; M. Bracale; A. Falavigna; F. Raffaldi; C. Savini; A. Vigo

1993-01-01

39

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramirez-Rigo, Maria Veronica; Pina, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucala, Veronica

2012-01-01

40

Insect induced plant galls in tissue culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant tissue culture enabling the assessment of excised organ tissues and cells and the effect of various metabolites and\\u000a gall and normal tissues are discussed with reference to insect induced plant galls. In particular the stem and rachis galls\\u000a ofProsopis cineraria caused by a chalcid andLobopteromyia prosopidis, stem gall ofEmblica officinalis Gaertn induced by a Lepidopteran,Betousa stylophora Swinhoe, stem gall

U Kant; Vidya Ramani

1990-01-01

41

T-DNA Organization in Tumor Cultures and Transgenic Plants of the Monocotyledon Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asparagus officinalis was the first monocotyledonous plant from which hormone-independent and opine-producing crown gall tissue could be isolated. We confirm by DNA hybridization that tumor lines obtained after infection of this plant by Agrobacterium strains harboring wild-type nopaline and octopine tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmids are stably transformed and contain transferred DNA (T-DNA) segments identical to the T-DNA found in dicotyledonous plants.

Benny Bytebier; Francine Deboeck; Henri de Greve; Marc van Montagu; Jean-Pierre Hernalsteens

1987-01-01

42

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

43

Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were compared with three controls : CRL1 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes, CRL2 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of hydroalcoholic solvent, CRL3 composed of 1 ml RPMI inoculated with 10(6) of promastigotes and 100 µl of Glucantim as a reference drug in the management of leishmaniasis. The results showed that both J. regia and L. inermis extracts reduced the promastigotes number significantly (P<0.01). however, S. officinalis showed a total inhibition of the Leishmania major growth. PMID:24146470

Serakta, M; Djerrou, Z; Mansour-Djaalab, H; Kahlouche-Riachi, F; Hamimed, S; Trifa, W; Belkhiri, A; Edikra, N; Hamdi Pacha, Y

2013-01-01

44

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

45

Production of interspecific somatic hybrid plants between Asparagus officinalis and A. macowanii through electrofusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific somatic hybridization was performed between embryogenic callus protoplasts of Asparagus officinalis cv. Mary Washington and callus protoplasts of A. macowanii by electrofusion. By utilizing iodoacetamide (IOA) inactivation treatment for A. officinalis protoplasts and the difference of cell division capacity between the two species, one callus line, which had an ability to produce somatic embryos, was selected as a putative

Hisato Kunitake; Toshiki Nakashima; Kinya Mori; Masanobu Tanaka; Akira Saito; Masahiro Mii

1996-01-01

46

Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of Asparagus officinalis L. long-term embryogenic callus and regeneration of transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-three independent kanamycin resistant lines were obtained after cocultivation of longterm embryogenic cultures of three Asparagus officinalis L. genotypes with an Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain harboring ß-glucuronidase and neomycin phosphotransferase II genes. All the lines showed ß-glucuronidase activity by histological staining. DNA analysis by Southern blots of the kanamycin resistant embryogenic lines and of a plant regenerated from one of them

Bruno Delbreil; Philippe Guerche; M. Jullien

1993-01-01

47

Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

48

Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.  

PubMed

The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions. PMID:15266714

Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

2004-06-01

49

Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and tonoplast from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

In order to understand the salt tolerance and secretion in mangrove plant species, gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS-based proteomics was used to identify key transport proteins in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast fractions of Avicennia officinalis leaves. PM and tonoplast proteins were purified using two-aqueous-phase partitioning and density gradient centrifugation, respectively. Forty of the 254 PM proteins and 31 of the 165 tonoplast proteins identified were predicted to have transmembrane domains. About 95% of the identified proteins could be classified based on their functions. The major classes of proteins were predicted to be involved in transport, metabolic processes, defense/stress response, and signal transduction, while a few of the proteins were predicted to be involved in other functions such as membrane trafficking. The main classes of transporter proteins identified included H(+) -ATPases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and aquaporins, all of which could play a role in salt secretion. These data will serve as the baseline membrane proteomic dataset for Avicennia species. Further, this information can contribute to future studies on understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes in addition to salt secretion in mangroves. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000837 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000837). PMID:25236605

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash P; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

2014-11-01

50

Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes. PMID:16524253

Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

2005-12-01

51

Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration from protoplasts of asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protoplasts were isolated from embryogenic calli of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. Mary Washington and cultured in 1\\/2 MS medium with 1 mg\\/l NAA, 0.5 mg\\/l zeatin, 1 g\\/l L-glutamine, 0.6 M glucose and 0.1% Gellan Gum. Protoplasts started to divide after 3–4 d of culture and formed visible colonies after 30 d of culture. The percentage of colony formation (plating

Hisato Kunitake; Masahiro Mii

1990-01-01

52

Role of root hydrophobic barriers in salt exclusion of a mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

Salt exclusion at the roots and salt secretion in the leaves were examined in a mangrove, Avicennia officinalis. The non-secretor mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica was used for comparative study of hydrophobic barrier formation in the roots. Bypass flow was reduced when seedlings were previously treated with high salt concentration. A biseriate exodermis was detected in the salt-treated roots, along with an enhanced deposition of hydrophobic barriers in the endodermis. These barriers reduced Na(+) loading into the xylem, accounting for a 90-95% salt exclusion in A.?officinalis. Prominent barriers were found in the roots of B.?cylindrica even in the absence of salt treatment. A cytochrome?P450 gene that may regulate suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated within hours of salt treatment in A.?officinalis roots and leaves, corresponding with increased suberin deposition. X-ray microanalysis showed preferential deposition of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the root cortex compared with the stele, suggesting that the endodermis is the primary site of salt exclusion. Enhanced salt secretion and increased suberin deposition surrounding the salt glands were seen in the leaves with salt treatment. Overall, these data show that the deposition of apoplastic barriers increases resistance to bypass flow leading to efficient salt exclusion at the roots in mangroves. PMID:24417377

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Qin, Lin; He, Jie; Lin, Qingsong; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

2014-07-01

53

Seasonal variation of the essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and velopotriates in Valeriana officinalis roots and rhizomes, and the selection of plants suitable for phytomedicines.  

PubMed

During the seasons 1989-1993, Valeriana officinalis plants were investigated for their contents of essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates. Harvesting of the subterranean parts was started in August of the year in which the seeds were sown, and continued until the last week of April of the subsequent year. Despite marked variations from year to year, the maximum contents of essential oil in the subterranean parts of V. officinalis were found in September, ranging from 1.2% to 2.1% (v/w) based on dry weight (DW). Over the vegetation periods investigated, the composition of the oil remained more or less constant. Valerenic acid and its derivatives, and the valepotriates reached their maxima in February-March, with contents of 0.7-0.9% (DW) and 1.1-1.4% (DW), respectively. During the period 1989 - 1993, five V. officinalis strains were investigated for their contents of essential oil, valerenic acid and derivatives, and valepotriates in order to select plants suitable for phytomedicines. The selection procedures described in this paper finally yielded plant material (in 1993) with a satisfactory content of essential oil (0.9%) combined with a high content of valerenic acid and derivatives (0.5%) which can be harvested in September of the year of sowing. PMID:9556440

Bos, R; Woerdenbag, H J; van Putten, F M; Hendriks, H; Scheffer, J J

1998-03-01

54

The expression of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from the plant Saponaria officinalis, in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

We have isolated and sequenced genomic clones from the DNA of Saponaria officinalis using a cDNA probe that encodes proteins with high homology to saporin-6, one of the most potent of the ribosome-inactivating proteins that is currently used for the construction of immunotoxins and mitotoxins. Sequence differences in the clones suggest a multigene family of proteins. These data agree with observations of several different proteins with ribosome-inactivating protein activity and similar structure. Two of the genomic clones encode proteins that have identical sequences to two of the four isoforms of saporin-6. We have inserted the DNA from one genomic clone into an Escherichia coli expression system that encodes a signal sequence for export to the bacterial periplasmic space. Exportation is observed and the isolated gene product has ribosome-inactivation activity similar to the native protein. Sequence analysis shows differential processing of the remaining plant signal sequence. The majority of the expressed protein remains intracellular and this material also shows high specific activity and differential processing. Saporin as an immunotoxin in clinical trial and as a mitotoxin in experimental models has been extremely efficacious. These data indicate the ability to produce fusion proteins with saporin and cell-binding ligands for production of new reagents for further clinical and experimental use. PMID:8454624

Barthelemy, I; Martineau, D; Ong, M; Matsunami, R; Ling, N; Benatti, L; Cavallaro, U; Soria, M; Lappi, D A

1993-03-25

55

Enzymatic synthesis of valerena-4,7(11)-diene by a unique sesquiterpene synthase from the valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).  

PubMed

Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular medicinal plant in North America and Europe. Its root extract is commonly used as a mild sedative and anxiolytic. Among dozens of chemical constituents (e.g. alkaloids, iridoids, flavonoids, and terpenoids) found in valerian root, valerena-4,7(11)-diene and valerenic acid (C15 sesquiterpenoid) have been suggested as the active ingredients responsible for the sedative effect. However, the biosynthesis of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene hydrocarbon skeleton in valerian remains unknown to date. To identify the responsible terpene synthase, next-generation sequencing (Roche 454 pyrosequencing) was used to generate ? 1 million transcript reads from valerian root. From the assembled transcripts, two sesquiterpene synthases were identified (VoTPS1 and VoTPS2), both of which showed predominant expression patterns in root. Transgenic yeast expressing VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 produced germacrene C/germacrene D and valerena-4,7(11)-diene, respectively, as major terpene products. Purified VoTPS1 and VoTPS2 recombinant enzymes confirmed these activities in vitro, with competent kinetic properties (K(m) of ? 10 ?m and k(cat) of 0.01 s(-1) for both enzymes). The structure of the valerena-4,7(11)-diene produced from the yeast expressing VoTPS2 was further substantiated by (13) C-NMR and GC-MS in comparison with the synthetic standard. This study demonstrates an integrative approach involving next-generation sequencing and metabolically engineered microbes to expand our knowledge of terpenoid diversity in medicinal plants. PMID:22776156

Pyle, Bryan W; Tran, Hue T; Pickel, Benjamin; Haslam, Tegan M; Gao, Zhizeng; MacNevin, Gillian; Vederas, John C; Kim, Soo-Un; Ro, Dae-Kyun

2012-09-01

56

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

57

Inhibition of UV-induced ROS and collagen damage by Phyllanthus emblica extract in normal human dermal fibroblasts.  

PubMed

As a part of ongoing research for novel natural cosmeceutical actives from plant extracts, this study demonstrates that Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract has shown its efficacy in protection against ultraviolet-B (UVB) irradiation-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and collagen damage in normal human dermal fibroblasts. At a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, emblica extract showed a significant response of 9.5 ± 0.28-fold protection from UVB induced-collagen damage as compared to untreated cells. A known active, ascorbic acid, at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, showed 3.7 ± 0.07-fold protection from UVB-induced collagen damage. While the untreated cells showed 84 ± 1.4% induction in ROS on UVB irradiation as compared to the non-irradiated cells, emblica extract treatment inhibited the induction of ROS to 15 ± 4% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. Ascorbic acid inhibited the induction in ROS to 64 ± 2% at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml. Emblica extract is a significantly better natural active, with promising cosmeceutical benefits against photoaging. PMID:21443845

Majeed, Muhammed; Bhat, Beena; Anand, Susmitha; Sivakumar, A; Paliwal, Pritee; Geetha, K G

2011-01-01

58

Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinal plants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119

Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2004-02-01

59

Yield potential of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Yield of individual plants of Asparagus officinalis L. cv. ‘Mary Washington 500W’ grown from seed is very variable. Yield can be improved by selection on plant sex, specific vegetative characters, or yield itself. A study of yield variation among plants in an experimental population showed that an all-male population would yield 35% more than a population with about equal numbers

D. M. Moon

1976-01-01

60

Synergistic growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica and Terminalia bellerica extracts with conventional cytotoxic agents: Doxorubicin and cisplatin against human hepatocellular carcinoma and lung cancer cells  

PubMed Central

AIM: To examine the growth inhibitory effects of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) and Terminalia bellerica (T. bellerica) extracts on human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and lung carcinoma (A549) cells and their synergistic effect with doxorubicin or cisplatin. METHODS: HepG2 and A549 cells were treated with P. emblica and T. bellerica extracts either alone or in combination with doxorubicin or cisplatin and effects on cell growth were determined using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. The isobologram and combination index (CI) method of Chou-Talalay were used to evaluate interactions between plant extracts and drugs. RESULTS: P. emblica and T. bellerica extracts demonstrated growth inhibitory activity, with a certain degree of selectivity against the two cancer cell lines tested. Synergistic effects (CI < 1) for P. emblica/doxorubicin or cisplatin at different dose levels were demonstrated in A549 and HepG2 cells. The T. bellerica/cisplatin or doxorubicin also showed synergistic effects in A549 and HepG2 cells. In some instances, the combinations resulted in antagonistic effects. The dose reduction level was different and specific to each combination and cell line. CONCLUSION: The growth inhibitory activity of doxorubicin or cisplatin, as a single agent, may be modified by combinations of P. emblica or T. bellerica extracts and be synergistically enhanced in some cases. Depending on the combination ratio, the doses for each drug for a given degree of effect in the combination may be reduced. The mechanisms involved in this interaction between chemotherapeutic drugs and plant extracts remain unclear and should be further evaluated. PMID:18330936

Pinmai, Khosit; Chunlaratthanabhorn, Sriharut; Ngamkitidechakul, Chatri; Soonthornchareon, Noppamas; Hahnvajanawong, Chariya

2008-01-01

61

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

62

In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.  

PubMed

Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 ?g/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

2011-12-01

63

Comparative inhibitory properties of some Indian medicinal plant extracts against photosensitization-induced lipid damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The protective activities of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica and Terminalia chebula ethanol extracts against photosensitization-induced oxidation of rat liver mitochondrial lipid were assessed. All the extracts could effectively prevent lipid peroxidation, as assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substrates, lipid hydroperoxide, conjugated diene and 4-hydroxynonenal. The E. officinalis extract was the most potent, revealing its superior ability to scavenge 1O2. The

Sayanti Bhattacharya; Jaya P. Kamat; Sandip K. Bandyopadhyay; Subrata Chattopadhyay

2009-01-01

64

Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation.  

PubMed

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

C Jagetia, Ganesh

2007-03-01

65

Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.  

PubMed

The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program. PMID:22777704

Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

2012-10-01

66

Influence of amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on hypercholesterolemia and lipid peroxidation in cholesterol-fed rats.  

PubMed

The effects of amla on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and cholesterol levels were investigated in vitro and in vivo using Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation and cholesterol-fed rats. SunAmla and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of amla significantly inhibited thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive substance level in the Cu(2+)-induced LDL oxidation and the effects were stronger than those of probucol. In addition, the administration of SunAmla (at a dose of 20 or 40 mg/kg body weight/d) or EtOAc extract of amla (at a dose of 10 or 20 mg/kg body weight/d) for 20 d to rats fed 1% cholesterol diet significantly reduced total, free and LDL-cholesterol levels in a dose-dependent manner, and EtOAc extract of amla exhibited more potent serum cholesterol-lowering effect than SunAmla in the same amount. Furthermore, the oxidized LDL level in serum was markedly elevated in cholesterol-fed control rats as compared with normal rats, while it was significantly decreased by the administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla. Moreover, the serum TBA-reactive substance level was also significantly decreased after oral administration of SunAmla or EtOAc extract of amla. These results suggest that amla may be effective for hypercholesterolemia and prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:16521700

Kim, Hyun Ju; Yokozawa, Takako; Kim, Hyun Young; Tohda, Chihiro; Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Juneja, Lekh Raj

2005-12-01

67

Effect of blanching on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla (Emblica officinalis) shreds.  

PubMed

The effect of hot water blanching treatment on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla shreds was studied at drying air temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C with the air velocity of 1.2 m/s. The drying time decreased with the increase in air temperature and blanching. The drying process was observed in falling rate. Drying after blanching reduced the vitamin C content of aonla shreds by 69.36% whereas it decreased by 27.78% in unblanched shreds. Eight commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying behavior of aonla shreds. The Midilli model described the drying behaviour of unblanched aonla shreds at all temperatures better than other models whereas two-term model described the drying kinetics of blanched aonla shreds satisfactorily. The effective diffusivities of the unblanched and blanched aonla shreds were determined using Fick's law of diffusion. The activation energy was found to be 47.21 kJ/mol for unblanched and 43.98 kJ/mol for blanched aonla shreds. PMID:24966422

Gupta, R K; Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Pradeep; Vishwakarma, R K; Patil, R T

2014-07-01

68

[Studies on chemical constituents of Valeriana officinalis].  

PubMed

From Valeriana officinalis L., 4 compounds were isolated and identified by various spectral analysis and chemical conversion, as valerenic acid, beta-sitosterol, ursolic acid, 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran and caryophyllene acide,valerane, naphthalene, linoleic acid, ethyl ester, myrtenyl acetate were identified by GC-MS. Ursolic acid and 4, 4', 8, 8'-tetrahydroxy-3, 3'-dimethoxyl-dibenzyl-ditetrahydrofuran were discovered in this plant for the first time. PMID:18323205

Jiang, Xia; Zhang, Jian-chao; Liu, Yan-wen; Fang, Yin

2007-11-01

69

Preservative properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil with and without EDTA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This study was focused on the preserving properties of Calamintha officinalis essential oil, a plant known for its diaphoretic, expectorant and aromatic properties. Methods and Results: The commercial aerial parts of C. officinalis Moench were hydrodistilled and the essential oil analysed by Gas chromatography\\/Electron impact mass spectrometry (GC ? EIMS). The inhibition efficacy of this essence, alone (0Æ5 and

A. Nostro; M. A. Cannatelli; I. Morelli; P. L. Cioni; A. Bader; A. Marino; V. Alonzo

2002-01-01

70

Oligosaccharides of Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  It has been found that the roots ofSaponaria officinalis L. contain three oligosaccharides.\\u000a \\u000a Two of them have been isolated: gentiobiose and the pentasaccharide saponarose. It has been shown that the latter is O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1\\u000a ? 3)-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 3)-O-?-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 ? 1)-?-D-glucopyranoside.

V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak

1969-01-01

71

[Fumaria officinalis (fumitory)--clinical applications].  

PubMed

Fumaria officinalis-fumitory or earth smoke-is a medicinal plant which has long had a role to play in empirical medicine in numerous countries. A review of the literature, however, reveals very few studies that support its use for dermatological indications (milk crust, eczema, scabies, etc.) or as a diuretic or laxative. This contrasts with its use to treat functional diseases of the biliary system. Although no placebo-controlled studies have been done, a number of empirical reports, clinical case reports and animal experimental studies have been published. Accordingly, in Germany, Fumaria officinalis is approved for the indication "colicky pain affecting the gallbladder and biliary system, together with the gastrointestinal tract". PMID:7672742

Hentschel, C; Dressler, S; Hahn, E G

1995-07-10

72

Effect of Salvia officinalis on diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Herbs are rich sources of natural antioxidants, and are used in traditional medicine for the control and treatment of many diseases. The reducing effect of a large number of these plants on blood glucose has been approved in animal models and clinical studies. Objectives: This study was therefore, performed to investigate the hypoglycemic effect of Salvia officinalis on blood glucose, Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests.Patients and Methods: A double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 80 type II diabetic patients who had not reached the ideal control of the disease. Patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of case and control. The case group received Salvia officinalis and the control group received placebo tablets three times a day for three months. The fasting blood sugar (FBS) and 2 hours postprandial (2hpp) glucose were checked at the beginning and every 2 weeks, for three months Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests were also measured at the beginning and at the end of trial and compared in two mentioned groups. Results: The 2hpp blood sugar and cholesterol levels were significantly decreased in Salvia officinalis treated patients compared to control group (p<0.05). There were no significant changes in glycosylated hemoglobin and FBS between the two groups. Conclusion: Results showed that Salvia officinalis might be beneficial in diabetic patients to reduce 2hpp and cholesterol. However higher doses might be needed to decrease fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. PMID:25340127

Behradmanesh, Saeed; Derees, Fatemeh; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

2013-01-01

73

Size-dependent pollination efficiency in Anchusa officinalis (Boraginaceae) : causes and consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible Anchusa officinalis fly between near neighbour plants and between near neighbour inflorescences within plants. Although many-flowered plants attracted most bumblebees these plants received fewer visits on a per flower basis than smaller plants, and each bumblebee visited a smaller proportion of the flowers. The calculated effective visitation rate per flower was highest on plants of

Stefan Andersson

1988-01-01

74

Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.  

PubMed

Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay. PMID:19353306

Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

2009-07-01

75

Antiinflammatory activity of Phyllanthus emblica, Plumbago zeylanica and Cyperus rotundus in acute models of inflammation.  

PubMed

Experimental studies conducted earlier have proved that Phyllanthus emblica (Pe), Plumbago zeylanica (Pz) and Cyperus rotundus (Cr), plants from the medohara group of Ayurveda possess antiatherosclerotic activity. As inflammation is also one of the pathophysiological factors, it was of interest to evaluate whether these drugs exhibit any antiinflammatory activity. Two models of acute inflammation, namely carrageenan induced rat paw edema and acetic acid induced peritonitis in mice were used. In the model of carrageenan induced paw edema Pe, Pz and Cr showed a trend to reduce the edema while the combination of Pe + Pz (PI: 20.64%) showed results comparable to aspirin (23.74%). Whereas in a model of acetic acid induced peritonitis, all the plant drugs i.e. Pe, Pz, Cr and a combination of Pe + Pz showed a significant decrease in the protein content of the peritoneal exudates compared with the disease control group (p < 0.05), however, only Pe + Pz exhibited activity comparable to aspirin. PMID:21132843

Dang, G K; Parekar, R R; Kamat, S K; Scindia, A M; Rege, N N

2011-06-01

76

Development of a nanoemulsion of Phyllanthus emblica L. branch extract.  

PubMed

Abstract For potential topical administration, we formulated a nanoemulsion containing phenolic constituents of Phyllanthus emblica branch extract. The nanoemulsion has high entrapment efficiency, small particle size, is stable, and can release its main chemical components. Branches of P. emblica were extracted with 50% ethanol (EPE) with 5.4% yield. HPLC analysis indicated several phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, vanillic acid, epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and ellagic acid. These were selected as chemical markers of EPE in the nanoemulsion development. The nanoemulsion was prepared by microemulsion techniques with hot high pressure homogenization. A ternary phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimized nanoemulsion. The obtained transparent EPE nanoemulsion is composed of isopropyl myristate (0.6% w/w), Brij® 78 (0.35% w/w), and 0.15% (w/w) EPE. The optimized EPE nanoemulsion had a median particle size of 191.63?±?4.07?nm with a narrow particle size distribution, a zeta potential of -10.19?±?0.54?mV, high entrapment efficiency at 67.99?±?0.87% and good stability at 4?°C after 90?d of storage. The release of active ingredients from the EPE nanoemulsion was slower than that of the EPE aqueous formulation. The loading ratios of the five phenolic compounds were high, with relative order of EGC?>?EGCG?>?vanillic acid?>?gallic acid?>?ellagic acid, resulting in slow release profiles of EGC and EGCG in the EPE nanoemulsion. In conclusion, the obtained EPE nanoemulsion has good characteristics for future clinical trials. PMID:24053418

Chaiittianan, Rungsiri; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

2014-12-01

77

Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes and affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The radical scavenging properties were also investigated in cells and in cell free systems, where this plant was shown to be a good free radical scavenger. The MAO-A bioassay was also performed to detect possible antidepressant activities demonstrating that both extracts inhibited this enzyme, which has a key role in neurotransmitters metabolism. However, no activity was detected in the acetylcholinesterase and GABA assays. In general, the methanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous. PMID:19760174

López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Carretero, Maria Emilia; Jäger, Anna K; Calvo, Maria Isabel

2009-11-01

78

Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla. PMID:24748729

Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

2014-01-01

79

Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.  

PubMed

Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%. PMID:23572715

Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

2011-02-01

80

Triterpene glycosides from Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions  The roots ofSaponaria officinalis L. have yielded the known triterpene glycoside gypsoside and the first glycoside of gypsogenic acid, which has been named\\u000a saponaroside. Saponaroside is the 3-?-D-xylopyranoside of gypsogenic acid.

V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak

1969-01-01

81

Distribution and properties of major ribosome-inactivating proteins (28 S rRNA N-glycosidases) of the plant Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae).  

PubMed

We have studied the distribution of the protein synthesis inhibitory activity in the tissues of Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae). Seven major saporins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, were purified to apparent homogeneity from leaves, roots and seeds using a new procedure of RIPs isolation including ion-exchange and hydrophobic chromatography. They all catalysed the depurination of rat liver ribosomes, which generate the Endo's diagnostic rRNA fragment upon treatment with acid aniline, thus indicating that A4324 from the 28S rRNA has been released (Endo et al. (1987) J. Biol. Chem. 262, 5908-5912). The molecular mass of saporins by SDS-PAGE ranged between 30.2 and 31.6 kDa and by gel-filtration between 27.5 and 30.1 kDa. Amino acid composition and amino-terminal amino acid sequence indicate that all saporins may be considered isoforms. Only two saporins present in roots were glycosylated (SO-R1 and SO-R3). All saporins are very active on cell-free translation systems derived from rabbit reticulocyte lysates, rat liver, Triticum aestivum L., Cucumis sativus L. and Vicia sativa L. However, they are poor inhibitors of an Escherichia coli translation system. They inhibit protein synthesis in HeLa, BeWo and NB 100 cells, HeLa cells being the most resistant. The enzymatic activity of at least one saporin isoform was dependent on magnesium concentration in the standard rat liver cell-free system. PMID:8218413

Ferreras, J M; Barbieri, L; Girbés, T; Battelli, M G; Rojo, M A; Arias, F J; Rocher, M A; Soriano, F; Mendéz, E; Stirpe, F

1993-10-19

82

Type I Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins from Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Saporins are ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) extracted from different tissues of the soapwort plant (Saponaria officinalis L.). While the biosynthesis of these proteins and their roles in planta have received little attention, saporins have been\\u000a extensively used for the production of targeted toxins for therapeutical and research applications. The biochemical features\\u000a of one group of closely related saporin isoforms, collectively named

Alessio Lombardi; Richard Marshall; Carmelinda Savino; Maria Fabbrini; Aldo Ceriotti

83

Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).  

PubMed

Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

2008-05-01

84

Evaluation of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute and chronic stress is a risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent marker for cardiovascular disease. Cold pressor test (CPT) is known to be associated with substantial activation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants were randomized to receive either two capsules of P. emblica extract 250 mg (containing aqueous extract of P. emblica, highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolysable tannins emblicanin-A, emblicanin-B, pedunculagin and punigluconin) or two capsules of placebo twice daily for 14 days. Pharmacodynamic parameters such as heart rate, augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), radial and aortic blood pressure (BP) were recorded before and after CPT at baseline and end of treatment. After washout period of 14 days, subjects crossed over to the other treatment and the same test procedure was repeated again. Safety assessments were done at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: A total of 12volunteers completed the study. Compared with baseline and placebo, P. emblica extract produced a significant decrease of mean percent change in the indices of arterial stiffness (AIx, radial and aortic BP) and increase in SEVR, an index of myocardial perfusion with CPT. Both treatments were well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Proprietary P. emblica extract, showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections. PMID:24497739

Fatima, Nishat; Pingali, Usharani; Pilli, Raveendranadh

2014-01-01

85

PA02.10. A review on immunomodulator activity of some indiginious medical plants  

PubMed Central

Purpose: It has been estimated that about 6 laks infant and young children die from RSV annually, and if bacterial co infections are included this number may approach 10 laks deaths annually. More than 2 million deaths are estimated to result each year the world over as a consequence of diarrheal disease in children of under five years. This statistic shows that children are more vulnerable to infection because their immune system is less or under developed. At this age any intervention which could motivate their immune system, may prove boon to them. Ayurveda with its concept of Rasayana is holding various medicinal plants which are excellent immunomodulator and capable to reduce the morbidity status. Method: Peer review journals were searched to list all medicinal plants with immunomodulator activities, particularly acting on recurrent respiratory infection and recurrent diarrhoeal episodes. Only full texts in English were accepted for the present study. Result: Out of all researches Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Ashwagandha(Withania somnifera), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) were found more potent to reduce morbidity rate. In which Amalaki is very cost effective, easily available, easily cultivated with highest immunomodulator properties. Conclusion: Recurrent respiratory tract infection and recurrent diarrhoeal episodes are major part of morbidity and Amalaki is a best option to reduce it.

Dutt, S Brahm

2013-01-01

86

Content and Composition of the Oil from Melissa officinalis L. after Application of Ridomil 72 WP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation from dried leaves of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated at Nitra in Slovak Republic, was analyzed by GC\\/MS. Comparisons were made between the yield and composition of the oil distilled from plants at different ontogenetic stages, and between untreated control plants and those treated with Ridomil 72 WP.

Magda Hollá; Stefánia Vaverková; Jozef Tekel; Emil Havránek

2000-01-01

87

Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

2013-01-01

88

Healing Properties of Some Indian Medicinal Plants against Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulceration of Rats  

PubMed Central

The healing activity of the ethanol extracts of Piper betel, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia bellerica, and Terminalia chebula against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied and compared with that of misoprostol. Compared to autohealing, all the drugs accelerated the healing process, albeit to different extents. The relative healing activities of the extracts was P. betel>E. officinalis>T. bellerica~T. chebula, that correlated well with their in vivo antioxidant and mucin augmenting activities. The excellent healing activity of the extracts of P. betel and E. officinalis indicated a major role of mucin protection and regeneration in the healing of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs mediated stomach ulceration. PMID:18193104

Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chaudhuri, Susri R.; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K.

2007-01-01

89

Diurnal patterns of ?-tocopherol accumulation in Mediterranean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diurnal variations in ?-tocopherol were evaluated in combination with different indicators of stress in seven plant species grown under Mediterranean field conditions. The species studied were a gymnospern, Pinus pinea L., and six angiosperms, Quercus suber L. (Fagaceae), Cistus clusii Dunal and Cistus albidus L. (Cistaceae), Rosmarinus officinalis L, Salvia officinalis L. ssp. major and Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae). Contrasting patterns

Arancha Oliván; Sergi Munné-Bosch

2010-01-01

90

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

91

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

92

Neurotropic action of the hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis in the mouse.  

PubMed

A lyophilised hydroalcoholic extract of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been evaluated for behavioral effects in mice. According to the traditional use of M. officinalis, sedative properties have been confirmed for low doses by the decrease of behavioral parameters measured in a non-familiar environment test (staircase test) and in a familiar environment test (two compartment test). With high doses, a peripheral analgesic activity was obtained by reducing the acetic acid-induced pain (writhing test); moreover, the plant extract induced the sleep in mice after treatment with an infrahypnotic dose of pentobarbital and potentialised the sleep induced by a hypnotic dose of pentobarbital. PMID:1891490

Soulimani, R; Fleurentin, J; Mortier, F; Misslin, R; Derrieu, G; Pelt, J M

1991-04-01

93

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and

O. O. Okoh; A. A. Sadimenko; A. J. Afolayan

2007-01-01

94

The crystal structure of saporin SO6 from Saponaria officinalis and its interaction with the ribosome  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 2.0 Å resolution crystal structure of the ribosome inactivating protein saporin (isoform 6) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis is presented. The fold typical of other plant toxins is conserved, despite some differences in the loop regions. The loop between strands ?7 and ?8 in the C-terminal region which spans over the active site cleft appears shorter in saporin, suggesting

Carmelinda Savino; Luca Federici; Rodolfo Ippoliti; Eugenio Lendaro; Demetrius Tsernoglou

2000-01-01

95

Major triterpenoid saponins from saponaria officinalis  

PubMed

Two major triterpenoid saponins, named saponariosides A and B, were isolated from the whole plants of Saponaria officinalis and were respectively defined to be 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-be ta-D-glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-4-O-ac etylquinovopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-D-fucopyranoside (1); 3-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-be ta-D-glucuronopyranosyl quillaic acid 28-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->4)-alpha- L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta-D-4-O-acetylquinovopyranosyl-(1-->4)] -beta-D-fucopyranoside (2). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive NMR (DEPT, DQF-COSY, HOHAHA, HETCOR, HMBC, and NOESY) and MS studies as well as chemical degradation. PMID:9834154

Jia; Koike; Nikaido

1998-11-01

96

Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

2013-01-01

97

Formation and development of embryo and endosperm in intra- and inter-specific crosses of Asparagus officinalis and A. densiflorus cv. Sprengeri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Garden asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (2n=2x=20) is reproductively isolated from the related ornamental species Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop cv. Sprengeri (2n=6x=60) by incompatibility barriers at the pollen–stigma and pollen–style levels, plus stronger post-stylar barriers, which have not been described, in pollen–pistil-compatible genotypes. To study the latter, intra- and inter-specific crosses were made using 25 plants of A. officinalis and 29

O. N Marcellán; E. L Camadro

1999-01-01

98

Genetic Variability of the Essential Oil Content of Melissa officinalis1.  

PubMed

The essential oil content of various populations of MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. (Lamiaceae), cultivated under Mediterranean climatic conditions (Ebro-Delta, Spain) has been investigated during five years of selection and improvement of the genetic plant material. Starting with an essential oil content of 0.2-0.3%, a content of more than 0.5% was obtained as a result of genetic improvement. A weak negative correlation between the content of essential oil and phenotypical growth parameters such as the number of branches per plant and height was observed. No correlation between biomass production per plant and essential oil content could be found. By the method of hybridization, M. OFFICINALIS synthetics with a high yield of biomass and essential oil content were selected. PMID:17226522

Adzet, T; Ponz, R; Wolf, E; Schulte, E

1992-12-01

99

New triterpenoid saponins from the roots of Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Three new triterpenoid saponins (1-3), along with nine known saponins, were isolated from the roots of Saponaria officinalis L. Two of them: vaccaroside D (4) and dianchinenoside B (5) are known, but not previously reported for S. officinalis, and seven others: saponarioside C (6), D (7), F (8), G (9), I (10), K (11), and L (12) have been previously isolated from this plant. The structures of the new saponins were established as 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2) and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-(3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods, including 1D- (1H, 13C) and 2D-NMR (D QF-COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments, as well as high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR-ESI-MS), ESI-MS/MS and acid hydrolysis. PMID:24555273

Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Pecio, Lukasz; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Simonet, Ana M; Macias, Francisco A; Szumacher-Strabel, Malgorzata; Cieslak, Adam; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

2013-12-01

100

The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

2014-01-01

101

Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. PMID:23687854

Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

2013-03-01

102

Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.  

PubMed

Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria. PMID:22594260

Stefanovi?, Olgica D; Stanojevi?, Dragana D; Comi?, Ljiljana R

2012-01-01

103

Adsorption chromatography of alkaloids of fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis, difficult to separate by partition chromatography and countercurrent distribution, were separated by column chromatography using silica gel developed with mixtures of propanol or methanol with nonpolar solvents. Suitable solvent systems for column chromatography were chosen on the basis of thin layer chromatography data.

W. Golkiewicz; T. Wawrzynowicz

1970-01-01

104

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

105

Effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium on conversion of somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of sugar concentration and strength of basal medium were studied to produce plants from somatic embryos in Asparagus officinalis L. There was a significant difference among concentrations of sugar but not among kinds of sugar tested in the present experiment in growth of shoots and roots. When the sucrose concentrations were 10, 30, or 50gl?1, the fresh weight

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2000-01-01

106

Development of male and female flower in Asparagus officinalis. Search for point of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual developmental pathway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asparagus officinalis is a dioecious plant. The flowers start to develop as hermaphrodites and later become unisexual. In female flowers the stamens degenerate, while in male flowers the ovary stops growing without degenerating. We have examined young asparagus flowers using SEM and optical microscopy in order to determine the exact moment of transition from hermaphroditic to unisexual development. We defined

E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. G. Galli; G. Rossi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani Longo

1994-01-01

107

Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation.

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2011-01-01

108

Comparative Responses of Borago officinalis and Echium vulgare to Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, and fixed oil content of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants were studied in two field experiments. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate at 0.75 and 110 kg N hectare; phosphorus as calcium super-phosphate at 50 and 75 kg P2O5 hectare; compost at 1.32

S. F. Hendawy; S. El-Gengaihi

2010-01-01

109

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

110

Flavonoids from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Six flavonoids have been isolated from the leaves of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data (UV, 1R, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and FAB MS) as luteolin, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, apigenin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-Obeta-D-glucuronopyranoside. The last three glycosides have been found in lemon balm for the first time and luteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside-3'-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside is a new compound found in plants. PMID:12365606

Patora, Jolanta; Klimek, Barbara

2002-01-01

111

Screening the antiviral activity of Indian medicinal plants against white spot syndrome virus in shrimp  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty species of Indian traditional medicinal plants were selected for this study. They were Aegle marmelos, Allium sativum, Aristolochia indica, Azadirachta indica, Cassia fistula, Catharanthus roseus, Curcuma longa, Cynodon dactylon, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Mimosa pudica, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Ocimum americanum, Phyllanthus amarus, Phyllanthus emblica, Psidium guajava, Solanum nigrum, Tridax procumban and Tylophora indica. These plants were used to

G. Balasubramanian; M. Sarathi; S. Rajesh Kumar; A. S. Sahul Hameed

2007-01-01

112

Application of high electric field (HEF) on the shelf-life extension of emblic fruit ( Phyllanthus emblica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblic fruit (Phyllanthus emblica L.) is a high vitamin C containing fruit available in South Asia. The fruits were treated by alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) high electric field (HEF) of field strength 430kV\\/m for 2h to study the physiological loss of mass (PLM) as moisture loss in open pouches. Effect of HEF treated emblic fruits on rotting,

Tirtha Raj Bajgai; Fumio Hashinaga; Seiichiro Isobe; G. S. Vijaya Raghavan; Michael O. Ngadi

2006-01-01

113

Antiherpes effect of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

Studies were carried out on the virucidal and antiviral effects of Melissa officinalis L. extracts (M1, M3, M3 and M4) with respect to Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Virucidal effect was registered within 3 and 6 hours of treatment using M4 administered in MTC. The remaining extracts inactivate the virus at the 12th and 24th hour. No significant values of inhibiting activity of M1, M2, and M3 on the same virus in vitro or in vivo were demonstrated. The presence of caffeic, rosmarinic and ferulic acids was demonstrated by thin-layer chromatography. Their role in the antiviral activity of M. officinalis L. is discussed. PMID:8390134

Dimitrova, Z; Dimov, B; Manolova, N; Pancheva, S; Ilieva, D; Shishkov, S

1993-01-01

114

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

115

Rosmarinic acid derivatives from Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sagerinic acid, a novel cyclobutane and salvianolic acid K, derived from rosmarinic acid,were isolated together with the parent compound from polar solvent extracts of Salvia officinalis.Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR and, for sagerinic acid, the stereochemistry ofthe substituents on the cyclobutane moiety was established as 3?,4a-diaryl-1a,2?-dicarboxylicacid diester (m-truxinate form).

Yinrong Lu; L. Yeap Foo

1999-01-01

116

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense  

E-print Network

Original article Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts August 2000) Abstract -- The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen

Boyer, Edmond

117

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

118

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-01-01

119

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-03-22

120

Immunomodulatory effects of agents of plant origin.  

PubMed

The immunomodulatory properties of amla (Emblica officinalis) and shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides) were evaluated in adjuvant induced arthritic (AIA) rat model. Injecting Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in right hind paw of the animals induced inflammation. The crude extracts of both the herbs were administered intraperitonially following a repeated treatment profile. The anti-inflammatory response of both the extracts was determined by lymphocyte proliferation activity and histopathological severity of synovial hyperplasia. Both the extracts showed a marked reduction in inflammation and edema. At cellular level immunosuppression occurred during the early phase of the disease. There was mild synovial hyperplasia and infiltration of few mononuclear cells in amla or shankhpushpi treated animals. The induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) was significantly decreased in treated animals as compared to controls. These observations suggest that both the herbal extracts caused immunosuppression in AIA rats, indicating that they may provide an alternative approach to the treatment of arthritis. PMID:14499177

Ganju, Lilly; Karan, Dev; Chanda, Sudipta; Srivastava, K K; Sawhney, R C; Selvamurthy, W

2003-09-01

121

The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 microl/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats. PMID:16750340

Pramyothin, Pornpen; Samosorn, Patcharavadee; Poungshompoo, Somlak; Chaichantipyuth, Chaiyo

2006-10-11

122

Anti-hepatitis B virus activities and absolute configurations of sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

During the process exploring anti-viral compounds from Phyllanthus species, eight new highly oxygenated bisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycoside phyllaemblicins G1-G8 () were isolated from Phyllanthus emblica, along with three known compounds, phyllaemblicin F (), phyllaemblic acid () and glochicoccin D (). Phyllaemblicin G2 (), bearing a tricyclo [3.1.1.1] oxygen bridge ring system, is an unusual sesquiterpenoid glycoside, while phyllaemblicins G6-G8 () are dimeric sesquiterpenoid glycosides with two norbisabolane units connecting through a disaccharide. All the structures were elucidated by the extensive analysis of HRMS and NMR data. The relative configuration of phyllaemblicin G2 was constructed based on heteronuclear coupling constants measurement, and the absolute configurations for all new compounds were established by calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) using time dependent density functional theory. The sesquiterpenoid glycoside dimers displayed potential anti-hepatitis B virus (HBV) activities, especially for the new compound with IC50 of 8.53 ± 0.97 and 5.68 ± 1.75 ?M towards the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV excreted antigen (HBeAg) secretion, respectively. PMID:25268491

Lv, Jun-Jiang; Wang, Ya-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Min; Yu, Shan; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

2014-10-15

123

Relative protection given by extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and an equivalent amount of vitamin C against a known clastogen--caesium chloride.  

PubMed

Aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus emblica L. fruit and an equivalent amount of vitamin C were administered orally by gavage to laboratory-bred Swiss albino mice for 7 days in order to evaluate the protection afforded by the two extracts against clastogenic effects of different doses of caesium chloride (CsCl) on bone marrow cells of Mus musculus in vivo. Both pretreatments significantly reduced the frequency of chromosome aberrations induced by CsCl given at three different doses, indicating that vitamin C, an essential component of P. emblica extract, was the effective agent in protecting against the clastogenicity of the metal salt. PMID:1427509

Ghosh, A; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

1992-10-01

124

Gastroprotective constituents of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The gastrointestinal activity of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Salvia officinalis was evaluated in a model of ethanol-induced gastric lesion. HE showed excellent activity, with ID(50) 84.0 (54.8-128.9) mg/kg. The acetic acid-induced ulcer and the total acidity of the gastric secretion were also reduced by HE, and, in vitro experiments, the H(+),K(+)-ATPase activity was inhibited. Carnosol was identified as a possible active constituent for the gastroprotective effect of HE. PMID:19481590

Mayer, Bárbara; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Freitas, Cristina Setim; dos Santos, Ana Cristina; Twardowschy, André; Horst, Heros; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Heller, Melina; dos Santos, Elide Pereira; Otuki, Michel Fleith; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade

2009-10-01

125

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1-10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 10(6) cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100-200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C; Patidar, Arjun O; Malviya, K G; Shivhare-Malviya, K K

2011-07-01

126

Genomic organization of the AODEF gene in Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The perianths of Liliaceae plants, such as lily and tulip, have two whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, which are called tepals. According to the modified ABC model proposed in tulip, the class B genes are expressed in whorl 1 as well as whorls 2 and 3, so that the organs of whorls 1 and 2 have the same petaloid structure. The floral structure of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) is similar to that of Liliaceae plants, however, the expression of B-class genes (AODEF, AOGLOA, AOGLOB) was not found in whorl 1, but was confined to whorls 2 and 3. This result does not support the modified ABC model in asparagus. In order to gain a better understanding of asparagus flower development, we have characterized a genomic clone of the AODEF gene. We compared the genomic organization and promoter sequence of AODEF with three well-studied DEF-like genes, DEFICIENS (Antirrhinum), APETALA3 (Arabidopsis), and OSMADS16 (rice). Exon-intron structures of these genes are well-conserved except for the large fifth intron in the AODEF gene and the OSMADS16 gene. Putative cis-elements including CArG-boxes were found in the promoter region and forty-two microsatellites were found in the AODEF genomic sequence. PMID:16172521

Ito, Takuro; Suzuki, Go; Ochiai, Toshinori; Nakada, Mutsumi; Kameya, Toshiaki; Kanno, Akira

2005-04-01

127

Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed. PMID:15291464

del Baño, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuño, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

2004-08-11

128

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

129

Root colonization by symbiotic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in Valeriana officinalis L.  

PubMed

In some medicinal plants a specific plant-fungus association, known as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, increases the levels of secondary plant metabolites and/or plant growth. In this study, the effects of three different AM treatments on biomass and sesquiterpenic acid concentrations in two IN VITRO propagated genotypes of valerian ( VALERIANA OFFICINALIS L., Valerianaceae) were investigated. Valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic acid levels were analyzed in the rhizome and in two root fractions. Two of the AM treatments significantly increased the levels of sesquiterpenic acids in the underground parts of valerian. These treatments, however, influenced the biomass of rhizomes and roots negatively. Therefore this observed increase was not accompanied by an increase in yield of sesquiterpenic acids per plant. Furthermore, one of the two genotypes had remarkably high hydroxyvalerenic acid contents and can be regarded as a hydroxyvalerenic acid chemotype. PMID:19809971

Nell, Monika; Wawrosch, Christoph; Steinkellner, Siegrid; Vierheilig, Horst; Kopp, Brigitte; Lössl, Andreas; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin

2010-03-01

130

Antiatherogenic effects of phyllanthus emblica associated with corilagin and its analogue.  

PubMed

Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is the main etiologic factor in atherogenesis, and antioxidants are accepted as effective treatment of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the mechanism of the antiatherogenic effects of the herb Phyllanthus Emblica, which is widely used to treat atherosclerosis-related diseases, is associated with ox-LDL via its compounds of soluble tannin, corilagin (beta-1-O-galloyl-3,6-(R)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-d-glucose), and its analogue Dgg16 (1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-d-glucose). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells, ECV-304, were incubated with ox-LDL (50 mg/l), treated with corilagin or Dgg16 at different doses (0.0001-0.1 mmol/l), and then incubated with monocytes. Malondialdehyde (MDA) in the culture media was determined and the number of monocytes adhering to ECV-304 cells was counted with cytometry. In another experiment, the rat vascular smooth muscular cells (VSMC) were incubated in media with or without ox-LDL (50 mg/l), and with corilagin or Dgg16 also at different doses (0.0001-0.1 mol/l), the proliferation of which was assayed with MTT. The results showed that both corilagin and Dgg16 were able to decrease MDA, prevented ECV-304 cells from being adhering to by monocytes, and inhibited VSMC proliferation activated by ox-LDL. The results suggest that the two compounds are effective in inhibiting the progress of atherosclerosis by alleviating oxidation injury or by inhibiting ox-LDL-induced VSMC proliferation, which may be promising mechanisms for treating atherosclerosis. PMID:15997216

Duan, Weigang; Yu, Yun; Zhang, Luyong

2005-07-01

131

Glycoside of hypsogenic acid from Saponaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

A glycoside of hypsogenic acid called saponaroside has been isolated for the first time from the roots ofSaponaria officinalis L. It was shown that the glycoside isß-D-xylopyranoside-3-hypsogenic acid.

V. G. Bukharov; S. P. Shcherbak

1969-01-01

132

Plant breeding Interpretation of performances of hybrids obtained  

E-print Network

to evaluate yields of all 816 possible hybrids within chosen environmental conditions. Asparagus officinalis expérimentés) grâce au modèle retenu pour des conditions d'un milieu déterminé. Asparagus officinalisPlant breeding Interpretation of performances of hybrids obtained from 43 asparagus parent

Boyer, Edmond

133

Production of rosmarinic acid in high density perfusion cultures of Anchusa officinalis using a high sugar medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The most direct approach to enhancing the volumetric yield of secondary metabolites in plant tissue cultures is to operate the culture under high cell density. In this study, a cell suspension ofAnchusa officinalis was cultivated using a semi-continuous perfusion technique, i.e. batch cultivation with intermittent medium exchange. Using a perfusion medium containing sucrose concentration which was two times that

Wei-Wen Su; Arthur E. Humphrey

1990-01-01

134

Changes in fatty acid and essential oil composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) leaves under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids and essential oils from hydroponically cultivated Salvia officinalis leaves were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Four different levels of NaCl (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) were applied. The first results showed that salt treatment reduced significantly the plant growth by 61% and the total fatty acids (TFA) content by 32% at 100mM NaCl. Alpha-linolenic, gadoleic, palmitic and oleic

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

135

The MADS box gene AOM1 is expressed in reproductive meristems and flowers of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

MADS box genes are implicated in different steps of plant development. Some of them are expressed in vegetative organs. Most\\u000a of them, however, are expressed in flower tissues and are involved in different phases of flower development. Here we describe\\u000a the isolation and characterization of an Asparagus officinalis MADS box gene, AOM1. The deduced AOM1 protein shows the highest degree

Elisabetta Caporali; Alberto Spada; Alessia Losa; Giovanna Marziani

2000-01-01

136

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

137

In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

138

Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells. PMID:18713412

Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

2008-06-01

139

Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza  

PubMed Central

Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also find reliable evidence indicated that an extinct BB diploid species in Asia was presumptively the direct genomic donor of their sympatric tetraploids. PMID:19828030

Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

2009-01-01

140

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots.  

PubMed

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with 2 mg/l of BAP: 24 axillary shoots per explant, 7 in the first inoculation and 17 in the second one. The maximum elongation of shoots was achieved with BAP at 0.2 mg/l, and higher concentrations of the hormone induced a decrease in their size. A range of BAP concentrations between 0.2-0.5 mg/l allowed the production of more shoots with a size suitable for rooting. Roots were induced in 30 d old shoots, transferred to MS medium individually supplemented with IBA or NAA (0-4 mg/l). Micropropagated plants were successfully transferred to soil. PMID:24178426

Tavares, A C; Pimenta, M C; Gonçalves, M T

1996-02-01

141

Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Svarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2014-01-01

142

New triterpenoid saponins and sapogenins from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Five new triterpenoid saponins, named saponariosides I-M, were isolated from the whole plants of Saponario officinalis. Their structures were established as saponarioside I (1) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16 alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid 28-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)[-beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside J (3) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylolean-11,13(18)-diene-23,28-dioic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[- beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside K (4) 3,4-seco-16 alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[-beta-D-glucopyranoside[, saponarioside L (5) 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosylgypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)[-beta- D- glucopyranoside[, and saponarioside M (6) 3-O-beta-D-glucopyrano-sylgypsogenic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1--6)-beta-D- glucopyranoside[ by NMR studies and chemical degradations. The aglycons of saponariosides J (3) and K (4) are new sapogenins. PMID:10654413

Koike, K; Jia, Z; Nikaido, T

1999-12-01

143

Native or Exotic? Double or Single? Evaluating Plants for Pollinator-friendly Gardens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of dawn-to-dusk studies, we examined the nature and accessibility of nectar rewards for pollinating insects by monitoring insect visits and the secretion rate and standing crop of nectar in the British native plant species Salvia pratensis, Stachys palustris, S. officinalis, Lythrum salicaria, Linaria vulgaris, the non-native Calendula officinalis, Petunia×hybrida, Salvia splendens, and the possibly introduced Saponaria officinalis.

Sarah A. Corbet; Jennie Bee; Kanchon Dasmahapatra; Stephan Gale; Elizabeth Gorringe; Beverly La Ferla; Tom Moorhouse; Andrea Trevail; Yfke Van Bergen; Maria Vorontsova

2001-01-01

144

Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

145

Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

146

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Junior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, Jose Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

147

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

148

Antibacterial, allelopathic and antioxidant activities of essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. growing wild in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (Common sage, Culinary sage) is an aromatic plant that is frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and in the food industry and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The essential oils were obtained by two different methods [hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave (Mw)] from the aerial part of S. officinalis L. growing wild in Ourika-Marrakech in Morocco. Ourika is a large zone of the Atlas Mountains which is considered as a large reserve of Flora, especially medicinal and aromatic plants. The obtained oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and compared with that of Tunisia. Thirty-six compounds were identified from the Mw-extracted oil which accounted for 97.32% of the total oil composition. However, 33 compounds obtained by HD representing 98.67%. The major components were trans-thujone (14.10% and 29.84%), 1,8-cineole (5.10% and 16.82%), camphor (4.99% and 9.14%), viridiflorol (16.42% and 9.92%), ?-caryophyllene (19.83% and 5.20%) and ?-humulene (13.54% and 4.02%). Antibacterial, allelopathic (% germination in lettuce seeds and inhibited root growth obtained after treatment with S. officinalis oils) and antioxidant (IC?? values 22 mg/mL) activities were studied. PMID:23240623

Bouajaj, S; Benyamna, A; Bouamama, H; Romane, A; Falconieri, D; Piras, A; Marongiu, B

2013-01-01

149

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

150

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

151

Evaluation of a kojic acid, emblica extract, and glycolic acid formulation compared with hydroquinone 4% for skin lightening.  

PubMed

Hydroquinone has been the standard prescription agent for skin lightening; however, its use recently has become controversial. Hydroquinone is banned in Europe and parts of Asia because of potential long-term consequences, including carcinogenesis when orally consumed. These concerns have stimulated research to develop alternative skin lightening agents with efficacy comparable to hydroquinone but with a better safety profile. This double-blind study examined the skin lightening ability of a topical formulation containing kojic acid, emblica extract, and glycolic acid compared with prescription generic hydroquinone cream 4%. Eighty multiethnic participants with mild to moderate facial dyschromia were randomly assigned to use the study product or hydroquinone 4% twice daily for 12 weeks to evaluate product efficacy, tolerability, and safety using investigator assessment, participant assessment, and dermospectrophotometry. Study results demonstrated efficacy parity between the study product and hydroquinone 4%. Thus this novel skin lightening preparation is an alternative to hydroquinone 4% for participants with mild to moderate facial dyschromia. PMID:21049734

Draelos, Zoe Diana; Yatskayer, Margarita; Bhushan, Pragya; Pillai, Sreekumar; Oresajo, Christian

2010-09-01

152

Modification of clastogenicity of lead and aluminium in mouse bone marrow cells by dietary ingestion of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract.  

PubMed

Extract of Phyllanthus emblica fruit and ascorbic acid were evaluated separately for protection against clastogenicity induced by lead (Pb) and aluminium (Al) salts on mouse bone marrow chromosomes. Oral administration of Phyllanthus fruit extract (PFE) for 7 days before exposure to both metals by intraperitoneal injection increased the frequency of cell division and reduced the frequency of chromosome breaks significantly. Comparable doses of synthetic ascorbic acid (AA) were less effective and could protect against the effects of Al and only a low dose of Pb (10 mg/kg body weight). AA administered before treatment in mice given higher doses of Pb (40 mg/kg body weight) enhanced the frequency of chromosome breaks, giving a synergistic effect. The higher protection afforded by PFE may be due to the combined action of all ingredients, rather than to AA alone. PMID:2366810

Dhir, H; Roy, A K; Sharma, A; Talukder, G

1990-07-01

153

Adulticidal and larvicidal efficacy of some medicinal plant extracts against tick, fluke and mosquitoes.  

PubMed

The adulticidal and larvicidal effect of indigenous plant extracts were investigated against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae), fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxic effect of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Annona squamosa L., Centella asiatica (L.) Urban, Gloriosa superba L., Mukia maderaspatensis (L.) M.Roem, Pergularia daemia (Forsk.) Chiov. and Phyllanthus emblica L. were exposed to different concentrations. All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24h of exposure; however, the highest mortality was found in leaf hexane extract of A. squamosa, methanol extracts of G. superba and P. emblica against H. bispinosa (LC(50)=145.39, 225.57 and 256.08ppm); methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica against P. cervi (LC(50)=77.61, 60.16, 59.61, and 60.60ppm); acetone, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, methanol extract of C. asiatica, acetone extracts of G. superba, ethyl acetate, hexane and methanol extracts of P. daemia against A. subpictus (LC(50)=17.48, 18.60, 26.62, 18.43, 34.06, 13.63, and 50.39ppm); and chloroform, ethyl acetate extracts of A. squamosa, ethyl acetate extract of P. daemia, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica against C. tritaeniorhynchus (LC(50)=63.81, 60.01, 31.94, 69.09, and 54.82ppm), respectively. These results demonstrate that methanol extracts of C. asiatica, G. superba, P. daemia and P. emblica extracts may serve as parasites control even in their crude form. PMID:19819626

Bagavan, A; Kamaraj, C; Elango, G; Abduz Zahir, A; Abdul Rahuman, A

2009-12-23

154

Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:16280142

Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

2006-02-01

155

Flavonoids and phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new flavonoid, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylhomoplantaginin (1), and 14 known compounds, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylnepitrin (2), 6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroylnepitrin (3), 6-methoxyluteolin 7-glucopyranoside (4), luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide (5), luteolin 3'-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucuronide (6), kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), genkwanin (9), and ladanein (10), together with 1-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (11), 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (12), rosmarinic acid (13), carnosic acid (14), and carnosol (15), were isolated from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis . The structures were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic methods supported by HRMS. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HepG2, COLO 205, and HL-60) and for anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among them, compounds 14 and 15 were modestly active in the inhibition of nitrite production in macrophages, followed by compounds 8 and 5. Compounds 14 and 15 were more effective as an antiproliferative agent in HL-60 cells with IC(50) values of 1.7 and 5.5 microM, followed by compounds 8 and 7 with IC(50) of 39.6 and 82.0 microM, respectively. In addition, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent antiproliferative effects on COLO 205 cells with IC(50) values of 32.8 and 29.9 microM, respectively. PMID:20397728

Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Lai, Ching-Shu; Shao, Xi; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang

2010-05-12

156

Melissa officinalis L. essential oil: antitumoral and antioxidant activities.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine used widely as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. This paper focuses on the analysis of the chemical composition and the biological activities of M. officinalis essential oil obtained under controlled harvesting and drying conditions. An in-vitro cytotoxicity assay using MTT indicated that this oil was very effective against a series of human cancer cell lines (A549, MCF-7, Caco-2, HL-60, K562) and a mouse cell line (B16F10). This oil possessed antioxidant activity, as evidenced by reduction of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH). These results pointed to the potential use of M. officinalis essential oil as an antitumoral agent. PMID:15142347

de Sousa, Allyne Carvalho; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2004-05-01

157

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

158

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: a morphological and biochemical study.  

PubMed

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a dose of 2 g/kg every day for 28, 14 days after experimental animals done hyperlipidemia. The degenerative changes were observed in hyperlipidemic rats, light and electron microscopically. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum cholesterol, total lipid, alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a significant decrease in the levels of liver tissue glutathione (GSH), a significant increase in the levels of tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) in this group. On the other hand, the administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract reduced total cholesterol, total lipid, ALT, AST and ALP levels in serum, and LPO levels in liver tissue, moreover increased glutathione levels in the tissue. As a result, it was suggested that Melissa officinalis L. extract exerted an hypolipidemic effect and showed a protective effect on the liver of hyperlipidemic rats. PMID:15946812

Bolkent, S; Yanardag, R; Karabulut-Bulan, Omur; Yesilyaprak, B

2005-07-14

159

Perfusion strategy for rosmarinic acid production by Anchusa officinalis.  

PubMed

The production of an intracellular secondary metabolite rosmarinic acid (RA) by plant cell suspensions of Anchusa officinalis cultivated with intermittent medium exchange is investigated. Initially, a two-stage perfusion culture method was employed. After being cultured in the batch mode for ca. 6 days in B5 medium plus 3% sucrose, 1 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 0.1 mg/L kinetin (2,4-D B5 medium), Anchusa culture was cultivated to high cell density by perfusion during the growth stage using a hormone-free Gamborg B5 medium supplemented with 6% sucrose. This was followed by a production stage, in which a complete medium exchange into B5 medium plus 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L naphthleneacetic acid (NAA) was conducted. The two-stage perfusion culture had a higher maximum culture RA concentration but a lower RA content per cell than the batch stock culture maintained in the 2,4-D B5 medium. Higher culture RA concentration was due primarily to high cell density. The high packed cell volume, however, seemed to reduce the synergistic effect of NAA on RA synthesis. Subsequently, a single-stage perfusion culture method was investigated. The best result was obtained by growing the culture in the batch mode for ca. 10 days using B5 medium supplemented with 3% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA, followed by perfusing the culture with B5 medium plus 6% sucrose and 0.25 mg/L NAA at a constant perfusion rate of 0.1/day. A maximum cell dry weight of 35 g/L and a RA concentration of almost 4 g/L were achieved. This is the highest RA concentration ever reported in the Anchusa culture. PMID:18613136

Su, W W; Lei, F; Su, L Y

1993-09-20

160

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

161

AMLIORATION DES PLANTES Nouveau regard sur le comportement de l'as-  

E-print Network

AM�LIORATION DES PLANTES Nouveau regard sur le comportement de l'as- perge (Asparagus officinalis L'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L.), de la famille des Liliacées, est une espèce dioïque et pérenne dont la in vitro, griffe, arbre, marqueurs biochimiques, rujeunissement, pérennité. SUMMARY Asparagus cloning

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

162

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

163

Identification and Analysis of a Gene from Calendula officinalis Encoding a Fatty Acid Conjugase  

PubMed Central

Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a ?12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

Qiu, Xiao; Reed, Darwin W.; Hong, Haiping; MacKenzie, Samuel L.; Covello, Patrick S.

2001-01-01

164

Bioactivity of essential oils of Zingiber officinalis and Achyranthes aspera against mosquitoes.  

PubMed

Due to the global health problems associated with mosquito-borne diseases, over two million people primarily in the tropical countries are at risk. The widely and commonly used chemical method though effective, has some major disadvantages making insect control practically difficult. In view of the above, it is unavoidable to search for new molecules, which are eco-friendly, cheaper, and safer. The present study deals with evaluation of bioactive potential of two commonly occurring plants against mosquitoes presenting an alternative to the conventional chemical methods. Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from rhizome of Zingiber officinalis and leaf and stem of Achyranthes aspera were evaluated for larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against two mosquito species viz. Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 154 ppm and LC(50) = 197 ppm for A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively was shown by Z. officinalis. This oil also offers 5-h protection at the concentration of 0.5 mg/cm² from both mosquito species. The highest oviposition deterrence activity was exhibited by A. aspera stem oil, i.e., 100% and 85.71%, in case of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively, at the concentration of 0.1%. These results reveal that both these oils have control potential against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:21311910

Khandagle, Abhay J; Tare, Vrushali S; Raut, Kishor D; Morey, Rashmi A

2011-08-01

165

Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides. PMID:21549748

Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

2011-08-01

166

Experimental Evidence for Spatial Learning in Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory mazes were used to study spatial-learning capabilities in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), using escape for reinforcement. In preliminary observations, cuttlefish in an artificial pond moved actively around the environment and appeared to learn about features of their environment. In laboratory experiments, cuttlefish exited a simple alley maze more quickly with experience and retained the learned information. Similar improvement was not

Miranda A. Karson; Jean Geary Boal; Roger T. Hanlon

2003-01-01

167

Partition chromatography and countercurrent distribution of alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Component alkaloids of Fumaria officinalis were partly separated on a preprative scale by the countercurrent distribution technique, using selective solvent systems of the type chloroform\\/buffer solution and benzene\\/buffer solution, the optimal pH of the aqueous phase being estimated from paper chromatographic data. Good agreement between predicted and experimental separations and sequences of the bands was observed.

T. Wawrzynowicz; A. Waksmundzki

1968-01-01

168

Über kalkoxalatkristalle in der Samenschale von Fumaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Entgegen der bisherigen Ansicht, daß die Früchte vonFumaria im Gegensatz zu den übrigen Papaveraceen keine Bildung von Kalziumoxalatkristallen in der Samenschale aufweisen, haben die vorliegenden Untersuchungen anFumaria officinalis L. ergeben, daß vor dem Eintritt der Fruchtreife im Außenintegument der Samenschale von den frühesten Entwicklungsstadien an wohlausgebildete Kalziumoxalatkristalle des monoklinen Systems ausgeschieden werden. Eine quantitativ bedeutende Anreicherung erfolgt in der

J. Greger

1930-01-01

169

Partition chromatography and countercurrent distribution of alcaloids of Fumaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloid extract of Fumaria officinalis was analysed by the “moist buffered paper” technique using 15 water — immiscible solvents of various molecular structures and donor — acceptor properties. The RF vs·pH curves were sigmoid in shape, in accordance with equations derived for ideal buffered paper chromatography and were arranged along the pH axis in two families: that of protopine (protopine,

T. Wawrzynowicz; A. Waksmundzki; E. Soczewi?ski

1968-01-01

170

Evaluation of two natural extracts ( Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6days.

M. S. Lara; J. I. Gutierrez; M. Timón; A. I. Andrés

2011-01-01

171

Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.  

PubMed

Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH? production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts. PMID:25036683

Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

2014-01-01

172

Effects of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts and isoquercitrin on the fermentation of diets varying in forage contents by rumen microorganisms in batch culture.  

PubMed

The short-term actions of Lavandula officinalis and Equisetum arvense dry extracts, and of isoquercitrin, flavonoid present in Equisetum arvense, on in vitro fermentation by rumen microbes were studied in batch culture. The orchard grass hay:barley ratios in the three experimental diets were 100:0, 75:25, 50:50 on a DM basis. The production rates of all volatile fatty acids except isobutyrate were strongly influenced by the composition of the diet and to a lesser extent, by plant extracts, with significant interactions between both factors. When hay was the only substrate, the addition of L. officinalis and E. arvense enhanced the fermentation rate by 50%, through an increased release of acetate and propionate. On the contrary, with the two other diets, the fermentation rate was strongly lowered by isoquercitrin. Gas outputs were not significantly influenced by plant extracts. PMID:11140815

Broudiscou, L P; Lassalas, B

2000-01-01

173

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a ?-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Cetin, Bülent

2011-01-01

174

Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a ?-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 ?gGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Çetin, Bülent

2011-01-01

175

O?ulotu (Melissa officinalis L.)'nda Farkli Bitki Sikli?i ve Azot Dozlarinin Drog Yaprak Verimi ve Bazi Özellikler Üzerine Etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was carried out at the experimental field of Field Crops Department, Faculty of Agriculture, and University of Ankara in 2001, 2002 and 2003. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) seeds obtained from Field Crops Department were used as the study material. The aim of the research was to determine the effect of different plant densities (40x30, 40x40, 50x30, 50x40

Duran KATAR; Bilal GÜRBÜZ

176

Nucleotide sequence of cDNA coding for saporin-6, a type-1 ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

We have isolated and sequenced partial cDNA clones that encode SO-6, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis. A cDNA library was constructed from the leaves of this plant and screened with synthetic oligonucleotide probes representing various portions of the protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shows the signal peptide and a coding region virtually accounting for the entire amino acid sequence of SO-6. The sequence reveals regions of similarity to other ribosome-inactivating proteins, especially in a region of the molecule where critical amino acid residues might participate in the active site. PMID:2547612

Benatti, L; Saccardo, M B; Dani, M; Nitti, G; Sassano, M; Lorenzetti, R; Lappi, D A; Soria, M

1989-08-01

177

[Immunostimulating activity of a saponin-containing extract of Saponaria officinalis].  

PubMed

The immunostimulating activity of saponin-containing extract of Saponaria officinalis has been studied. Use of an S. officinalis extract in a concentration close to the critical concentration of saponin micella formation increased the immunogenicity of viral glycoproteins. The immunogenicity of glycoprotein complexes with S. officinalis was higher than the immunogenicity of intact virus and micellae of purified glycoproteins and was comparable to that of glycoprotein complexes with Quil A glycoside. PMID:10544452

Bogoiavlenski?, A P; Berezin, V E; Ogneva, A V; Tolmacheva, V P; Digel', I E; Khudiakova, S S

1999-01-01

178

Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-03-01

179

[Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].  

PubMed

Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605

Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

2006-06-01

180

The crystal structure of saporin SO6 from Saponaria officinalis and its interaction with the ribosome.  

PubMed

The 2.0 A resolution crystal structure of the ribosome inactivating protein saporin (isoform 6) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis is presented. The fold typical of other plant toxins is conserved, despite some differences in the loop regions. The loop between strands beta7 and beta8 in the C-terminal region which spans over the active site cleft appears shorter in saporin, suggesting an easier access to the substrate. Furthermore we investigated the molecular interaction between saporin and the yeast ribosome by differential chemical modifications. A contact surface inside the C-terminal region of saporin has been identified. Structural comparison between saporin and other ribosome inactivating proteins reveals that this region is conserved and represents a peculiar motif involved in ribosome recognition. PMID:10745075

Savino, C; Federici, L; Ippoliti, R; Lendaro, E; Tsernoglou, D

2000-03-31

181

Polyphenol extract of Phyllanthus emblica (PEEP) induces inhibition of cell proliferation and triggers apoptosis in cervical cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of polyphenol extract from Phyllanthus emblica (PEEP) on cervical cancer cells and to explore the underlying mechanism. Methods MTT assay was used to measure inhibition of proliferation of cervical cancer (HeLa) cells after treatment with PEEP at concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg/ml for 48 hours. HeLa cells were treated with PEEP (150 mg/ml) for 48 hours in the following analysis. Karyomorphism was assessed by immunofluorescence using DAPI staining, and cell apoptosis and cell cycle were assessed using flow cytometry. Three apoptotic marker proteins, namely, Fas, FasL, and cleaved caspase-8, were assessed by western blotting. Results PEEP inhibited the growth of HeLa cells, and the optimum concentration of PEEP was 150 mg/ml. In addition, the karyomorphism of HeLa cells after treatment with PEEP was abnormal. Furthermore, PEEP induced arrest of the HeLa cell cycle at G2/M phase, and triggered apoptosis. PEEP also induced significant Fas and FasL activation, and cleavage of caspase-8. Conclusions Our study indicates that PEEP is effective in inhibiting HeLa cell proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase and inducing apoptosis. PMID:24245877

2013-01-01

182

In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.  

PubMed

Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) 3D7: 7.25 ?g/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 ?g/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC?? 3D7:13 ?g/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 ?g/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 ?g/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies. PMID:20809417

Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

2011-01-01

183

NF-kappaB modulators from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis (Valerianaceae) has been of great interest for its therapeutic uses for treating mild nervous tension and temporary sleeping problems. In traditional European medicine it has been also reported as an antiinflammatory remedy. This study reports that the EtOAc extract of the underground parts of V. officinalis showed inhibitory activity against NF-kappaB at 100 microg/mL in the IL-6/Luc assay on HeLa cells and provided protection against excitotoxicity in primary brain cell cultures at micromolar concentrations. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract led to the isolation of three known sesquiterpenes: acetylvalerenolic acid (1), valerenal (2) and valerenic acid (3), 1 and 3 were active as inhibitors of NF-kappaB at a concentration of 100 microg/mL. Acetylvalerenolic acid (1) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 4%, whereas valerenic acid (3) reduced NF-kappaB activity to 25%. PMID:16909443

Jacobo-Herrera, Nadia J; Vartiainen, Nina; Bremner, Paul; Gibbons, Simon; Koistinaho, Jari; Heinrich, Michael

2006-10-01

184

Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish—although color blind—actively match various colors\\u000a of their immediate surroundings, yet no quantitative data support this notion. We assembled several natural substrates chosen\\u000a to evoke the three basic types of camouflaged body patterns that cuttlefish express (uniform\\/stipple, mottle, and disruptive)\\u000a and measured the

Lydia M. Mäthger; Chuan-Chin Chiao; Alexandra Barbosa; Roger T. Hanlon

2008-01-01

185

(-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

Chemical investigation of the root extract of Valeriana officinalis afforded a new bicyclic sesquiterpene acid, (-)-3 beta,4 beta-epoxyvalerenic acid together with valerenic acid and hexadecanoic acid. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by spectroscopic data and confirmed by partial synthesis of its methyl ester from valerenic acid. Methyl (-)-3 alpha,4 alpha-epoxyvalerenate was obtained as a minor product from the above reaction. PMID:12143008

Dharmaratne, H Ranjith; Nanayakkara, N P; Khan, Ikhlas A

2002-07-01

186

Extraction of valerenic acids from valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) rhizomes.  

PubMed

Extraction of valerenic acids (valerenic, acetoxyvalerenic and hydroxyvalerenic) from dry ground rhizomes of valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.) was studied. The effect of ethanol concentration in the solvent, extraction temperature and drug particle size on extraction kinetics were investigated and the optimum values of these process parameters were determined for the case of intensively stirred two-phase dispersion. It was found that increased processing temperature favors extraction kinetics, but provokes moderate degradation of valerenic acids. PMID:15497760

Boyadzhiev, L; Kancheva, D; Gourdon, C; Metcheva, D

2004-09-01

187

AFLPs Represent Highly Repetitive Sequences in Asparagus Officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chromosomal and genomic organization of 5 cloned AFLP fragments in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were investigated. Two of the 5 AFLP loci were sex-linked. The fragments, amplified with EcoRI\\/MseI primers, ranged from 107 to 267 bp and were AT-rich. Southern hybridization gave interspersed, middle repetitive to high copy sequence signals. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) exhibited hybridization signals on all

Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Thomas Schmidt; Christian Jung

1999-01-01

188

[Type I and type IV sensitization to Asparagus officinalis].  

PubMed

Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis),a member of the Liliaceae family, is a popular vegetable, most commonly eaten in May. A 55-year-old cook presented with seasonal (always in May) recurrent dyshidrosiform hand eczema which prevented him from working. He also reported developing dyspnea and dysphagia after consuming asparagus. Diagnostic allergy testing revealed positive reactions against asparagus in prick-to-prick and epicutaneous patch tests. PMID:15146878

Rieker, J; Ruzicka, T; Neumann, N J; Bielicky, P; Homey, B

2004-04-01

189

DETERMINATION OF Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd AND Se CONTENT IN MEDICAL PLANTS BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS AND GALVANOSTATIC STRIPPING CHRONOPOTENTIOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of selected metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Se) in five species of medical plants (Melissa officinalis L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Hypericum perforatum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Achillea millefolium L.) collected during the year 2006 in one Slovak locality, the region of Nitra, were studied in this work. The study was realized by the determination of the

Tomus LV

2008-01-01

190

Photoprotective implications of leaf variegation in E. dens-canis L. and P. officinalis L.  

PubMed

Variegated leaves occur rarely in nature, but there are some species, primarily in the forest understory, that possess this characteristic. We recently studied two variegated plants: Erytronium dens-canis L., which is characterised by a pattern of red patches and Pulmonaria officinalis L., with light green spots. These non-green areas could attenuate light reaching mesophyll cells with respect to green sections. The aim of the study was to verify whether such red and light green parts are more photoprotected than green ones and if this trait could be of adaptive value. Red patches in E. dens-canis were due to a single layer of red cells in the upper parenchyma, which accumulated anthocyanins. Light green spots in P. officinalis were caused by the presence of loosely arranged cells instead of a well-established layer of packed cells in the palisade parenchyma. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was performed under light treatment, showing a greater decrease of photochemical efficiency in red and light green patches than in green sections. Differences in the extent of photochemical efficiency among patches were not attributable to different activation of the xanthophyll cycle. These observations failed to confirm our initial hypothesis, but they questioned the physiological reason for this higher sensitivity in red and light green patches of photosynthetic tissues. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging was therefore performed in the field. The same pattern of photochemical efficiency was maintained only in E. dens-canis. The current results demonstrate that in both species the benefits of variegation, if any, are different from enhanced photosynthetic performance. PMID:18180073

Esteban, Raquel; Fernández-Marín, Beatriz; Becerril, José María; García-Plazaola, José Ignacio

2008-08-25

191

New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants. PMID:24850879

Sadowska, Beata; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Wi?ckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Ró?alska, Barbara

2014-08-01

192

Production and entomofauna associated to lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated with synthetic mulch  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: Produção e entomofauna associada à melissa (Melissa officinalis, L.) cultivada com mulch sintético. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o potencial de produção de M. officinalis e a entomofauna associada, em dois sistemas de cultivo. As plantas foram cultivadas com mulch de plástico preto e em sistema convencional (terra nua). As variáveis avaliadas foram alturas de planta (cm), rendimento

R. A. SIMÕES; R. SILVA-MANN; J. Rosa Elze

2005-01-01

193

Capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of

Valeria Radulescu; Silvia Chiliment; Eliza Oprea

2004-01-01

194

Identification biochimique de clones et de lignes d'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L., Liliaces)  

E-print Network

Identification biochimique de clones et de lignées d'asperge (Asparagus officinalis L., Liliacées lines or clones of Asparagus officinalis L. have been characterized by the study of the isoenzymes tissus étudiés sont retenues comme éléments descripteurs. SUMMARY Asparagus, Identification, Electro

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

195

The Constituents of Melissa officinalis L. Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus and suspension cultures of Melissa officinaliscould not accumulate detectable amounts of volatile constituents typical of the intact plant when maintained under varying cultural conditions. Non-terpenoid constituents, especially furfural, hexanoic and octanoic acids, were accumulated by the callus tissues. Similar accumulation was observed for the suspended cells in addition to other minor products which were both released into the liquid

A. A. Gbolade; G. B. Lockwood

1991-01-01

196

Antitumour effects of Phyllanthus emblica L.: induction of cancer cell apoptosis and inhibition of in vivo tumour promotion and in vitro invasion of human cancer cells.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) is a medicinal fruit used in many Asian traditional medicine systems for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. The present study tested the potential anticancer effects of aqueous extract of PE in four ways: (1) against cancer cell lines, (2) in vitro apoptosis, (3) mouse skin tumourigenesis and (4) in vitro invasiveness. The PE extract at 50-100 microg/mL significantly inhibited cell growth of six human cancer cell lines, A549 (lung), HepG2 (liver), HeLa (cervical), MDA-MB-231 (breast), SK-OV3 (ovarian) and SW620 (colorectal). However, the extract was not toxic against MRC5 (normal lung fibroblast). Apoptosis in HeLa cells was also observed as PE extract caused DNA fragmentation and increased activity of caspase-3/7 and caspase-8, but not caspase-9, and up-regulation of the Fas protein indicating a death receptor-mediated mechanism of apoptosis. Treatment of PE extract on mouse skin resulted in over 50% reduction of tumour numbers and volumes in animals treated with DMBA/TPA. Lastly, 25 and 50 microg/mL of PE extract inhibited invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells in the in vitro Matrigel invasion assay. These results suggest P. emblica exhibits anticancer activity against selected cancer cells, and warrants further study as a possible chemopreventive and antiinvasive agent. PMID:20812284

Ngamkitidechakul, C; Jaijoy, K; Hansakul, P; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Sireeratawong, S

2010-09-01

197

Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant. PMID:23748756

Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2013-01-01

198

Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and ?-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 ?M kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 ?M kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and ?-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and ?-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2011-10-01

199

Isolation of Spinasterol and its Glucoside from Cell Suspension Cultures of Saponaria officinalis: 13C-NMR Spectral Data and Batch Culture Production.  

PubMed

Spinasterol and spinasteryl glucoside have been isolated as the exclusive sterols from cell suspension cultures of SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS and identified by MS, (1)H-NMR and (13)C-NMR spectral data. This result confirms the taxonomical vicinity of this plant to Chenopodiaceae and Amaranthaceae where Delta (7)-sterols were also described to be present. With more than 44% of total sterol content, the spinasteryl glucoside content is higher than in most of the common plants. This shows a particularly active glycosylation process probably in relation with the biosynthesis of saponosides. PMID:17340524

Henry, M; Chantalat-Dublanche, I

1985-08-01

200

Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of ?- and ?-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including ?-, ?-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to ?- and ?-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed. PMID:23843295

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

2013-09-01

201

Effect of Time of Harvesting on Yield and Quality of Melissa Officinalis L. in Doon Valley, India  

PubMed Central

A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %).

Singh, S.; Haider, S. Z.; Chauhan, N. K.; Lohani, H.; Sah, S.; Yadav, R. K.

2014-01-01

202

Biased morph ratios and skewed mating success contribute to loss of genetic diversity in the distylous Pulmonaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In heterostylous plant species, skewed morph ratios are not uncommon and may arise from a range of factors. Despite the recognized importance of skewed morph ratios on overall reproductive success within populations, little is known about the impact of skewed morph ratios on population genetic diversity and differentiation in heterostylous species. This study specifically aimed to clarify the effect of population size and morph bias on population genetic diversity and differentiation in the temperate forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. This species is characterized by a distylous breeding system and shows morph-specific differences in reproductive success. Methods Genetic diversity was determined for 27 P. officinalis populations in northern Belgium by using eight recently developed microsatellite markers. Multiple regressions were used to assess the relationship between genetic diversity, morph bias and population size, and FST-values were calculated for short- and long-styled morphs separately to study genetic differentiation as a function of morph type. Key Results For all genetic measures used, morph bias was more important in explaining patterns of genetic diversity than population size, and in all cases patterns of population genetic diversity followed a quadratic function, which showed a symmetrical decrease in genetic diversity with increasing morph bias. However, probably due to the reproductive advantage of L-morphs relative to S-morphs, maximum genetic diversity was found in populations showing an excess of L-morphs (60·7 % L-morph). On the other hand, no significant difference in pairwise genetic distances between populations was observed between L- (0·107) and S-morphs (0·106). Conclusions Our results indicate that significant deviations from equal morph ratios not only affect plant reproductive success but also population genetic diversity of heterostylous plant species. Hence, when defining conservation measures for populations of heterostylous plant species, morph ratios should be considered as an important trait affecting their long-term population viability. PMID:22021814

Meeus, Sofie; Honnay, Olivier; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

2012-01-01

203

Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. PMID:23415335

Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

2013-04-01

204

The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

205

The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-?-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in ?-cadinene, ?-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. ?-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and ?-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.

Okoh, O. O.; Sadimenko, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

206

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

2009-01-01

207

Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

Langridge, Keri V

2005-01-01

208

Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set  

PubMed Central

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

2014-01-01

209

Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.  

PubMed

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

2014-01-01

210

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis L. extract contains an anti-HSV-2 substance. PMID:15636181

Allahverdiyev, A; Duran, N; Ozguven, M; Koltas, S

2004-11-01

211

The division of protoplasts from Asparagus officinalis L. and their growth and differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Protoplasts have been isolated from cladodes ofAsparagus officinalis L., and cell wall regeneration and division observed. Callus derived from isolated protoplasts has been induced to differentiate roots and shoots.

Duc Bui-Dang-Ha; Ian A. Mackenzie

1973-01-01

212

1H and 13C NMR signal assignment of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis L. (Papaveraceae).  

PubMed

The NMR signal assignments of a series of structurally divergent benzylisoquinolines isolated from Fumaria officinalis L. (Fumariaceae, Papaverales), namely adlumine, corlumine, corydamine, cryptopine, fumarophycine, O-methylfumarophycine, hydrastine, parfumine, protopine and sinactine, are presented. PMID:15366062

Seger, Christoph; Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Ellmerer, Ernst; Stuppner, Hermann

2004-10-01

213

Cuttlebone calcification increases during exposure to elevated seawater p CO 2 in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in seawater carbonate chemistry that accompany ongoing ocean acidification have been found to affect calcification\\u000a processes in many marine invertebrates. In contrast to the response of most invertebrates, calcification rates increase in\\u000a the cephalopod Sepia officinalis during long-term exposure to elevated seawater pCO2. The present trial investigated structural changes in the cuttlebones of S. officinalis calcified during 6 weeks of

Magdalena A. Gutowska; Frank Melzner; Hans O. Pörtner; Sebastian Meier

2010-01-01

214

An unusual heteromorphic incompatibility system : 3. On the genetic control of distyly and self-incompatibility in Anchusa officinalis L. (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

By means of intra- and intermorph crosses it has been shown that the distyly in Anchusa officinalis L. is governed by a single diallelic locus with dominance. Presence of the dominant allele is reflected in the short-styled morph, while homozygous recessives become long-styled. Most of the short-styled plants are heterozygous, but homozygotes have been found among the raised progeny resulting from crossings. Diallel crosses have revealed that at least two incompatibility loci must exist. These and the morphological locus segregate independently. The type of incompatibility system is as yet unknown, though the great frequency of non-reciprocal incompatibility points to a sporophytic system. PMID:24258957

Schou, O; Philipp, M

1984-05-01

215

Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.  

PubMed

Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

2009-09-01

216

Variability in the content and composition of essential oil from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivated in Poland.  

PubMed

Essential oil from a few different population of M. officinalis cultivated in Poland has been investigated. The percentage of essential oil ranged from 0.08 to 0.25 ml/100 g in the leaves and from 0.06 to 0.167 ml/100 g in the herb and was higher in the plant material from experimental patch than that from commercial cultivations. Comparative determinations of the essential oil in fresh and dried material showed slightly higher content of the oil in the fresh one. The analysis of the oil composition has been performed by GC and GC/MS. Great differences in the contents of citral, citronellal, linalool, nerol, geraniol beta-caryophyllene and beta-caryophyllene oxide among the populations has been found. Effect of the harvest time, drying and storage on the composition of lemon balm oil has also been studied. PMID:15005424

Patora, Jolanta; Majda, Teresa; Góra, Józef; Klimek, Barbara

2003-01-01

217

Analysis of sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis by capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method permitting the determination of the main sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis has been developed. A separation of valerenic acid and its hydroxy and acetoxy derivatives, three compounds characteristic for the species, was achieved using a 40 mM phosphate-borate buffer at pH 8.5, which contained 10% isopropanol as organic modifier. Applied temperature and voltage were 35 degrees C and 17.5 kV, respectively. This setup allowed a baseline separation of the three compounds within 8 min, with a detection limit of 5.8 micrograms/ml or less. Out of six market products analyzed, only one contained a detectable amount of the marker compounds, with 0.54% of hydroxyvalerenic acid and 0.13% valerenic acid, respectively. The quantitative results were comparable to those obtained by HPLC. PMID:11802657

Mikell, J R; Ganzera, M; Khan, I A

2001-12-01

218

Attachment and Penetration of Acyclovir-resistant Herpes Simplex Virus are Inhibited by Melissa officinalis Extract.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23?µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24817544

Astani, Akram; Heidary Navid, Mojdeh; Schnitzler, Paul

2014-10-01

219

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

2008-01-01

220

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism. PMID:16667656

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

221

Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and ?-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:22344920

Generali?, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalini?, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalini?, Višnja

2012-02-01

222

Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2.  

PubMed

As part of a project directed toward the discovery of new cancer chemopreventive agents from plants, two new natural products, asparagusic acid anti-S-oxide methyl ester (1) and asparagusic acid syn-S-oxide methyl ester (2), a new acetylenic compound, 2-hydroxyasparenyn [3',4'-trans-2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl]-benzene] (3), as well as eleven known compounds, asparenyn (4), asparenyol (5), (+/-)-1-monopalmitin (6), ferulic acid (7), 1,3-O-di-p-coumaroylglycerol (8), 1-O-feruloyl-3-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (9), blumenol C, (+/-)-epipinoresinol, linoleic acid, 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol, and 1,2-O-diferuloylglycerol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Asparagus officinalis (Asparagus), using a bioassay based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, with the most active compound being linoleic acid. PMID:15080623

Jang, Dae Sik; Cuendet, Muriel; Fong, Harry H S; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2004-04-21

223

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

224

Differences in X-ray absorption due to cadmium treatment in Saponaria officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

A method for detecting cadmium uptake in leaves of Saponaria officinalis doped with a solution of cadmium acetate is described. The technique based on the exposure of dried leaves to X-rays of a wavelength close to that of the metal K-edge could be useful for phytoremediation studies as it could reveal the bioaccumulation in plants due to the treatment either in vivo or in vitro with heavy metals. X-ray microradiography measurements are in agreement with those from peroxidase enzyme assay utilized to follow the oxidative damage induced by heavy metals. At present, as we will see in this report, microradiography has still poorer sensitivity in comparison with enzyme assay, but it has the advantage of being faster, not destructive, and usable even at very high doping levels, where the enzyme assay technique results are fully saturated. Further analysis of the optical density values could lead to a quantitative measurement of the heavy metal in the sample. Thus, the technology developed in this article could be useful for tracing the intake in phytoremediation studies. PMID:15287015

Reale, Lucia; Lai, Antonia; Tucci, Adele; Poma, Anna; Faenov, Anatoly; Pikuz, Tania; Flora, Francesco; Spano, Laura; Limongi, Tania; Palladino, Libero; Ritucci, Antonio; Tomassetti, Giuseppe; Petrocelli, Giovanni; Francucci, Massimo; Martellucci, Sergio

2004-05-01

225

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

226

PARAMETERS OF THE IMMUNOLOGICAL PROFILE IN CHICKENS TREATED WITH A CALENDULA OFFICINALIS EXTRACTION PARAMETRI AI PROFILULUI IMUNOLOGIC LA PUI DE GAINA TRATATI CU UN EXTRACT DIN CALENDULA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tests were carried out on thirty, 42 days old Rock x Cornish chickens, divided into three experimental groups: I - control injected with saline, II - injected with a Calendula officinalis extraction supplemented with Bayol and III - treated with Bayol. The effects of the in vivo treatments and simultaneous antigen priming (0.5 ml of a 5 % suspension of

227

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes.  

PubMed

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [(3)H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10(-7) to 1 × 10(-3)?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1'S,2'S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2'R,3'R)-2-(2',3'-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [(3)H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [(3)H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [(3)H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10(-2)?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G

2011-01-01

228

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes  

PubMed Central

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [3H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [3H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10?7 to 1 × 10?3?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1?S,2?S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2?R,3?R)-2-(2?,3?-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [3H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [3H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [3H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10?2?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ayala-Marin, Yoshira M.; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M.; Torres-Hernandez, Bianca A.; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, Jose G.

2011-01-01

229

Antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts and essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis, depending on location and seasonal variations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. The goal of this work was to test the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and methanolic extracts of R. officinalis collected from three different regions at four different time intervals of the year against Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterococcus feacalis,

O. Yesil Celiktas; E. E. Hames Kocabas; E. Bedir; F. Vardar Sukan; T. Ozek; K. H. C. Baser

2007-01-01

230

Pharmacognostical Studies on Balanophora fungosa - a Negative Listed Plant  

PubMed Central

Balanophora fungosa Forster & Forster ssp. indica (Arn.) B. Hansen var. indica, (Balanophoraceae) syn. B. indica, is a root parasite found in hills of south India. This plant is included in the list of negative list, which are restricted and prohibited for export. Though it is not an official drug in any of the indigenous systems of medicine in India, it is used in tribal medicines in south India. However, it is found in crude drug markets as substitute/adulterant for the Ayurvedic drug Gajapippali (Scindapsus officinalis). Few phytochemical constituents were reported on this plant. However, there is no pharmacognostical report to authenticate the commercial samples of B. fungosa and to differentiate them from Scindapsus officinalis. This article describes the pharmacognostical characteristics of Balanophora fungosa and diagnostic features to differentiate it from Scindapsus officinalis. PMID:22736886

Kannan, R.; Babu, U. V.

2011-01-01

231

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

232

Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNF?. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease. PMID:20874690

Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

2010-12-01

233

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What is the cycle plants go through? First use Write out the Plant Cycle Watch the Plant Powerpoint write down what you learned. Next watch the movie Plant Cycle Movie What did you think was interesting? Next, search around on the website and write down facts about plants. LIfe Cycle of Plants Next, play around with the part of the plants http://www.sciencekids.co.nz/gamesactivities/lifecycles.htmlFinally learn all about growing a plant. Growing a plant After you are finished come see me ...

Barron, Anne

2011-04-14

234

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

1998-01-01

235

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

2012-01-01

236

Antimicrobial evaluation of some medicinal plants for their anti-enteric potential against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi.  

PubMed

Screening was done of some plants of importance in the Ayurvedic system of traditional medicine used in India to treat enteric diseases. Fifty four plant extracts (methanol and aqueous) were assayed for their activity against multi-drug resistant Salmonella typhi. Strong antibacterial activity was shown by the methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos, Salmalia malabarica, Punica granatum, Myristica fragrans, Holarrhena antidysenterica, Terminalia arjuna and Triphal (mixture of Emblica of fi cinalis, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica). Moderate antimicrobial activity was shown by Picorhiza kurroa, Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Cichorium intybus, Embelia ribes, Solanum nigrum, Carum copticum, Apium graveolens, Ocimum sanctum, Peucedanum graveolens and Butea monosperma. PMID:15476301

Rani, Phulan; Khullar, Neeraj

2004-08-01

237

A preliminary analysis of sleep-like states in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

Frank, Marcos G; Waldrop, Robert H; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G

2012-01-01

238

Sedative and sleep-enhancing properties of linarin, a flavonoid-isolated from Valeriana officinalis.  

PubMed

We have recently reported the presence of the anxiolytic flavone 6-methylapigenin (MA) and of the sedative and sleep-enhancing flavanone glycoside 2S (-) hesperidin (HN) in Valeriana officinalis and Valeriana wallichii. MA, in turn, was able to potentiate the sleep-inducing properties of HN. The present paper reports the identification in V. officinalis of the flavone glycoside linarin (LN) and the discovery that it has, like HN, sedative and sleep-enhancing properties that are potentiated by simultaneous administration of valerenic acid (VA). These effects should be taken into account when considering the pharmacological actions of valeriana extracts. PMID:14751470

Fernández, Sebastián; Wasowski, Cristina; Paladini, Alejandro C; Marder, Mariel

2004-02-01

239

A Preliminary Analysis of Sleep-Like States in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Sleep has been observed in several invertebrate species, but its presence in marine invertebrates is relatively unexplored. Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep has only been observed in vertebrates. We investigated whether the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis displays sleep-like states. We find that cuttlefish exhibit frequent quiescent periods that are homeostatically regulated, satisfying two criteria for sleep. In addition, cuttlefish transiently display a quiescent state with rapid eye movements, changes in body coloration and twitching of the arms, that is possibly analogous to REM sleep. Our findings thus suggest that at least two different sleep-like states may exist in Sepia officinalis. PMID:22701609

Frank, Marcos G.; Waldrop, Robert H.; Dumoulin, Michelle; Aton, Sara; Boal, Jean G.

2012-01-01

240

Carotenoid Isomerase Is Key Determinant of Petal Color of Calendula officinalis*  

PubMed Central

Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5? position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462–464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

2012-01-01

241

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-12-15

242

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-01-01

243

The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4?. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300?mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4? by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

2014-01-01

244

Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.  

PubMed

Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-01-01

245

Essential oil of Valeriana officinalis L. cultivars and their antimicrobial activity as influenced by harvesting time under commercial organic cultivation.  

PubMed

The essential oil content and the composition of subterranean parts of two valerian (Valeriana officinalis, L.) cultivars Select and Anthose, from certified commercial organic fields, were determined by hydrodistillation, followed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC/mass spectrometry analysis. Eight and fourteen month old cv. Select had 0.67 and 0.87% essential oil, while similar aged cv. Anthose contained 0.97 and 1.1% essential oil. Forty-three and fifty-three components from cv. Select and cv. Anthose oils were detected, respectively. The oil composition significantly varied due to the cultivar type, plant age, and/or harvesting time. The major components for cv. Select were valerenal, bornyl acetate, 15-acetoxy valeranone, valerenic acid, and camphene, while cv. Anthose had valerenal, (-)-bornyl acetate, alpha-humulene, camphene, 15-acetoxy valeranone, and valerenic acid. With further aging of the plants, the valerenal, valerenic acid, and alpha-humulene contents increased. The oil of cv. Select had a strong antimicrobial effect against Aspergillus niger, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, while cv. Anthose showed low or no activity against all test microbes, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, suggesting that the inhibitory activity of valerian oil depends on the cultivar and its developmental stage. The oil profile of our cultivars did not match the literature proposed chemotype profiles. PMID:15186117

Letchamo, Wudeneh; Ward, William; Heard, Brooks; Heard, Denise

2004-06-16

246

Organ- and season-dependent variation in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. cultivated at two different sites.  

PubMed

More than 50 compounds were identified in essential oils from stems and leaves of Salvia officinalis L. plants harvested in July, in Arouca, in northern Portugal. About 40 of those compounds were also present in flower essential oils, collected from the same plants. alpha-Thujone was the major compound, representing about 55, 30, and 18% of the essential oils from stems, leaves, and flowers, respectively. Significant percentage variations in the main compound classes of the essential oils from shoots sampled over the year were recorded at two different sites in northern Portugal. From December to April, oxygenated monoterpenes (MO) decreased from approximately 67-72% to values of 42-43% of the essential oils. During the same time interval, the percentage of monoterpene hydrocarbons (MH) rose from 8-11% to 17-22%. At both sites, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (SH) rose from approximately 7% in February to 19-22% in April, decreasing thereafter to approximately 9% in July. Oxygenated sesquiterpenes (SO) increased from a minimum of approximately 5% in July to a maximum of 8-11% in February, decreasing thereafter. The compounds that mostly accounted for the essential oil composition variation were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and camphene, as MH; alpha-thujone and camphor, as MO; alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene, as SH; and viridiflorol, as SO. PMID:11409986

Santos-Gomes, P C; Fernandes-Ferreira, M

2001-06-01

247

Two GLOBOSA-like genes are expressed in second and third whorls of homochlamydeous flowers in Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has homochlamydeous flowers. Like Liliaceae plants such as lily and tulip, the perianths of asparagus have two whorls of almost identical petaloid organs, called tepals. Floral structures of these homochlamydeous flowers could be explained by a modified ABC model, in which the expression of the class B genes has expanded to whorl 1, so that the organs of whorls 1 and 2 have the same petaloid structure. In this study, we isolated and characterized two GLOBOSA-like genes (AOGLOA and AOGLOB), one of class B gene, from asparagus. Southern blot showed that AOGLOA and AOGLOB genes are single copy genes. Northern blot analysis indicated that these genes were specifically expressed in male and female flowers. In situ hybridization showed that the expression of AOGLOA and AOGLOB genes is confined to whorls 2 and 3 (inner tepal and stamen) and not detected in whorl 1 (outer tepal). The other asparagus class B gene, AODEF, was also not expressed in outer tepal [Park et al. (2003) Plant Mol Biol. 51: 867]. These results indicate that the class B genes are not involved in the outer tepal development in asparagus, not supporting the modified ABC model in asparagus. PMID:15047881

Park, Jin-Heui; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Ochiai, Toshinori; Kanno, Akira; Kameya, Toshiaki

2004-03-01

248

Behavioural responses of juvenile cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to local water movements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physiological studies have shown that the epidermal head and arm lines in cephalopods are a mechanoreceptive system that is similar to the fish and amphibian lateral lines (Budelmann BU, Bleckmann H. 1988. A lateral line analogue in cephalopods: Water waves generate microphonic potentials in the epidermal head lines of Sepia officinalis and Lolliguncula brevis. J. Comp. Physiol. A 164:1–5.); however,

Spogmai Komak; Jean G. Boal; Ludovic Dickel; Bernd U. Budelmann

2005-01-01

249

Rosmarinic acid production in perfused Anchusa officinalis culture: Effect of inoculum size  

Microsoft Academic Search

High cell density and rosmarinic acid (RA) productivity have been achieved by applying periodic culture perfusion to the Anchusa officinalis cell suspension. In this study, the effect of inoculum size on cell growth and RA productivity in the perfused Anchusa culture was investigated. Experimental results showed that RA productivity increased with the inoculum size, up to 4 g dry weight\\/L.

Wei Wen Su; Fei Lei

1993-01-01

250

In situ filtration of Anchusa officinalis culture in a cell-retention stirred tank bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of agitation and aeration on filtration of Anchusa officinalis culture in a stirred tank bioreactor integrated with an internal filter unit was investigated. Increases in suction head of the pump that drove the filtration process were measured at impeller speeds of 100 and 200 rpm. Surprisingly, suction head attained at 200 rpm was about 40% higher than at

Wei Wen Su

1995-01-01

251

Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3

W. De-Eknamkul; B. E. Ellis

1985-01-01

252

Esterco bovino e biofertilizante no cultivo de erva-cidreira-verdadeira (Melissa officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

RESUMO: A importância fitoterápica e, consequentemente, econômica da Melissa officinalis tem contribuído para expansão do cultivo. O óleo essencial das folhas é formado por constituintes químicos que podem ser largamente empregados na indústria farmacêutica por possuírem atividades antioxidativa, antivirótica e sedativa. Assim sendo, objetivou-se no presente trabalho avaliar o efeito de combinações de doses de adubação orgânica com biofertilizante comercial

J. Rosa Elze

253

Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:18190993

Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

2008-02-29

254

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. TwoThe use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra September 2011 Available online 22 September 2011 Keywords: Visual perception Color change Adaptive

California at Irvine, University of

255

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

256

Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample. PMID:14971492

Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

2004-02-20

257

Isolation and characterization of phytotoxic compounds from asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L.) roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential allelochemicals from aqueous extracts of dried asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) roots were isolated and characterized. Active fractions separated by HPLC included ferulic, isoferulic, malic, citric, and fumaric acids. Soxhlet extraction of the residues also produced phytotoxic caffeic acid. Although none of these compounds, when applied singly, was active enough to account for the phytotoxicity of asparagus extracts, their combined

A. C. Hartung; M. G. Nair; A. R. Putnam

1990-01-01

258

Direct gene transfer to protoplasts of two genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. by electroporation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Callus-derived protoplasts of two genotypes of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were electroporated to introduce the -glucuronidase gene (GUS). The level of GUS transient gene expression and the viability of the protoplasts were influenced by the voltage and duration of the electric pulse. The transient expression level was enhanced by increasing the plasmid DNA concentration and by the presence of polyethylene

Sandip Mukhopadhyay; Yves Desjardins

1994-01-01

259

Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher

F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; R. Biffi; A. Falavigna; E. Caporali; A. Carboni; M. L. Doldi; A. Spada; G. P. Marziani

1995-01-01

260

Effects of Asparagus officinalis extracts on liver cell toxicity and ethanol metabolism.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is a vegetable that is widely consumed worldwide and has also long been used as a herbal medicine for the treatment of several diseases. Although A. officinalis is generally regarded as a supplement for the alleviation of alcohol hangover, little is known about its effects on cell metabolism. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the constituents of the young shoots and the leaves of asparagus and to compare their biochemical properties. The amino acid and inorganic mineral contents were found to be much higher in the leaves than the shoots. In addition, treatment of HepG2 human hepatoma cells with the leaf extract suppressed more than 70% of the intensity of hydrogen peroxide (1 mM)-stimulated DCF fluorescence, a marker of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cellular toxicities induced by treatment with hydrogen peroxide, ethanol, or tetrachloride carbon (CCl(4)) were also significantly alleviated in response to treatment with the extracts of A. officinalis leaves and shoots. Additionally, the activities of 2 key enzymes that metabolize ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase, were upregulated by more than 2-fold in response to treatment with the leaf- and shoot extracts. Taken together, these results provide biochemical evidence of the method by which A. officinalis exerts its biological functions, including the alleviation of alcohol hangover and the protection of liver cells against toxic insults. Moreover, the results of this study indicate that portions of asparagus that are typically discarded, such as the leaves, have therapeutic use. PMID:19895471

Kim, B-Y; Cui, Z-G; Lee, S-R; Kim, S-J; Kang, H-K; Lee, Y-K; Park, D-B

2009-09-01

261

Present status of the French Atlantic fishery for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fishery statistics for the period 1989–1996 indicates that cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) is the main cephalopod resource exploited by the French fishery. Most cuttlefish landings come from demersal trawlers, while artisanal coastal trap net catches appear to be a minor component of cuttlefish fishing. Fishery statistics from all available databases were analysed to (a) evaluate the quality of the

Vincent Denis; Jean-Paul Robin

2001-01-01

262

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

263

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Experimental study and process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the protopine batch extraction from Fumaria officinalis was studied by experimental design. Several parameters were first studied in order to measure their influence on batch extraction thus enabling to choose the most accurate model. A response surface method design that allows investigating the simultaneous variations of the three main parameters (percentage of ethanol in solvent, temperature, solid–liquid weight

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2008-01-01

264

Estimation of effective diffusion and transfer rate during the protopine extraction process from Fumaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The kinetics of the solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis were examined in this study in order to deduce the diffusivity and explain the mass transfer. Extraction was carried out by varying the following operating conditions: temperature, solid\\/solvent ratio and percentage of ethanol in solvent. A simple method based on Fick's laws for predicting the effective diffusion coefficient and

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2010-01-01

265

Photosynthetic characteristics of mesophyll cells isolated from cladophylls of Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intact mesophyll cells can be rapidly isolated from the cladophylls ofAsparagus officinalis by gentle scraping with a plastic card, the yield being higher than 80% on a chlorophyll basis. The cells can be stored for at least 24h without loss of photosynthetic capacity and were found to be stable under a variety of conditions. In contrast to cell preparations from

M. J. Hills

1986-01-01

266

Nectar dynamics and reproductive success in Saponaria officinalis (Caryophyllaceae) in southern Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nectar production and flower visitors of the night-flowering Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae) were studied in relation to the reproductive success. Nectar production was worthwhile for nocturnal flower visitors. Nectar standing crop was about 267?g sugar per flower, and comparison of nectar offering of covered and freely exposed flowers revealed that main nectar secretion time is mainly during the night up

Doris Wolff; Taina Witt; Andreas Jürgens; Gerhard Gottsberger

2006-01-01

267

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

268

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect. PMID:25314292

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2014-01-01

269

Screening of medicinal plants for induction of somatic segregation activity in Aspergillus nidulans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge about mutagenic properties of plants commonly used in traditional medicine is limited. A screening for genotoxic activity was carried out in aqueous or alcoholic extracts prepared from 13 medicinal plants widely used as folk medicine in Cuba: Lepidium virginicum L. (Brassicaceae); Plantago major L. and Plantago lanceolata L. (Plantaginaceae); Ortosiphon aristatus Blume, Mentha × piperita L., Melissa officinalis L.

A. Ramos Ruiz; R. A. De la Torre; N. Alonso; A. Villaescusa; J. Betancourt; A. Vizoso

1996-01-01

270

TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts from Inula aucherana, Fumaria officinalis, Crocus sativus, Vicum album, Tribulus terestris, Polygonatum multiflorum, Alkanna tinctoria and Taraxacum officinale were screened for their in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Total phenolic content of extracts from these plants were also determined. ?-carotene bleaching assay and Folin-Ciocalteu reagent were used to determine total antioxidant activity and total phenols of plant extracts.

MEMNUNE SENGUL; HILAL YILDIZ; NEVA GUNGOR; BULENT CETIN; ZEYNEP ESER; SEZAI ERCISLI

271

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

272

Nutrient and salt relations of Pterocarpus officinalis L. in coastal wetlands of the Caribbean: assessment through leaf and soil analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pterocarpus officinalis L. is a dominant tree of freshwater coastal wetlands in the Caribbean and the Guiana regions. It is frequently associated\\u000a with mangroves in areas with high rainfall and\\/or surface run-off. We hypothesized that P. officinalis is a freshwater swamp species that when occurring in association with mangroves occupies low-salinity soil microsites, or\\u000a alternatively that it possesses mechanisms preventing

Ernesto Medina; Elvira Cuevas; Ariel Lugo

2007-01-01

273

Hydroalcoholic extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its constituent carnosol inhibit formalin-induced pain and inflammation in mice.  

PubMed

The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROL) extract and its major constituent, carnosol in male NMRI mice (W:25-30 g) have been evaluated in the present study. Formalin (2%, 20 microL) was injected into the plantar portion of the hind paw and resulting pain and inflammation was studied for 60 min. The plant extract, carnosol and other drugs were administered intraperitoneally or subcutaneously 30 min before formalin injection. In a separate experiment, the effects of the extract and carnosol on plasma corticosterone levels and activity of the enzymes cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 (COX1 and COX2) were investigated. Injection of different doses of ROL and carnosol reduced pain in the phase 2 of the formalin test, which was not inhibited by naloxone and/or memantine. In addition, pretreatment of the animals with ROL and/or carnosol reduces the formalin-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the extract and carnosol did not affect plasma corticosterone levels compared with the control group. Interestingly, both the extract and carnosol inhibited COX1 and COX2 activity. It could be concluded that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin injection, which may be due to inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. PMID:24498797

Emami, F; Ali-Beig, H; Farahbakhsh, S; Mojabi, N; Rastegar-Moghadam, B; Arbabian, S; Kazemi, M; Tekieh, E; Golmanesh, L; Ranjbaran, M; Jalili, C; Noroozzadeh, A; Sahraei, H

2013-04-01

274

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Micha?; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

2013-12-01

275

Saponarioside C, the first alpha-D-galactose containing triterpenoid saponin, and five related compounds from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Six novel triterpenoid saponins, named saponariosides C-H, were isolated from the whole plants of Saponaria officinalis. Their structures were established as saponarioside C (1), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-- >6)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside; saponarioside D (2), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6) -[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside; saponarioside E (3), 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6) -[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside; saponarioside F (4), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6) -[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside; saponarioside G (5), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-16alpha-hydroxygypsogenic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3 )]-beta-D-glucopyranoside; and saponarioside H (6), 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-gypsogenic acid-28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, by a combination of extensive NMR (DEPT, COSY, HOHAHA, HETCOR, HMBC, and NOESY) studies and chemical degradation. PMID:10096856

Jia, Z; Koike, K; Nikaido, T

1999-03-01

276

Influence of ionic interactions on essential oil and phenolic diterpene composition of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The potential of four essential cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)) to alleviate salt toxicity was studied in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants grown in pots. Two concentrations of the following chloride salts: KCl, CaCl?, MgCl? and FeCl?, were used together with 100mM NaCl to study the effects of these nutrients on plant growth, leaf essential oils (EOs) and phenolic diterpenes composition. The sage plants accumulated Na(+) in their leaves (includers); this has affected secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Treatment with 100mM NaCl slightly decreased borneol and viridiflorol, while increased manool concentrations. Addition of KCl, CaCl? and MgCl? increased considerably in a dose-dependent manner the oxygen-containing monoterpenes (1.8-cineole, camphor, ?-thujone and borneol) in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Whereas, the contents of viridiflorol decreased further with the addition of KCl in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Our results suggest that the changes in EOs composition were more related to K(+) and Ca(2+) availability than to Na(+) toxicity. Furthermore, treatment with NaCl decreased by 50% carnosic acid (CA), a potent antioxidant, content in the leaves. K(+) and Ca(2+) promoted the accumulation of CA and its methoxylated form (MCA) in the leaves. The concentration of CA was positively correlated with leaf K(+) (r=0.56, P=0.01) and Ca(2+) (r=0.44, P=0.05) contents. It appears that different salt applications in combination with NaCl treatments had a profound effect on EOs and phenolic diterpene composition in sage. Therefore, ionic interactions may be carefully considered in the cultivation of this species to get the desired concentrations of these secondary metabolites in leaf extracts. PMID:20846870

Tounekti, Taieb; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Vadel, A M; Chtara, Chaker; Khemira, Habib

2010-01-01

277

The components of Melissa officinalis L. that influence protein biosynthesis in-vitro.  

PubMed

An investigation of an inhibiting activity of a substance(s) in a tanninless extract from Melissa officinalis leaves on protein biosynthesis in-vitro has been made. At least two components which inhibited protein biosynthesis were present in the extract; these were caffeic acid and an unidentified glycoside. Freshly prepared buffered solutions of caffeic acid inhibited protein biosynthesis less than solutions stored for several days at room temperature (20 degrees C). In this case derivatives of caffeic acid were formed, which may be responsible for the increase in the inhibitory effect of stored caffeic acid solution. An inhibitor, in the homogeneous state, was also isolated from the glycoside fraction of M. officinalis. Studies on the mechanism of the action of this inhibitor revealed its effect is to use the result of a direct interaction with elongation factor EF-2, and the blocking of the binding reaction of EF-2 with ribosomes. PMID:2879007

Chlabicz, J; Ga?asi?ski, W

1986-11-01

278

Seasonal variation of the lipoidal matters and hypolipidaemic activity of the red alga Corallina officinalis L.  

PubMed

The lipoidal matters of Corallina officinalis L. showed a seasonal nonsignificant quantitative variation. However, the fatty acids revealed a relative increase in the summer and winter, while unsaponifiable matter exhibited a slight increase in the spring. The GC/MS analysis of saponifiable and unsaponifiable matter of the algal samples collected in different seasons revealed that samples collected in the spring contained a low cholesterol content and high steroidal compounds as well as high polyunsaturated fatty acids. The alcohol extract, hexane extract and fatty acid fraction of this algal sample exhibited a significant hypolipidaemic activity. Also, two biologically active fractions of hydrocarbons were isolated by CC technique from the hexane fraction of C. officinalis L. and identified by GC/MS. PMID:12557241

Awad, N E; Selim, M A; Saleh, M M; Matloub, A A

2003-01-01

279

Characterization of a Saponaria officinalis seed ribosome-inactivating protein: immunoreactivity and sequence homologies.  

PubMed

A ribosome inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis, SO-6, was purified and the N-terminus sequenced. The sequence shows extensive homology with Pokeweed antiviral protein, Pokeweed antiviral protein II, Pokeweed antiviral seed protein and dodecandrin. SDS gel electrophoresis in the Laemmli system revealed two bands of similar intensities with a smear between them, probably an artifact due to the high pI of the protein. Use of a harsher denaturing gel system resulted in one band in electrophoresis. Immune antisera was raised in rabbits against this protein and it cross reacted with other proteins (SO-5, SO-8 and SO-9) from seeds of Saponaria officinalis, but not with gelonin, Momordica charantia inhibitor and dianthin 32. PMID:3925952

Lappi, D A; Esch, F S; Barbieri, L; Stirpe, F; Soria, M

1985-06-28

280

Effects of S. officinalis L. radix triterpene glycosides on innate immunity factors.  

PubMed

The effects of triterpene glycosides (saponins) extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radices, on the cellular and humoral innate immunity factors were studied. Saponins stimulated the phagocytic, bactericidal, and adhesion activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Optimal conditions of saponin treatment (dose and duration) were determined for mice. Saponins promoted the maturation of human peripheral blood dendritic cells, which was proven by high expression of CD83 (terminal differentiation marker) and CD86 (bone-stimulating molecule) and of HLA-DR and HLA-ABC molecules on the cell membrane. Saponins modulated the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-? in cultured peripheral blood intact cells. The results help to understand some mechanisms of the effects of saponins extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radix on the cellular and humoral factors of innate immunity and demonstrate good prospects of their practical use. PMID:24771377

Kuznetsova, T A; Ivanushko, L A; Makarenkova, I D; Cherevach, E I; Ten'kovskaya, L A

2014-01-01

281

Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

2008-01-01

282

Kinetics of mineral nutrient uptake by Saponaria officinalis L. suspension cell cultures in different media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The uptake of mineral nutrients from two media with different mineral composition, a classical MSA medium and a modified\\u000a MH2 medium, by Saponaria officinalis (soapwort) cells was studied over a growth cycle of 14 days, by continuous measurement of mineral consumption without opening\\u000a the culture flasks. The mineral composition of the MH2 medium was found to be better suited to

P. Morard; C. Fulcheri; M. Henry

1998-01-01

283

Is self-compatibility the main breeding system in borage (Borago officinalis L.)?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polygenic postzygotic self-incompatible system reported in borage (Borago officinalis L.) is refuted. The behaviour of pollen tubes after self- and cross-pollination, analysis of the crossability coefficient,\\u000a seed set after continuous generations of self-pollination and the effects of inbreeding depression in borage were studied.\\u000a Evidence of self-compatibility was established. The influence of protandry in a self-compatible system is also discussed.

C. Montaner; E. Floris; J. M. Alvarez

2000-01-01

284

Rosmarinic acid formation and differential expression of tyrosine aminotransferase isoforms in Anchusa officinalis cell suspension cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-course changes in rosmarinic acid (RA) formation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) isoforms were examined in Anchusa officinalis suspension cultures. Three TAT isoforms (TAT-1, TAT-3, TAT-4) were resolved by Mono-Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The proportion of the TAT-3 activity within the total TAT activity remained high regardless of the growth stage of the cultured cells. TAT-1 activity was positively

Hajime Mizukami; Brian E. Ellis

1991-01-01

285

High density cultivation of Anchusa officinalis in a stirred-tank bioreactor with in situ filtration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, Su et al. [Biotechnol Bioeng 42: 884–890 (1993)] reported improved production of rosmarinic acid by Anchusa officinalis in shake-flask cultures using a cultivation strategy that involved intermittent medium exchange. Implementation of this cultivation strategy in 2.5-1 stirred-tank bioreactor cultures is investigated in the present study. Intermittent cell\\/medium separation in the bioreactor was accomplished by means of automated in situ

W. W. Su; F. Lei; N. P. Kao

1995-01-01

286

Production of rosmarinic acid from perfusion culture of Anchusa officinalis in a membrane-aerated bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this study, a perfusion fermentation ofAnchusa officinalis was carried out in a stirred tank bioreactor integrated with an internal cross-flow filter. Bubble-free aeration via microporous membrane fibers was used to provide oxygen. A two-stage culture was successfully conducted in this reactor without filter fouling. In a 17 day fermentation, a cell density of 26 g dw\\/I and a

Wei Wen Su; Arthur E. Humphrey

1991-01-01

287

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

288

Local therapy of herpes simplex with dried extract from Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

An overt multicentric study involving 115 patients and another subsequent placebo-controlled double-blind study involving 116 patients contributed significantly to the corroborative evidence of the antiviral activity in vitro of a specially prepared dried extract from Melissa leaves (Melissa officinalis L.) against herpes simplex infections. The studies provided the proof that the ingredient gave protection against herpes simplex infections. The initiation of the treatment in the very early stages of the infection revealed itself as most effective. PMID:23195812

Wölbling, R H; Leonhardt, K

1994-06-01

289

Growth and rosmarinic acid production in cell suspension cultures of Salvia officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural antioxidant produced by cell suspension cultures of sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The growth and production of RA by these cells can be modified by the type of culture medium. Production can be increased 10-fold to attain 6.4 g.1-1 under optimal conditions. Investigation of kinetics showed that a change in the medium caused shifts in

I. Hippolyte; B. Marin; J. C. Baccou; R. Jonard

1992-01-01

290

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade\\/deceptive

Kendra C. Buresch; Lydia M. Mäthger; Justine J. Allen; Chelsea Bennice; Neal Smith; Jonathan Schram; Chuan-Chin Chiao; Charles Chubb; Roger T. Hanlon

291

Evidence for in vitro induced mutation which improves somatic embryogenesis in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Somatic embryogenesis from different genotypes of Asparagus officinalis L. could be obtained by in vitro culture of shoot apices. Apices were first cultured on an auxin-rich inducing medium and then transferred onto a hormone-free development medium. All genotypes tested in this way produced a few somatic embryos. In some experiments, during the development phase, a new kind of friable highly

B. Delbreil; M. Jullien

1994-01-01

292

A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds in Asparagus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method to produce encapsulatable units for synthetic seeds was developed in Asparagus officinalis L. Encapsulatable units with high conversion ability in non-sterile soil were produced from somatic embryos by a pre-encapsulation culture. The synthetic seeds containing somatic embryos without the pre-encapsulation culture did not germinate in soil. When the pre-encapsulation culture medium did not contain growth regulators, the roots

Kanji Mamiya; Yuji Sakamoto

2001-01-01

293

Interactions of ancymidol with sucrose and ?-naphthaleneacetic acid in promoting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interactions of varying ancymidol concentrations with those of ?-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) or sucrose in embryo induction medium were related to the production and development of asparagus\\u000a (Asparagus officinalis L.) somatic embryos, and to the ability of these embryos to germinate. A significant sucrose×ancymidol interaction was observed\\u000a only for the production of bipolar embryos; 4% sucrose with 0.75 mg l–1 ancymidol

B. Li; D. J. Wolyn

1997-01-01

294

Improved culture conditions for somatic embryogenesis from Asparagus officinalis L. using an aseptic ventilative filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calli were induced from the crown of seedlings or lateral bud of young spears of Asparagus officinalis L. on Linsmaier and Skoog's (LS) solid-medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Embryogenic callus was selected from induced calli and proliferated in LS liquid medium supplemented with 5 µ M 2,4-D. Non-vitrified somatic embryos were formed and efficiently developed into

Takeo Saito; Shuji Nishizawa; Shigeo Nishimura

1991-01-01

295

Electroporation modulates the embryogénie responses of asparagus ( asparagus officinalis l.) microspores  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Microspores of three genotypes ofAsparagus officinalis L. were mechanically isolated without affecting their viability and were submitted to electric fields in order to modulate\\u000a their competence for embryogenesis. When a constant pulse length and various field strengths (250, 500, 750, 1000, 1500, and\\u000a 2000 V\\/cm) were tested, the viability of electro-treated microspores decreased as the field strength increased, for all

C. Delaitre; S. Ochatt; E. Deleury I

2001-01-01

296

Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus officinalis cryopreserved by vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured cells and somatic embryos derived from the mesophyll tissue of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were cryopreserved by vitrification. The vitrification solution (PVS) contains (w\\/v) 22% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol, 15% propylene glycol and 7% DMSO in Murashige-Skoog medium enriched with 0.5M sorbitol. After initial cryoprotection with sorbitol supplemented MS medium containing 12% ethylene glycol, cells or embryos were exposed

A. Uragami; A. Sakai; M. Nagai; T. Takahashi

1989-01-01

297

AFLP-derived STS markers for the identification of sex in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a simple, rapid and PCR-based screening of sex in the cultivated asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), we developed five STS markers from previously mapped, low-copy, sex-linked AFLP markers. A male\\/female PCR assay was\\u000a feasible with these STS markers either by direct amplification or by digestion with restriction enzymes. Similar to the AFLP\\u000a markers from which they were derived, STS4150.1, STS4150.2,

S. M. Reamon-Büttner; C. Jung

2000-01-01

298

Isolation of a Novel Deoxyribonuclease with Antifungal Activity from Asparagus officinalis Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deoxyribonuclease distinct from the previously isolated asparagus ribosome-inactivating proteins, possessing a molecular weight of 30 kDa and requiring a pH of 7.5 for optimum hydrolytic activity toward herring sperm DNA, was isolated from Asparagus officinalis seeds. The isolation procedure involved extraction with saline, (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE–cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion-exchange chromatography on CM-Sepharose,

Hexiang Wang; T. B. Ng

2001-01-01

299

Aflp markers tightly linked to the sex locus in Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine AFLP markers linked to the sex locus in Asparagus officinalis L. have been identified by non-radioactive AFLP technique and bulked segregant analysis. A composite map of one F2 and two F1 populations identified three very tightly linked markers. These markers did not give recombinants in the three different populations and mapped 0.5, 0.7 and 1 cM to the sex

Stella Marie Reamon-Büttner; Jörg Schondelmaier; Christian Jung

1998-01-01

300

A genetic map of Asparagus officinalis based on integrated RFLP, RAPD and AFLP molecular markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. has been constructed on the basis of RFLP, RAPD, AFLP and isoenzyme markers. The segregation analysis of the polymorphic\\u000a markers was carried out on the progeny of five different crosses between male and female doubled-haploid clones generated\\u000a by anther culture. A total of 274 markers have been organized to

A. Spada; E. Caporali; G. Marziani; P. Portaluppi; F. M. Restivo; F. Tassi; A. Falavigna

1998-01-01

301

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-01-01

302

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Kinetic modelling of influential parameters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of such parameters as percentage of ethanol in solvent, solid–liquid weight ratio and pH of medium on the protopine extraction from Fumaria officinalis particles with mean radius of 0.4–0.5mm was studied. A mathematical model, describing the importance of each parameter on the extraction of protopine with pseudo-second-order kinetics was proposed and the results were discussed. A numerical solution

L. Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; J.-L. Havet; C. Porte; H. Fauduet

2009-01-01

303

Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis–electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS\\/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile–methanol (9:1, v\\/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte

Sonja Sturm; Eva-Maria Strasser; Hermann Stuppner

2006-01-01

304

Carnosol and carnosic acids from Salvia officinalis inhibit microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase-1.  

PubMed

Prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE(2) synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE(2) in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE(2) synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC(50) values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC(50) values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE(2) generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC(50) = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF(1?), 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B(2)] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE(2) formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE(2) formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-07-01

305

Hepatotoxicity of immunotoxins made with saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein fromSaponaria officinalis, to a monoclonal antibody against the Thy 1.1 antigen, or to its F(ab?)2 fragment. The immunotoxins were eight- to 16-fold more toxic to mice than free saporin. Injection of the immunotoxins induced\\u000a necrosis of the liver and spleen, whereas free saporin caused necrosis of the epithelium of the kidney

Fiorenzo Stirpe; Massimo Derenzini; Luigi Barbieri; Fulvia Farabegoli; Alex N. F. Brown; Philip P. Knowles; Philip E. Thorpe

1987-01-01

306

Saporin production from in vitro cultures of the soapwort Saponaria officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report here the successful establishment of callus, cell and root cultures from explants of in-vitro-grown plantlets of\\u000a the soapwort Saponaria officinalis L. The production of saporin in the different tissue systems was evaluated by determining the capability of crude extracts\\u000a to inactivate protein synthesis and by Western blotting analysis. Protein synthesis inhibition varied in callus and derived\\u000a cell suspensions

A. Di Cola; C. Di Domenico; A. Poma; L. Spanò

1997-01-01

307

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

308

Valeriana officinalis root extracts have potent anxiolytic effects in laboratory rats.  

PubMed

Valerian root (Valeriana officinalis) is a popular and widely available herbal supplement, primarily used to treat insomnia and anxiety. Until recently, its mechanism of action has remained unknown. Neurobiological research has begun to show that the herb, with its active valerenic acid, interacts with the GABA(A)-ergic system, a mechanism of action similar to the benzodiazepine drugs. This series of experiments sought to corroborate these findings with behavioral measures, compare them to the benzodiazepine diazepam, and to analyze the chemical composition of Valeriana officinalis. Rats were administered either ethanol (1 ml/kg), diazepam (1mg/kg), valerian root extract (3 ml/kg), valerenic acid (3mg/kg), or a solution of valerenic acid and exogenous GABA (75 microg/kg and 3.6 microg/kg, respectively) and assessed for the number of entries and time spent on the open arms of an elevated plus maze. Results showed that there was a significant reduction in anxious behavior when valerian extract or valerenic acid exposed subjects were compared to the ethanol control group. The evidence supports Valeriana officinalis as a potential alternative to the traditional anxiolytics as measured by the elevated plus maze. PMID:20042323

Murphy, K; Kubin, Z J; Shepherd, J N; Ettinger, R H

2010-07-01

309

Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

Canadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Cetkovi?, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanovi?, Gordana; Mandi?, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub; Canadanovi?, Vladimir

2008-03-01

310

Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp?=?0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P?=?0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL?=?0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS?=?0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS. PMID:24134743

2013-01-01

311

Do plants mediate their anti-diabetic effects through anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions? an in vitro assay of 3 Indian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to ?-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems. Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa and Tinospora cordifolia are three such plants widely used in Ayurveda for their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Additionally their anti-oxidant properties have been scientifically validated in various experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Hence the present in vitro study was planned to assess whether the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Curcuma longa (Cl) and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) are mediated through their antioxidant and/or anti-apoptotic property in a streptozotocin induced stress model. Methods RINm5F cell line was used as a model of pancreatic ?-cells against stress induced by streptozotocin (2 mM). Non-toxic concentrations of the plant extracts were identified using MTT assay. Lipid peroxidation through MDA release, modulation of apoptosis and insulin release were the variables measured to assess streptozotocin induced damage and protection afforded by the plant extracts. Results All 3 plants extracts significantly inhibited MDA release from RIN cells indicating protective effect against STZ induced oxidative damage. They also exhibited a dose dependent anti-apoptotic effect as seen by a decrease in the sub G0 population in response to STZ. None of the plant extracts affected insulin secretion from the cells to a great extent. Conclusion The present study thus demonstrated that the protective effect of the selected medicinal plants against oxidative stress induced by STZ in vitro, which was exerted through their anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions. PMID:24093976

2013-01-01

312

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.  

PubMed

The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species. PMID:21947345

Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

2012-02-01

313

Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some medicinal and spice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination was made on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Hyssopus officinalis, and Eucalyptus globulus, the first three of which are also used as culinary spice herbs. Carum carvi L. and Coriandrum sativum L. belong to the Apiacea family. In traditional medicine, Carum carvi is used in the form of a

M. Cvijovic; D. Djukic; L. Mandic; G. Acamovic-Djokovic; M. Pesakovic

2010-01-01

314

A perfusion air-lift bioreactor for high density plant cell cultivation and secreted protein production  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new bioreactor design that allows continuous perfusion cultivation of plant cell suspensions is described in this paper. This design incorporates an internal cell settling zone with an external-loop air-lift bioreactor. The settling zone is created by inserting a baffle plate into the upper portion of the downcomer. Using this bioreactor, Anchusa officinalis suspension culture was cultivated to a cell

Wei Wen Su; Bing Jun He; Hua Liang; Sam Sun

1996-01-01

315

[Treatment with acyclovir combined with a new Romanian product from plants].  

PubMed

The paper presents a study of the associated effect of acyclovir and a plant extract from Calendula officinalis, Actium lappa and Geranium robertianum. We studied a number of 52 patients suffering of herpetic keratitis. Better results in resolving complains and faster healing of ulceration were obtained using the associated treatment then the usual acyclovir treatment only. PMID:10641087

Corina, P; Dimitris, S; Emanuil, T; Nora, R

1999-01-01

316

The plant ribosome inactivating protein saporin induces micronucleus formation in peripheral human lymphocytes in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Saporin belongs to the family of plant enzymes known as ribosome inactivating proteins (RIPs) for their property to depurinate the major rRNA, thus leading to inactivation of ribosomes. In this work we analyzed the genotoxic effects of saporin, purified from root cultures of Saponaria officinalis, by evaluating micronucleus formation and by the quantitative determination of cytosolic histone-associated DNA fragments. Saporin

A. Poma; O. Zarivi; S. Bianchini; L. Spanò

1999-01-01

317

Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of ?- and ?-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds. PMID:21777420

2011-01-01

318

Systemic administration of Rosmarinus officinalis attenuates the inflammatory response induced by carrageenan in the mouse model of pleurisy.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis, also named rosemary, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region that is useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. Studies using experimental models and/or in vitro tests have shown the important biological effects of rosemary. In this context, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of rosemary must be investigated to support the discovery of new substances with anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of crude extract oil free obtained from the leaves of rosemary in an animal model of inflammation, thus evaluating its medicinal use for the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Also its ethanol, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions, as well as its isolated compounds carnosol and rosmarinic acid were analyzed. Swiss mice were used for the in vivo experiments. The effect of this herb on the inhibition of the leukocytes, exudation, myeloperoxidase, and adenosine-deaminase activities, nitrite/nitrate, interleukin 17A, and interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression was determined. The crude extract and its derived fractions, in addition to its isolated compounds, inhibited leukocytes and decreased exudation and myeloperoxidase and adenosine-deaminase activities, as well as nitrite/nitrate and interleukin 17A levels and mRNA expression, besides increasing interleukin 10 levels and mRNA expression. Rosemary showed important anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting leukocytes and decreasing exudation. These effects were associated with a decrease in the proinflammatory parameters (myeloperoxidase, adenosine-deaminase, nitrite/nitrate, and interleukin 17A) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin 10). This study confirms the anti-inflammatory properties of rosemary and validates its use in folk medicine to treat inflammatory diseases such as rheumatism and asthma. PMID:24288274

da Rosa, Julia Salvan; Facchin, Bruno Matheus; Bastos, Juliana; Siqueira, Mariana Araújo; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu; Dalmarco, Eduardo Monguilhott; Pizzolatti, Moacir Geraldo; Fröde, Tânia Silvia

2013-11-01

319

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal.  

PubMed

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also as aromatics. Melissa officinalis and Mentha suaveolens showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher then 50% in the essential oil fraction. Laurus nobilis, Hypericum undulatum, and Sanguisorba minor showed a high inhibition value of AChE in the ethanolic fraction, 64% (1 mg ml(-1)) 68% (0.5 mg ml(-1)), and 78% (1 mg ml(-1)), respectively. Higher values of AChE inhibitory activity were found using decoctions of Lavandula pedunculata, Mentha suaveolens and Hypericum undulatum, 68, 69 and 82% (at a concentration of 5mg dry plant ml(-1) of assay), respectively. The free radical scavenger activity was higher for the polar extracts. In the water extracts most of the plants showed values around 90%. When antioxidant activity was measured with the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay high activity (65-95%) was also found in the water extracts. Hypericum undulatum, Melissa officinalis and Laurus nobilis showed both high AChE inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity. PMID:16737790

Ferreira, A; Proença, C; Serralheiro, M L M; Araújo, M E M

2006-11-01

320

The W-shaped pupil in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis): functions for improving horizontal vision.  

PubMed

The eyes of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) have a modified horizontal slit-pupil with a distinctive W-shape in bright light, while in darkness the pupil is circular. Two suggestions have previously been made for a function of the W-shape: (1) camouflaging the eye; (2) providing distance information. Since neither of these suggestions can fully explain the function of this pupil across the entire visual field, particularly the frontal and caudal periphery, we re-addressed the question of its functional significance. We took infra-red images of the eyes of live S. officinalis at different light intensities and from different viewing angles. This allowed us to determine the shape and light-admitting area of the pupil for different parts of the visual field. Our data show that the W-shaped pupil projects a blurred "W" directly onto the retina and that it effectively operates as vertical slits for the frontal and caudal parts of the visual field. We also took images of the natural habitat of S. officinalis and calculated the average vertical brightness distribution in the visual habitat. Computing a retinal illumination map shows that the W-shaped pupil is effective in balancing a vertically uneven light field: The constricted pupil reduces light from the dorsal part of the visual field significantly more than it reduces light from the horizontal band. This will cut the amount of direct sunlight that is scattered by the lens and ocular media, and thus improve image contrast particularly for the dimmer parts of the scene. We also conclude that the pupil provides even attenuation along the horizontal band, whereas a circular pupil would attenuate the image relatively more in the important frontal and caudal periphery of the visual field. PMID:23474299

Mäthger, Lydia M; Hanlon, Roger T; Håkansson, Jonas; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

2013-05-01

321

Fatty Acid Profiles of the Seed Oils in Two Groups of Anchusa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total seed oil and fatty acid compositions of two informal groups of Anchusa officinalis L. were studied in order to provide additional information for the delineation of the groups. Major fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2n6), oleic (C18:1n9), ?-linolenic (C18:3n3), ?-linolenic (C18:3n6), palmitic (C16:0) and stearidonic acid (C18:4n3) respectively. The lower levels were observed in stearic (C18:0), eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and erucic

Tamer Özcan

322

Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

323

A new steroidal saponin from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Yamogenin II (1), a new steroidal saponin with a unique aglycone moiety, and (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2), were isolated from the dried stems of Asparagus officinalis L. The structure of 1 was assessed by spectroscopial analysis as (25S)-spirostan-5-ene-3beta,21-diol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside. PMID:19751809

Sun, Zhouxuan; Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

2010-04-01

324

Intermittent and Continuous Microwave-Convective Air-Drying Characteristics of Sage ( Salvia officinalis ) Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of microwave-convective air-drying (continuous and intermittent) and convective air-drying of sage (Salvia officinalis) on color and essential oil content were studied. For microwave-convective air-drying, four pulse ratio levels (PR1, PR2,\\u000a PR3, and PR4) at 25 °C drying air temperature were used and the average drying rates were 0.404, 0.158, 0.114, and 0.085 kg\\u000a H2O kg?1 DM min?1 for PR1, PR2,

Okan Esturk

325

Detection of kestoses and kestose-related oligosaccharides in extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerate L. , and Asparagus officinalis L. root cultures and invertase by sup 13 C and sup 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies show that {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis gomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose.

Forsythe, K.L.; Feather, M.S.; Gracz, H.; Wong, T.C. (Univ. of Missouri, Columbia (USA))

1990-04-01

326

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

327

Improved callus formation and plant regeneration for shed microspore culture in asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish an efficient asparagus microspore culture system, experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of medium\\u000a components, period of cold pretreatment for flower buds, and period of anther co-culture on culture response. All factors\\u000a affected the frequency of asparagus microspore division and the yields of microspore-derived calli. The best results were\\u000a obtained by pretreating genotype G459 flower buds at

M. Peng; D. J. Wolyn

1999-01-01

328

Essential oil composition and larvicidal activity of six Mediterranean aromatic plants against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory bioassays on insecticidal activity of essential oils (EOs) extracted from six Mediterranean plants (Achillea millefolium, Lavandula angustifolia, Helichrysum italicum, Foeniculum vulgare, Myrtus communis, and Rosmarinus officinalis) were carried out against the larvae of the Culicidae mosquito Aedes albopictus. The chemical composition of the six EOs was also investigated. Results from applications showed that all tested oils had\\u000a insecticidal activity,

Barbara Conti; Angelo Canale; Alessandra Bertoli; Francesca Gozzini; Luisa Pistelli

2010-01-01

329

Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

2014-08-01

330

An innovative approach to the recovery of phenolic compounds and volatile terpenes from the same fresh foliar sample of Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a plant of relevant commercial interest because of its volatile fraction and also its phenolic constituents which are both well known for their numerous properties. Nevertheless, an extractive method suitable to recovering both the aromatic and phenolic fractions from the same fresh foliar tissue has not yet been reported. In this work we have optimized a two-step procedure able to recover first the phenolic compounds and successively the volatile terpenes from the same foliar sample. The recovery of the whole phenolic fraction, partially degraded using a traditional extractive method, was guaranteed and we observed a significant increment in the amount of volatile terpenes compared to a traditional extraction procedure. We also highlight crucial information on the enzymatic activity of the endogenous oxidases that rapidly transform the phenolic substrates, mainly the rosmarinic acid. Our results suggest that this extractive procedure could also be used for other aromatic plants, thus providing a useful tool for more complete analyses of the main phytochemicals available in fresh foliar samples and creating the possibility of incrementing yields of volatile compounds. PMID:25281076

Bellumori, Maria; Michelozzi, Marco; Innocenti, Marzia; Congiu, Federica; Cencetti, Gabriele; Mulinacci, Nadia

2015-01-01

331

Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

2008-09-01

332

Evaluation of Biologically Active Compounds from Calendula officinalis Flowers using Spectrophotometry  

PubMed Central

Background This study aimed to quantify the active biological compounds in C. officinalis flowers. Based on the active principles and biological properties of marigolds flowers reported in the literature, we sought to obtain and characterize the molecular composition of extracts prepared using different solvents. The antioxidant capacities of extracts were assessed by using spectrophotometry to measure both absorbance of the colorimetric free radical scavenger 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as the total antioxidant potential, using the ferric reducing power (FRAP) assay. Results Spectrophotometric assays in the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) region enabled identification and characterization of the full range of phenolic and flavonoids acids, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to identify and quantify phenolic compounds (depending on the method of extraction). Methanol ensured more efficient extraction of flavonoids than the other solvents tested. Antioxidant activity in methanolic extracts was correlated with the polyphenol content. Conclusions The UV-VIS spectra of assimilator pigments (e.g. chlorophylls), polyphenols and flavonoids extracted from the C. officinalis flowers consisted in quantitative evaluation of compounds which absorb to wavelengths broader than 360 nm. PMID:22540963

2012-01-01

333

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

334

Production of extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 using root tubers of Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

Root tubers of Asparagus officinalis were used as a source of raw inulin for the production of exoinulinase (EC 3.2.1.7) from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. Root extract prepared at 10kg/cm2 pressure for 10min showed maximum inulinase production. Medium components and process parameters were standardized to improve the enzyme production. Inulinase yield of 40.2IU/mL in a medium containing raw inulin (3.5%), beef extract (2%), SDS (0.001%), Mn2+ (2.0mM), Mg2+ (1.5mM), Co2+ (2mM) and pH 6.5 has been obtained under agitation (150rpm) after 60h of incubation at 30 degrees C at shake flask level. After optimization, the enzyme production was 4.8 times more than the basal medium. To test the feasibility of raw inulin from A. officinalis for the production of inulinase, trials were also made in a bioreactor (1.5L). Inulinase activity of 50.2IU/mL was obtained from raw inulin (4.0%) under agitation (200rpm) and aeration (0.75vvm) at 30 degrees C after 60h of fermentation. Inulinase yield in bioreactor was almost six times higher than the basal medium used initially in shake flask. PMID:18280145

Singh, R S; Bhermi, H K

2008-10-01

335

Quantification of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) camouflage: a study of color and luminance using in situ spectrometry.  

PubMed

Cephalopods are renowned for their ability to adaptively camouflage on diverse backgrounds. Sepia officinalis camouflage body patterns have been characterized spectrally in the laboratory but not in the field due to the challenges of dynamic natural light fields and the difficulty of using spectrophotometric instruments underwater. To assess cuttlefish color match in their natural habitats, we studied the spectral properties of S. officinalis and their backgrounds on the Aegean coast of Turkey using point-by-point in situ spectrometry. Fifteen spectrometry datasets were collected from seven cuttlefish; radiance spectra from animal body components and surrounding substrates were measured at depths shallower than 5 m. We quantified luminance and color contrast of cuttlefish components and background substrates in the eyes of hypothetical di- and trichromatic fish predators. Additionally, we converted radiance spectra to sRGB color space to simulate their in situ appearance to a human observer. Within the range of natural colors at our study site, cuttlefish closely matched the substrate spectra in a variety of body patterns. Theoretical calculations showed that this effect might be more pronounced at greater depths. We also showed that a non-biological method ("Spectral Angle Mapper"), commonly used for spectral shape similarity assessment in the field of remote sensing, shows moderate correlation to biological measures of color contrast. This performance is comparable to that of a traditional measure of spectral shape similarity, hue and chroma. This study is among the first to quantify color matching of camouflaged cuttlefish in the wild. PMID:23254307

Akkaynak, Derya; Allen, Justine J; Mäthger, Lydia M; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Hanlon, Roger T

2013-03-01

336

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

337

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Characterization by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses of the Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts allowed the identification of 190 components that represented 97.9% of the total oil content. The main constituents identified were germacrene D (19.9%), ?-caryophyllene (14.1%), and ?-humulene (7.5%). Terpenoids were by far predominant (89.4%), with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.1%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) being the most abundant compounds detected in the oil. Based on the present and previously published results, multivariate statistical comparison of the chemical composition of the essential oils was performed within the species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of the data on the volatile profiles of S. officinalis taxa revealed no pronounced differences among the samples originated from the Balkan Peninsula. Additionally, the oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity using the broth microdilution assay. The oil's best antimicrobial activities were obtained against the mold Aspergillus niger (minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0?mg/ml, resp.) and the yeast Candida albicans (MIC and MFC of 5.0?mg/ml). PMID:23847079

Lazarevi?, Jelena S; ?or?evi?, Aleksandra S; Kiti?, Dušanka V; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Stojanovi?, Gordana S

2013-07-01

338

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

2014-01-01

339

Active Monoterpene Ketones Isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with Fumigant and Contact Action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 ?g/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 ?g/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 ?g/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 ?g/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 ?g/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 ?g/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method. PMID:25198597

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-01

340

Antimicrobial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis against oral pathogens: relevance of carnosic acid and carnosol.  

PubMed

The in vitro inhibitory activity of crude EtOH/H2O extracts from the leaves and stems of Rosmarinus officinalis L. was evaluated against the following microorganisms responsible for initiating dental caries: Streptococcus mutans, S. salivarius, S. sobrinus, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, and Enterococcus faecalis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined with the broth microdilution method. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the leaf extract, which displayed the higher antibacterial activity than the stem extract, led to the identification of carnosic acid (2) and carnosol (3) as the major compounds in the fraction displaying the highest activity, as identified by HPLC analysis. Rosmarinic acid (1), detected in another fraction, did not display any activity against the selected microorganisms. HPLC Analysis revealed the presence of low amounts of ursolic acid (4) and oleanolic acid (5) in the obtained fractions. The results suggest that the antimicrobial activity of the extract from the leaves of R. officinalis may be ascribed mainly to the action of 2 and 3. PMID:20658673

Bernardes, Wagner A; Lucarini, Rodrigo; Tozatti, Marcos G; Souza, Maria G M; Silva, Márcio L Andrade; Filho, Ademar A da Silva; Martins, Carlos H Gomes; Crotti, Antonio E Miller; Pauletti, Patricia M; Groppo, Milton; Cunha, Wilson R

2010-07-01

341

INFLUÊNCIAS DO ÁCIDO NAFTALENO ACÉTICO E ESCURO E ATIVIDADE DA PEROXIDASE NO ENRAIZAMENTO in vitro DE ASPARGO (Asparagus officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

INFLUENCES OF THE NAPHTHALENEACETIC ACID AND THE DARKNESS ON in vitro ROOTING OF ASPARAGUS (Asparagus officinalis L.) AND PEROXIDASE ACTIVITY. The effect of the naphtaleneacetic acid (NAA) and the darkness on the in vitro rooting of clone M-14 and G27 × M-14 hibrid (cv Deco) of asparagus, as well as the peroxidase activity during rooting, were evaluated. Explants placed on

Luciano AMARANTE

342

Antibacterial activity and anticancer activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil compared to that of its main components.  

PubMed

In this study, Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil and three of its main components 1,8-cineole (27.23%), ?-pinene (19.43%) and ?-pinene (6.71%) were evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. R. officinalis L. essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to ?-pinene, and a little bit better than ?-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. R. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. Its inhibition concentration 50% (IC??) values on SK-OV-3, HO-8910 and Bel-7402 were 0.025‰, 0.076‰ and 0.13‰ (v/v), respectively. The cytotoxicity of all the test samples on SK-OV-3 was significantly stronger than on HO-8910 and Bel-7402. In general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations. PMID:22391603

Wang, Wei; Li, Nan; Luo, Meng; Zu, Yuangang; Efferth, Thomas

2012-01-01

343

Effects of auxins and cytokinins on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis required exogenous phytohormones for their normal growth. Cell lysis was observed at the third passage in a hormone-free medium. Using hormone — depleted cells, the effects of auxins (2,4-D, NAA, IAA and CFP) and cytokinins (BA, kinetin, and zeatin) on cell growth and RA production were investigated. All auxins tested could maintain growth and

W. De-Eknamkul; B. E. Ellis

1985-01-01

344

Yield, essential oil and pigment content of Calendula officinalis L. flower heads cultivated under salt stress conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flower heads of Calendula officinalis L. are used for medicinal or culinary purposes. Since Egyptian agricultural lands contain salt, this study investigated the effects of saline irrigation water on yield (fresh and dry weights of flower heads), essential oil (EO) yield, chemical constituents of the EO and total flavonoids and carotenoids of flower heads at three flowering stages, i.e. initial

Khalid A. Khalid

2010-01-01

345

Feeding behaviour of the Columbretes lizard Podarcis atrata, in relation to Isopoda (Crustaceae) species: Ligia italica and Armadillo officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lizard Podarcis atrata, endemic to the Columbretes archipelago (Mediterranean, Spain) occupies very small islands characterized by extreme aridity and a reduced availability of potential insect prey. The results of an experimental study have shown that adult lizards offered individuals of Ligia italica and Armadillo officinalis (marine and terrestrial isopods, respec- tively) consumed at high frequencies ; with males consuming

Aurora M. Castilla; Bieke Vanhooydonck; Alessandro Catenazzi

2008-01-01

346

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

347

Physical, chemical, histological and microbiological changes in fresh green asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis, L.) stored in modified atmosphere packaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) has been used to increase the shelf life of the green asparagus (Asparagus officinalis, L.), meeting the market demand for fresh high quality products available annually and without the use of additives whenever possible.Green asparagus spears were stored under three different conditions until they were not fit for consumption: refrigeration at 2 °C, MAP at 2

M. J. Villanueva; M. D. Tenorio; M. Sagardoy; A. Redondo; M. D. Saco

2005-01-01

348

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Analysis determination, kinetic reaction and model building  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid–liquid extraction was performed in a batch extractor, from aerial parts of Fumaria officinalis, in order to obtain an extract containing protopine. This study relates the influences of the temperature and nature of the solvent on the kinetics and rates of extraction. A method to quantify the protopine contents by Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography was initially perfected. Then, a

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2007-01-01

349

Effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on inhibiting airway inflammation and immune regulation in a chronic asthmatic mouse model  

PubMed Central

The Uygur herb, Hyssopus officinalis L., has been demonstrated to affect the levels of a number of cytokines in asthmatic mice, including interleukin-4, -6 and -17 and interferon-?. In the present study, the effect of Hyssopus officinalis L. on airway immune regulation and airway inflammation was investigated in a mouse model of chronic asthma. A total of 32 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups, which included the normal, chronic asthmatic, dexamethasone treatment and Hyssopus officinalis L.treatment groups. Mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin to establish an asthma model and the ratio of eosinophils (EOS) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was determined. In addition, the levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The degree of airway mucus secretion was observed using the periodic acid-Schiff stain method. The results demonstrated that the ratio of EOS in the BALF and the level of serum IgE in the chronic asthmatic and dexamethasone treatment groups increased, while the level of serum IgG decreased, when compared with the normal group. In addition, excessive secretion of airway mucus was observed in these two groups. However, the EOS ratio in the BALF and the levels of serum IgE and IgG in the Hyssopus officinalis L. treatment group were similar to the results observed in the normal group. In conclusion, Hyssopus officinalis L. not only plays an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting the invasion of EOS and decreasing the levels of IgE, but also affects immune regulation. PMID:25289025

MA, XIAOJUAN; MA, XIUMIN; MA, ZHIXING; WANG, JING; SUN, ZHAN; YU, WENYAN; LI, FENGSEN; DING, JIANBING

2014-01-01

350

Anti-Angiogenesis Effect of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Saliva officinalis on Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane (CAM).  

PubMed

Angiogenesis, which is required for physiological events, plays a crucial role in several pathological conditions, such as tumor growth and metastasis. The use of plant extracts is a cost effective and eco-friendly way to synthesize nanoparticles. In the present study, we investigated the anti-angiogenesis properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Saliva officinalis extract on chick chorioalantoic membrane. The production of nanoparticles was confirmed by the color change from yellow to brown observed after approximately 3 h at 37 °C. Then, the nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, and TEM. The UV-visible spectroscopy results showed that the surface plasmon resonance band for AgNPs was around 430 nm. The intensity of the AgNP-specific absorption peak improved with an increase of 0.5 mL of extract into 10 mL of AgNO3 (2.5 mM). The FTIR results showed good interaction between the plant extracts and AgNPs. The TEM images of the samples revealed that the NPs varied in morphology and size from 1 to 40 nm; the average was recorded at 16.5 ± 1.2 nm. Forty Ross fertilized eggs were divided into four groups; the control and three experimental groups. On the 8th day, gelatin sponges containing albumin were placed on the chorioalantoic membrane and soaked with different concentrations of NPs. On the 12th day, all the cases were photographed using a photostereomicroscope. The number and the lengths of the vessels were measured using Image J software. The crown rump (CR) and weight of the embryo were also recorded. Then the hemoglobin content was measured using Drabkin's reagent kit for quantification of the blood vessel formation. According to the data analysis, the number and length of the blood vessels, as well as the CR and weight of the embryos reduced significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05), dose dependently. The total hemoglobin was quantified as an indicator of the blood vessel formation. The hemoglobin content in the treated samples with AgNPs decreased, which showed its inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. PMID:25255752

Baharara, Javad; Namvar, Farideh; Mousavi, Marzieh; Ramezani, Tayebe; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

2014-01-01

351

In-vitro anti- Vibrio spp. activity and chemical composition of some Tunisian aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of five aromatic plants (Mentha longifolia, M. pulegium, Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis) frequently used in food preparation in Tunisia was analysed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial effect of the essential oils obtained\\u000a from these plants was tested against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio fluvialis strains. Thyme oil exhibited a high level of

Mejdi Snoussi; Hafedh Hajlaoui; Emira Noumi; Donatella Usai; Leonardo Antonio Sechi; Stefania Zanetti; Amina Bakhrouf

2008-01-01

352

The influence of relative plant density and floral morphological complexity on the behaviour of bumblebees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the combined effects of varying the relative density and the relative floral morphological complexity of plant\\u000a species on the behaviour of their bumblebee pollinators. Three species of bumblebee (Bombus pascuorum, B. terrestris and B. hortorum) were observed foraging on experimental arrays consisting of pair-wise combinations of four plant species: Borago officinalis, Phacelia tanacetifolia (both with simple flowers), Antirrhinum

Jane C. Stout; John A. Allen; Dave Goulson

1998-01-01

353

Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm) Extract on Neurogenesis Associated with Serum Corticosterone and GABA in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months\\u000a of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase\\u000a (GABA-T) to check their

Dae Young Yoo; Jung Hoon Choi; Woosuk Kim; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Choong Hyun Lee; Yeo Sung Yoon; Moo-Ho Won; In Koo Hwang

2011-01-01

354

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

355

The essential oil of Zingiber officinalis Linn (Zingiberaceae) as a mosquito larvicidal and repellent agent against the filarial vector Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted by steam distillation from Zingiber officinalis was evaluated for larvicidal and repellent activity against the filarial mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h treated for late third instar. The LC50 value was 50.78 ppm. Skin repellent test at 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mg\\/cm2 concentration of Z. officinalis gave 100% protection up to 15, 30, 60,

Thambusamy Pushpanathan; Arulsamy Jebanesan; Marimuthu Govindarajan

2008-01-01

356

Tunisian Salvia officinalis L. and Schinus molle L. essential oils: Their chemical compositions and their preservative effects against Salmonella inoculated in minced beef meat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils (EOs) extracted from the aerial parts of cultivated Salvia officinalis L. and the berries of Schinus molle L. were analysed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and 68 and 67 constituents were identified, respectively. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (33.27%), ?-thujone (18.40%), ?-thujone (13.45%), borneol (7.39%) in S. officinalis oil and ?-phellandrene (35.86%), ?-phellandrene (29.3%), ?-pinene (15.68%), p-cymene

El Akrem Hayouni; Imed Chraief; Manaf Abedrabba; Marielle Bouix; Jean-Yves Leveau; Hammami Mohammed; Moktar Hamdi

2008-01-01

357

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

358

Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling. PMID:24554883

Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

2013-01-01

359

Chlorinated coumarins from the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis and their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins, which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced by ab initio spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Napolitano, José G; Fryling, Nicole A; Franzblau, Scott G; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F

2013-10-25

360

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, Jose G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

361

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine receptor binding assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from sage leaves ( Salvia officinalis L.) revealed three flavones and two abietane diterpenes functioning as benzodiazepine receptor-active components. Structural elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was performed by UV, EI-MS, ESI(pos)-MS/MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The flavones apigenin, hispidulin and cirsimaritin competitively inhibited 3H-flumazenil binding to the benzodiazepine receptor with IC50 values of 30, 1.3 and 350 microM, respectively. In addition, the affinities of the newly discovered diterpene receptor ligands, i. e., 7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol, were characterized. 7-Methoxyrosmanol exhibited an IC50 value of 7.2 microM and galdosol showed the strongest binding activity to the benzodiazepine receptor with an IC50 value of 0.8 microM. PMID:12624814

Kavvadias, Dominique; Monschein, Vanessa; Sand, Philipp; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

2003-02-01

362

Effects of macronutrients on growth and rosmarinic acid formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis.  

PubMed

The influence of various macronutrients on growth and RA formation in cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been investigated. Factors tested included sucrose concentration, alternate carbon sources, nitrate, phosphate and calcium concentration. The optimum concentration of sucrose was 3%. Fructose, glucose or their 1:1 mixture were also suitable carbon sources. The optimum concentrations of nitrate (15 mM), phosphate (3 mM) and calcium (0.25 mM) were, respectively, 3/5, 3x, and 1/4 those in normal B5 medium, when tested separately. These concentrations improved not only the yield of RA but also cell growth to a similar degree (10%-50%). Studies on the combined effects of these optimum macronutrient concentrations in B5 medium showed that RA production is inhibited by 2,4-D-containing revised medium but stimulated by NAA-containing revised medium. PMID:24253681

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1985-04-01

363

Purification and characterization of prephenate aminotransferase from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures.  

PubMed

Prephenate aminotransferase (PAT) from rosmarinic acid-producing cell cultures of Anchusa officinalis has been purified to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity using a combination of high-performance anion-exchange, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme has a native molecular weight of 220,000 and subunit molecular weights of 44,000 and 57,000, indicating a possible alpha 2 beta 2 subunit structure. The purified PAT displays high affinity for prephenate (Km = 80 microM) but could also utilize other aromatic alpha-keto acids at less than 20% the rate with prephenate. L-Aspartate (Km = 80 microM) is about three times as effective as L-glutamate as amino-donor substrate. Anchusa PAT is not subject to feedback inhibition from L-phenylalanine or tyrosine, but its activity is affected by a rosmarinic acid metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. PMID:3196038

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1988-11-15

364

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12  

PubMed Central

The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

1981-01-01

365

Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.  

PubMed

In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

2015-01-01

366

Quantification of Fumaria officinalis isoquinoline alkaloids by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ion trap mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method using non-aqueous (NA) separation solutions combined with an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS and MS/MS) as detection device is presented for the separation, identification and quantification of isoquinoline alkaloids from Fumaria officinalis. The best results were obtained with a mixture of acetonitrile-methanol (9:1, v/v) containing 60mM ammonium acetate and 2.2M acetic acid as running electrolyte and an applied voltage of 30 kV. Electrospray MS measurements were performed in the positive ionization mode with isopropanol-water (1:1, v/v) as sheath liquid at a flow rate of 3 microl/min. Alkaloids were detected as [M+H](+)-ions and showed typical fragmentation patterns in MS/MS experiments. The developed assay was used for the quantification of seven isoquinoline alkaloids representing different structural subtypes in Fumariae herba extracts and F. herba containing phytopharmaceuticals. PMID:16378615

Sturm, Sonja; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Stuppner, Hermann

2006-04-21

367

Saponaria officinalis karyology and karyotype by means of image analyzer and atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to offer a contribution to the characterization of taxonomic entity of Saponaria officinalis (2n = 28; an herbaceous perennial species; saporin, a type 1 Ribosome Inactivating Protein, is present in leaves and seeds) by a cytogenetic and karyomorphological approach. We investigated the karyotype's morphometry correlated with Stebbin's symmetric index; the same information has been used for computing the indices resemblance between chromosomes (REC), symmetric indices (SYI), and total form (TF%) which allow the comparison between species and evaluation of karyological evolution. Fluorescence intensities of the stained nuclei were measured by a flow cytometer and, for the first time, values for nuclear DNA content were estimated by comparing nuclei fluorescence intensities of the test population with those of appropriate internal DNA standards. Our study is also aimed to introduce chromosomal volumes, which were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM), as novel karyomorphological parameter which could allow for chromosome discrimination especially when tiny ones are present. PMID:18618603

Di Bucchianico, S; Venora, G; Lucretti, S; Limongi, T; Palladino, L; Poma, A

2008-10-01

368

The amino acid sequence of a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis seeds.  

PubMed

The complete primary structure of saporin SO-6, a ribosome-inactivating protein extracted from Saponaria officinalis seeds, has been determined. The sequence was reconstructed following purification and analysis of peptides obtained after digestion of the protein with different proteolytic agents. The protein is composed of 253 amino acids, corresponding to a molecular weight of 28,621 Da. Comparison of the primary structure of SO-6 with the sequence deduced from cDNA, shows amino acid substitutions in 11 positions, suggesting a tissue-related genetic variability. When the sequence of saporin is compared to those of two related proteins, ricin A chain and trichosanthin, a low degree of similarity (12%) is found; nevertheless some considerations about structure-function relationships and evolution of RIPs are possible. PMID:2256945

Maras, B; Ippoliti, R; De Luca, E; Lendaro, E; Bellelli, A; Barra, D; Bossa, F; Brunori, M

1990-08-01

369

Comparative evaluation of Melissa officinalis L., Tilia europaea L., Passiflora edulis Sims. and Hypericum perforatum L. in the elevated plus maze anxiety test.  

PubMed

There are numerous plants that have been used for their 'tranquillising' properties in Portuguese folk medicine. This report will describe a comparative analysis of the effects of Melissa officinalis L., Tilia europaea L., Passiflora edulis Sims. and Hypericum perforatum L. on the performance of mice in the elevated plus maze, open-field, and horizontal-wire tests. We have tested lyophilised aqueous extracts with doses ranging from 5-100 mg/kg prepared according to traditional folk medicine. The results indicate that Hypericum perforatum L. and Tilia europaea L. induced significant raise in immobility time, diminution of rearing and other parameters, suggesting a clear sedative effect at doses ranging from 10-100 mg/kg. Below these doses, Tilia europaea L. did not induce any significant change in the tests mentioned, while Hypericum perforatum L. (5 mg/kg) increased the time spent in the open areas of the elevated plus maze and the percentage of unprotected head-dips and stretch-approach postures, thus indicating an anxiolytic effect. For this dose, there were no significant changes in motor activity as measured by classical parameters for the tests used. As the infused H. perforatum L. tested was devoid of hyperforin, it can be stated that the observed effects cannot be attributed to this substance. PMID:11518069

Coleta, M; Campos, M G; Cotrim, M D; Proença da Cunha, A

2001-07-01

370

Molecular characterization and expression of a cDNA encoding fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).  

PubMed

* Fructan:fructan 6G-fructosyltransferase (6G-FFT) catalyses a transfructosylation from fructooligosaccharides to C6 of the glucose residue of sucrose or fructooligosacchrides. In asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), 6G-FFT is important for the synthesis of inulin neoseries fructan. Here, we report the isolation and functional analysis of the gene encoding asparagus 6G-FFT. * A cDNA clone was isolated from asparagus cDNA library. Recombinant protein was produced by expression system of Pichia pastoris. To measure enzymatic activity, recombinant protein was incubated with sucrose, 1-kestose, 1-kestose and sucrose, or neokestose. The reaction products were detected by high performance anion-exchange chromatography. * The deduced amino acid sequence of isolated cDNA was similar to that of fructosyltransferases and vacuolar type invertases from plants. Recombinant protein mainly produced inulin neoseries fructan, such as 1F, 6G-di-beta-D-fructofuranosylsucrose and neokestose. * Recombinant protein demonstrates 6G-FFT activity, and slight fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) activity. The ratio of 6G-FFT activity to 1-FFT activity was calculated to be 13. The characteristics of the recombinant protein closely resemble those of the 6G-FFT from asparagus roots, except for a difference in accompanying 1-FFT activity. PMID:15720693

Ueno, Keiji; Onodera, Shuichi; Kawakami, Akira; Yoshida, Midori; Shiomi, Norio

2005-03-01

371

High-speed countercurrent chromatographic recovery and off-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry profiling of bisdesmodic saponins from Saponaria officinalis possessing synergistic toxicity enhancing properties on targeted antitumor toxins.  

PubMed

Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae), also known as fuller's herb or soapwort is a medicinal plant, which grows from Europe to Central Asia. Medicinal properties attributed to this plant include its antitussive and galactogogue properties. Recently, bisdesmodic saponins with very specific structural features from S. officinalis have been shown to strongly enhance the efficacy of specific targeted toxins (anti-tumor antibodies connected to protein toxins) in-vitro and in-vivo in a synergistic manner. In the presently reported novel approach we used preparative all-liquid high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) to recover a total of 22 fractions using biphasic solvent system tert-butylmethylether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water 1:3:1:5 (v/v/v/v) from a complex precipitated crude saponin mixture. Out of these 22 fractions, 3 fractions had the enhancer effect on anti-tumor toxins out of which one fraction (F7) was further tested elaborately in different cell lines. The molecular weight distribution and compound profiles of separated saponins were monitored by off-line injections of the sequentially collected fractions to an electrospray ion-trap mass-spectrometry system (ESI-IT-MS). The functional saponin fractions were mainly bisdesmosidc and contained saponin m/z 1861 amongst other. Using the bio-assay guided monitoring, the highly active fractions containing 2 to 3 bisdesmodic saponins (5?g/mL) were screened for their effectiveness in enhancing the anti-tumor activity of targeted toxin Sap3-EGF, which was determined using the impedance based real-time cell cytotoxicity evaluation. This novel combination of HSCCC fractionation, MS-target-guided profiling procedure and bio-assay guided fractionation yielded 100mg of functional saponins from a 60g crude drug powder in a rapid and convenient manner. PMID:24631804

Thakur, Mayank; Jerz, Gerold; Tuwalska, Dorota; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Wybraniec, S?awomir; Winterhalter, Peter; Fuchs, Hendrik; Weng, Alexander

2014-04-01

372

Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes. PMID:23327299

2013-01-01

373

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

374

Determination of glucosinolates in 19 Chinese medicinal plants with spectrophotometry and high-pressure liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Glucosinolates were evaluated in 19 traditional Chinese medicinal plants involved in seven different families: Brassicaceae, Capparaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Phytolaccaceae, Tropaeolaceae, Caricaceae and Rubiaceae. The total glucosinolate contents were determined by spectrophotometry. Results showed that the high contents of total glucosinolates were found in some herbs of Brassicaceae, Capparaceae and Euphorbiaceae families, while low total glucosinolate contents were observed in two Rubiaceae herbs. In addition, eight glucosinolates (glucoraphanin, glucoraphenin, sinalbin, sinigrin, progoitrin, 4-hydroglucobrassicin, glucoiberin and glucoibervirin) in these herbs were measured using HPLC, and the data showed that individual glucosinolates and their contents varied at different degrees among the distinct species. The highest contents of cancer-protective compounds were found in the seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (glucoraphenin), Sinapis alba (sinalbin) and Phyllanthus emblica L. (sinigrin). PMID:20645206

Hu, Ye; Liang, Hao; Yuan, Qipeng; Hong, Yuancheng

2010-08-01

375

Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.  

PubMed

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

2004-01-01

376

Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis  

PubMed Central

This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation. PMID:22494441

2012-01-01

377

Egg capsule secretion in invertebrates: a new ovarian regulatory peptide identified by mass spectrometry comparative screening in Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry comparative screening was used to identify ovarian regulatory peptides involved in the successive steps of egg-laying in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. The peptide content of full-grown oocytes (FGO) was compared with that of oocyte-conditioned medium, which resulted in the detection of peptides that were present in both samples. These peptides, which are suspected of being released by the

Jean Gagnon; Joël Henry

2004-01-01

378

Characterization of a novel Sepia officinalis neuropeptide using MALDI-TOF MS and post-source decay analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel neuropeptide acting as a myosuppressor on esophagus, funnel and mantle muscular fibers has been isolated from the stellar ganglia of the mollusk cephalopod Sepia officinalis by means of HPLC analysis. Fractions were monitored using a myotropic bioassay. After three separation steps, MALDI-TOF spectrum revealed one main peak at m\\/z 756.6. The partial N-terminal and C-terminal digestions by exopeptidases

L. F. Marvin; C. Zatylny; J. Leprince; H. Vaudry; J. Henry

2001-01-01

379

Temperature-dependent oxygen extraction from the ventilatory current and the costs of ventilation in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier work found cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ventilatory muscle tissue to progressively switch to an anaerobic mode of energy production at critical temperatures (T\\u000a c) of 7.0 and 26.8°C. These findings suggested that oxygen availability limits thermal tolerance. The present study was designed to elucidate whether it is the ventilatory apparatus that sets critical temperature thresholds during acute thermal stress. Routine

Frank Melzner; Christian Bock; Hans O. Pörtner

2006-01-01

380

Chemical constituents of Chinese natural medicine, morindae radix, the dried roots of morinda officinalis how.: structures of morindolide and morofficinaloside.  

PubMed

A new iridoid lactone, morindolide, and a new iridoid glucoside, morofficinaloside, have been isolated from a Chinese natural medicine, Morindae Radix, the dried root of Morinda officinalis How. together with a number of known compounds: five anthraquinones, four iridoid glucosides, a monoterpene glycoside, two sterols, an ursane-type triterpene, and a lactone compound. The chemical structures of the new compounds were determined on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. PMID:7586069

Yoshikawa, M; Yamaguchi, S; Nishisaka, H; Yamahara, J; Murakami, N

1995-09-01

381

Effects of elevated CO 2 on flowering phenology and nectar production of nectar plants important for butterflies of calcareous grasslands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Effects of elevated CO2 on flowering phenology and nectar production were investigated in Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus, Scabiosa columbaria, Centaurea jacea and Betonica officinalis, which are all important nectar plants for butterflies. In glasshouse experiments, juvenile plants were exposed to ambient\\u000a (350??l?l?1) and elevated (660??l?l?1) CO2 concentrations for 60–80 days. Elevated CO2 significantly enhanced the development of flower buds in

Hans Peter Rusterholz; Andreas Erhardt

1998-01-01

382

D-Glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.  

PubMed

Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, D-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, D-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24657927

Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

2014-05-01

383

Asparagus officinalis extract controls blood glucose by improving insulin secretion and ?-cell function in streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic mechanism of Asparagus officinalis, a dietary agent used for the management of diabetes. Streptozotocin (90 mg/kg) was injected in 2-d-old Wistar rat pups to induce non-obese type 2 diabetes. After confirmation of diabetes on the 13th week, diabetic rats were treated with a methanolic extract of A. officinalis seeds (250 and 500 mg/kg per d) or glibenclamide for 28 d. After the treatment, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and total antioxidant status were measured. The pancreas was examined by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunostained ?- and ?-cells were observed using a fluorescence microscope. Treatment of the diabetic rats with the A. officinalis extract at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg suppressed the elevated blood glucose in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The 500 mg/kg, but not 250 mg/kg, dose significantly improved serum insulin levels in the diabetic rats. The insulin:glucose ratio was significantly increased at both doses in the A. officinalis-treated rats. Both qualitative and quantitative improvements in ?-cell function were found in the islets of the A. officinalis-treated rats. The extract showed potent antioxidant activity in an in vitro assay and also improved the total antioxidant status in vivo. In most cases, the efficacy of A. officinalis (500 mg/kg) was very similar to a standard anti-diabetic drug, glibenclamide. Thus, the present study suggests that A. officinalis extract exerts anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin secretion and ?-cell function, as well as the antioxidant status. PMID:22221560

Hafizur, Rahman Md; Kabir, Nurul; Chishti, Sidra

2012-11-14

384

Among-Population Variation in Microbial Community Structure in the Floral Nectar of the Bee-Pollinated Forest Herb Pulmonaria officinalis L  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial communities in floral nectar have been shown to be characterized by low levels of species diversity, yet little is known about among-plant population variation in microbial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the microbial community structure (yeasts and bacteria) in floral nectar of ten fragmented populations of the bee-pollinated forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. We also explored possible relationships between plant population size and microbial diversity in nectar, and related microbial community composition to the distance separating plant populations. Culturable bacteria and yeasts occurring in the floral nectar of a total of 100 plant individuals were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene, respectively. A total of 9 and 11 yeast and 28 and 39 bacterial OTUs was found, taking into account a 3% (OTU0.03) and 1% sequence dissimilarity cut-off (OTU0.01). OTU richness at the plant population level (i.e. the number of OTUs per population) was low for yeasts (mean: 1.7, range: 0–4 OTUs0.01/0.03 per population), whereas on average 6.9 (range: 2–13) OTUs0.03 and 7.9 (range 2–16) OTUs0.01 per population were found for bacteria. Both for yeasts and bacteria, OTU richness was not significantly related to plant population size. Similarity in community composition among populations was low (average Jaccard index: 0.14), and did not decline with increasing distance between populations. Conclusions/Significance We found low similarity in microbial community structure among populations, suggesting that the assembly of nectar microbiota is to a large extent context-dependent. Although the precise factors that affect variation in microbial community structure in floral nectar require further study, our results indicate that both local and regional processes may contribute to among-population variation in microbial community structure in nectar. PMID:23536759

Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Brys, Rein; Willems, Kris; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart

2013-01-01

385

Floral display size and spatial distribution of potential mates affect pollen deposition and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

In animal-pollinated plants, both the spatial distribution of flowering individuals and the number of flowers that an individual displays affect pollen deposition rates and female reproductive success. Heterostylous species are likely to be particularly sensitive to the contingencies of spatial distribution, as they are reproductively subdivided into distinct mating groups, which usually exhibit self- and intra-morph incompatibility and differ in floral morphology. In this paper, we explore the joint effects of both spatial distribution of potential mates and floral display size on morph-specific pollen deposition rates and seed set patterns in two natural populations of Pulmonaria officinalis, a distylous species with a weak self-incompatibility system. Both total stigmatic pollen load and the proportion of legitimate pollen decreased with increasing spatial isolation. Legitimate (intermorph) pollen transfer was, however, asymmetric and decreased more rapidly with decreasing proximity to a compatible legitimate mating partner in the S-morph than in the L-morph. Total stigmatic pollen loads per flower increased with increasing floral display size, indicating that large plants are disproportionately more visited than smaller individuals. However, because legitimate pollen deposition decreased with increasing floral display size, these results also suggest that larger numbers of flowers increase the degree of geitonogamous pollination. In both the L- and S-morph, seed set significantly decreased with increasing isolation from a legitimate mating partner, but in the L-morph seed set was less dependent on the spatial distribution of the S-morph. In addition, seed set significantly increased with floral display size in the L-morph, but not in the S-morph. These findings indicate that the spatial distribution of potential mates and variation in floral display size may cause morph-specific differences in pollen deposition rates and female reproductive success. PMID:20636902

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H

2010-07-01

386

Apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with molecules targeting nuclear factor-kappaB.  

PubMed

Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in several pathologies associated with bone loss, including rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, bone metastasis of myeloma, osteosarcoma, and breast cancer. In this review we determined the effects of natural compounds, including extracts from medicinal plants, on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs obtained from peripheral blood. We found that OCs from umbilical cord blood and peripheral blood behave differently in response to molecules inducing apoptosis in this experimental system. Apoptosis induced by decoy oligonucleotides was reproducibly obtained in OCs from peripheral blood but not in OCs derived from cord blood. With respect to effects of medicinal plants, we found that crude extracts of Emblica officinalis are able to induce specifically programmed cell death of mature OCs without altering the process of osteoclastogenesis. E. officinalis specifically increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments BioPharmaNet demonstrate that E. officinalis extracts specifically compete with the binding of a transcription factor involved in osteoclastogenesis NF-kappaB to its specific target DNA sequences. This might explain the observed effects of E. officinalis on the expression levels of IL-6, an NF-kappaB-specific target gene. We suggest the application of natural products as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases. PMID:19723088

Piva, Roberta; Penolazzi, Letizia; Borgatti, Monica; Lampronti, Ilaria; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Torreggiani, Elena; Gambari, Roberto

2009-08-01

387

Identification of indole alkaloids in Nauclea officinalis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion trap and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Indole alkaloids from Nauclea officinalis (Pierra ex Pitard) Merr are prospective agents for inflammation- related diseases. To speed up the process of discovering such bioactive compounds from natural origins, a mass spectrometry-based method was developed to screen N. officinalis for the presence of indole alkaloids. First, representative alkaloids were purified from herbs and analyzed using an ion trap (IT) mass spectrometer. Multi-stage mass spectra (MS(n))were utilized to establish the characteristic fragmentation pathways of indole alkaloids. It was shown that their fragmentation behaviors were correlated with the degree of unsaturation on ring-D of such alkaloids: if there is a double bond between C-3 and C-14, no fragments of ring cleavage are observed; otherwise, a fragment ion after reverse Diels-Alder cleavage of ring-D is observed as the base peak in their tandem mass spectrometry data. Then, herbal extracts of N. officinalis were analyzed using a combination of high- performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)/IT and HPLC/time-of-flight (ToF) systems. The structures of suspected alkaloids were deduced based on the accurate mass information from ToF and MS(n) from IT. Finally, a total of 10 indole and one indolizidine alkaloids were identified or tentatively characterized in extracts of N. officinalis. This work has demonstrated that the combination of MS(n) and ToF-MS can be used for rapid identification of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in N. officinalis. PMID:21828417

Li, Qin; Zhang, Yufeng; Wu, Bin; Qu, Habin

2011-01-01

388

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260?nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

Chovanova, Romana; Vaverkova, Stefania

2013-01-01

389

Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

390

Rosmarinic acid formation and differential expression of tyrosine aminotransferase isoforms in Anchusa officinalis cell suspension cultures.  

PubMed

Time-course changes in rosmarinic acid (RA) formation and activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) isoforms were examined in Anchusa officinalis suspension cultures. Three TAT isoforms (TAT-1, TAT-3, TAT-4) were resolved by Mono-Q anion-exchange column chromatography. The proportion of the TAT-3 activity within the total TAT activity remained high regardless of the growth stage of the cultured cells. TAT-1 activity was positively correlated with the rate of RA biosynthesis during linear growth stage of the culture cycle, while TAT-4 activity was rapidly induced in conjunction with transfer to fresh medium coincident with a transient increase in RA synthesis. Based on these results, as well as the substrate specificity of each TAT isoform, it was concluded that both TAT-1 and TAT-4 are closely involved in RA biosynthesis. TAT-1 controls conversion of tyrosine to 4-hydroxyphenyl pyruvate, and TAT-4 acts by participating in the formation of tyrosine and phenylalanine via prephenate. PMID:24221665

Mizukami, H; Ellis, B E

1991-09-01

391

Purification and characterization of tyrosine aminotransferase activities from Anchusa officinalis cell cultures.  

PubMed

Three activities of tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT; EC 2.6.1.5), the enzyme which catalyzes the first step of the tyrosine pathway leading to the formation of rosmarinic acid (alpha-O-caffeoyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), have been extensively purified from cell suspension cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. and subsequently characterized. TAT-1, TAT-2, and TAT-3 differ slightly in native molecular weights (180,000-220,000) and are composed of subunits (4 X 43,000 for TAT-1 and 4 X 56,000 for TAT-2). All three enzymes show a pronounced preference for L-tyrosine over other aromatic amino acids, but TAT-2 and TAT-3 can also effectively utilize L-aspartate or L-glutamate as a substrate. For amino acceptor cosubstrates, either oxaloacetate or alpha-ketoglutarate can be utilized equally well by TAT-1, while the former is the most effective alpha-keto acid for TAT-2 and the latter is the best for TAT-3. All the TAT activities display high pH optima (8.8-9.6), and are inhibited by the tyrosine metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactate. TAT-2 and TAT-3 are also inhibited by rosmarinic acid. PMID:2889425

De-Eknamkul, W; Ellis, B E

1987-09-01

392

Composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis L. from various European countries.  

PubMed

Variations in the essential oil composition of Salvia officinalis L. growing in Estonia and in other European countries were determined. The oils were obtained in yields of 2.2-24.8 mL kg(-1). In three samples, the content of essential oil did not conform to the EP standard (10 mL kg(-1)). Variations in the essential oil composition of sage were studied using capillary gas chromatographic methods. A total of 40 components were identified. The principal components in the sage oils were 1,8-cineole, camphor, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone, borneol, and viridiflorol. The chemotypes of sage were not determined in investigated samples. The concentration of the main compounds in the drugs cultivated in Estonia varied in about the same range as the concentrations of these compounds in the oils of drugs obtained from other countries. The comparatively high concentration of toxic thujones seem to be characteristic to sage leaves cultivated in Estonia. PMID:17487611

Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

2007-05-01

393

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil.  

PubMed

The present study describes antimicrobial and free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) together with the effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) of Melissa officinalis essential oil. The chemical profile of essential oil was evaluated by the means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). RSC was assessed measuring the scavenging activity of essential oil on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) and OH(*) radicals. The effect on LP was evaluated following the activities on Fe(2+)/ascorbate and Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) systems of induction. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 13 bacterial strains and six fungi. The examined essential oil exhibited very strong RSC, reducing the DPPH radical formation (IC(50) = 7.58 microg/mL) and OH radical generation (IC(50) = 1.74 microg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. According to the GC-MS and TLC (dot-blot techniques), the most powerful scavenging compounds were monoterpene aldehydes and ketones (neral/geranial, citronellal, isomenthone, and menthone) and mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (E-caryophyllene). Very strong inhibition of LP, particularly in the Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system of induction (94.59% for 2.13 microg/mL), was observed in both cases, also in a dose-dependent manner. The most effective antibacterial activity was expressed on a multiresistant strain of Shigella sonei. A significant rate of antifungal activity was exhibited on Trichophyton species. PMID:15113145

Mimica-Dukic, Neda; Bozin, Biljana; Sokovic, Marina; Simin, Natasa

2004-05-01

394

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually-guided, rapid adaptive camouflage for multiple tactics to avoid detection or recognition by predators. Two common tactics are background matching and resembling an object (masquerade) in the immediate area. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three-dimensional (3D) object in the immediate visual field (via the mechanism of masquerade/deceptive resemblance) rather than the 2D benthic substrate surrounding them (via the mechanisms of background matching or disruptive coloration). Cuttlefish were presented with a combination of benthic substrates (natural rocks or artificial checkerboard and grey printouts) and 3D objects (natural rocks or cylinders with artificial checkerboards and grey printouts glued to the outside) with visual features known to elicit each of three camouflage body pattern types (Uniform, Mottle and Disruptive). Animals were tested for a preference to show a body pattern appropriate for the 3D object or the benthic substrate. Cuttlefish responded by masquerading as the 3D object, rather than resembling the benthic substrate, only when presented with a high-contrast object on a substrate of lower contrast. Contrast is, therefore, one important cue in the cuttlefish's preference to resemble 3D objects rather than the benthic substrate. PMID:21964504

Buresch, Kendra C; Mäthger, Lydia M; Allen, Justine J; Bennice, Chelsea; Smith, Neal; Schram, Jonathan; Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Chubb, Charles; Hanlon, Roger T

2011-12-01

395

Evidence for distributed light sensing in the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

We report that the skin of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, contains opsin transcripts suggesting a possible role of distributed light sensing for dynamic camouflage and signalling. The mRNA coding for opsin from various body regions was amplified and sequenced, and gene expression was detected in fin and ventral skin samples. The amino acid sequence of the opsin polypeptide that these transcripts would produce was identical in retina and fin tissue samples, but the ventral skin opsin transcripts differed by a single amino acid. The diverse camouflage and signalling body patterns of cephalopods are visually controlled, and these findings suggest a possible additional mechanism of light sensing and subsequent skin patterning. Cuttlefish, along with a number of other cephalopod species, have been shown to be colour-blind. Since the opsin in the fin is identical to that of the retina (?max = 492 nm), and the ventral transcripts are also unlikely to be spectrally different, colour discrimination by the skin opsins is unlikely. However, spectral discrimination could be provided by involving other skin structures (chromatophores and iridophores), which produce changeable colours and patterns. This ‘distributed sensing’ could supplement the otherwise visually driven dynamic camouflage system by assisting with colour or brightness matching to adjacent substrates. PMID:20392722

Mathger, Lydia M.; Roberts, Steven B.; Hanlon, Roger T.

2010-01-01

396

Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).  

PubMed

A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

2011-01-01

397

Structural and Sensory Characterization of Bitter Tasting Steroidal Saponins from Asparagus Spears (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Application of sequential solvent extraction and iterative chromatographic separation in combination with taste dilution analysis recently revealed a series of steroidal saponins as the key contributors to the typical bitter taste of white asparagus spears (Asparagus officinalis L.). Besides six previously reported saponins, (25R)-furost-5-en-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, (25R)-furostane-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and (25S)-furostane-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, and 3-O-[{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)}{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?4)}-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-spirost-5-ene-3?-ol were identified for the first time as key bitter compounds in the edible spears of white asparagus by means of LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, and hydrolysis experiments. This paper presents the isolation, structure determination, and sensory activity of these saponins. Depending on their chemical structure, the saponins identified showed human bitter recognition thresholds between 10.9 and 199.7 ?mol/L (water). PMID:23137023

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

398

Occurrence and characterization of a Phytophthora sp. pathogenic to asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) in Michigan.  

PubMed

A homothallic Phytophthora sp. was recovered from asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) spears, storage roots, crowns, and stems in northwest and central Michigan in 2004 and 2005. Isolates (n = 131) produced ovoid, nonpapillate, noncaducous sporangia 45 microm long x 26 microm wide and amphigynous oospores of 25 to 30 microm diameter. Mycelial growth was optimum at 25 degrees C with no growth at 5 and 30 degrees C. All isolates were sensitive to 100 ppm mefenoxam. Pathogenicity studies confirmed the ability of the isolates to infect asparagus as well as cucurbits. Amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of 99 isolates revealed identical fingerprints, with 12 clearly resolved fragments present and no clearly resolved polymorphic fragments, suggesting a single clonal lineage. The internal transcribed spacer regions of representative isolates were homologous with a Phytophthora sp. isolated from diseased asparagus in France and a Phytophthora sp. from agave in Australia. Phylogenetic analysis supports the conclusion that the Phytophthora sp. isolated from asparagus in Michigan is a distinct species, and has been named Phytophthora asparagi. PMID:18943453

Saude, C; Hurtado-Gonzales, O P; Lamour, K H; Hausbeck, M K

2008-10-01

399

Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

400

Quantitation and bitter taste contribution of saponins in fresh and cooked white asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

A sensitive HPLC-MS/MS method was developed enabling the simultaneous quantification of bitter-tasting mono- and bidesmosidic saponins in fresh and processed asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.). Based on quantitative data and bitter taste recognition thresholds, dose-over-threshold factors were determined for the first time to determine the bitter impact of the individual saponins. Although 3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1?2)-?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R/S)-spirost-5-ene-3?-ol was found based on dose-over-threshold factors to be the predominant bitter saponin in raw asparagus spears, 3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)}-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, 3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 2)-{?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)}-?-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[?-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25S)-22-hydroxyfurost-5-ene-3?,26-diol, and (25R)- and (25S)-furost-5-en-3?,22,26-triol-3-O-[?-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 ? 4)-?-D-glucopyranoside]-26-O-?-D-glucopyranoside were found as key bitter contributors after cooking. Interestingly, the monodesmosidic saponins 5a/b were demonstrated for the first time to be the major contributor to the bitter taste of fresh asparagus spears, while the bidesmosides 1a/b and 2a/b may be considered the primary determinants for the bitter taste of cooked asparagus. PMID:24128498

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2014-02-15

401

Identification and expression of two oxytocin/vasopressin-related peptides in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Two novel members of the oxytocin/vasopressin superfamily have been identified in the cephalopod Sepia officinalis. Oxytocin/vasopressin gene sequences were cloned by Race PCR. The two precursors we identified exhibit the classical organization of OT/VP superfamily precursors: a signal peptide followed by a nonapeptide and a neurophysin domain. The neurophysin domain is entirely conserved for the cuttlefish precursors, but the nonapeptides and the signal peptides differ. The first nonapeptide, called sepiatocin, is highly homologous to Octopus vulgaris octopressin. The second nonapeptide, called pro-sepiatocin, shows sequence homologies with a Crustacean oxytocin/vasopressin-like peptide identified in Daphnia culex and with a novel form of oxytocin described in New World monkeys. The expression of pro-sepiatocin is restricted to the supraesophageal and subesophageal masses of the brain whereas sepiatocin is expressed in the entire central nervous system. Sepiatocin, as described for octopressin, modulates the contractile activity of several muscles such as penis, oviduct and vena cava muscles; this suggests its involvement in reproduction and blood circulation. Pro-sepiatocin is released in the hemolymph; it is a neurohormone able to target numerous peripheral organs. PMID:23764263

Henry, Joël; Cornet, Valerie; Bernay, Benoit; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline

2013-08-01

402

Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.  

PubMed

In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

Aberoumand, Ali

2009-01-01

403

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

404

Adaptogenic properties of six rasayana herbs used in Ayurvedic medicine.  

PubMed

Plants from all over the world such as Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng, Raponticum carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera and Ocimum sanctum have been extensively evaluated for their adaptogenic potential. However, none of them has been successfully introduced as an adaptogen in the clinic. This paper discusses some of the problems in evaluation of adaptogens which have precluded their inclusion as clinically useful drugs. We further discuss our results with six rasayana plants from Ayurveda, which were studied for their adaptogenic potential. The whole, aqueous, standardized extracts of selected plants (Tinospora cordifolia, Asparagus racemosus, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Piper longum and Terminalia chebula) were administered orally to experimental animals, in a dose extrapolated from the human dose, following which they were exposed to a variety of biological, physical and chemical stressors. These plants were found to offer protection against these stressors, as judged by using markers of stress responses and objective parameters for stress manifestations. Using a model of cisplatin induced alterations in gastrointestinal motility, the ability of these plants to exert a normalizing effect, irrespective of direction of pathological change was tested. All the plants reversed the effects of cisplatin on gastric emptying, while Tinospora cordifolia and Asparagus racemosus also normalized cisplatin induced intestinal hypermotility. Tinospora cordifolia was also tested for its ability to modulate the changes occurring in the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages after exposure of rats to either carbon tetrachloride or horse serum. It was found to normalize the phagocytic function irrespective to the direction of change, complying to the definition of an adaptogen. All the plant drugs were found to be safe in both acute and subacute toxicity studies. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the plants revealed that they all produced immunostimulation. The protection offered by Tinospora cordifolia against stress induced gastric mucosal damage was lost if macrophage activity was blocked. Emblica officinalis strengthened the defence mechanisms against free radical damage induced during stress. The effect of Emblica officinalis appeared to depend on the ability of target tissues to synthesize prostaglandins. Recent data obtained with Tinospora cordifolia suggest that it may induce genotypic adaptation, further opening the arena for more research and experimentation. PMID:10404532

Rege, N N; Thatte, U M; Dahanukar, S A

1999-06-01

405

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

2013-02-01

406

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

407

Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC. PMID:21413146

Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

2011-03-01

408

Crystallization and preliminary X-ray study of saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Single crystals of the protein saporin isolated from the seeds of S. officinalis have been grown by the vapor-diffusion method using ammonium sulfate as precipitant. The crystals are tetragonal, space group P4122 (P4322), with cell dimensions a = b = 67.53 and c = 119. 67 A, and diffract to 2.0 A resolution on a rotating-anode X-ray source. The asymmetric unit contains one molecule, corresponding to a volume of the asymmetric unit per unit mass (Vm) of 2.38 A3 Da-1. PMID:9761860

Savino, C; Federici, L; Brancaccio, A; Ippoliti, R; Lendaro, E; Tsernoglou, D

1998-07-01

409

Life Table and Consumption Capacity of Corn Earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, Fed Asparagus, Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, two-sex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (?), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day-1, 1.0811 day-1, 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day-1, 1.0781 day-1, 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination.

Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

2014-01-01

410

Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.  

PubMed

To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), ?-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and ?-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between ?-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and ?-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, ?-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and ?-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. PMID:24443430

Steševi?, Danijela; Risti?, Mihailo; Nikoli?, Vuko; Nedovi?, Marijana; Cakovi?, Danka; Šatovi?, Zlatko

2014-01-01

411

A variety of volatile compounds as markers in unifloral honey from dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Volatile compounds of unifloral Salvia officinalis L. honey has been investigated for the first time. The botanical origin of ten unifloral Salvia honey samples has been ascertained by pollen analysis (the honey samples displayed 23-60% of Salvia pollen). Fifty-four volatile compounds were identified by GC and GC/MS in ten Salvia honey extracts obtained by ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) with pentane/Et(2)O 1 : 2. The yield of isolated volatiles varied from 25.7 to 30.5 mg kg(-1). Salvia honey could be distinguished on the basis of the high percentage of benzoic acid (6.4-14.8%), and especially phenylacetic acid (5.7-18.4%). Minor, but floral-origin important volatiles were identified such as shikimate pathway derivatives, 'degraded-carotenoid-like' structures (3,5,5-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives) and 2,6,6-trimethylcyclohex-2-ene derivatives. Compounds from other metabolic pathways such as aliphatic acids and higher linear hydrocarbons, as well as heterocycles (pyrans, furans, and pyrroles), were also present. Most of the identified compounds do not constitute specific Salvia honey markers, due to their presence in honeys of other botanical origins; however, their ratio in different honeys could be useful to distinguish floral origin. Salvia-honey volatile markers were: benzoic acid, phenylacetic acid, p-anisaldehyde, alpha-isophorone, 4-ketoisophorone, dehydrovomifoliol, 2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-ene-1-carbaldehyde, 2,2,6-trimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dione, and coumaran. PMID:17193245

Jerkovi?, Igor; Masteli?, Josip; Marijanovi?, Zvonimir

2006-12-01

412

Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase ( r), finite rate of increase ( ?), net reproductive rate ( R0), and mean generation time ( T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

2014-01-01

413

Antiproliferation effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on human ovarian cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular culinary/medicinal herb. Recent studies have shown it has pharmacologic activities for cancer chemoprevention and therapy. This study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cancer cells, and whether the extract and its three main active ingredients carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA) can enhance the antiproliferation activity of cisplatin (CDDP). Our study showed that RE has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line A2780CP70, with IC(50) (50% inhibitory concentration) estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions respectively. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with CDDP on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. A2780 cells were consistently more sensitive to CS, CA, and RA than A2780CP70 cells between 2.5 and 20?g/ml. CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with CDDP on A2780 cells at some concentrations. RE treated by ultrafiltration, dialysis, and removal of phenolics lost the antiproliferation activity suggested that the activity resides in phenolics with MW<1000Da. Apoptosis array study of A2780 cells treated with RE showed that the expression of a number of genes regulating apoptosis were modulated by the treatment. This study showed that RE inhibited the proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases. It induced apoptosis by modifying the expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis, and holds potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22325591

Tai, Joseph; Cheung, Susan; Wu, Matthew; Hasman, David

2012-03-15

414

Hepatotoxicity of immunotoxins made with saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis.  

PubMed

Immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating saporin, a ribosome-inactivating protein from Saponaria officinalis, to a monoclonal antibody against the Thy1.1 antigen, or to its F(ab')2 fragment. The immunotoxins were eight- to 16-fold more toxic to mice than free saporin. Injection of the immunotoxins induced necrosis of the liver and spleen, whereas free saporin caused necrosis of the epithelium of the kidney tubules. The cytoplasm of the hepatic parenchymal cells was affected by the immunotoxins, lesions being apparent in the rough endoplasmic reticulum and, later, in the mitochondria. These changes were associated with a reduced capacity to synthesise proteins both in the intact liver and by isolated liver microsomes. Studies of the in vivo distribution showed that 90% of the free saporin was removed from the bloodstream, mainly by the kidneys, within 10 min of injection. By contrast, the immunotoxins persisted in the blood for several hours and the only organ in which they consistently accumulated was the liver. The hepatotoxic effect of the immunotoxins was not due to their binding to liver cells via the antigen-binding sites or the Fc-piece of the antibody moiety, nor was it due to hepatic recognition of carbohydrate in the immunotoxin. It is concluded that free saporin, although capable of entering liver cells, is filtered so rapidly by the kidney that liver damage does not occur to a significant extent. Filtered saporin, however, is reabsorbed by renal tubules, whose epithelial cells are damaged. The antibody-saporin conjugate is too large to filter at the glomerulus and so has greater opportunity to penetrate into and to damage the hepatic parenchymal cell. PMID:2889289

Stirpe, F; Derenzini, M; Barbieri, L; Farabegoli, F; Brown, A N; Knowles, P P; Thorpe, P E

1987-01-01

415

[FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in monitoring of hydroxyl stretching vibrations in plant hydrogels].  

PubMed

In recent years, some bioactive hydrogels isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive hydrogels isolated from following plant: Symphytum officinale, Thymus pulegioides, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Tussilago farfara L., Hyssopus officinalis, Althaea officinalis L., Equisetum arvense L. Linum usitatissimum L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional polysaccharide macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed a strong band at 3500-3100 cm(-1) attributed to hydroxyl (the intermolecular and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds) stretching vibrations changes. PMID:22332324

Pielesz, Anna; Binia?, Dorota; Wieczorek, Joanna

2011-01-01

416

Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family  

PubMed Central

Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

2012-01-01

417

Antidepressant-like effects of fractions, essential oil, carnosol and betulinic acid isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like effect of fractions from Rosmarinus officinalis L.: ethyl acetate 1 and 2 (AcOEt1 and 2), hexane (HEX), ethanolic (ET), and essential oil-free (EOF) fractions, as well as essential oil, the isolated compounds carnosol and betulinic acid in the tail suspension test, a predictive test of antidepressant activity. Swiss mice were acutely administered by oral route (p.o.) with fractions, essential oil or isolated compounds, 60 min before the tail suspension test or open-field test. All of them produced a significant antidepressant-like effect: AcOEt1, ET, EOF fractions and essential oil (0.1-100mg/kg, p.o); HEX (0.1-10mg/kg, p.o) and AcOEt2 fraction (0.1-1mg/kg, p.o), carnosol (0.01-0.1mg/kg, p.o.) isolated from the HEX fraction and betulinic acid (10mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from the AcOEt1 and AcOEt2 fractions. No psychostimulant effect was shown in the open-field test, indicating that the effects in the tail suspension test are specific. This study suggests that carnosol and betulinic acid could be responsible for the anti-immobility effect of extracts from R. officinalis. PMID:23122155

Machado, Daniele G; Cunha, Mauricio P; Neis, Vivian B; Balen, Grasiela O; Colla, André; Bettio, Luis E B; Oliveira, Agatha; Pazini, Francis Leonardo; Dalmarco, Juliana B; Simionatto, Edésio Luiz; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

2013-01-15

418

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

419

Comparisons of microsatellite variability and population genetic structure of two endangered wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon and O. officinalis , and their conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conserving endangered wild rice species requires a thorough understanding of their population genetic structure and appropriate approaches. We applied six and seven microsatellite loci to study the genetic structure of six populations throughout the range of Chinese Oryza rufipogon and Oryza officinalis, respectively. The results showed that O. rufipogon possesses higher levels of genetic diversity but lower differentiation (RS =

Li-Zhi Gao; Chi-Hong Zhang

2005-01-01

420

Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2  

E-print Network

, S.W. Fowler1,3 , & M. Warnau1 5 6 7 1 Marine Environment Laboratory International Atomic Energy (134 Cs) by the common cuttlefish20 Sepia officinalis. Uptake and loss kinetics of the radionuclides receive radioactive inputs from industries, accidents, and fallout from nuclear weapon testing.43 Surveys

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

421

Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential  

PubMed Central

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Gonçalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

2013-01-01

422

Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of mashhad, iran.  

PubMed

Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of