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1

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible

Letizia Penolazzi; Ilaria Lampronti; Monica Borgatti; Mahmud Tareq Hassan Khan; Margherita Zennaro; Roberta Piva; Roberto Gambari

2008-01-01

2

Emblica officinalis reverses thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and early promotional events of primary hepatocarcinogenesis.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis is widely used in Indian medicine for the treatment of various diseases. In the present study, it was found that fruits of E. officinalis inhibit thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress and hyper-proliferation in rat liver. The administration of a single necrotic dose of thioacetamide(6.6 mM kg(-1)) resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) increase in serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase(SGOT), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels compared with saline-treated control values. Thioacetamide caused hepatic glutathione (GSH) depletion and a concomitant increase in malanodialdehyde (MDA) content. It also resulted in an increase(P < 0.001) in the activity of glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and a decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (P < 0.001). Hepatic ornithine decarboxylase activity and thymidine incorporation in DNA were increased bythioacetamide administration. Prophylactic treatment with E. officinalis for 7 consecutive days before thioacetamide administration inhibited SGOT, SGPT and GGT release in serum compared with treated control values. It also modulated the hepatic GSH content and MDA formation. The plant extract caused a marked reduction in levels of GSH content and simultaneous inhibition of MDA formation. E. officinalis also caused a reduction in the activity of GST, GR and G6PD. GPx activity was increased after treatment with the plant extract at doses of 100 mg kg(-1) and 200 mg kg(-1). Prophylactic treatment with the plant caused a significant down-regulation of ornithine decarboxylase activity (P < 0.001) and profound inhibition in the rate of DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the acute effects of thioacetamide in rat liver can be prevented by pre-treatment with E. officinalis extract. PMID:15586980

Sultana, Sarwat; Ahmed, Salahuddin; Sharma, Sonia; Jahangir, Tamanna

2004-12-01

3

Antibacterial activities of Emblica officinalis and Coriandrum sativum against Gram negative urinary pathogens.  

PubMed

Present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Emblica officinalis (amla) and Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 345 bacterial isolates belonging to 6 different genera of Gram negative bacterial population isolated from urine specimens by employing well diffusion technique. Aqueous infusion and decoction of Emblica officinalis exhibited potent antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (270), Klebsiella pneumoniae (51), K. ozaenae (3), Proteus mirabilis (5), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10), Salmonella typhi (1), S. paratyphi A (2), S. paratyphi B (1) and Serratia marcescens (2) but did not show any antibacterial activity against Gram negative urinary pathogens. PMID:17337425

Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

2007-01-01

4

Dietary intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis increases life span in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

5

Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae).  

PubMed

The antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (E. officinalis, Fam. Euphorbiaceae) was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of E. officinalis is not unambiguous. A higher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) of this substance perorally was more effective, especially in decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min(-1)) and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA-) was more pronounced. These results showed that the cough suppressive activity of E. officinalis is dose-dependent. We could also demonstrate that the antitussive activity of E. officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Emblica officinalis is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways. PMID:13678247

Nosál'ová, G; Mokrý, J; Hassan, K M Tareq

2003-01-01

6

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. Methods The 70% methanol extracts were studied for in vitro total antioxidant activity along with phenolic and flavonoid contents and reducing power. Scavenging ability of the extracts for radicals like DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, peroxynitrite, singlet oxygen, hypochlorous acid were also performed to determine the potential of the extracts. Results The ability of the extracts of the fruits in exhibiting their antioxative properties follow the order T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica. The same order is followed in their flavonoid content, whereas in case of phenolic content it becomes E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula. In the studies of free radicals' scavenging, where the activities of the plant extracts were inversely proportional to their IC50 values, T. chebula and E. officinalis were found to be taking leading role with the orders of T. chebula >E. officinalis >T. belerica for superoxide and nitric oxide, and E. officinalis >T. belerica >T. chebula for DPPH and peroxynitrite radicals. Miscellaneous results were observed in the scavenging of other radicals by the plant extracts, viz., T. chebula >T. belerica >E. officinalis for hydroxyl, T. belerica >T. chebula >E. officinalis for singlet oxygen and T. belerica >E. officinalis >T. chebula for hypochlorous acid. In a whole, the studied fruit extracts showed quite good efficacy in their antioxidant and radical scavenging abilities, compared to the standards. Conclusions The evidences as can be concluded from the study of the 70% methanol extract of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis, imposes the fact that they might be useful as potent sources of natural antioxidant. PMID:20462461

2010-01-01

7

Hepatoprotective properties of the Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn): a review.  

PubMed

Liver diseases characterized by inflammation or tissue damage affect the optimal functioning and increase the morbidity and mortality of the affected individual. Liver diseases are a largely neglected health issue and recent reports indicate that they affect over 10% of the world population, with the highest burden in low and middle income countries that have minimal medical resources. To complicate matters the currently available pharmacological therapies are not optimal and when used for extended periods of time impart systemic toxicity. Diet can modify pathophysiological processes, including those of hepatotoxins, and studies have shown that some dietary constituents can afford heptoprotection. Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as the Indian gooseberry in English or amla in Hindi, is one of the most important medicinal and dietary plants in the Indian subcontinent. The fruits are of dietary and medicinal use and have wide applications in both traditional and folk systems of medicine. Scientific studies have shown amla to be effective in preventing/ameliorating the toxic effects of hepatotoxic agents like ethanol, paracetamol, carbon tetrachloride, heavy metals, ochratoxins, hexachlorocyclohexane, antitubercular drugs and hepatotoxicity resulting from iron overload. Amla is also reported to impart beneficial effects on liver function and to mitigate hyperlipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Amla possesses protective effects against chemical-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models of study. Additionally, the phytochemicals quercetin, gallic acid, corilagin and ellagic acid are also reported to protect against the cytotoxic effects of paracetamol, microcystins, galactosamine and lipopolysaccharide. The hepatoprotective actions of amla appear to be mediated by its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and modulation of the xenobiotic detoxification process and lipid metabolism. PMID:23978895

Thilakchand, Karadka Ramdas; Mathai, Rashmi Teresa; Simon, Paul; Ravi, Rithin T; Baliga-Rao, Manjeshwar Poonam; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2013-10-01

8

Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) , spirulina and wheat grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant\\u000a vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione\\u000a S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg\\/g,\\u000a while very less amount 0.22 mg\\/g

Vasudha Shukla; Manish Vashistha; Som Nath Singh

2009-01-01

9

Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO). Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700?mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700?mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P < 0.001) increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions. PMID:25215258

Golechha, Mahaveer; Sarangal, Vikas; Ojha, Shreesh; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer S.

2014-01-01

10

The Isolation and Characterization of ?-Glucogallin as a Novel Aldose Reductase Inhibitor from Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC50?=?17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J. Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

2012-01-01

11

Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

2014-12-01

12

Protective Effect of Emblica officinalis Against Alcohol-Induced Hepatic Injury by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress in Rats  

PubMed Central

The effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced hepatic damage in rats was investigated in the present study. In vitro studies showed that EFE possesses antioxidant as well nitric oxide (NO) scavenging activity. In vivo administration of alcohol (5 g/kg b.wt/day) for 60 days resulted increased liver lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls, nitrite plus nitrate levels. Alcohol administration also significantly lowers the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase and reduced glutathione as compared with control rats. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats significantly brought the plasma enzymes towards near normal level and also significantly reduced the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls and restored the enzymic and non-enzymatic antioxidants level. This observation was supplemented by histopathological examination in liver. Our data indicate that the tannoid, flavonoid and NO scavenging compounds present in EFE may offer protection against free radical mediated oxidative stress in rat hepatocytes of animals with alcohol-induced liver injury. PMID:21966117

Damodara Reddy, V.; Padmavathi, P.; Gopi, S.; Paramahamsa, M.

2010-01-01

13

Studies on Emblica officinalis derived tannins for their immunostimulatory and protective activities against coccidiosis in industrial broiler chickens.  

PubMed

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir; Anwar, Muhammad Irfan

2014-01-01

14

Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters  

PubMed Central

Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

Patel, Snehal S.; Goyal, Ramesh K.; Shah, Rajendra S.; Tirgar, Pravin R.; Jadav, Pinakin D.

2013-01-01

15

Emblica officinalis exerts antihypertensive effect in a rat model of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension: role of (p) eNOS, NO and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone acetate/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may influence DOCA/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing drinking water with 1% NaCl solution. These rats received cotreatment of different doses of EO (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. EO significantly decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate along with cardiac and renal hypertrophy in a dose-dependent fashion as compared to DOCA control rats. Increased TBARS and decreased endogenous antioxidants including GSH, SOD and GSHPx activity in serum, heart and kidney tissues of hypertensive rats were also normalized. Furthermore, this antihypertensive activity of EO was also linked with increased serum NO, K(+) levels and decreased Na(+) levels. Moreover, EO robustly increased activated eNOS expression in heart. Our results demonstrate that EO reduces oxidative stress, prevents development and progression of hypertension as well as cardiac and renal hypertrophy in DOCA/HS-induced hypertension via modulation of activated eNOS, endogenous antioxidants, serum NO and electrolyte levels. PMID:21748534

Bhatia, Jagriti; Tabassum, Fauzia; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Joshi, Sujata; Sayeed Akhatar, Md; Srivastava, Abhay Krishna; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-09-01

16

Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors  

PubMed Central

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

2013-01-01

17

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation.

Laura C. Van Riper; Diane L. Larson

2009-01-01

18

Plants Beneficial to the Aging Brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of edible plants and\\/or their constituents have been shown to delay the degenerative changes in the brain associated with aging. These plants included Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Astragalus membranaceus, Boschniakia rossica, Clitoria ternatea, Curcuma phaeocaulis, Capsicum annum, Cyanum wildfordii, Emblica officinals, Ginkgo biloba, Heteropteris aphrodisiaca, Panax ginseng, Pegasus laternarius, Polygonum multiflorum, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Scutellaria baicalensis, Valeriane officinalis, Withania

T. B. Ng; H. X. Wang; F. Liu; L. X. Xia

2006-01-01

19

Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

Nurzy?ska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

2014-05-01

20

Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

2009-01-01

21

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

2012-01-01

22

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed.A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder's physical stability.The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

2012-12-01

23

Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia  

PubMed Central

Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

2008-01-01

24

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds,\\u000a the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds,\\u000a two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL),\\u000a were investigated in suspension cultures of

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2010-01-01

25

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity. PMID:21170244

Swapna, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekhar

2010-01-01

26

Effect of propagation method, plant density, and age on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) herb and oil yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in the Thrace region of north?western Turkey, which has a rich flora with many medicinal and aromatic plants. The study evaluated two propagation methods (cuttings with roots and seedlings) and three row spacings (40 × 20 cm, 40 × 30 cm, and 50

C. Saglam; I. Atakisi; H. Turhan; S. Kaba; F. Arslanoglu; F. Onemli

2004-01-01

27

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2010-08-01

28

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

29

Proteomic analysis of plasma membrane and tonoplast from the leaves of mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

In order to understand the salt tolerance and secretion in mangrove plant species, gel electrophoresis coupled with LC-MS-based proteomics was used to identify key transport proteins in the plasma membrane (PM) and tonoplast fractions of Avicennia officinalis leaves. PM and tonoplast proteins were purified using two-aqueous-phase partitioning and density gradient centrifugation, respectively. Forty of the 254 PM proteins and 31 of the 165 tonoplast proteins identified were predicted to have transmembrane domains. About 95% of the identified proteins could be classified based on their functions. The major classes of proteins were predicted to be involved in transport, metabolic processes, defense/stress response, and signal transduction, while a few of the proteins were predicted to be involved in other functions such as membrane trafficking. The main classes of transporter proteins identified included H(+) -ATPases, ATP-binding cassette transporters, and aquaporins, all of which could play a role in salt secretion. These data will serve as the baseline membrane proteomic dataset for Avicennia species. Further, this information can contribute to future studies on understanding the mechanism of salt tolerance in halophytes in addition to salt secretion in mangroves. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000837 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD000837). PMID:25236605

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Tan, Xing Fei; Lim, Teck Kwang; Lim, Tit-Meng; Kumar, Prakash P; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Lin, Qingsong

2014-11-01

30

DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm. PMID:22614273

Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

2012-01-01

31

Effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract on germination and seedling growth of six plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-hexane-, acetone- and water-soluble fractions obtained from an aqueous acetone extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) shoots inhibited the germination and the growth of roots and shoots of cockscomb (Amaranthus caudatus L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2001-01-01

32

Drying Sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) Plants and Its Effects on Content, Chemical Composition, and Radical Scavenging Activity of the Essential Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Salvia officinalis essential oil (EO) were studied under different drying methods of plant material. Results obtained showed that dried plant\\u000a material yielded more essential oils than did the fresh one. The highest EO yields were obtained by infrared drying at 45 °C\\u000a (0.39%) followed by air drying (0.30%) and oven drying at 45 °C (0.26%). The

Ibtissem Hamrouni Sellami; Iness Bettaieb Rebey; Jazia Sriti; Fatma Zohra Rahali; Ferid Limam; Brahim Marzouk

33

Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.  

PubMed

This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

Cardoso, Ghs; Dantas, Ebs; Sousa, Frc; Peron, Ap

2014-11-01

34

Bioactivity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae related to the drying treatment of the plant material.  

PubMed

In this study, chemical composition, physicochemical properties and bioactivity of two essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis extracted from plant material with different drying treatments against Apis mellifera, Varroa destructor and Paenibacillus larvae were assessed. The lethal concentration 50 (LC50) for mites and bees was estimated using a complete exposure method test. The broth microdilution method was followed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the essential oils against P. larvae. Physicochemical properties were similar in both the essential oils, but the percentage of components showed certain differences according to their drying treatment. ?-Myrcene and 1,8-cineole were the main constituents in the oils. The LC50 for complete exposure method at 24, 48 and 72 h was minor for mites exposed to R. officinalis essential oil dried in oven conditions. MIC values were 700-800 µg mL(-1) and 1200 µg mL(-1) for R. officinalis dried in air and oven conditions, respectively. The results reported in this research show that oil toxicity against V. destructor and P. larvae differed depending on the drying treatment of the plant material before the distillation of essential oil. PMID:20623426

Maggi, M; Gende, L; Russo, K; Fritz, R; Eguaras, M

2011-02-01

35

Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce endothelial dysfunction via increased oxidative stress and that it plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Phyllanthus emblica (Emblica officinalis, amla) is known for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. The present study compared the effects of an aqueous extract of P. emblica (highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolyzable tannins, ie, emblicanin A, emblicanin B, pedunculagin, and punigluconin) versus those of atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Eligible patients were randomized to receive either P. emblica 250 mg twice daily, P. emblica 500 mg twice daily, atorvastatin 10 mg in the evening and matching placebo in the morning, or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in endothelial function identified on salbutamol challenge at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary efficacy parameters were changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione), high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, the lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Laboratory safety parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Eighty patients completed the study. Treatment with P. emblica 250 mg, P. emblica 500 mg, or atorvastatin 10 mg produced significant reductions in the reflection index (?2.25%±1.37% to ?9.13%±2.56% versus ?2.11%±0.98% to ?10.04%±0.92% versus ?2.68%±1.13% to ?11.03%±3.93%, respectively), suggesting improvement in endothelial function after 12 weeks of treatment compared with baseline. There was a significant improvement in biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation compared with baseline and placebo. Further, the treatments significantly improved the lipid profile and HbA1c levels compared with baseline and placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion Both atorvastatin and P. emblica significantly improved endothelial function and reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without any significant changes in laboratory safety parameters. PMID:23935377

Usharani, Pingali; Fatima, Nishat; Muralidhar, Nizampatnam

2013-01-01

36

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM MELILOTUS OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas, belongs to the family Leguminosae (Fabaceae). It exhibits several medicinal properties. The plant is subjected to chemical investigation and during this investigation one fatty acid, four triterpenes and one glycoside have been isolated. Their structures have been elucidated by modern spectroscopic techniques.

M. Suhail Anwer; M. Mohtasheem; Iqbal Azhar; S. W. Ahmed; H. Bano

37

Microsatellite markers for the invasive plant species white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We describe specific primers and conditions to amplify eight tetranucleotide, one trinucleotide, and one dinucleotide microsatellite DNA loci isolated from an enriched genomic library of Melilotus alba, an invasive plant species throughout North America. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2...

38

Galegine content in Goatsrue (Galega officinalis) varies by plant part and phenological growth stage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Goatstrue is a member of the abaceae family, native to Europe and western Asia. It contains the toxic alkaloid galegine. The objective of the study was to describe galegine concentration in aboveround goatsrue plant parts and total galegine pools over phenological growth stages. Twenty goatsrue plan...

39

Effect of plant growth regulators and spear bud scales on growth of Asparagus officinalis spears  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of plant growth regulators and spear bud scales on spear elongation in asparagus was investigated. Spears of uniform size were immersed completely in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), gibberellic acid (GA3) or N1-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N3-phenylurea (CPPU) in test tubes. IAA and GA3 slightly stimulated, and ABA inhibited, elongation of specific regions of the shoot, but overall the effects on

Yang-Gyu Ku; D. J. Woolley

2006-01-01

40

Studies on the chemical constituents of Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigations on Phyllanthus emblica have resulted in the isolation of the two new flavonoids, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6''-methyl)-rhamnopyranoside (1) and kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-(6''-ethyl)-rhamnopyranoside (2). Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic studies including 2D-NMR experiments. PMID:17763100

Habib-ur-Rehman; Yasin, Khawaja Ansar; Choudhary, Muhammad Aziz; Khaliq, Naeem; Atta-ur-Rahman; Choudhary, Muhammad Iqbal; Malik, Shahid

2007-07-20

41

Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

C. Jagetia, Ganesh

2007-01-01

42

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

43

Effect of blanching on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla (Emblica officinalis) shreds.  

PubMed

The effect of hot water blanching treatment on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla shreds was studied at drying air temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C with the air velocity of 1.2 m/s. The drying time decreased with the increase in air temperature and blanching. The drying process was observed in falling rate. Drying after blanching reduced the vitamin C content of aonla shreds by 69.36% whereas it decreased by 27.78% in unblanched shreds. Eight commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying behavior of aonla shreds. The Midilli model described the drying behaviour of unblanched aonla shreds at all temperatures better than other models whereas two-term model described the drying kinetics of blanched aonla shreds satisfactorily. The effective diffusivities of the unblanched and blanched aonla shreds were determined using Fick's law of diffusion. The activation energy was found to be 47.21 kJ/mol for unblanched and 43.98 kJ/mol for blanched aonla shreds. PMID:24966422

Gupta, R K; Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Pradeep; Vishwakarma, R K; Patil, R T

2014-07-01

44

Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.  

PubMed

The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program. PMID:22777704

Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

2012-10-01

45

A new extract of the plant calendula officinalis produces a dual in vitro effect: cytotoxic anti-tumor activity and lymphocyte activation  

PubMed Central

Background Phytopharmacological studies of different Calendula extracts have shown anti-inflamatory, anti-viral and anti-genotoxic properties of therapeutic interest. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities and in vivo anti-tumor effect of Laser Activated Calendula Extract (LACE), a novel extract of the plant Calendula Officinalis (Asteraceae). Methods An aqueous extract of Calendula Officinalis was obtained by a novel extraction method in order to measure its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory activities in vitro. Tumor cell lines derived from leukemias, melanomas, fibrosarcomas and cancers of breast, prostate, cervix, lung, pancreas and colorectal were used and tumor cell proliferation in vitro was measured by BrdU incorporation and viable cell count. Effect of LACE on human peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) proliferation in vitro was also analyzed. Studies of cell cycle and apoptosis were performed in LACE-treated cells. In vivo anti-tumor activity was evaluated in nude mice bearing subcutaneously human Ando-2 melanoma cells. Results The LACE extract showed a potent in vitro inhibition of tumor cell proliferation when tested on a wide variety of human and murine tumor cell lines. The inhibition ranged from 70 to 100%. Mechanisms of inhibition were identified as cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase and Caspase-3-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, the same extract showed an opposite effect when tested on PBLs and NKL cell line, in which in vitro induction of proliferation and activation of these cells was observed. The intraperitoneal injection or oral administration of LACE extract in nude mice inhibits in vivo tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells and prolongs the survival day of the mice. Conclusion These results indicate that LACE aqueous extract has two complementary activities in vitro with potential anti-tumor therapeutic effect: cytotoxic tumor cell activity and lymphocyte activation. The LACE extract presented in vivo anti-tumoral activity in nude mice against tumor growth of Ando-2 melanoma cells. PMID:16677386

Jiménez-Medina, Eva; Garcia-Lora, Angel; Paco, Laura; Algarra, Ignacio; Collado, Antonia; Garrido, Federico

2006-01-01

46

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened

Keyvan Dastmalchi; Velimatti Ollilainen; Petri Lackman; Gustav Boije af Gennäs; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Järvinen; Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma; Raimo Hiltunen

2009-01-01

47

Neuroprotective and Neurological Properties of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective\\u000a effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a enzymes and affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on

Víctor López; Sara Martín; Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Maria Emilia Carretero; Anna K. Jäger; Maria Isabel Calvo

2009-01-01

48

Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC–MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon

P. Schnitzler; A. Schuhmacher; A. Astani; Jürgen Reichling

2008-01-01

49

Determination of Uracil Herbicide Residues and Components in Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. in Its Main Development Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uracil herbicide residues were studied in the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. c.v. citra) grown under standard agrochemical conditions. The residues from the uracil herbicides bromacil, lenacil, and terbacil were determined at selected phases of flower development. In addition the main components of the M. officinalis oil were determined by GC\\/MS at the same stages of development such

Jozef Tekel; Magda Hollá; Stefánla Vaverková; Emil Svajdlenka

1997-01-01

50

HPLC ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC ACIDS IN MELISSA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective HPLC assay for determination of the main phenolic acids (rosmarinic, caffeic, protocatechuic) that were isolated from medicinal plant Melissa officinalis has been developed. The main goal of this work was to test and evaluate the liquid extraction procedure for plant samples. As the effective extraction media, mixtures of methanol-water and methanol-water (pH 2.5) were chosen. The

Alicia Caniova; Eva Brandsteterova

2001-01-01

51

Lemon Balm ( Melissa officinalis ) Stalk: Chemical Composition and Fiber Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the potentials of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) stalk (LBS), a massive waste part of medicinal plant, for pulp and papermaking by assessing its fiber characteristics\\u000a and chemical composition. In addition, LBS properties were compared with some important agro-residues such as bagasse stalk\\u000a (BS), cotton stalk (CS) and tobacco stalk (TS). There is no information about suitability

Yahya Hamzeh; Fatemeh Amani

2011-01-01

52

Evaluation of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor induced cardiovascular changes in healthy human subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: Acute and chronic stress is a risk factor for the development and progression of coronary artery disease. Increased arterial stiffness is an independent marker for cardiovascular disease. Cold pressor test (CPT) is known to be associated with substantial activation of the autonomic nervous system. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract on cold pressor stress test induced changes on cardiovascular parameters and aortic wave reflections in healthy human subjects. Materials and Methods: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Participants were randomized to receive either two capsules of P. emblica extract 250 mg (containing aqueous extract of P. emblica, highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolysable tannins emblicanin-A, emblicanin-B, pedunculagin and punigluconin) or two capsules of placebo twice daily for 14 days. Pharmacodynamic parameters such as heart rate, augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AIx), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR), radial and aortic blood pressure (BP) were recorded before and after CPT at baseline and end of treatment. After washout period of 14 days, subjects crossed over to the other treatment and the same test procedure was repeated again. Safety assessments were done at baseline and at the end of treatment. Results: A total of 12volunteers completed the study. Compared with baseline and placebo, P. emblica extract produced a significant decrease of mean percent change in the indices of arterial stiffness (AIx, radial and aortic BP) and increase in SEVR, an index of myocardial perfusion with CPT. Both treatments were well-tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Proprietary P. emblica extract, showed a significant decrease in cold pressor stress test induced changes on aortic wave reflections. PMID:24497739

Fatima, Nishat; Pingali, Usharani; Pilli, Raveendranadh

2014-01-01

53

PA02.10. A review on immunomodulator activity of some indiginious medical plants  

PubMed Central

Purpose: It has been estimated that about 6 laks infant and young children die from RSV annually, and if bacterial co infections are included this number may approach 10 laks deaths annually. More than 2 million deaths are estimated to result each year the world over as a consequence of diarrheal disease in children of under five years. This statistic shows that children are more vulnerable to infection because their immune system is less or under developed. At this age any intervention which could motivate their immune system, may prove boon to them. Ayurveda with its concept of Rasayana is holding various medicinal plants which are excellent immunomodulator and capable to reduce the morbidity status. Method: Peer review journals were searched to list all medicinal plants with immunomodulator activities, particularly acting on recurrent respiratory infection and recurrent diarrhoeal episodes. Only full texts in English were accepted for the present study. Result: Out of all researches Amalaki (Emblica officinalis), Ashwagandha(Withania somnifera), Yashtimadhu (Glycyrrhiza glabra), and Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia) were found more potent to reduce morbidity rate. In which Amalaki is very cost effective, easily available, easily cultivated with highest immunomodulator properties. Conclusion: Recurrent respiratory tract infection and recurrent diarrhoeal episodes are major part of morbidity and Amalaki is a best option to reduce it.

Dutt, S Brahm

2013-01-01

54

Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).  

PubMed

Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stål), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers. PMID:24504629

Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-06-01

55

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

56

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

57

Vegetation of waste disposal areas at a coal-fired power plant in Kansas. [Agropyron elongatum, Festuca arundinacea, Melilotus officinalis, Echinochloa crusgalli, Populus deltoides, Juniperus virginiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disposal of scrubber sludge and fly ash waste from coal-fired power plants is a costly problem for utilities. Current regulations call for the retired waste areas to be covered with topsoil, then seeded to produce a protective vegetative cap. We conducted field tests over a 3-yr period to determine if a vegetative cover could be established without first adding topsoil

D. W. Mulhern; R. J. Robel; J. C. Furness; D. L. Hensley

2009-01-01

58

Effect of calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.  

PubMed

In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. Anat Rec, 298:428-435, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25266273

Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

2015-02-01

59

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

60

Total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plants used in traditional Romanian herbal medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;

Iuliana Spiridon; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Carmen-Alice Teaca

2011-01-01

61

Effects of shape Rosmarinus officinalis neighbors on resprouting of shape Erica multiflora individuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the effects of competition in Mediterranean shrubland regeneration following disturbance, we used a neighborhood approach to assess the influence of mature Rosmarinus officinalis neighbors on the resprouting of Erica multiflora individuals after clipping. Sprout biomass of target plants 2 years after clipping was regressed against various measures of neighbor abundance within a 2 m radius around target E.

Montserrat Vilà; Peter Stoll; Jacob Weiner

1998-01-01

62

Chromatographic Determination of Derivatives of p?Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Melissa officinalis by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fast method for the determination of phenolic compounds–benzoic acids in Melissa officinalis. Soxhlet extraction has been optimized for the isolation of benzoic acids (gallic acid, p?hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) from plant material. The conditions of Soxhlet extraction, such as solvent composition and extraction time were studied. The efficient extraction

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay

2005-01-01

63

Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes.

Alica Žiaková; Eva Brandšteterová; Eva Blahová

2003-01-01

64

Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. PMID:21354582

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2011-05-01

65

Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.  

PubMed

Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

2014-01-01

66

Antioxidant Effects of Different Extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence\\u000a of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate\\u000a the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The

Romaiana Picada Pereira; Roselei Fachinetto; Alessandro de Souza Prestes; Robson Luiz Puntel; Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva; Berta Maria Heinzmann; Ticiane Krapf Boschetti; Margareth Linde Athayde; Marilise Escobar Bürger; Ademir Farias Morel; Vera Maria Morsch; João Batista Teixeira Rocha

2009-01-01

67

Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl4-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg\\/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg\\/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl4 administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl4

J. I Sotelo-Félix; D Martinez-Fong; P Muriel; R. L Santillán; D Castillo; P Yahuaca

2002-01-01

68

Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)  

PubMed Central

The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200?g of each part was soaked in 1000?mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000?ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71?ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93?ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67?ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants. PMID:22536188

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

2012-01-01

69

Effects of Melilotus officinalis on acute inflammation.  

PubMed

Our study investigated the effects of Melilotus officinalis L. extract, containing 0.25% coumarin, on acute inflammation induced with oil of turpentine in male rabbits. The results were compared with those from a group treated with hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and one injected with coumarin before inflammation was induced. The effects were evaluated by measuring serum citrulline, a test of in vitro phagocytosis, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count expressed as a percentage. M. officinalis had antiinflammatory effects because it reduced the activation of circulating phagocytes and lowered citrulline production. These properties were similar to those of hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and coumarin. In the bone marrow acute phase response, M. officinalis had an inhibitory action that was lower than that of hydrocortisone sodium hemisuccinate and similar to coumarin. PMID:12112285

Ple?ca-Manea, Lumini?a; Pârvu, Alina Elena; Pârvu, M; Ta?ma?, M; Buia, R; Puia, M

2002-06-01

70

Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.  

PubMed

Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. PMID:23687854

Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

2013-03-01

71

The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

2014-01-01

72

In vitro screening and evaluation of some Indian medicinal plants for their potential to inhibit Jack bean and bacterial ureases causing urinary infections.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Bacterial ureases play an important role in pathogenesis of urinary infections. Selection of plants was done on the basis of their uses by the local people for the treatment of various bacterial and urinary infections. Objective: Our investigation screens and evaluates 15 Indian medicinal plants for their possible urease inhibitory activity as well as their ability to inhibit bacteria causing urinary infections. Materials and methods: Plant extracts in three different solvents (methanol, aqueous, and cow urine) were screened for their effect on Jack-bean urease using the phenol-hypochlorite method. Subsequently, seven bacterial strains were screened for their ability to release urease and further antimicrobial-linked urease inhibition activity and minimum inhibitory concentration of the tested extracts were evaluated by the agar well diffusion and microdilution method, respectively. Results: Five plants out of 15 crude extracts revealed good urease inhibitory activity (?20% at 1?mg/ml conc.) and IC50 values for these extracts ranged from 2.77 to 0.70?mg/ml. Further testing of these extracts on urease-producing bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus NCDC 109, S. aureus MTCC 3160, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426, Klebsiella pneumoniae MTCC 4030, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 7453) showed good anti-urease potency with an MIC ranging from 500 to 7.3?µg/ml. Discussion and conclusion: The results of screening as well as susceptibility assay clearly revealed a strong urease inhibitory effect of Acacia nilotica L. (Fabaceae), Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Phyllanthaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Rosa indica L. (Rosaceae), and Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae). Our findings may help to explain the beneficial effect of these plants against infections associated with the urease enzyme. PMID:25366133

Bai, Sheema; Bharti, Pooja; Seasotiya, Leena; Malik, Anupma; Dalal, Sunita

2014-11-01

73

Soyasapogenols B and E from Melilotus officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From the aerial parts ofMelilotus officinalis (Leguminosae) soyasapogenols B, mp 259–260°, and E, mp 246–247°, were isolated along with coumarin and kaempferol. This is\\u000a the first report of the isolation of soyasapogenols from the genus Melilotus.

Sam Sik Kang; Chae-Hyun Lira; Sook Yeon Lee

1987-01-01

74

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

75

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total

Iuliana Spiridon; Svetlana Colceru; Narcis Anghel; Carmen Alice Teaca; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Alice Armatu

2011-01-01

76

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

77

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

78

Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis  

SciTech Connect

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

1987-07-01

79

Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

2010-01-01

80

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

2008-01-01

81

Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

O6-alkylguanines are potent mutagenic, pro-carcinogenic and cytotoxic lesions induced by exogenous and endogenous alkylating agents. A facilitated elimination of these lesions by increasing the activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is likely to be a beneficial chemoprevention strategy, which, however, has not been examined. Because, a marginal enhancement of this protein may be adequate for genomic protection, we studied alterations in MGMT activity and expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cancer cell lines induced by water-soluble and alcohol-soluble constituents of several plants with established antioxidant and medicinal properties. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts from neem (Azadirachta indica), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), winter cherry (Withania somnifera), and oregano (Origanum majorana) increased the levels of MGMT protein and its demethylation activity in a time-dependent manner with a maximum of 3-fold increase after 72-h treatment. The extracts from gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), common basil (Ocimum basilicum), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) were relatively less efficient in raising MGMT levels. Increased levels of MGMT mRNA accounted at least, in part, for the increased activity of the DNA repair protein. The herbal treatments also increased glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP1) expression, albeit to a lesser extent than MGMT. These data provide the first evidence for the upregulation of human MGMT by plant constituents and raise the possibility of rational dietary approaches for attenuating alkylation-induced carcinogenesis. Further, they reveal the putative antioxidant responsiveness of the MGMT gene in human cells. PMID:17016661

Niture, Suryakant K; Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S

2006-11-01

82

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-01-01

83

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-04-01

84

La mélisse ( Melissa officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé: La mélisse, malgré des références anciennes, est une nouvelle venue en phytothérapie moderne. Quoiqu’elle ait des propriétés spécifiques lorsqu’on utilise des extraits, elle garde les propriétés de la médecine traditionnelle quand on l’utilise en tisane; c’est sous cette forme une plante importante dans les affections à spasme du tube digestif et en particulier pour les dystonies neurovégétatives. Nous indiquons

P. Babulka

2005-01-01

85

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits  

PubMed Central

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

2011-01-01

86

A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

We report an efficient, simple, and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from an aromatic medicinal plant, common sage (Salvia officinalis L.). Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (PVP 10 and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and repeated Sevag treatment to remove proteins and other carbohydrate contaminants. The mean DNA yield obtained with our Protocol 2 was 330.6 ?g DNA g(-1) of dry leaf tissue, and the absorbance ratios 260/280 and 260/230 nm averaged 1.909 and 1.894, respectively, revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear (26S rDNA) and one chloroplast (rps16-trnK) locus indicated that our DNA isolation protocol may be used in common sage and other aromatic and medicinal plants containing essential oil for molecular biologic and biotechnological studies and for population genetics, phylogeographic, and conservation surveys in which nuclear or chloroplast genomes would be studied in large numbers of individuals. PMID:22847363

Aleksi?, Jelena M; Stojanovi?, Danilo; Banovi?, Bojana; Jan?i?, Radiša

2012-12-01

87

Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism. PMID:22729379

Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-08-01

88

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

89

Flavonoid distribution during the development of leaves, flowers, stems, and roots of Rosmarinus officinalis. postulation of a biosynthetic pathway.  

PubMed

The distribution of seven flavonoids, eriocitrin, luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide, hesperidin, diosmin, isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin 7-O-glucoside, and genkwanin, has been studied in Rosmarinus officinalis leaves, flowers, stems, and roots during plant growth. The maximum level reached by luteolin 3'-O-beta-d-glucuronide in leaves during June-August suggests the existence of a delay between the activation of the enzymes involved in the flavanone and flavone biosynthesis. The presence of hesperidin and diosmin in the vascular system is significant, and hesperidin shows even higher levels than the phenolic diterpenes and rosmarinic acid. The distribution of flavonoids observed in R. officinalis suggests a functional and structural relationship between phytoregulators and flavonoids, where flavonoids would be "protectors" of the activity of phytoregulators. A hypothesis for the general pathway of biosynthesis of these compounds in plants of the family Labiatae is proposed. PMID:15291464

del Baño, María José; Lorente, Juan; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Marín, María Piedad; Del Río, José Antonio; Ortuño, Ana; Ibarra, Isidro

2004-08-11

90

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

91

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

92

TLC-Based Start-to-End Method of Analysis of Selected Biologically Active Compounds Contained in Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is an herb native to the Mediterranean region and nowadays is cultivated in many parts of the world. This plant has been known and utilized for hundreds of years in natural medicine, due to its curative properties and good performance in combating various diseases. In spite of its well recognized curative potential, the chemical composition

Gabriela Grygierczyk; Mieczys?aw Sajewicz; Dorota Staszek; ?ukasz Wojtal; Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos; Teresa Kowalska

2009-01-01

93

Flower Size Variation in Rosmarinus officinalis: Individuals, Populations and Habitats  

PubMed Central

• Background and Aims Flowers are relatively invariant organs within species, but quantitative variation often exists among conspecifics. These variations represent the raw material that natural selection can magnify, eventually resulting in morphological divergence and diversification. This paper investigates floral variability in Rosmarinus officinalis, a Mediterranean shrub. • Methods Nine populations were selected in three major southern Spanish habitats (coast, lowland and mountains) along an elevation gradient. Flower samples from randomly chosen plants were collected from each population, and a total of 641 flowers from 237 shrubs were weighed while still fresh to the nearest 0·1 mg. Leaves from the same plants were also measured. Variations among habitats, sites and plants were explored with general linear model ANOVA. Leaf–flower covariation was also investigated. • Key Results Most (58 %) mass in flowers was accounted for by the corolla, whose linear dimensions correlated directly with flower mass. Averaged over plants, the mass of a flower varied between 12 mg and 38 mg. Habitat, site (within habitat) and shrub identity had significant effects on mass variance. Flowers from the coast were the smallest (17 mg) and those from the mountains the largest (25 mg on average). A pattern of continuously increasing flower size with elevation emerged which was largely uncoupled from the geographical pattern of leaf size variation. • Conclusions As regards flower size, a great potential to local differentiation exists in Rosmarinus. Observed divergences accord with a regime of large-bodied pollinator selection in the mountains, but also with resource–cost hypotheses on floral evolution that postulate that reduced corollas are advantageous under prevailingly stressful conditions. PMID:15585545

HERRERA, JAVIER

2004-01-01

94

Characterization and inhibition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. polyphenoloxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from Rosmarinus officinalis L. was fractionated by ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) precipitation and dialysis, and then some of its kinetic properties such as optimum pH and temperature, substrate specificity,\\u000a thermal inactivation, and inhibition were investigated using 4-methylcatechol, catechol, and pyrogallol as substrates. The\\u000a protein content of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts was determined according to Bradford’s method. Kinetic parameters, K

Serap Do?an; Mehmet Emin Diken; Yasemin Turhan; Ümran Alan; Mehmet Do?an; Mahir Alkan

2011-01-01

95

In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 ?g/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders. PMID:20878705

Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

2010-10-01

96

Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.  

PubMed

In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanovi?, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gaji?, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

2014-01-01

97

How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

2014-03-01

98

Natural indole butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors from Nauclea officinalis.  

PubMed

Nine monoterpenoid indole alkaloids; naucletine (1), angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), naucline (5), angustoline (6), harmane (7), 3,14-dihydroangustoline (8), strictosamide (9) and one quinoline alkaloid glycoside; pumiloside (10) from Nauclea officinalis were tested for cholinesterase inhibitory activity. All the alkaloids except for pumiloside (10) showed strong to weak BChE inhibitory effect with IC50 values ranging between 1.02-168.55 ?M. Angustidine (2), nauclefine (3), angustine (4), angustoline (6) and harmane (7) showed higher BChE inhibiting potency compared to galanthamine. Angustidine (2) was the most potent inhibitor towards both AChE and BChE. Molecular docking (MD) studies showed that angustidine (2) docked deep into the bottom gorge of hBChE and formed hydrogen bonding with Ser 198 and His 438. Kinetic study of angustidine (2) on BChE suggested a mixed inhibition mode with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 6.12 ?M. PMID:25636869

Liew, Sook Yee; Khaw, Kooi Yeong; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Looi, Chung Yeng; Wong, Yi Li; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Litaudon, Marc; Awang, Khalijah

2015-01-15

99

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.  

PubMed

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

2011-10-01

100

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

101

Wound Healing and Anti-Inflammatory Effect in Animal Models of Calendula officinalis L. Growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

Calendula officinalis is an annual herb from Mediterranean origin which is popularly used in wound healing and as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, the ethanolic extract, the dichloromethane, and hexanic fractions of the flowers from plants growing in Brazil were produced. The angiogenic activity of the extract and fractions was evaluated through the chorioallantoic membrane and cutaneous wounds in rat models. The healing activity of the extract was evaluated by the same cutaneous wounds model through macroscopic, morphometric, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analysis. The antibacterial activity of the extract and fractions was also evaluated. This experimental study revealed that C. officinalis presented anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activities as well as angiogenic and fibroplastic properties acting in a positive way on the inflammatory and proliferative phases of the healing process. PMID:22315631

Parente, Leila Maria Leal; Lino Júnior, Ruy de Souza; Tresvenzol, Leonice Manrique Faustino; Vinaud, Marina Clare; de Paula, José Realino; Paulo, Neusa Margarida

2012-01-01

102

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

103

Chemical constituents from Phyllanthus emblica and the cytoprotective effects on H2O 2-induced PC12 cell injuries.  

PubMed

Two new compounds (1-2), including a bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid (1), one new diphenyl ether derivative (2), together with 23 known compounds (3-25), were isolated from the fruits of Phyllanthus emblica. Their structures were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis. All the isolated compounds were screened for the DPPH scavenging effects and cytoprotective effects against H2O2 induced PC12 cells injury. Compounds 12-15 showed significant DPPH scavenging effects with the IC50 values in the range of 3.25-4.18 ?M. Among these potential antioxidants, compound 14 improved the survival of PC12 cells after H2O2 exposure without showing any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. PMID:24993870

Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Lijuan; Guo, Xiaojiang; Li, Chao; Li, Haizhen; Lou, Hongxiang; Ren, Dongmei

2014-07-01

104

Evaluation of an oral supplement containing Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts, vitamin E, and carotenoids in vitiligo treatment.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica, vitamin E, and caroteinods are compounds showing antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and repigmenting effects, whose role in vitiligo treatment has not been evaluated so far. Sixty-five subjects (group A) were treated with one tablet of an oral supplement containing P.?emblica (100?mg), vitamin E (10?mg), and carotenoids (4.7?mg) three times/day for 6 months and compared with a control group (group B, 65 patients), which instead was not treated with antioxidants. Both groups were simultaneously treated with a comparable topical therapy and/or phototherapy. After a 6 months follow-up, a significantly higher number of patients in group A had a mild repigmentation on the head/neck regions (p = 0.019) and on the trunk (trend, p = 0.051). The number of patients who presented no repigmentation in head/neck, trunk, upper, and lower limbs was significantly higher in group B (respectively, p = 0.009, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.025). Moreover, group B patients showed higher signs of inflammation (p = 0.002), a more rapid growth of the lesions (p = 0.039), a higher percentage of worsening disease (p = 0.003), and more erythema (p = 0.059), whereas group A patients showed a higher percentage of steady disease (p = 0.065). Our results suggest that the supplement with antioxidants in patients with vitiligo might represent a valuable instrument to increase the effectiveness of other vitiligo treatments. [Correction added after online publication 06-Oct-2014: the dosages of vitamin E and carotenoids have been updated.]. PMID:25285994

Colucci, Roberta; Dragoni, Federica; Conti, Rossana; Pisaneschi, Lisa; Lazzeri, Linda; Moretti, Silvia

2014-10-01

105

Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats  

PubMed Central

Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100–150 g) were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe), and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os). The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb–Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone.

Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

2014-01-01

106

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

107

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

108

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

109

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-04-01

110

How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

2014-01-01

111

Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 ?g/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 ?g/ml), U937 (229.312 ?g/ml) and Raji (239.692 ?g/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

zare shahneh, fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

2013-01-01

112

Identification and analysis of a gene from Calendula officinalis encoding a fatty acid conjugase.  

PubMed

Two homologous cDNAs, CoFad2 and CoFac2, were isolated from a Calendula officinalis developing seed by a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy. Both sequences share similarity to FAD2 desaturases and FAD2-related enzymes. In C. officinalis plants CoFad2 was expressed in all tissues tested, whereas CoFac2 expression was specific to developing seeds. Expression of CoFad2 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) indicated it encodes a Delta12 desaturase that introduces a double bond at the 12 position of 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z). Expression of CoFac2 in yeast revealed that the encoded enzyme acts as a fatty acid conjugase converting 18:2(9Z, 12Z) to calendic acid 18:3(8E, 10E, 12Z). The enzyme also has weak activity on the mono-unsaturates 16:1(9Z) and 18:1(9Z) producing compounds with the properties of 8,10 conjugated dienes. PMID:11161042

Qiu, X; Reed, D W; Hong, H; MacKenzie, S L; Covello, P S

2001-02-01

113

ELECTROMYOGRAPHY OF THE FIN MUSCULATURE OF THE CUTTLEFISH SEPIA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The musculature of the fins of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca, Cephalopoda) was studied with electromyography to test predictions of the functional role of the various muscle masses. Previous research had shown the fins to consist of a tightly packed, three-dimensional array of muscle with distinct zones of anaerobic glycolytic and oxidative muscle fibres. In addition, a network of

WILLIAM M. KIER; KATHLEEN K. SMITH; JALEEL A. MIYAN

1989-01-01

114

Melissa officinalis, L.: study of antioxidant activity in supercritical residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical CO2 extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.) at pressures from 10 to 18 MPa and at temperatures of 308–313 K was studied. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extracts, obtained from solid residues of supercritical extraction and from raw lemon balm leaves, was performed using the Rancimat method. The best protection factor curve was obtained when extracts

M. A Ribeiro; M. G Bernardo-Gil; M. M Esqu??vel

2001-01-01

115

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

1996-01-01

116

Diurnal temperature alternations (DIF\\/drop) affect chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a\\/chlorophyll b ratio in Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L., but not in Viola× wittrockiana Gams  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIF, defined as day temperature (DT) minus night temperature (NT), influences plant morphology in a wide range of species. A controlled climate experiment was conducted to elucidate whether negative DIF (?6°C) or positive DIF (+6°C) treatments or a 2-h temperature drop or increase at different times during the day, would affect chlorophyll concentration in Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm), Ocimum

Ingunn M. Vågen; Roar Moe; Eli Ronglan

2003-01-01

117

Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.  

PubMed

Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH? production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts. PMID:25036683

Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

2014-01-01

118

Biphasic Effect of Phyllanthus emblica L. Extract on NSAID-Induced Ulcer: An Antioxidative Trail Weaved with Immunomodulatory Effect  

PubMed Central

Amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.), apart from its food value, can be used as a gastroprotective agent in non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastropathy. It has been suggested that the antioxidative property of amla is the key to its therapeutic effect. Hence, on the basis of in vitro antioxidative potential, the ethanolic extract of amla (eAE) was selected for in vivo study in NSAID-induced ulcer. Intriguingly, eAE showed biphasic activity in ulcerated mice, with healing effect observed at 60?mg/kg and an adverse effect at 120?mg/kg.The dose-dependent study revealed that switching from anti-oxidant to pro-oxidant shift and immunomodulatory property could be the major cause for its biphasic effect, as evident from the total antioxidant status, thiol concentration, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content followed by mucin content, PGE2 synthesis and cytokine status. Further, Buthionine sulfoxamine (BSO) pretreatment established the potential impact of antioxidative property in the healing action of eAE. However, eAE efficiently reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-? and IL-1?) levels and appreciably upregulate anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) concentration. In conclusion, gastric ulcer healing induced by eAE was driven in a dose-specific manner through the harmonization of the antioxidative property and modulation of anti-inflammatory cytokine level. PMID:21076542

Chatterjee, Ananya; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K.

2011-01-01

119

Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway  

PubMed Central

The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla) against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX-) dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18?mg/kg, single dose) administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG) E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS) were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5?mg/kg/day) and omeprazole (3?mg/kg/day) for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE2 synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio. PMID:22966242

Chatterjee, Ananya; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Biswas, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K.

2012-01-01

120

Evaluation of bioactive properties and phenolic compounds in different extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The therapeutic benefits of medicinal plants are well known. Nevertheless, essential oils have been the main focus of antioxidant and antimicrobial studies, remaining scarce the reports with hydrophilic extracts. Thus, the antioxidant and antifungal activities of aqueous (prepared by infusion and decoction) and methanol/water (80:20, v/v) extracts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were evaluated and characterised in terms of phenolic compounds. Decoction and methanol/water extract gave the most pronounced antioxidant and antifungal properties, being positively related with their phenolic composition. The highest concentration of phenolic compounds was observed in the decoction, followed by methanol/water extract and infusion. Fungicidal and/or fungi static effects proved to be dependent on the extracts concentration. Overall, the incorporation of sage decoction in the daily diet or its use as a complement for antifungal therapies, could provide considerable benefits, also being an alternative to sage essential oils that can display some toxic effects. PMID:25306360

Martins, Natália; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2015-03-01

121

Detection of toxic heavy metals and pesticide residue in herbal plants which are commonly used in the herbal formulations.  

PubMed

Herbal formulations are getting popular throughout the world and commercialized extensively for various medicinal properties. WHO has emphasized the need for quality assurance of herbal products, including testing of heavy metals and pesticides residues. In view of WHO guidelines, single herbal drugs used in herbal formulations were collected from local market, for testing heavy metals and persistent pesticides residue. Therefore, in the present case, we have examined few local samples of certain herbs viz. Emblica officinalis, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, and Withania somnifera. The present studies were selected for estimation of four heavy metals namely Arsenic, Cadmium, Lead, and Mercury. Apart from these, pesticide residue Viz. Organochlorine pesticides, Organophosphorus pesticides, and Pyrethroids were analyzed in the four samples of single crude drugs. Heavy metals and pesticide residue were found below detection limits in all the samples. PMID:21210215

Rao, Mruthyumjaya Meda; Kumarmeena, Ajay; Galib

2011-10-01

122

Wound healing activity of flower extract of Calendula officinalis.  

PubMed

The effects of oral and topical application of Calendula officinalis flower extract on excision wounds made in rats were checked. The parameters assessed were the days needed for re-epithelization and percentage of wound closure. The hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the granuloma tissue of the wound was also measured. The percentage of wound closure was 90.0% in the extract-treated group, whereas the control group showed only 51.1% on the eighth day of wounding (p < .01). The days needed for re-epithelization were 17.7 for the control animals; extract treatment at a dose of 20 or 100 mg/kg b.wt reduced the period to 14 and 13 days, respectively. A significant increase was observed in the hydroxy proline and hexosamine content in the extract-treated group compared with the untreated animals. The data indicate potent wound healing activity ofC. officinalis extract. PMID:19601397

Preethi, Korengath C; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2009-01-01

123

Flüchtige Inhaltsstoffe aus Steinklee ( Melilotus officinalis L. Lam.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Using MPLC the extract obtained by solid-liquid extraction of dry sweet clover herb (Melilotus officinalis L. Lam.) with pentane\\/dichloromethane (2+1, by vol.) was fractionated. The subsequent separation and identification of the volatiles in the preseparated fractions was carried out by high resolution capillary gas chromatography (HRGC) and on-line HRGC\\/mass spectrometry (HRGC\\/MS). In total, 84 volatile constituents of sweet clover

Martin Wörner; Peter Schreier

1990-01-01

124

The effect of triacontanol on micropropagationof balm, Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacontanol, a long-chain primary alcohol was found to be an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation of balm,\\u000a Melissa officinalis. In both the multiplication and the rooting phase, concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and 20??g triacontanol per liter were applied.\\u000a After 4 weeks of culture, the fresh weight of shoots was measured in the multiplication phase and root formation, photosynthetic

Á. Tantos; A. Mészáros; J. Kissimon; G. Horváth; T. Farkas

1999-01-01

125

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

126

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

127

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences a case study using  

E-print Network

Spatial and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental and temporal patterns of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) abundance and environmental influences ­ a case study Journal of Marine Science, 60: 1149­1158. The spatial and temporal distribution patterns of cuttlefish

Pierce, Graham

128

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

E-print Network

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard to the cuttlefishÃ?s visual system. In both assays it was tested whether cuttlefish would show disruptive coloration

Hanlon, Roger T.

129

Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of inorganic Hg by the juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis1 exposed to 203 Hg the juvenile common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis following exposures via seawater and food28 using sensitive radiotracer technique (203 Hg). The cuttlefish readily concentrated 203 Hg when29 exposed via seawater

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding  

E-print Network

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding of Sussex, Brighton, UK Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show of natural substrates that cuttlefish cue on visually are largely unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify

Hanlon, Roger T.

131

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL PAPER Color matching on natural substrates in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Lydia M. Ma The camouflaging abilities of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) are remarkable and well known. It is commonly believed that cuttlefish--although color blind--actively match various colors of their immediate surroundings, yet

Hanlon, Roger T.

132

First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

1 First experiments on the maternal transfer of metals in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Thomas in the eggs of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis via maternal transfer, using radiotracer techniques (110m Ag, 241 Am, 109 Cd, 60 Co, 134 Cs, 54 Mn, 75 Se and 65 Zn). The cuttlefish was fed daily

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

133

Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food pathways  

E-print Network

1 Bioaccumulation of PCBs in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis from seawater, sediment and food.envpol.2004.07.010 #12;2 ABSTRACT The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis was selected as a model cephalopod to study PCB bioaccumulation via seawater, sediments and food. Newly hatched, juvenile cuttlefish were exposed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

134

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

The use of background matching vs. masquerade for camouflage in cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Kendra coloration Cephalopod a b s t r a c t Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, commonly use their visually. This laboratory study investigated whether cuttlefish preferentially camouflage themselves to resemble a three

California at Irvine, University of

135

The feeding and conversion of leaf litter by the pillbug armadillo officinalis (isopoda, oniscidea)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth and food conversion of the pillbug Armadillo officinalis Duméril 1816, fed on the leaves of Myoporum serratum or Carthamus lanatus for 30 days, were determined. A steady increase in the body mass of A. officinalis fed on either diet was observed during the initial 15 days of the experimental period, with a decrease thereafter. A sigmoid growth pattern

G. Achuthan Nair; Mahmoud Mahdy Fadiel

1991-01-01

136

Effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on growth performance and meat quality characteristics in organically produced broilers.  

PubMed

Abstract 1. A trial was conducted to study the effect of Melissa officinalis supplementation on organic broiler performance and meat chemical, microbiological, sensory and nutritional quality. 2. Male and female day-old Ross 308 chicks were fed on a standard commercial diet containing 0, 2.5, 5 or 10 g/kg feed ground M. officinalis for 84 d before slaughter. 3. Weight gain and feed conversion ratio were significantly improved in the broilers receiving either 5 or 10 mg M. officinalis/kg feed. 4. Inclusion of M. officinalis did not affect muscle chemical and fatty acid composition. 5. On the basis of microbiological and sensory experimental data and subsequent extension of meat shelf life, M. officinalis did not reduce the microbial populations of the meat, but was effective in limiting lipid oxidation. PMID:25299877

Kasapidou, E; Giannenas, I; Mitlianga, P; Sinapis, E; Bouloumpasi, E; Petrotos, K; Manouras, A; Kyriazakis, I

2014-12-01

137

Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and ?-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 ?M kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 ?M kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and ?-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and ?-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

2011-10-01

138

Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A ?-Induced Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (A?) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on A?-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with A? and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against A?-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

139

Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A ?-Induced Toxicity.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (A?) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on A?-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with A? and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against A?-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

140

Comparison of different extraction methods for the determination of ?- and ?-thujone in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) herbal tea.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. (sage) is an important industrial plant used both for food and pharmaceutical purposes. The terpene fraction of this plant is responsible for many of its therapeutic and culinary properties. We used different extraction methods Tenax TA® purge and trap, headspace (HS) solid-phase microextraction, HS sorptive extraction, and stir bar sorptive extraction to analyze the terpene fraction extracted from sage tea by GC-MS. Twenty compounds were identified, including ?-, ?-thujone, and several other oxygenated monoterpenes (1,8-cineole, linalool, camphor, boneol, and bornyl acetate) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (caryophyllene oxide, viridiflorol, humulene epoxide I, II, and III). Tenax TA® and HS sorptive extraction extracted a lower number of identified compounds, whereas HS solid-phase microextraction allowed the complete extraction of volatiles with particular reference to ?- and ?-thujone. The importance of the determination of thujones content in sage herbal tea is also discussed. PMID:23843295

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Occhipinti, Andrea; Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E

2013-09-01

141

Effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of melissa officinalis L. In doon valley, India.  

PubMed

A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %). PMID:25425760

Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Chauhan, N K; Lohani, H; Sah, S; Yadav, R K

2014-09-01

142

Salvia officinalis L. essential oils: effect of hydrodistillation time on the chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. oils were isolated from the plant's commercial dried aerial parts, by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times. The essential oils were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antioxidant ability was measured using a free radical scavenging activity assay using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), a thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay, a deoxyribose assay for the scavenging of hydroxyl radical, an assay for site-specific actions and a 5-lipoxygenase assay. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. 1,8-Cineole, ?-pinene and camphor were the dominant components of all the essential oils. The different hydrodistillation times did not affect the oil yield nor the relative amount of the oil components. The time of hydrodistillation influenced the antioxidant activity. With the DPPH method, the oils isolated for 2 and 3 h were stronger free radical scavengers, while with the TBARS method, the highest antioxidant values were obtained in the oils isolated for 30 min, 2 and 3 h. Hydroxyl radical scavenging and lipoxygenase activity assays showed the best results with oils isolated for 1 and 3 h. With the deoxyribose method, sage oils at concentrations <1000 mg L(-1) showed better activity than mannitol. The essential oil of S. officinalis showed very weak antimicrobial activity. PMID:21391115

Miguel, G; Cruz, C; Faleiro, M L; Simões, M T F; Figueiredo, A C; Barroso, J G; Pedro, L G

2011-03-01

143

Biased morph ratios and skewed mating success contribute to loss of genetic diversity in the distylous Pulmonaria officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims In heterostylous plant species, skewed morph ratios are not uncommon and may arise from a range of factors. Despite the recognized importance of skewed morph ratios on overall reproductive success within populations, little is known about the impact of skewed morph ratios on population genetic diversity and differentiation in heterostylous species. This study specifically aimed to clarify the effect of population size and morph bias on population genetic diversity and differentiation in the temperate forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. This species is characterized by a distylous breeding system and shows morph-specific differences in reproductive success. Methods Genetic diversity was determined for 27 P. officinalis populations in northern Belgium by using eight recently developed microsatellite markers. Multiple regressions were used to assess the relationship between genetic diversity, morph bias and population size, and FST-values were calculated for short- and long-styled morphs separately to study genetic differentiation as a function of morph type. Key Results For all genetic measures used, morph bias was more important in explaining patterns of genetic diversity than population size, and in all cases patterns of population genetic diversity followed a quadratic function, which showed a symmetrical decrease in genetic diversity with increasing morph bias. However, probably due to the reproductive advantage of L-morphs relative to S-morphs, maximum genetic diversity was found in populations showing an excess of L-morphs (60·7 % L-morph). On the other hand, no significant difference in pairwise genetic distances between populations was observed between L- (0·107) and S-morphs (0·106). Conclusions Our results indicate that significant deviations from equal morph ratios not only affect plant reproductive success but also population genetic diversity of heterostylous plant species. Hence, when defining conservation measures for populations of heterostylous plant species, morph ratios should be considered as an important trait affecting their long-term population viability. PMID:22021814

Meeus, Sofie; Honnay, Olivier; Brys, Rein; Jacquemyn, Hans

2012-01-01

144

The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

2014-09-01

145

Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. PMID:23415335

Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

2013-04-01

146

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report.  

PubMed

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

Roveroni-Favaretto, Lúcia Helena Denardi; Lodi, Karina Bortolin; Almeida, Janete Dias

2009-01-01

147

Topical Calendula officinalis L. successfully treated exfoliative cheilitis: a case report  

PubMed Central

Authors describe a case of recurrent exfoliative cheilitis that responded to treatment with a standardized topical preparation of Calendula officinalis L. An eighteen-year-old man was referred to UNESP - São Paulo State University, Department of Biosciences and Oral Diagnosis, São José dos Campos Dental School to investigate a chronic dry scaling lesion on his lips. The patient's main chief was aesthetic compromising. Corticoid therapy was suspended and Calendula officinalis ointment 10% for ad libitum use has been prescribed. The results presented allow the authors to consider Calendula officinalis L. as a potential therapy in cases of cheilitis exfoliative. PMID:20062714

2009-01-01

148

Symmetrical crypsis and asymmetrical signalling in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The salience of bilateral symmetry to humans has led to the suggestion that camouflage may be enhanced in asymmetrical patterns. However, the importance of bilateral symmetry in visual signals (and overall morphology) may constrain the evolution of asymmetrical camouflage, resulting in the bilaterally symmetrical cryptic patterns that we see throughout the animal kingdom. This study investigates the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), which can control the degree of symmetry in its coloration. Ten juvenile S. officinalis were filmed in two behavioural contexts (cryptic and threatened) to test the prediction that cryptic patterns will be expressed more asymmetrically than an anti-predator signal known as the ‘deimatic display’. Cryptic body patterns, particularly those with a disruptive function, were found to exhibit a high degree of bilateral symmetry. By contrast, the components of the deimatic display were often expressed asymmetrically. These results are contrary to the predicted use of symmetry in defensive coloration, indicating that the role of symmetry in both crypsis and visual signalling is not as straightforward as previously suggested. PMID:16627281

Langridge, Keri V

2005-01-01

149

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

150

Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set  

PubMed Central

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

2014-01-01

151

Antioxidative activity and phenolic composition of pilot-plant and commercial extracts of sage and rosemary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sage (Salvia officinalis) and twenty-four rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts, originating from pilot-plant or commercial sources, had different antioxidative activities as measured by accelerated\\u000a autoxidation of methyl linoleate. Twenty-seven compounds were characterized in the Labiatae family extracts by high-performance\\u000a liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry, equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface,\\u000a and by HPLC coupled with a

Marie-Elisabeth Cuvelier; Hubert Richard; Claudette Berset

1996-01-01

152

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils. PMID:20184034

Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

2010-01-01

153

An unusual heteromorphic incompatibility system : 3. On the genetic control of distyly and self-incompatibility in Anchusa officinalis L. (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

By means of intra- and intermorph crosses it has been shown that the distyly in Anchusa officinalis L. is governed by a single diallelic locus with dominance. Presence of the dominant allele is reflected in the short-styled morph, while homozygous recessives become long-styled. Most of the short-styled plants are heterozygous, but homozygotes have been found among the raised progeny resulting from crossings. Diallel crosses have revealed that at least two incompatibility loci must exist. These and the morphological locus segregate independently. The type of incompatibility system is as yet unknown, though the great frequency of non-reciprocal incompatibility points to a sporophytic system. PMID:24258957

Schou, O; Philipp, M

1984-05-01

154

Identification of salt gland-associated genes and characterization of a dehydrin from the salt secretor mangrove Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

BackgroundSalt stress is a major challenge for growth and development of plants. The mangrove tree Avicennia officinalis has evolved salt tolerance mechanisms such as salt secretion through specialized glands on its leaves. Although a number of structural studies on salt glands have been done, the molecular mechanism of salt secretion is not clearly understood. Also, studies to identify salt gland-specific genes in mangroves have been scarce.ResultsBy subtractive hybridization (SH) of cDNA from salt gland-rich cell layers (tester) with mesophyll tissues as the driver, several Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) were identified. The major classes of ESTs identified include those known to be involved in regulating metabolic processes (37%), stress response (17%), transcription (17%), signal transduction (17%) and transport functions (12%). A visual interactive map generated based on predicted functional gene interactions of the identified ESTs suggested altered activities of hydrolase, transmembrane transport and kinases. Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) was carried out to validate the expression specificity of the ESTs identified by SH. A Dehydrin gene was chosen for further experimental analysis, because it is significantly highly expressed in salt gland cells, and dehydrins are known to be involved in stress remediation in other plants. Full-length Avicennia officinalis Dehydrin1 (AoDHN1) cDNA was obtained by Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends. Phylogenetic analysis and further characterization of this gene suggested that AoDHN1 belongs to group II Late Embryogenesis Abundant proteins. qRT-PCR analysis of Avicennia showed up-regulation of AoDHN1 in response to salt and drought treatments. Furthermore, some functional insights were obtained by growing E. coli cells expressing AoDHN1. Growth of E. coli cells expressing AoDHN1 was significantly higher than that of the control cells without AoDHN1 under salinity and drought stresses, suggesting that the mangrove dehydrin protein helps to mitigate the abiotic stresses.ConclusionsThirty-four ESTs were identified to be enriched in salt gland-rich tissues of A. officinalis leaves. qRT-PCR analysis showed that 10 of these were specifically enriched in the salt gland-rich tissues. Our data suggest that one of the selected genes, namely, AoDHN1 plays an important role to mitigate salt and drought stress responses. PMID:25404140

Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Mohanty, Bijayalaxmi; Wijaya, Edward; Lim, Tit-Meng; Lin, Qingsong; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

2014-11-18

155

Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 ?M) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC50 of approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on

H. Sadraei; A. Ghannadi; K. Malekshahi

2003-01-01

156

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

2004-01-01

157

Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50–400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD.

Soodi, M.; Naghdi, N.; Hajimehdipoor, H.; Choopani, S.; Sahraei, E.

2014-01-01

158

Memory-improving activity of Melissa officinalis extract in naïve and scopolamine-treated rats.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae) traditionally used in treating neurological disorders has also been identified as a memory-enhancing herb. The extract of M. officinalis has a cholinergic property. The role of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, the neurons that are destroyed in Alzheimer's disease (AD), in learning and memory, is also well known. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of cholinergic system on the memory improving activity of M. officinalis extract. The leaves of M. officinalis were extracted with ethanol 80% using the maceration method. Rats received intra-peritoneal injections of M. officinalis extract in different doses (50-400 mg/kg) alone or in combination with scopolamine (1 mg/kg) before being trained in a Morris water maze (MWM) in a single-day training protocol. After training, the acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity was measured in the hippocampus. Administration of M. officinalis extract (200 mg/kg) could significantly enhance learning and memory of naïve rats (p<0.001) and significantly ameliorate scopolamine-induced learning deficit, but the effect of the extract was not dose dependent, and doses above 200 mg/kg could neither enhance memory in naïve rats nor reverse scopolamine-induced memory impairment. Also, inhibition of AChE activity was observed in both naïve and scopolamine-induced memory-impaired rats. These results suggest that M. officinalis can improve memory and that the cholinergic property of the extract may contribute to the memory-improving effects observed in this study. Then M. officinalis extract has potential therapeutic value in alleviating certain memory impairment observed in AD. PMID:25657779

Soodi, M; Naghdi, N; Hajimehdipoor, H; Choopani, S; Sahraei, E

2014-01-01

159

Composition of the Essential Oil from Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Melissa officinalis L. c. v. citra cultivated at Nitra locality (Slovak Republic) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. M. officinalis oil was found to contain geranial (33.60%), neral (22.18%), citronellal (11.30%), caryophyllene oxide (8.35%), geranyl acetate (5.89%), and ?-caryophyllene (4.20%) as the major components. More than 50 components were identified in the oil.

Magda Hollá; Emil Svajdlenka; Jozef Tekel; Stefánia Vaverková; Emil Havránek

1997-01-01

160

Cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to the sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene by an enzyme system from sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

A soluble enzyme preparation obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves was shown to catalyze the divalent metal-ion dependent cyclization of trans, trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate to the macrocyclic sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene. The identities of the biosynthetic products were confirmed by radiochromatographic analysis and by preparation of crystalline derivatives, and the specificity of labeling in the cyclization reaction was established by chemical degradation of the olefins derived enzymatically from (1-3H2)farnesyl pyrophosphate. These results constitute the first report on the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to humulene and caryophyllene, two of the most common sesquiterpenes in nature, and the first description of a soluble sesquiterpene cyclase to be isolated from leaves of a higher plant.

Croteau, R.; Gundy, A.

1984-09-01

161

Attachment and penetration of acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus are inhibited by Melissa officinalis extract.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel source of drugs for antiherpetic agents, because herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis and the phenolic compounds caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acyclovir-sensitive and clinical isolates of acyclovir-resistant strains in vitro. When drugs were added during the intracellular replication of HSV-1 infected cells, no antiviral effect was observed by plaque reduction assay. However, Melissa extract interacted directly with free viral particles of two acyclovir-resistant HSV strains at low IC50 values of 0.13 and 0.23?µg/mL and high selectivity indices of 2692 and 1522, respectively. The Melissa extract and rosmarinic acid inhibited HSV-1 attachment to host cells in a dose-dependent manner for acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant strains. These results indicate that mainly rosmarinic acid contributed to the antiviral activity of Melissa extract. Penetration of herpes viruses into cells was inhibited by Melissa extract at 80% and 96% for drug-sensitive and drug-resistant viruses, respectively. Melissa extract exhibits low toxicity and affects attachment and penetration of acyclovir-sensitive and acyclovir-resistant HSVs in vitro. PMID:24817544

Astani, Akram; Navid, Mojdeh Heidary; Schnitzler, Paul

2014-10-01

162

Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis' calli.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Stem explants of very young shoots were cultured in both woody plant medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 7g/L agar, 30g/L sucrose, and 1 and 3mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for callus initiation. Induced calli were subcultured 4 times with intervals of 7-10 days. MS medium supplemented with 1mg/L NAA proved to be the best medium for the production of callus (65.0%) among the samples tested. The lyophilized calli were subjected to solvent extraction. Active constituents of 8 calli extracts were analyzed by HPLC, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was determined to be the primary compound. Calli cultivated in WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA and extracted at 50 degrees C, yielded the highest amount of RA (34.4mg/g dry weight). Moreover, antioxidant activity of calli extracts was determined using a number of in vitro assays, including total phenol assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). On the basis of the current findings, we conclude that WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA yields higher phenolic content as well as higher antioxidant activity. PMID:17913287

Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Nartop, Pinar; Gurel, Aynur; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

2007-11-01

163

Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and ?-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:22344920

Generali?, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalini?, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalini?, Višnja

2012-02-01

164

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

165

Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

1990-08-01

166

Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.  

PubMed

Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66?±?4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04?±?0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p?officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells. PMID:23432355

Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

2013-06-01

167

Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests  

PubMed Central

Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

2014-01-01

168

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

169

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will identify the relationship of the structure of plants. Students will also understand the cycle of plants and their role in the food chain. Why are plants important? How do they affect the cycle of life? Think about these questions as you watch this video on plants: Video of plants Now go to this website: Biology of Plants and use your handout to record the information you learn about the parts of a plant. Next, take this ...

barlobe

2009-10-21

170

Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, ?- and ?-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for ?-/?-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). PMID:22196947

Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

2012-03-01

171

Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis  

SciTech Connect

Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J. [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)] [Universitat Autonoma, Barcelona (Spain)

1997-04-01

172

Optical and thermal characterization of natural (Sepia officinalis) melanin.  

PubMed

The optical properties and the thermal diffusivity of natural cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) melanin have been measured. The optical absorption and scattering properties of melanin particles were determined at 580 nm and 633 nm, using photometric and photothermal techniques. For the photometric studies, the absorption and the transport scattering coefficients were determined from the measurements of diffuse reflectance and transmittance. The scattering anisotropy was obtained from an additional measurement of the total attenuation coefficient and independently obtained by goniometry. For photothermal studies, pulsed photothermal radiometry was used to deduce the absorption and transport scattering coefficients via a model based on optical diffusion theory. Pulsed photothermal radiometry was also used to provide the thermal diffusivity of solid melanin pressed pellets. PMID:8022888

Vitkin, I A; Woolsey, J; Wilson, B C; Anderson, R R

1994-04-01

173

Cytotoxic triterpene glycosides from the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract of the roots of Sanguisorba officinalis resulted in the isolation of three new triterpene glycosides, 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?,23-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (1), 2?,3?,19?,23-tetrahydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (2), and 3?-[(?-L-arabinopyranosyl)oxy]-19?-hydroxyurs-12,20(30)-dien-28-oic acid 28-[6-O-acetyl-?-D-glucopyranosyl] ester (3). All the triterpene glycosides exhibited the significant cytotoxic potential with low IC50 values (IC50 < 5.0 ?M) against six tumor cell lines (MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SGC-7901, NCI-H460, and BGC-823). PMID:25193625

Hu, Jiang; Song, Yan; Li, Hui; Yang, Benshou; Mao, Xia; Zhao, Yongmao; Shi, Xiaodong

2014-09-01

174

New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.  

PubMed

Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A1 (1), A2 (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F1 (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

2014-12-01

175

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Anne Barron

2011-04-21

176

[Antioxidant properties of plant extracts].  

PubMed

Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants exhibited antimicrobial activity was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum perforatum > Potentilla erectra > Ledum palustre > Plantago major > Salvia officinalis > Chamomilla recutita > Arctostaphylos uva. PMID:9591094

Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I

1998-01-01

177

Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.  

PubMed

Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts. PMID:19249334

Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

2009-06-01

178

Selective Interactions of Valeriana officinalis Extracts and Valerenic Acid with [3H]Glutamate Binding to Rat Synaptic Membranes  

PubMed Central

Although GABA neurotransmission has been suggested as a mechanism for Valeriana officinalis effects, CNS depression can also be evoked by inhibition of ionotropic (iGluR) and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR). In this study, we examined if aqueous valerian extract interacted with glutamatergic receptors. Freshly prepared aqueous valerian extract was incubated with rat cortical synaptic membranes in presence of 20?nM [3H]Glutamate. Aqueous valerian extract increased [3H]Glutamate binding from 1 × 10?7 to 1 × 10?3?mg/mL. In the presence of (2S,1?S,2?S)-2-(Carboxycyclopropyl)glycine (LCCG-I) and (2S,2?R,3?R)-2-(2?,3?-Dicarboxycyclopropyl)glycine (DCG-IV), Group II mGluR agents, valerian extract markedly decreased [3H]Glutamate binding, while (2S)-2-amino-3-(3,5-dioxo-1,2,4-oxadiazolidin-2-yl) propanoic acid) (quisqualic acid, QA), Group I mGluR agonist, increased [3H]Glutamate binding. At 0.05?mg/mL aqueous valerian extract specifically interacted with kainic acid NMDA and AMPA receptors. Valerenic acid, a marker compound for Valeriana officinalis, increased the [3H]Glutamate binding after 1.6 × 10?2?mg/mL, and at 0.008?mg/mL it interacted only with QA (Group I mGluR). The selective interactions of valerian extract and valerenic acid with Group I and Group II mGluR may represent an alternative explanation for the anxiolytic properties of this plant. PMID:21584239

Del Valle-Mojica, Lisa M.; Ayala-Marín, Yoshira M.; Ortiz-Sanchez, Carmen M.; Torres-Hernández, Bianca A.; Abdalla-Mukhaimer, Safa; Ortiz, José G.

2011-01-01

179

Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.  

PubMed

To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

2013-09-01

180

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484

Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y

1997-12-01

181

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

2010-12-01

182

Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.  

PubMed

Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

2013-01-01

183

Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

184

Extracts of medicinal herb Sanguisorba officinalis inhibit the entry of human immunodeficiency virus type one.  

PubMed

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been successful in reducing HIV-1-associated morbidity and mortality since its introduction in 1996. It, however, fails to eradicate HIV-1 infection thoroughly. The high cost of life-long HAART and the emergence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected individuals have brought renewed pressure for the discovery of novel antivirals and alternative medicines. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the mainstreams of complementary and alternative medicine, and serves as rich resources for new drug development. Despite almost 100 plant-derived compounds are in clinical trials, few target HIV-1 infection. In this study, we discovered that extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (SOE) has anti-HIV-1 activities. Using a cell-based assay and single-cycle luciferase reporter viruses pseudotyped with envelopes from HIV-1 or control viruses, we found that SOE exhibited significant inhibitory ability against both CCR5 and CXCR4 tropic HIV-1 (ADA and HXB2) with respective IC50 values of 1.91±0.16 ?g/ml and 3.70±0.53 ?g/ml. Interestingly, SOE also inhibited SIV infection but failed to block vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), SARS-CoV and influeunza H5N1 pseudoviruses. Furthermore, we showed that SOE had no effects on post-entry events of HIV-1 replication. It blocked entry by acting on viral envelope directly because SOE pre-treatment with the virus but not with cell lines expressing viral receptors showed the maximal inhibitory activity. In addition, SOE was able to inhibit reverse-transcription-inhibitor-resistant viruses (K103N, Y188L, and K103N/Y188L/G190A) and a protease-inhibitor-resistant strain (PI-2840). Our findings demonstrated SOE as a novel and specific entry inhibitor, which shed lights on the discovery of anti-HIV-1 drugs from traditional herbal medicines. PMID:25191092

Liang, Jianguo; Chen, Jianping; Tan, Zhiwu; Peng, Jie; Zheng, Xiao; Nishiura, Kenji; Ng, Jenny; Wang, Zhiyu; Wang, Dongmei; Chen, Zhiwei; Liu, Li

2013-12-01

185

Metabolism of Monoterpenes : Metabolic Fate of (+)-Camphor in Sage (Salvia officinalis).  

PubMed

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the beta-d-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-[G-(3)H]camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess beta-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2[U-(14)C]campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C(14) to C(20)) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots. PMID:16665495

Croteau, R; El-Bialy, H; Dehal, S S

1987-07-01

186

Mycorrhizal colonisation in plants from intermittent aquatic habitats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plant species with amphibious characteristics from intermittent aquatic habitats were examined for colonisation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), dark septate endophytes (DSE) and the ratio of aerenchyma in root tissue. We studied submerged specimens of Alisma plantago-aquatica, Mentha aquatica, Myosotis scorpioides, Oenanthe fistulosa, Gratiola officinalis, Glyceria fluitans, Sium latifolium and Teucrium scordium. In the first four, we also examined

Nina Šraj-Krži?; Paula Pongrac; Maja Klemenc; Aleš Kladnik; Marjana Regvar; Alenka Gaberš?ik

2006-01-01

187

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-12-15

188

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-01-01

189

Antifungal activity of several medicinal plants extracts against the early blight pathogen (Alternaria solani)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antifungal activity for several medicinal plants against the early blight fungus (Alternaria solani) has been investigated. These plants were Syrian marjoram (Majorana syriaca), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), Greek sage (Salvia fruticosa), roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and cotton lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus). The inhibitory effect of these extracts on the radial mycelial growth as well as on spore germination was measured in vitro

Saba J. Goussous; Firas M. Abu el-Samen; Ragheb A. Tahhan

2010-01-01

190

Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.  

PubMed

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. PMID:21345605

Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

2011-07-01

191

Shampoo-Clay Heals Diaper Rash Faster Than Calendula Officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background: Diaper rash is one of the most common skin disorders of infancy and childhood. Some studies have shown that Shampoo-clay was effective to treat chronic dermatitis. Then, it is supposed that it may be effective in diaper rash; however, no published studies were found in this regard. Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of Shampoo-clay (S.C) and Calendula officinalis (C.O) to improve infantile diaper rash. Patients and Methods: A randomized, double blind, parallel controlled, non-inferiority trial was conducted on 60 outpatient infants referred to health care centers or pediatric clinics in Khomein city and diagnosed with diaper rash. Patients were randomly assigned into two treatment groups including S.C group (n = 30) and C.O group (n = 30) by using one to one allocation ratio. The rate of complete recovery in three days was the primary outcome. Data was collected using a checklist and analyzed using t-test, Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests and risk ratio. Results: Totally, 93.3% of lesions in the S.C group healed in the first 6 hours, while this rate was 40% in C.O group (P < 0.001). The healing ratio for improvement in the first 6 hours was 7 times more in the S.C group. In addition, 90% of infants in the SC group and 36.7% in the C.O group were improved completely in the first 3 days (P < 0.001). Conclusions: S.C was effective to heal diaper rash, and also had faster effects compared to C.O. PMID:25414900

Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen; Mahmoudi, Mansoreh; Mashaiekhi, Mahdi

2014-01-01

192

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

193

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

194

Structural aspects of ovule and seed development and nonrandom abortion in Melilotus officinalis (Fabaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Only one ovule matures into a seed inMelilotus officinalis. Although eight ovules form within an ovary, only the basal ovule develops into a mature seed, whereas the other ovules degenerate. The investigation of ovule and seed structure at different developmental stages and a comparison of quantitative characters of differently fated ovules within an ovary were undertaken by light, phase

M. Akhalkatsi; M. Pfauth; C. L. Calvin

1999-01-01

195

Changes in composition of digestive gland and mantle muscle of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis during starvation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the biochemical composition of the digestive gland and in the proteins of the mantle muscle of Sepia officinalis L, collected in September 1989 from the Ria de Vigo (northwest Spain), were measured during periods of 2, 4, 10 and >53 d starvation. The digestive gland lost weight faster than the rest of the body throughout the whole period

B. G. Castro; J. L. Garrido; C. G. Sotelo

1992-01-01

196

Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth, Survival and Condition of Adult Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of artificial diets on growth and body condition of adult cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis were tested in two experiments. Supplemented prepared diets (fish myofibrillar protein concentrate) were fed during a 30-day and a 21-day experiments. Growth, feeding rate and food conversion of group-reared cuttlefish were analyzed. The first of these experiments tested four artificial diets, made with increasing levels

Pedro M. Domingues; Paul F. Dimarco; Jose P. Andrade; Phillip G. Lee

2005-01-01

197

Allozyme differentiation in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) from the NE Atlantic and Mediterranean  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic–Mediterranean area has recently been proposed as a new phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance of genetic differentiation patterns observed in several marine species. However, additional taxa need to be studied to establish the phylogeographical relationship between the Atlantic and Mediterranean. Eleven samples of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis around the Iberian Peninsula, one from the Canary Islands, and

Marcos Pérez-Losada; Ángel Guerra; Andrés Sanjuan

1999-01-01

198

Color blindness and contrast perception in cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) determined by a visual sensorimotor assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

We tested color perception based upon a robust behavioral response in which cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) respond to visual stimuli (a black and white checkerboard) with a quantifiable, neurally controlled motor response (a body pattern). In the first experiment, we created 16 checkerboard substrates in which 16 grey shades (from white to black) were paired with one green shade (matched to

Lydia M. Mäthger; Alexandra Barbosa; Simon Miner; Roger T. Hanlon

2006-01-01

199

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Je´re´my Enault1 that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results: To facilitate generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

200

Antifungal activity of the essential oil from Calendula officinalis L. (asteraceae) growing in Brazil  

PubMed Central

This study tested in vitro activity of the essential oil from flowers of Calendula officinalis using disk-diffusion techniques. The antifungal assay results showed for the first time that the essential oil has good potential antifungal activity: it was effective against all 23 clinical fungi strains tested. PMID:24031180

Gazim, Zilda Cristiane; Rezende, Claudia Moraes; Fraga, Sandra Regina; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivaleti; Cortez, Diógenes Aparicio Garcia

2008-01-01

201

Ultrastructure of the corallinaceae. I. The vegetative cells of Corallina officinalis and C. cuvierii  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique utilizing combined fixation and gentle decalcification has been employed to study the ultrastructure of the vegetative cells of the articulated calcareous coralline algae Corallina officinalis Linnaeus and C. cuvierii Lamouroux (Rhodophyta: Cryptonemiales). The epidermal cells are distinctive, with many cell wall inggrowths which pass between the chloroplasts. It is suggested that these cells function as “transfer cells”. The

M. A. Borowitzka; M. Vesk

1978-01-01

202

Effect of essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis on the lipid composition of Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Addition of the essential oil of Hyssopus officinalis to the culture medium of Aspergillus fumigatus induced alterations in both growth and lipid composition of this mould. Total lipids and sterols were reduced, whereas total phospholipids were increased. There were alterations in the proportions of fatty acids, neutral lipid and phospholipid fractions. PMID:7935731

Ghfir, B; Fonvieille, J L; Koulali, Y; Ecalle, R; Dargent, R

1994-06-01

203

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

204

Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of

K. V. Venkatachalam; R. Kjonaas; R. Croteau

1984-01-01

205

Composition of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of dried herb of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Cuba was subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 28 constituents separated, 17 were identified (88% of the oil composition). The oil consisted mainly of neral (29–9%) and geranial (41.0%).

Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Victor Fuentes

1999-01-01

206

Extraction and Liquid Membrane Preconcentration of Rosmarinic Acid from Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid membrane separation technique was applied for the recovery and preconcentration of rosmarinic acid from aqueous extract of dried leaves of Balm lemon (Melissa officinalis L.). Among several studied organic solvents, diisopropyl ether and ethylacetate appeared to be appropriate membrane liquids for recovery and selective preconcentration of the acid. The difference in pH values between the two aqueous solutions was

Lubomir Boyadzhiev; Valentina Dimitrova

2006-01-01

207

Response surface optimised extraction and chromatographic purification of rosmarinic acid from Melissa officinalis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves with aqueous methanol was optimised using response surface methodology. Fifteen runs were conducted following a Box-Behnken design (BBD) followed by ridge analysis using the concentration of methanol, the extraction temperature and time as the independent variables and taking the extraction yield of RA from lemon balm as the response variable. The optimal

Sooah Kim; Eun Ju Yun; Jin Seop Bak; Hojoung Lee; Sung Joon Lee; Cheong Tae Kim; Jong-Hoon Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2010-01-01

208

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IN VITRO MORPHOGENETIC REACTION OF MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some preliminary results concerning the in vitro initiation of Melissa officinalis species and the morphogenetic reaction of some explants on several hormonal formuli of the basal Murashige-Skoog medium. We recommended some medium formuli that are effective for this species' micropropagation as well as the appropriate accommodation to septic conditions of the neoplantlets obtained in vitro and for

GOGU I. GHIORGHI; DIANA ELENA; T. MAFTEI; DANIELA N. NICU

209

Comparison of Several Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer, matrix solid phase dispersion, and supercritical fluid extraction were evaluated for the isolation and purification of phenolic compounds, e.g., benzoic acids from natural samples of Melissa officinalis. The extracts of benzoic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase modus (C18 column)

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay; Ewa K?odzinska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2006-01-01

210

Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

1995-01-01

211

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration

D. O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey; N. T. J Tildesley; E. K Perry; K. A Wesnes

2002-01-01

212

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81),

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Pompeo; A. M. Serrilli; R. Rossi; I. Sauzullo; F. Mengoni; V. Vullo

2008-01-01

213

Solvent extraction study of antioxidants from Balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the extraction of antioxidants from Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves with ethanol is presented. Effects of particle size, amount of solvent and temperature on the extraction rates and concentrations of antioxidants in the extracts were studied and kinetics was determined. Individual antioxidants (carnosic, ursolic and oleanolic acids) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that

Špela Stangler Herodež; Majda Hadolin; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

2003-01-01

214

Improved in vitro culture and micropropagation of different Melissa officinalis L. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. is widely cultivated in the world and Iran as well, due to its useful application in medicine. In order to establish a stable and high frequency of regeneration system with 4 landrace collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting and proliferation rate were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed

H. Meftahizade; H. Moradkhani; B. Naseri; M. Lofti; A. Naseri

215

Pimenta officinalis Lindl. (pimento, myrtle pepper) from early modern latrines in Gdansk (northern Poland)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fruits, seeds and embryos of Pimenta officinalis Lindl. syn. Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae) have been found in Gdansk (northern Poland) in latrines dated to the 18th century. This is one of the first few records of allspice from European archaeobotanical material. The paper presents morphological criteria used for the identification of allspice or myrtle pepper remains and briefly summarises

Monika Badura

2003-01-01

216

Antimycotoxigenic characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. essential oils.  

PubMed

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Natural products may regulate the cellular effects of aflatoxins and evidence suggests that aromatic organic compounds of spices can control the production of aflatoxins. With a view to controlling aflatoxin production, the essential oils from Rosmarinus officinalis and Trachyspermum copticum L. were obtained by hydrodistillation. Antifungal activities of the oils were studied with special reference to the inhibition of Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of the oils were determined. T. copticum L. oil showed a stronger inhibitory effect than R. officinalis on the growth of A. parasiticus. Aflatoxin production was inhibited at 450 ppm of both oils with that of R. officinalis being stronger inhibitor. The oils were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The major components of R. officinalis and T. copticum L. oils were Piperitone (23.65%), alpha-pinene (14.94%), Limonene (14.89%), 1,8-Cineole (7.43%) and Thymol (37.2%), P-Cymene (32.3%), gamma-Terpinene (27.3%) respectively. It is concluded that the essential oils could be safely used as preservative materials on some kinds of foods to protect them from toxigenic fungal infections. PMID:18190993

Rasooli, Iraj; Fakoor, Mohammad Hadi; Yadegarinia, Davod; Gachkar, Latif; Allameh, Abdolamir; Rezaei, Mohammad Bagher

2008-02-29

217

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis. PMID:23646301

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

218

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization in a Rat Model  

PubMed Central

Purpose This study investigated the effect of Melissa officinalis extract on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in a rat model. The mechanism by which M. officinalis extract acted was also investigated. Methods Experimental CNV was induced by laser photocoagulation in Brown Norway rats. An active fraction of the Melissa leaf extract was orally administered (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) beginning 3 days before laser photocoagulation and ending 14 days after laser photocoagulation. Optical coherence tomography and fluorescein angiography were performed in vivo to evaluate the thickness and leakage of CNV. Choroidal flat mount and histological analysis were conducted to observe the CNV in vitro. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 expression were measured in retinal and choroidal-scleral lysates 7 days after laser injury. Moreover, the effect of M. officinalis extract on tertiary-butylhydroperoxide (t-BH)-induced VEGF secretion and mRNA levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were evaluated in human retinal epithelial cells (ARPE-19) as well as in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results The CNV thickness in M. officinalis-treated rats was significantly lower than in vehicle-treated rats by histological analysis. The CNV thickness was 33.93±7.64 µm in the high-dose group (P<0.001), 44.09±12.01 µm in the low-dose group (P?=?0.016), and 51.00±12.37 µm in the control group. The proportion of CNV lesions with clinically significant fluorescein leakage was 9.2% in rats treated with high-dose M. officinalis, which was significantly lower than in control rats (53.4%, P<0.001). The levels of VEGF, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were significantly lower in the high-dose group than in the control group. Meanwhile, M. officinalis extract suppressed t-BH-induced transcription of VEGF and MMP-9 in ARPE-19 cells and HUVECs. Conclusions Systemic administration of M. officinalis extract suppressed laser-induced CNV formation in rats. Inhibition of VEGF and MMP-9 via anti-oxidative activity may underlie this effect. PMID:25314292

Lee, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Young Joo; Kim, Jin Young; Song, Hyun Beom; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2014-01-01

219

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

220

Disruptive Body Patterning of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) Requires Visual Information Regarding Edges and Contrast of Objects in Natural Substrate Backgrounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758) on mixed light and dark gravel show disruptive body patterns for camouflage. This response is evoked when the size of the gravel is equivalent to the area of the \\

CHUAN-CHIN CHIAO; EMMA J. KELMAN; ROGER T. HANLON

221

Might Flowers of Invasive Plants Increase Native Bees Carrying Capacity? Intimations from Capitol Reef National Park, Utah  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We compared the native bees visiting the flowers of three species of invasive plants (Tamarix spp., Melilotus albus, M. officinalis) with those visiting seven native plant species in mid-summer at three sites in Capitol Reef National Park, UT, USA. Overall, as many species of bees visited the flowe...

222

Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255

Pavela, Roman

2004-12-01

223

Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).  

PubMed Central

(+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. PMID:12231778

Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

1993-01-01

224

Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.  

PubMed

The ?-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols. PMID:23790930

Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

2013-11-15

225

Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Conn, J.S.; Beattie, K.L.; Shephard, M.A.; Carlson, M.L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

2008-01-01

226

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblingsâ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

227

A Comparison between Extract Products of Magnolia officinalis on Memory Impairment and Amyloidogenesis in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease  

PubMed Central

The components of Magnolia officinalis have well known to act anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities. These efficacies have been sold many products as nutritional supplement extracted from bark of Magnolia officinalis. Thus, to assess and compare neuroprotective effect in the nutritional supplement (Magnolia ExtractTM, Health Freedom Nutrition LLC, USA) and our ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis (BioLand LTD, Korea), we investigated memorial improving and anti-Alzheimer’s disease effects of extract products of Magnolia officinalis in a transgenic AD mice model. Oral pretreatment of two extract products of Magnolia officinalis (10 mg/kg/day in 0.05% ethanol) into drinking water for 3 months ameliorated memorial dysfunction and prevented A? accumulation in the brain of Tg2576 mice. In addition, extract products of Magnolia officinalis also decreased expression of ?-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its product, C99. Although both two extract products of Magnolia officinalis could show preventive effect of memorial dysfunction and A? accumulation, our ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis (BioLand LTD, Korea) could be more effective than Magnolia ExtractTM (Health Freedom Nutrition LLC, USA). Therefore, our results showed that extract products of Magnolia officinalis were effective for prevention and treatment of AD through memorial improving and anti-amyloidogenic effects via down-regulating ?-secretase activity, and neuroprotective efficacy of Magnolia extracts could be differed by cultivating area and manufacturing methods. PMID:24130932

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Young Hee; Kim, Ki Ho; Seong, Yeon Hee; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2012-01-01

228

Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).  

PubMed

A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (?=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (?=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. PMID:22727580

Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

2012-09-01

229

Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis. PMID:22511203

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-01-01

230

A new oleanene glucuronide obtained from the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new oleanene glucuronide called melilotus-saponin O2 (1) was isolated together with three known ones (soyasaponin I, astragaloside VIII, wistariasaponin D) from the aerial parts of Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas (Leguminosae). The structure of 1 was determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- (1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl melilotigenin by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:10705521

Hirakawa, T; Okawa, M; Kinjo, J; Nohara, T

2000-02-01

231

A new oleanene glucuronide having a branched-chain sugar from Melilotus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new oleanene glucuronide called melilotus-saponin O1 (1) was isolated together with three known ones from the roots of Melilotus officinalis (L.) PALLAS (Leguminosae). The structure of 1 was determined to be 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1--> 3)]- beta-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl soyasapogenol B by spectroscopic and chemical methods. PMID:9549893

Udayama, M; Kinjo, J; Yoshida, N; Nohara, T

1998-03-01

232

Electron-dense tracer evidence for a blood—brain barrier in the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Electron-dense tracers were used to study the permeability of the blood—brain interface in a cephalopod mollusc, the cuttlefishSepia officinalis. Gel filtration established that horseradish peroxidase is a suitable tracer forin vivo injection, but microperoxidase is not, being subject to binding by plasma proteins. Perfusion-fixed brain vertical and optic lobes showed no endogenous peroxidatic activity. Horseradish peroxidase was injected intravenously,

N. J. Abbott; M. Bundgaard

1992-01-01

233

Effects of Crowding on the Social Behavior of Cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the effect of crowding on cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis), a benthic cephalopod, the behavior of captive-reared cuttlefish was monitored for a period of 1 month. One group of 6 cuttlefish was housed in a tank 6.1 m in diameter (4.87 m 2 per cuttlefish); another group of 6 was housed in a tank 1.5 m in diameter (0.29 m

JEAN GEARY BOAL; REBECCA A. HYLTON; SUSAN A. GONZALEZ; ROGER T. HANLON

1999-01-01

234

Behavioral aspects of sperm competition in cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Sepioidea: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual selection studies in cephalopods indicate that sperm competition is a central feature of their mating systems, yet\\u000a this has not been studied experimentally in any detail. In 1998 we staged 20 matings of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L., in the laboratory. Males rapidly initiated mating in the “head-to-head” position, with no apparent courtship. Mating\\u000a lasted an average of 10?min

R. T. Hanlon; S. A. Ament; H. Gabr

1999-01-01

235

Absence of social recognition in laboratory-reared cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis L. (Mollusca: Cephalopoda)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were performed to determine the level of social recognition in captive-reared adult cuttlefish,Sepia officinalisL. No evidence of discrimination of familiar from unfamiliar individuals was found in either females or males. Despite good evidence for mate guarding, no recognition of individual mates was found. Within sex classes, associations between freely moving animals were not different from random (f–f, f–m

JEAN GEARY BOAL

1996-01-01

236

Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component. PMID:15839484

Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

237

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/ Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of C andida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-04-01

238

Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm): In Vitro Culture and the Production and Analysis of Volatile Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Melissa belongs to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) and comprises erect branched herbs with crenate opposite leaves and a two-lipped\\u000a corolla. It includes very few species, which chiefly occur in many parts of Europe and Asia. For the European region two individual\\u000a species are differentiated by the Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1972): M. officinalis L. (comprising the two

W. Schultze; S. Hose; A. Abou-Mandour; F.-C. Czygan

239

Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative activity of a lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf material of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was extracted with 450ml\\/l aqueous ethanol by medium pressure liquid–solid extraction. The total phenolic content of the extract was estimated as gallic acid equivalents by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method and a qualitative–quantitative compositional analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The lemon balm extract contained

Keyvan Dastmalchi; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Oinonen; Yusrida Darwis; Into Laakso; Raimo Hiltunen

2008-01-01

240

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

2012-01-01

241

Response surface optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of yellow pigment from Buddleja officinalis Maxim  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ultrasonic-assisted extraction technology of yellow pigment from Buddleja officinalis Maxim. was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM). The single factors tests and Box-Behnken experimental design were conducted and the optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: ethanol concentration 68%, liquid\\/material ratio (mL\\/g) 50:1, ultrasonic power 499 W, extraction temperature 74?? , and extraction time 35 min. Under this

Guo Lei

2011-01-01

242

Evaluating the Effect of Zingiber Officinalis on Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Receiving Cisplatin Based Regimens  

PubMed Central

Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinalis, has long been used as herbal medicine for its antiemetic effect. For evaluating the effect of zingiber officinalis on nausea and vomiting (N and V) in patients receiving cisplatin based regimens, a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over clinical trial was carried out in patients receiving cisplatin in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. The patients were randomly assigned to receive ginger capsules (rhizome of zingiber officinalis) or placebo in their first cycle of the study. All patients received standard antiemetics for chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The patients were crossed-over to receive ginger or placebo in their next cycle of chemotherapy. Among 36 eligible patients who received both cycles of treatment, there were no difference in prevalence, severity, and duration of both acute and delayed N and V. Addition of ginger to the standard antiemetic regimen has shown no advantage in reducing acute and delayed N and V in patients with cisplatin-based regimen in this study. PMID:24250368

Fahimi, Fanak; Khodadad, Kian; Amini, Somayeh; Naghibi, Farzaneh; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Baniasadi, Shadi

2011-01-01

243

Effect of Dietary Ethanolic Extract of Lavandula officinalis on Serum Lipids Profile in Rats  

PubMed Central

Antioxidants are effective in prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Lavandula officinalis possesses antioxidant activity, therefore, in this study; the effects of Lavandula officinalis extract were investigated on serum lipids levels of rats. Experimental mature male Wistar rats were treated with 100, 200 or 400 mg/Kg/day of lavender ethanolic extract or distilled water for 25 days via gastric gavage (n=8 each group). At the end of 25th day, the serum cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL and VLDL levels, as well as atherogenic indices were determined in rats’ serum. The ethanolic extract of lavender decreased serum cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and VLDL levels in 100 mg/Kg group (p=0.03, p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Serum HDL level increased in 100 mg/Kg/day group (p=0.01). Lavender extract decreased LDL/HDL level at doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). The TG/HDL levels decreased in experimental groups with doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg/day (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively). Lavandula officinalis extract exerts hypolipidemic effect in rats and might be beneficial in hyperlipidemic patients. PMID:25587318

Rabiei, Zahra; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud; Mokhtari, Shiva; Shahrani, Mehrdad

2014-01-01

244

Composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of some medicinal and spice plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination was made on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of four medicinal plants Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Hyssopus officinalis, and Eucalyptus globulus, the first three of which are also used as culinary spice herbs. Carum carvi L. and Coriandrum sativum L. belong to the Apiacea family. In traditional medicine, Carum carvi is used in the form of a

M. Cvijovic; D. Djukic; L. Mandic; G. Acamovic-Djokovic; M. Pesakovic

2010-01-01

245

Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis

S. Mukhammedov; K. Tillaeva; N. B. Badalov

1987-01-01

246

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: Phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus

M. Tognolini; E. Barocelli; V. Ballabeni; R. Bruni; A. Bianchi; M. Chiavarini; M. Impicciatore

2006-01-01

247

Bacterial populations on the leaves of Mediterranean plants: quantitative features and testing of distribution models  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the bacterial colonization of the phyllosphere of eight perennial species occurring in a Mediterranean ecosystem in Sithonia (Halkidiki), northern Greece, over a period of 2 years. The plant species were Arbutus unedo, Quercus coccifera, Pistacia lentiscus, Myrtus communis, Lavandula stoechas, Calamintha nepeta, Melissa officinalis and Cistus incanus. They differ in a number of morphological features, mainly in habit

R. K. P. Yadav; J. M. Halley; K. Karamanoli; H.-I. Constantinidou; D. Vokou

2004-01-01

248

Effects of extract and essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on TNBS-induced colitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Family Lamiaceae) popularly named rosemary, is a common household plant grown around the world, including Iran. Rosemary aerial parts are used as flavoring agent in foods, beverages, and cosmetic preparations and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine including: analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, spasmolytic, carminative and choleretic applications. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a well-defined model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Different doses of RHE (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) and REO (100, 200 and 400 ?l/kg) were administered orally and intraperitoneally (100, 400 mg/kg and 100, 400 ?l/kg) to male Wistar rats (n=6), 6 h after colitis induction and continued for 5 days by intracolonic instillation of 0.25 ml TNBS (80 mg/kg)/ethanol 50% v/v. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. RHE and REO at all test doses used were effective to reduce colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective to the route of administration. Administration of oral prednisolone, Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules) and parenteral hydrocortisone acetate were effective to reduce colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that RHE and REO are both effective to possess anti-colitic activity, and reinforce the use of this plant as a remedy for inflammatory bowel diseases in traditional medicine. PMID:22049274

Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A. R.; Afsharipour, M.; Mahzouni, P.

2011-01-01

249

Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp?=?0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P?=?0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL?=?0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS?=?0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS. PMID:24134743

2013-01-01

250

The influence of physical soil conditions on the formation of root nodules of Melilotus officinalis in the montane zone of Rocky Mountain National Park  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exotic invasion is a key threat to native biological diversity, second only to habitat degradation. Melilotus officinalis is an exotic species that thrives in areas of anthropogenic disturbances and low nutrient availability. Typically, natural disturbance facilitates native species establishment and maintains species diversity; however, anthropogenic disturbance facilitates exotic species establishment. M. officinalis functions as a competitor in the montane communities

Joy J. Wolf; Jennifer Rohrs

2001-01-01

251

Variation of heavy metal concentrations (Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, V, and Zn) during the life cycle of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis Pierre Miramand* 1,2 , Paco Bustamante 1,2 , Daniel Bentley 1, cuttlebone and whole animal) of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis collected in the Bay of Seine has of cuttlefish, except for Ag which decreases as soon as cuttlefish migrate to open sea. This strongly suggests

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

252

Assessment of the exposure pathway in the uptake and distribution of1 americium and cesium in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2  

E-print Network

in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) at different stages of2 its life cycle3 4 P. Bustamante1,2* , J-L. Teyssié1 (134 Cs) by the common cuttlefish20 Sepia officinalis. Uptake and loss kinetics of the radionuclides in juveniles.23 Following a short seawater exposure, cuttlefish accumulated 241 Am and 134 Cs, but only to24

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

253

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

254

Influência do horário de colheita e secagem de folhas no óleo essencial de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivada em dois ambientesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in two environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on content and chemical composition of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in greenhouse and field. The assay was conducted at the

S. FONTES; CARVALHO FILHO; P. B. ALVES; R. SILVA-MANN; M. O. RODRIGUES; Bairro Jardim; Rosa Elze

255

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-01-01

256

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

257

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.  

PubMed

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

2014-06-01

258

Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition. PMID:23924268

2013-01-01

259

Determination of the biologically active flavour substances thujone and camphor in foods and medicines containing sage (Salvia officinalis L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The sage plant Salvia officinalis L. is used as ingredient in foods and beverages as well as in herbal medicinal products. A major use is in the form of aqueous infusions as sage tea, which is legal to be sold as either food or medicine. Sage may contain two health relevant substances, thujone and camphor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical methodology to determine these active principles of sage and give a first overview of their concentrations in a wide variety of sage foods and medicines. Results A GC/MS procedure was applied for the analysis of ?- and ?-thujone and camphor with cyclodecanone as internal standard. The precision was between 0.8 and 12.6%, linearity was obtained from 0.1 - 80 mg/L. The recoveries of spiked samples were between 93.7 and 104.0% (average 99.1%). The time of infusion had a considerable influence on the content of analytes found in the teas. During the brewing time, thujone and camphor show an increase up to about 5 min, after which saturation is reached. No effect was found for preparation with or without a lid on the pot used for brewing the infusion. Compared to extracts with ethanol (60% vol), which provide a maximum yield, an average of 30% thujone are recovered in the aqueous tea preparations. The average thujone and camphor contents were 4.4 mg/L and 16.7 mg/L in food tea infusions and 11.3 mg/L and 25.4 mg/L in medicinal tea infusions. Conclusions The developed methodology allows the efficient determination of thujone and camphor in a wide variety of sage food and medicine matrices and can be applied to conduct surveys for exposure assessment. The current results suggest that on average between 3 and 6 cups of sage tea could be daily consumed without reaching toxicological thresholds. PMID:21777420

2011-01-01

260

Valorization of essential oils from Moroccan aromatic plants.  

PubMed

The chemical composition and biological activity of cultivated and wild medicinal and aromatic plants from Morocco (Artemisia herba-alba, Lippia citriodora, Mentha pulegium, M. spicata, Myrtus communis, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus satureioides) are described. The essential oils (EOs) of these species have been analyzed by GC-MS. The antifeedant, nematicidal and phytotoxic activities of the EOs were tested on insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae and Rhopalosiphum padi), root-knot nematodes (Meloydogine javanica) and plants (Lactuca sativa, Lolium perenne and Lycopersicum esculentum). EOs from A. herba-alba, M. pulegium and R. officinalis were strong antifeedants against S. littoralis, M. persicae and R. padi. EOs from L. citriodora, M. spicata and T. satureioides showed high nematicidal activity. These biological effects are explained by the activity of the major EO components and/or synergistic effects. PMID:25233584

Santana, Omar; Fe Andrés, Maria; Sanz, Jesús; Errahmani, Naima; Abdeslam, Lamiri; González-Coloma, Azucena

2014-08-01

261

Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain. PMID:22020131

Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

2012-01-01

262

Detection of Kestoses and Kestose-Related Oligosaccharides in Extracts of Festuca arundinacea, Dactylis glomerata L., and Asparagus officinalis L. Root Cultures and Invertase by 13C and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy 1  

PubMed Central

A previous study (KL Forsythe, MS Feather [1989] Carbohydr Res 185: 315-319) showed that 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can be used to detect and identify mixtures of 1-kestose and neokestose after conversion to the acetate derivatives. In this study, unequivocal assignments are made for the anomeric carbon and proton signals for the above two trisaccharide acetates as well as for 6-kestose hendecaacetate and for nystose tetradecaacetate (a 1-kestose-derived tetrasaccharide). A number of oligosaccharide fractions were isolated from several plant species, converted to the acetates, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra obtained. Using the above reference data, the following information was obtained. The trisaccharide fraction from Dactylis glomerata L. stem tissue and Asparagus officinalis L. roots contain both 1-kestose and neokestose, and the tetrasaccharide fractions contain three components, one of which is nystose. Penta- and hexasaccharide acetates were also isolated from A. officinalis L. roots and were found to contain, respectively, four and at least five components. All components of both of the above species appear to contain a kestose residue and to be produced by the sequential addition of fructofuranosyl units to these. The trisaccharide fraction from Festuca arundinacea is complex, and contains at least five different components, two of which appear to be 1-kestose and neokestose. PMID:16667365

Forsythe, Kathlene L.; Feather, Milton S.; Gracz, Hanna; Wong, Tuck C.

1990-01-01

263

Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl?, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC?? value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC?? 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC?? 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC?? 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC?? 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-01

264

Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts.  

PubMed

The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used. PMID:21836797

Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

2010-04-01

265

Design of an Amide N-glycoside Derivative of ?-Glucogallin: A Stable, Potent, and Specific Inhibitor of Aldose Reductase  

PubMed Central

?-glucogallin (BGG), a major component of the Emblica officinalis medicinal plant, is a potent and selective inhibitor of aldose-reductase (AKR1B1). New linkages (ether/triazole/amide) were introduced via high yielding, efficient syntheses to replace the labile ester, and an original 2-step (90%) preparation of BGG was developed. Inhibition of AKR1B1was assessed in vitro and using transgenic lens organ cultures, which identified the amide linked glucoside (BGA) as a stable, potent and selective lead therapeutic toward the treatment of diabetic eye disease. PMID:24341381

Li, Linfeng; Chang, Kun-Che; Zhou, Yaming; Shieh, Biehuoy; Ponder, Jessica; Abraham, Adedoyin D.; Ali, Hadi; Snow, Anson; Petrash, J. Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V.

2014-01-01

266

Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase. PMID:24683352

Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

2014-01-01

267

Apoptosis-inducing effects of Melissa officinalis L. essential oil in glioblastoma multiforme cells.  

PubMed

Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarães, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2014-07-01

268

Fatty Acid Profiles of the Seed Oils in Two Groups of Anchusa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total seed oil and fatty acid compositions of two informal groups of Anchusa officinalis L. were studied in order to provide additional information for the delineation of the groups. Major fatty acids were linoleic (C18:2n6), oleic (C18:1n9), ?-linolenic (C18:3n3), ?-linolenic (C18:3n6), palmitic (C16:0) and stearidonic acid (C18:4n3) respectively. The lower levels were observed in stearic (C18:0), eicosenoic (C20:1n9) and erucic

Tamer Özcan

269

Sulfate uptake by salinity?tolerant plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

High soluble?sulfate (SO4) concentrations affect water quality, soil chemistry, plant sulfur (S) levels, and possibly ruminant?animal health. The objective of this greenhouse pot study was to determine the potential for accumulating high levels of S by tansy mustard (Descurainia pinnata (Walt.) Britton), kochia (Kochia scoparia L. Schrad.), yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis L.), slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex

H. F. Mayland; C. W. Robbins

1994-01-01

270

Preclinical toxicological assessment of a phytotherapeutic product--CPV (based on dry extracts of Crataegus oxyacantha L., Passiflora incarnata L., and Valeriana officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Associations of plants have been widely used, for centuries, in Ayurveda and in Chinese medicine and have been increasingly acknowledged in Western medicine. The objective of this study is to assess the level of toxicity of an association of three plants: Crataegus oxyacantha, Passiflora incarnata, and Valeriana officinalis (CPV extract). This association was administered to rats, mice, and dogs, both acute and chronically for 180 days. The tests used in the acute experiments were: observational pharmacological screening, LD(50), motor coordination and motor activity. Chronic tests carried out were: weight gain/loss and behavioral parameters in rats and in mice; estrus cycle, effects on fertility, and teratogenic studies in rats and of mutagenic features in mice, in addition to the Ames test. The following parameters were assessed in dogs: weight gain/loss, general physical conditions, water/food consumption and anatomopathological examination of the organs subsequent to the 180 days of treatment. All of the results were negative, showing that CPV administered in high doses and over a long period of time presents no toxicity, suggestive of the fact that this is an association devoid of risk for human beings. PMID:19048610

Tabach, Ricardo; Rodrigues, Eliana; Carlini, E A

2009-01-01

271

Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi. PMID:22808414

Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

2011-01-01

272

Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

2013-10-10

273

An innovative approach to the recovery of phenolic compounds and volatile terpenes from the same fresh foliar sample of Rosmarinus officinalis L.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a plant of relevant commercial interest because of its volatile fraction and also its phenolic constituents which are both well known for their numerous properties. Nevertheless, an extractive method suitable to recovering both the aromatic and phenolic fractions from the same fresh foliar tissue has not yet been reported. In this work we have optimized a two-step procedure able to recover first the phenolic compounds and successively the volatile terpenes from the same foliar sample. The recovery of the whole phenolic fraction, partially degraded using a traditional extractive method, was guaranteed and we observed a significant increment in the amount of volatile terpenes compared to a traditional extraction procedure. We also highlight crucial information on the enzymatic activity of the endogenous oxidases that rapidly transform the phenolic substrates, mainly the rosmarinic acid. Our results suggest that this extractive procedure could also be used for other aromatic plants, thus providing a useful tool for more complete analyses of the main phytochemicals available in fresh foliar samples and creating the possibility of incrementing yields of volatile compounds. PMID:25281076

Bellumori, Maria; Michelozzi, Marco; Innocenti, Marzia; Congiu, Federica; Cencetti, Gabriele; Mulinacci, Nadia

2015-01-01

274

In-vitro anti- Vibrio spp. activity and chemical composition of some Tunisian aromatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical composition of five aromatic plants (Mentha longifolia, M. pulegium, Eugenia caryophyllata, Thymus vulgaris and Rosmarinus officinalis) frequently used in food preparation in Tunisia was analysed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial effect of the essential oils obtained\\u000a from these plants was tested against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio fluvialis strains. Thyme oil exhibited a high level of

Mejdi Snoussi; Hafedh Hajlaoui; Emira Noumi; Donatella Usai; Leonardo Antonio Sechi; Stefania Zanetti; Amina Bakhrouf

2008-01-01

275

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny. PMID:24499521

2014-01-01

276

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

277

Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Characterization by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses of the Stachys officinalis (L.) Trevis. essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of the aerial parts allowed the identification of 190 components that represented 97.9% of the total oil content. The main constituents identified were germacrene D (19.9%), ?-caryophyllene (14.1%), and ?-humulene (7.5%). Terpenoids were by far predominant (89.4%), with sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (69.1%) and oxygenated sesquiterpenes (14.8%) being the most abundant compounds detected in the oil. Based on the present and previously published results, multivariate statistical comparison of the chemical composition of the essential oils was performed within the species. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) of the data on the volatile profiles of S. officinalis taxa revealed no pronounced differences among the samples originated from the Balkan Peninsula. Additionally, the oil was screened for in vitro antibacterial and antifungal activity using the broth microdilution assay. The oil's best antimicrobial activities were obtained against the mold Aspergillus niger (minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal fungicidal (MFC) concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0?mg/ml, resp.) and the yeast Candida albicans (MIC and MFC of 5.0?mg/ml). PMID:23847079

Lazarevi?, Jelena S; ?or?evi?, Aleksandra S; Kiti?, Dušanka V; Zlatkovi?, Bojan K; Stojanovi?, Gordana S

2013-07-01

278

High diversity of indigenous populations of dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) in essential-oil composition.  

PubMed

Essential oils of 25 indigenous populations of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) that represent nearly half of native distribution area of the species were analyzed. Plantlets collected from wild populations were grown in the same field under the same environmental conditions and then sampled for essential-oil analysis. The yield of essential oil ranged from 1.93 to 3.70% with average of 2.83%. Among the 62 compounds detected, eight (cis-thujone, camphor, trans-thujone, 1,8-cineole, ?-pinene, camphene, borneol, and bornyl acetate) formed 78.13-87.33% of essential oils of individual populations. Strong positive correlations were observed between camphor and ?-pinene, ?-pinene and borneol, as well as between borneol and bornyl acetate. The strongest negative correlation was detected between camphor and trans-thujone. Principal component analysis (PCA) on the basis of eight main compounds showed that first main component separated populations with high thujone content, from those rich in camphor, while the second component separated populations rich in cis-thujone from those rich in trans-thujone. Cluster analysis (CA) led to the identification of three chemotypes of S. officinalis populations: cis-thujone; trans-tujone, and camphor/?-pinene/borneol/bornyl acetate. We propose that differences in essential oils of 25 populations are mostly genetically controlled, since potential environmental factors were controlled in this study. PMID:23081929

Jug-Dujakovi?, Marija; Risti?, Mihailo; Pljevljakuši?, Dejan; Daji?-Stevanovi?, Zora; Liber, Zlatko; Han?evi?, Katarina; Radi?, Tomislav; Satovi?, Zlatko

2012-10-01

279

In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites.  

PubMed

Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts, which are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro amoebicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis. In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoe castellanii trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. Both extracts showed a time- and dose-dependent amoebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Among the extracts tested, S. cuneifolia showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites and cysts. In the presence of 32 mg/ml extract, no viable trophozoites were observed within 24 h. At the same concentration value, the extract was found effective against the cysts at a rate of 46.3% within 72 h of the experimental process. At 16 mg/ml extract concentration, no viable trophozoites were also observed in the 24th hour of the experiment. At the end of the experimental process, 34.7% of the cysts were killed by the extract. M. officinalis showed moderate amoebicidal effect. At the concentration of 32 mg/ml, 44.3% and 30.0% of the trophozoites and cysts were killed by the extract, respectively. Results obtained from these concentration values were found statistically different in terms of their actions both on trophozoites and cysts (p<0.05). PMID:22160280

Malatyali, E; Tepe, B; Degerli, S; Berk, S

2012-06-01

280

Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 ?g/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 ?g/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 ?g/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 ?g/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 ?g/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 ?g/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 ?g/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 ?g/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method. PMID:25198597

Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-08-01

281

Apoptotic effect of hot water extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. in human oral cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Sanguisorba officinalis L. has been used in traditional Asian medicine to treat diseases including diarrhea, chronic intestinal infections, duodenal ulcers and bleeding. This study examined the antiproliferative effects and apoptotic activity of hot water extract of S. officinalis L. (HESO) on HSC4 and HN22 human oral cancer cells. The effects of HESO were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-20yl)-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assay, 4?-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining and western blot analysis. HESO was found to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in HSC4 and HN22 oral cancer cells. HESO downregulated myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) in HSC4 cells and was associated with the activation of Bak, resulting in Bak oligomerization on the mitochondrial outer membrane. HESO did not alter Mcl-1 expression in HN22 cells, but it decreased Sp1 expression. The downregulation of Sp1 by HESO in HN22 cells resulted in a decrease in survivin, a downstream target protein of Sp1. These results suggested that HESO inhibited the growth of oral cancer through either Mcl-1 or Sp1, indicating that HESO may serve as a potential drug candidate against oral cancer. PMID:23741248

SHIN, JI-AE; KIM, JUN-SUNG; KWON, KI-HAN; NAM, JEONG-SEOK; JUNG, JI-YOUN; CHO, NAM-PYO; CHO, SUNG-DAE

2012-01-01

282

Sponging up metals: Bacteria associated with the marine sponge Spongia officinalis.  

PubMed

The present study explored the bacteria of the sponge Spongia officinalis in a metal-polluted environment, using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, culture-dependent approaches and in situ hybridization. The sponge samples collected over three consecutive years in the Western Mediterranean Sea contained high concentrations of zinc, nickel, lead and copper determined by ICP-MS. DGGE signatures indicated a sponge specific bacterial association and suggested spatial and temporal variations. The bacterial culturable fraction associated with S. officinalis and tolerant to heavy metals was isolated using metal-enriched microbiological media. The obtained 63 aerobic strains were phylogenetically affiliated to the phyla Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. All isolates showed high tolerances to the selected heavy metals. The predominant genus Pseudovibrio was localized via CARD-FISH in the sponge surface tissue and validated as a sponge-associated epibiont. This study is the first step in understanding the potential involvement of the associated bacteria in sponge's tolerance to heavy metals. PMID:25575352

Bauvais, Cléa; Zirah, Séverine; Piette, Laurie; Chaspoul, Florence; Domart-Coulon, Isabelle; Chapon, Virginie; Gallice, Philippe; Rebuffat, Sylvie; Pérez, Thierry; Bourguet-Kondracki, Marie-Lise

2015-03-01

283

Specificity of the tonoplast transport of the oleanolic acid monoglycosides in the vacuoles from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The specificity of two separate tonoplast permeases transporting oleanolic acid glycosides was investigated in vacuoles isolated from leaf protoplasts of marigold (Calendula officinalis) with the use of chemically synthesized analogs. The results indicate that the proper structure of both parts of oleanolic acid monoglycoside, i.e. aglycon and the sugar moiety, are required for binding to a specific tonoplast carrier. PMID:9360723

Szakiel, A; Janiszowska, W

1997-01-01

284

Reversibility of the oleanolic acid monoglycosides transport across the tonoplast in vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The possibility of the reversible tonoplast transport of oleanolic acid monoglycosides was investigated in vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaf protoplasts. The obtained results point to the reversibility of the transport of monoglucoside I, whereas monoglucuronide F seems to be definitely stored in the vacuolar space. PMID:9241354

Szakiel, A; Janiszowska, W

1997-01-01

285

Extensive population subdivision of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Mollusca: Cephalopoda) around the Iberian Peninsula indicated by microsatellite DNA variation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea junction has been proposed as an important phylogeographical area on the basis of concordance in genetic patterns observed at allozyme, mtDNA and microsatellite DNA markers in several marine species. This study presents microsatellite DNA data for a mobile invertebrate species in this area, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, allowing comparison of this relatively new class of DNA

M Pérez-Losada; A Guerra; G R Carvalho; A Sanjuan; P W Shaw

2002-01-01

286

Sensory, microbiological, physical and chemical properties of cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii) stored in ice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to characterize whole raw cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) during storage in ice through sensory, microbiological, chemical and physical analyses. The recently developed Quality Index Method (QIM) tables for these species were used for sensory analysis. Shelf-life of whole cuttlefish and shortfin squid were estimated as around 10 and 9 days,

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas; Micaela Mota; Judite Lapa-Guimarães; Jana Pickova; Andreia Lindo; Teresa Silva

2008-01-01

287

The effects of crowding on growth of the European cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis Linnaeus, 1758 reared at two temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to examine the impact of crowding (stocking density) on food consumption and growth of juvenile Sepia officinalis reared at 17 and 25 °C. Two groups of 75 cuttlefish each were reared in closed seawater systems with water temperatures of 17 and 25 °C. Each group was subdivided into two treatments (three replicates per treatment):

John Forsythe; Phillip Lee; Leigh Walsh; Tara Clark

2002-01-01

288

Development of new quality index method (QIM) schemes for cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid ( Illex coindetii)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of sensory schemes for freshness grading of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) and broadtail shortfin squid (Illex coindetii) based on the recent quality index method (QIM). As preliminary work, four storage experiments were performed to choose the relevant sensory parameters for building the schemes. From an initial large set of parameters, some were chosen to be attributes

Paulo Vaz-Pires; Pedro Seixas

2006-01-01

289

Aspects of the stock dynamics and exploitation of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), in the English Channel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic biological parameters of cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, in the English Channel are described from samples of commercial and research vessel landings made between April 1994 and September 1995. There was a significant difference between the length–weight relationship of male and female cuttlefish. Growth of both sexes was rapid and seasonal during the last 12 months of life. Males grew faster

M. R. Dunn

1999-01-01

290

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Rosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid derivative found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be of benefit t...

291

TULIP VIRUS X (TVX) ASSOCIATED WITH LEMON BALM (MELISSA OFFICINALIS) VARIEGATION . FIRST REPORT OF TVX IN THE UNITED STATES.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) has been used for centuries as an ornamental and for its medicinal properties. One of the most popular clones shows bright variegation symptoms. Mechanical inoculations onto Gomphrena globosa using variegated leaf tissue as the inoculum source resulted in development...

292

Permeability of rosmarinic acid in Prunella vulgaris and ursolic acid in Salvia officinalis extracts across Caco-2 cell monolayers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceRosmarinic acid (RA), a caffeic acid-related compound found in high concentrations in Prunella vulgaris (self-heal), and ursolic acid (UA), a pentacyclic triterpene acid concentrated in Salvia officinalis (sage), have been traditionally used to treat inflammation in the mouth, and may also be beneficial for gastrointestinal health in general.

Zhiyi Qiang; Zhong Ye; Cathy Hauck; Patricia A. Murphy; Joe-Ann McCoy; Mark P. Widrlechner; Manju B. Reddy; Suzanne Hendrich

2011-01-01

293

Growth and yield response of calendula (Calendula officinalis) to sowing date in the northern U.S.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) seed is a rich source of the conjugated C18:3 fatty acid calendic acid and can serve as a replacement for VOCs in many industrial chemicals such as paints, coatings and adhesives. Calendula is widely adapted to temperate climates and may be a beneficial rotationa...

294

Anti-Angiogenesis Effect of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Synthesized Using Saliva officinalis on Chick Chorioalantoic Membrane (CAM).  

PubMed

Angiogenesis, which is required for physiological events, plays a crucial role in several pathological conditions, such as tumor growth and metastasis. The use of plant extracts is a cost effective and eco-friendly way to synthesize nanoparticles. In the present study, we investigated the anti-angiogenesis properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Saliva officinalis extract on chick chorioalantoic membrane. The production of nanoparticles was confirmed by the color change from yellow to brown observed after approximately 3 h at 37 °C. Then, the nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, and TEM. The UV-visible spectroscopy results showed that the surface plasmon resonance band for AgNPs was around 430 nm. The intensity of the AgNP-specific absorption peak improved with an increase of 0.5 mL of extract into 10 mL of AgNO3 (2.5 mM). The FTIR results showed good interaction between the plant extracts and AgNPs. The TEM images of the samples revealed that the NPs varied in morphology and size from 1 to 40 nm; the average was recorded at 16.5 ± 1.2 nm. Forty Ross fertilized eggs were divided into four groups; the control and three experimental groups. On the 8th day, gelatin sponges containing albumin were placed on the chorioalantoic membrane and soaked with different concentrations of NPs. On the 12th day, all the cases were photographed using a photostereomicroscope. The number and the lengths of the vessels were measured using Image J software. The crown rump (CR) and weight of the embryo were also recorded. Then the hemoglobin content was measured using Drabkin's reagent kit for quantification of the blood vessel formation. According to the data analysis, the number and length of the blood vessels, as well as the CR and weight of the embryos reduced significantly compared to the control (p < 0.05), dose dependently. The total hemoglobin was quantified as an indicator of the blood vessel formation. The hemoglobin content in the treated samples with AgNPs decreased, which showed its inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. PMID:25255752

Baharara, Javad; Namvar, Farideh; Mousavi, Marzieh; Ramezani, Tayebe; Mohamad, Rosfarizan

2014-01-01

295

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice.  

PubMed

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3-1000 mg/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg/kg. In the formalin test, the extract (30-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant inhibition of both, the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain), phases of formalin-induced licking. The extract (10-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 198.5 mg/kg. Furthermore, the rosmarinic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg), given p.o. 1 h prior, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 2.64 mg/kg. The antinociception caused by the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the glutamate test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of mice with atropine (1 mg/kg), mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) or l-arginine (40 mg/kg). In contrast, the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) antinociception was not affected by i.p. treatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg) or D-arginine (40 mg/kg). It was also not associated with non-specific effects, such as muscle relaxation or sedation. Collectively, the present results suggest that the extract produced dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical pain through mechanisms that involved cholinergic systems (i.e. through muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the rosmarinic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract. Moreover, the antinociceptive action demonstrated in the present study supports, at least partly, the ethnomedical uses of this plant. PMID:19358864

Guginski, Giselle; Luiz, Ana Paula; Silva, Morgana Duarte; Massaro, Murilo; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Chaves, Juliana; Mattos, Robson Willain; Silveira, Damaris; Ferreira, Vânia M M; Calixto, João Batista; Santos, Adair R S

2009-07-01

296

In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits.  

PubMed

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set of experiments, hypoglycaemic effects of oral administration of various doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) of the extract were examined in normoglycaemic and glucose-hyperglycaemic rabbits. Optimal effect was observed in both of the animal groups with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract and this activity was independent from the effects of insulin. In another part of experiments, acute effect of various doses of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on blood glucose and serum insulin levels was studied in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. The last set of experiments designed to investigate the subacute effect of the Rosmarinus officinalis extract on repeated administration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits. At the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, antihyperglycaemic effect of extract was accompanied by a significant increase in serum insulin levels in diabetic rabbits. Furthermore, during 1 week of treatment of diabetic rabbits with a dose of 200 mg/kg of the extract showed that the extract possessed a capability to inhibit the lipid peroxidation and activate the antioxidant enzymes. It was concluded that probably, due to its potent antioxidant properties, the Rosmarinus officinalis extract exerts remarkable antidiabetogenic effect. PMID:18063331

Bakirel, Tülay; Bakirel, Utku; Kele?, Oya Ustüner; Ulgen, Sinem Güne?; Yardibi, Hasret

2008-02-28

297

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health  

PubMed Central

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

298

Isolation and Identification of a Novel Ala-Pro-Gly-Trp-amide-Related Peptide Inhibiting the Motility of the Mature Oviduct in the Cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Henry J., P. Favrel and E. Boucaud-Camou. Isolation and identification of a novel APGW-amide-related peptide inhibiting the motility of the mature oviduct in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis. Peptides 18(10) 1469–1474, 1997.—A novel myotropic neuropeptide was isolated from 110 optic lobes (OL) of mature females of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis L. by mean of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The peptide

Joel Henry; Pascal Favrel; Eve Boucaud-Camou

1997-01-01

299

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillère; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

300

Effects of Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm) Extract on Neurogenesis Associated with Serum Corticosterone and GABA in the Mouse Dentate Gyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm, leaves of Melissa officinalis L., has been used for anti-anxiety and spasmolytics. We observed the extract of Melissa officinalis L. (MOE) on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) of middle-aged mice (12 months\\u000a of age) using Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX), respectively. We also observed changes in corticosterone, GAD67 and GABA-transaminase\\u000a (GABA-T) to check their

Dae Young Yoo; Jung Hoon Choi; Woosuk Kim; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Choong Hyun Lee; Yeo Sung Yoon; Moo-Ho Won; In Koo Hwang

2011-01-01

301

Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling. PMID:24554883

Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

2013-01-01

302

Hydrological modification, saltwater intrusion, and tree water use of a Pterocarpus officinalis swamp in Puerto Rico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tidal freshwater forested wetlands occupy a narrow ecological space determined by the balance between saltwater and freshwater inputs to the system. However, this balance is not well understood. In the Caribbean, tidal freshwater-forested wetlands dominated by Pterocarpus officinalis are vulnerable to changes in tidal influence and freshwater inputs. In this setting, the seasonal interactions of saltwater and freshwater inputs create less than ideal conditions for these forests to survive. Hence, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the hydrologic context of these and other tidal freshwater forested wetlands. We examined the extent of tidal forcing and saltwater influence in the largest Pterocarpus swamp of Puerto Rico by installing automated water level and conductivity recorders across a tidal creek transect at four different distances from the ocean, and by using water stable isotopes ratios (?D, ?18O) as natural tracers to determine the most important freshwater sources for tree transpiration. Records of water level and salinity revealed that the amount of rainfall was most influential on saltwater wedge migration in the creek for locations at the front and back of the tidal network, but that tidal dynamics were most influential at the middle section of the tidal network. Saltwater intrusion into the deepest parts of the tidal network was most prominent during sustained dry periods. Isotopic ratios of the surface water samples in the forest revealed that most of the water there was derived from freshwater runoff, but there was a seasonal change in its relative contribution to the forest hydrology. During the dry season, high ? values suggested the presence of runoff-derived water that had undergone evaporation, and saline influences were found in locations where past deforestation created preferential pathways for this water. During both seasons, ? 18O values of groundwater revealed the influence of saline water at depths 60 cm and greater near the adjacent tidal creek. Nonetheless, 18O-enriched stem water and low d-excess values suggested that Pterocarpus officinalis relies primarily on water accessed from unsaturated soil mounds that surround the tree and that are subject to evaporation, as opposed to groundwater at depth. This observation provides further insight to the adaptation mechanisms of Pterocarpus officinalis to survive in flooded ecosystems. In summary, our work demonstrates that for preventing saltwater intrusion, the amount of rainfall and freshwater inflow is more important than the sea level or the existence of an overland hydrological connection to the ocean.

Colón-Rivera, Ricardo J.; Feagin, Rusty A.; West, Jason B.; López, Natalia B.; Benítez-Joubert, Rafael J.

2014-06-01

303

Plant food supplements with anti-inflammatory properties: a systematic review (II).  

PubMed

The aim of this systematic review is to summarize the evidence for or against the efficacy of plant food supplements (PFS) for coping inflammatory conditions by considering epidemiological and human intervention studies. The review considers six botanical species commonly used as food supplements/medicinals: Urtica dioica L., Symphytum officinalis L., Calendula officinalis L., Curcuma longa L., Boswellia serrata Roxb., and Harpagophytum procumbens L. The search retrieved 579 publications. By removing the duplicates and applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, the final number of papers was 47. No epidemiological data were found. The bibliographic search found no paper regarding the anti-inflammatory effects of Calendula officinalis L. and Symphytum officinalis L. by oral use. In spite of the long-term traditional use for inflammatory disorders, Curcuma longa L. and Harpagophytum procumbens L. warrant further investigation, whereas the efficacy of Urtica dioica L, even if the available data on hard endpoints are promising, requires other trials. Boswellia serrata Roxb. was found to be the most promising, since it shows the best efficacy for the treatment of pain/inflammatory conditions. In conclusion, it is advisable to conduct further studies with more homogeneous population and larger number of subjects by avoiding the heterogeneity of the herbal preparations considered. PMID:23391017

Di Lorenzo, Chiara; Dell'Agli, Mario; Badea, Mihaela; Dima, Lorena; Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; Restani, Patrizia; Bosisio, Enrica

2013-01-01

304

A direct liquid, non-equilibrium solid-phase micro-extraction application for analysing chemical variation of single peltate trichomes on leaves of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

A non-equilibrium solid phase micro-extraction application was tested for the rapid extraction of essential oil from single oil glands of sage and the oil components compared with those determined by solvent extract and distillation. Oil glands were directly ruptured with a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fused silica fibre and the essential oil was sorbed. Three insertion levels of an individual plant of Salvia officinalis involving an immature apical young leaf, an expanding and a fully developed leaf, respectively, were used to determine the applicability of this method. Thirty-eight components in the oil could be identified by GC-MS. The method only showed small semi-quantitative differences compared with conventional methods. Chemical variation of single oil glands within the immature and premature leaf was higher than within the homogeneous mature leaf. The intermediary, still-expanding leaf was used to carry out a detailed study of the glands. The basal region of the intermediary leaf contained compounds in high conformity with the young leaf trichomes. The remaining oil glands of this leaf showed inconsistent accumulation patterns. PMID:15202606

Grassi, Paolo; Novak, Johannes; Steinlesberger, Heidi; Franz, Chlodwig

2004-01-01

305

High-speed countercurrent chromatographic recovery and off-line electrospray ionization mass spectrometry profiling of bisdesmodic saponins from Saponaria officinalis possessing synergistic toxicity enhancing properties on targeted antitumor toxins.  

PubMed

Saponaria officinalis L. (Caryophyllaceae), also known as fuller's herb or soapwort is a medicinal plant, which grows from Europe to Central Asia. Medicinal properties attributed to this plant include its antitussive and galactogogue properties. Recently, bisdesmodic saponins with very specific structural features from S. officinalis have been shown to strongly enhance the efficacy of specific targeted toxins (anti-tumor antibodies connected to protein toxins) in-vitro and in-vivo in a synergistic manner. In the presently reported novel approach we used preparative all-liquid high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) to recover a total of 22 fractions using biphasic solvent system tert-butylmethylether/n-butanol/acetonitrile/water 1:3:1:5 (v/v/v/v) from a complex precipitated crude saponin mixture. Out of these 22 fractions, 3 fractions had the enhancer effect on anti-tumor toxins out of which one fraction (F7) was further tested elaborately in different cell lines. The molecular weight distribution and compound profiles of separated saponins were monitored by off-line injections of the sequentially collected fractions to an electrospray ion-trap mass-spectrometry system (ESI-IT-MS). The functional saponin fractions were mainly bisdesmosidc and contained saponin m/z 1861 amongst other. Using the bio-assay guided monitoring, the highly active fractions containing 2 to 3 bisdesmodic saponins (5?g/mL) were screened for their effectiveness in enhancing the anti-tumor activity of targeted toxin Sap3-EGF, which was determined using the impedance based real-time cell cytotoxicity evaluation. This novel combination of HSCCC fractionation, MS-target-guided profiling procedure and bio-assay guided fractionation yielded 100mg of functional saponins from a 60g crude drug powder in a rapid and convenient manner. PMID:24631804

Thakur, Mayank; Jerz, Gerold; Tuwalska, Dorota; Gilabert-Oriol, Roger; Wybraniec, S?awomir; Winterhalter, Peter; Fuchs, Hendrik; Weng, Alexander

2014-04-01

306

The effects of Valeriana officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Neuroimmune factors have been considered as contributors to the pathogenesis of depression. Beside other therapeutic effects, Valeriana officinalis L., have been suggested to have anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, the effects of V. officinalis L. hydro alcoholic extract was investigated on depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 Wistar rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received saline instead of Valeriana officinalis L. extract. The animals in group 2 (sensitized) were treated by saline instead of the extract and were sensitized using the ovalbumin. Groups 3-5 (Sent - Ext 50), (Sent - Ext 100) and (Sent - Ext 200) were treated by 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg of V. officinalis L. hydro-alcoholic extract respectively, during the sensitization protocol. Forced swimming test was performed for all groups and immobility time was recorded. Finally, the animals were placed in the open-field apparatus and the crossing number on peripheral and central areas was observed. Results: The immobility time in the sensitized group was higher than that in the control group (P < 0.01). The animals in Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower immobility times in comparison with sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01). In the open field test, the crossed number in peripheral by the sensitized group was higher than that of the control one (P < 0.01) while, the animals of Sent-Ext 50, Sent-Ext 100 and Sent-Ext 200 groups had lower crossing number in peripheral compared with the sensitized group (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 respectively). Furthermore, in the sensitized group, the central crossing number was lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). In the animals treated by 200 mg/kg of the extract, the central crossing number was higher than that of the sensitized group (P < 0. 05). Conclusions: The results of the present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of V. officinalis prevents depression like behavior in ovalbumin sensitized rats. These results support the traditional belief on the about beneficial effects of V. officinalis in the nervous system. Moreover, further investigations are required in order to better understand this protective effect. PMID:24741277

Neamati, Ali; Chaman, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

2014-01-01

307

Studies on the labelling of terpenoids in shoots and cells or protoplasts from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

1. From the leaves of Calendula officinalis, homogeneous preparations of isolated cells and protoplasts have been obtained which effectively synthesized terpenoid compounds from [1-14C]acetate. 2. The quantitative determinations have shown that the level of sterols, beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid was similar in shoots, isolated cells and protoplasts but the level of polyprenols was the highest in shoots, lower in cells and the lowest in protoplasts. 3. The determination of the dynamics of labelling with radioactive acetate has shown that sterols are labelled at a similar rate in shoots, cells and protoplasts, whereas the labelling of beta-amyrin, oleanolic acid and polyprenols is delayed in cells and protoplasts as compared with shoots. The labelling of beta-amyrin and oleanolic acid reached eventually the level observed in the shoots, but the labelling of polyprenols at this time was twice as high in the cells and protoplasts as in the shoots. PMID:6817567

Augu?ci?ska, E; Kasprzyk, Z

1982-01-01

308

The influence of Calendulae officinalis flos extracts on cell cultures, and the chromatographic analysis of extracts.  

PubMed

Three extracts of Calendulae officinalis flos (Asteraceae): heptane, ethyl acetate and methanol were introduced to a human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells culture and a culture of human breast cancer cells (T47D), cell culture collection ECACC number 85102201. The ethyl acetate but not the heptane and methanol extracts in concentrations above 25 microg/mL, can stimulate cell proliferation and cellular metabolism by increase of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. However, concentrations exceeding 75 microg/mL are toxic for cells. The second part of the study concerned elaborating of optimal chromatographic systems for quantitative analysis of these extracts by the use of HPTLC with densitometry. Oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin, beta-amyrin acetate, rutin, narcissin, 3-glucoside of isorhamnetin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protokatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid were all identified. PMID:15925220

Matysik, G; Wójciak-Kosior, M; Paduch, R

2005-06-15

309

[Pharmacology of calenduloside B, a new triterpene glycoside from the roots of Calendula officinalis].  

PubMed

Calendulozide B--trioside of oleanolic acid, isolated from rhizomes of Calendula officinalis, Fam. Compositae, used perorally in doses of 5, 10, 20 and 50 mg/kg exerted an antiulcerous action in 3 experimental ulcer models of different genesis (caffein-arsenic, butadion and induced by ligation of pylorus) and also displayed a certain antiphlogistic and sedative action. It did not have any effect on the cardiovascular system, the tone of intestinal smooth muscles, diuretic renal function and electrolytes excretion with urine or on the biligenic function of the liver. The drug is devoid of locally irritation properties, manifests a relatively low hemolytic activity (15000 after Kofler) and an insignificant toxicity both with its one-time and chronic administration. PMID:700077

Iatsyno, A I; Belova, L F; Lipkina, G S; Sokolov, S I; Trutneva, E A

1978-01-01

310

Relationship of Camphor Biosynthesis to Leaf Development in Sage (Salvia officinalis) 12  

PubMed Central

The camphor content of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves increases as the leaves expand, and the increase is roughly proportional to the number of filled peltate oil glands which appear on the leaf surface during the expansion process. 14CO2 is more rapidly incorporated into camphor and its direct progenitors in expanding leaves than in mature leaves, and direct in vitro measurement of the key enzymes involved in the conversion of geranyl pyrophosphate to camphor indicates that these enzymes, including the probable rate-limiting cyclization step, are at the highest levels during the period of maximum leaf expansion. These results clearly demonstrate that immature sage leaves synthesize and accumulate camphor most rapidly. Images PMID:16661761

Croteau, Rodney; Felton, Mark; Karp, Frank; Kjonaas, Robert

1981-01-01

311

Naucline, a new indole alkaloid from the bark of Nauclea officinalis.  

PubMed

A new indole alkaloid, naucline (1) together with four known alkaloids, angustine (2), angustidine (3), nauclefine (4) and naucletine (5), were isolated from the bark of Nauclea officinalis. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated with various spectroscopic methods such as 1D- and 2D- NMR, IR, UV and LCMS-IT-TOF. In addition to that of alkaloid 1, the complete 13C-NMR data of naucletine (5) were also reported. Naucline (1) showed a moderate vasorelaxant activity (90% relaxation at 1 × 10(-5) M) whereas, angustine (2), nauclefine (4), and naucletine (5) showed potent vasorelaxant activity (more than 90% relaxation at 1 × 10(-5) M) on an isolated rat aorta. PMID:22469596

Liew, Sook Yee; Mukhtar, Mat Ropi; Hadi, A Hamid A; Awang, Khalijah; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Zaima, Kazumasa; Morita, Hiroshi; Litaudon, Marc

2012-01-01

312

Assessment of In vitro Sun Protection Factor of Calendula Officinalis L. (Asteraceae) Essential Oil Formulation  

PubMed Central

The present study was undertaken to study the sunscreen activity of herbal formulation. There is no evidence of the sun protection factor (SPF) studies on essential oil of Calendula flowers (Calendula officinalis L., Asteraceae). The study investigates the in vitro SPF by ultraviolet specrtophotometry method of Calendula flower oil in a cream formulation. Calendula oil was isolated by Clavenger's apparatus, compositions were identified by GC–MS and the cream of calendula flower oil was prepared by homogenization method followed by evaluation for physical parameters. The sun protection factor of cream was evaluated by in vitro method employing UV–visible spectrophotometer (Shimazdu-1600). The SPF of Calendula oil in cream formulation exhibited good activity (SPF = 14.84 ± 0.16). Finding of this study suggested that calendula oil cream can be used to protect the skin from UV radiations in form of sunscreen cream and to maintain the natural pigmentation of the skin. PMID:22523455

Mishra, AK; Mishra, A; Chattopadhyay, P

2012-01-01

313

Constituents of sage (Salvia officinalis) with in vitro affinity to human brain benzodiazepine receptor.  

PubMed

Benzodiazepine receptor binding assay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract from sage leaves ( Salvia officinalis L.) revealed three flavones and two abietane diterpenes functioning as benzodiazepine receptor-active components. Structural elucidation of the isolated pure compounds was performed by UV, EI-MS, ESI(pos)-MS/MS, as well as 1H- and 13C-NMR techniques. The flavones apigenin, hispidulin and cirsimaritin competitively inhibited 3H-flumazenil binding to the benzodiazepine receptor with IC50 values of 30, 1.3 and 350 microM, respectively. In addition, the affinities of the newly discovered diterpene receptor ligands, i. e., 7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol, were characterized. 7-Methoxyrosmanol exhibited an IC50 value of 7.2 microM and galdosol showed the strongest binding activity to the benzodiazepine receptor with an IC50 value of 0.8 microM. PMID:12624814

Kavvadias, Dominique; Monschein, Vanessa; Sand, Philipp; Riederer, Peter; Schreier, Peter

2003-02-01

314

Rapid UHPLC determination of polyphenols in aqueous infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea).  

PubMed

Sage tea, the aqueous infusion of dried sage leaves (Salvia officinalis L.), is used as a form of food as well as a form of traditional herbal medicine. Several in vivo and in vitro studies point to sage polyphenols as active principles that may inhibit lipid peroxidation and improve antioxidant defences. This study describes an UHPLC methodology with MS/MS and UV detection, which allows the separation, identification and quantification of the major phenolic constituents in sage tea within 34 min, and was used to characterize 16 commercial brands of sage tea.The quantitatively dominating compounds were either rosmarinic acid (12.2–296 mg/l) or luteolin-7-o-glucuronide (37.9–166 mg/l) [corrected].In general, considerable differences in polyphenolic composition between the brands were detected, leading to the demand for quality standardization and control, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:21783434

Zimmermann, Benno F; Walch, Stephan G; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

2011-08-15

315

Development and essential oil content of secretory glands of sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Scanning electron microscopy of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leave confirmed the presence of two basic types of glandular trichomes consisting of a capitate stalked form containing a multicellular stalk and surmounted by a unicellular secretory head, and a capitate sessile form containing a unicellular stalk and unicellular, or multicellular, secretory head. In the latter type, secretory activity and filling of the subcuticular cavity may begin at virtually any stage of the division cycle affording fully developed glands containing from one to twelve cells in the secretory head. Gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the oil content of the most numerous gland species (capitate stalked, capitate sessile with one and with eight secretory cells) indicated only minor quantitative differences in essential oil composition. Thus, each gland type is capable of producing the four major monoterpene families (p-menthanes, pinanes, bornanes and thujanes) characteristic of sage. 21 references, 2 figures.

Venkatachalam, K.V.; Kjonaas, R.; Croteau, R.

1984-09-01

316

Chlorinated Coumarins from the Polypore Mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis, and their Activity Against Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

An EtOH extract of the polypore mushroom, Fomitopsis officinalis afforded two new naturally occurring chlorinated coumarins which were identified as the previously synthesized compounds, 6-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (1) and ethyl 6-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (2). The structures of the two isolates were deduced ab initio by spectroscopic methods and confirmed by chemical synthesis. In addition, an analogue of each was synthesized as of 7-chloro-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-2-one (3) and ethyl 7-chloro-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2H-chromen-3-carboxylate (4). All four compounds were characterized physicochemically, and their antimicrobial activity profiles revealed a narrow spectrum of activity with lowest MICs against the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. PMID:24087924

Hwang, Chang Hwa; Jaki, Birgit U.; Klein, Larry L.; Lankin, David C.; McAlpine, James B.; Napolitano, José G.; Fryling, Nicole A.; Franzblau, Scott G.; Cho, Sang Hyun; Stamets, Paul E.; Wang, Yuehong; Pauli, Guido F.

2013-01-01

317

Polyethylene glycol-based ultrasound-assisted extraction of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis.  

PubMed

In this study, a kind of green solvent named polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed for the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) of magnolol and honokiol from Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis. The effects of PEG molecular weight, PEG concentration, sample size, pH, ultrasonic power and extraction time on the extraction of magnolol and honokiol were investigated to optimise the extraction conditions. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the PEG-based UAE supplied higher extraction efficiencies of magnolol and honokiol than the ethanol-based UAE and traditional ethanol-reflux extraction. Furthermore, the correlation coefficient (R(2)), repeatability (relative standard deviation, n = 6) and recovery confirmed the validation of the proposed extraction method, which were 0.9993-0.9996, 3.1-4.6% and 92.3-106.8%, respectively. PMID:25204856

He, Lei; Fan, Tao; Hu, Jianguo; Zhang, Lijin

2015-01-01

318

A Complex Set of Sex Pheromones Identified in the Cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background The cephalopod mollusk Sepia officinalis can be considered as a relevant model for studying reproduction strategies associated to seasonal migrations. Using transcriptomic and peptidomic approaches, we aim to identify peptide sex pheromones that are thought to induce the aggregation of mature cuttlefish in their egg-laying areas. Results To facilitate the identification of sex pheromones, 576 5?-expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were sequenced from a single cDNA library generated from accessory sex glands of female cuttlefish. Our analysis yielded 223 unique sequences composed of 186 singletons and 37 contigs. Three major redundant ESTs called SP?, SP?? and SP? were identified as good candidates for putative sex pheromone transcripts and are part of the 87 unique sequences classified as unknown. The alignment of translated SP? and SP?? revealed a high level of conservation, with 98.4% identity. Translation led to a 248-amino acid precursor containing six peptides with multiple putative disulfide bonds. The alignment of SP?-?? with SP? revealed a partial structural conservation, with 37.3% identity. Translation of SP? led to a 252-amino acid precursor containing five peptides. The occurrence of a signal peptide on SP?, SP?? and SP? showed that the peptides were secreted. RT-PCR and mass spectrometry analyses revealed a co-localization of transcripts and expression products in the oviduct gland. Preliminary in vitro experiments performed on gills and penises revealed target organs involved in mating and ventilation. Conclusions The analysis of the accessory sex gland transcriptome of Sepia officinalis led to the identification of peptidic sex pheromones. Although preliminary functional tests suggested the involvement of the ?3 and ?2 peptides in ventilation and mating stimulation, further functional investigations will make it possible to identify the complete set of biological activities expected from waterborne pheromones. PMID:23118854

Enault, Jérémy; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Bernay, Benoît; Lefranc, Benjamin; Leprince, Jérôme; Baudy-Floc'h, Michèle; Henry, Joël

2012-01-01

319

Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.  

PubMed

To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration. PMID:23982859

Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

2014-03-01

320

Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000?g/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10?g/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000?g/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

2012-07-01

321

The effect of inorganic pyrophosphate on the transport of oleanolic acid monoglycosides into vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The influence of exogenous inorganic pyrophosphate on the transport of oleanolic acid monoglucoside and monoglucuronide to vacuoles isolated from Calendula officinalis leaf protoplasts was studied. The results indicate that the transport of both monoglycosides is carrier-mediated; however, the transport of the monoglucuronide is passive, and that of the monoglucoside active. The active transport of the monoglucoside is dependent on tonoplast energization created as a result of cooperation of two vacuolar proton pumps: H+-ATPase and H+-PPase. PMID:9918510

Szakiel, A; Janiszowska, W

1998-01-01

322

The influence of culture density and enriched environments on the first stage culture of young cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The culture of Sepia officinalis hatchlings and juveniles at different densities and enriched environments was investigated. Experiments were conducted to\\u000a determine effects of culture density and the use of a substrate on growth and survival. Experiment I studied the effect of\\u000a three different densities (52, 515 and 1544 hatchlings m?2). Experiment II tested the effects of the enriched environment, using

António V. Sykes; Pedro M. Domingues; Maria Loyd; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

323

Inhibitory effects of Lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis, L.) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal herb possessing functional compounds with unexplored anti-glycative action. The anti-glycative activity of Lemon balm extract was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)\\/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by specific fluorescence, Congo red binding assay, circular dichroism, ligand and Western blotting. Ethanol fractions

Mehran Miroliaei; Sima Khazaei; Sorour Moshkelgosha; Mansoureh Shirvani

2011-01-01

324

Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR).2.For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff’s method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and

Ruth Gazola; Denise Machado; Campos Ruggiero; Glenan Singi; Mariângela Macedo Alexandre

2004-01-01

325

Comparison of rosmarinic acid content in commercial tinctures produced from fresh and dried lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To measure the rosmarinic acid content of eight commercial tinctures derived from fresh (n= 5) and dried (n=3) Melissa officinalis herb. Methods. Rosmarinic acid and the internal standard (esculin) were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. The column used was a Luna C18, 5 ?m (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., Phenomenex) maintained at ambient room temperature. The HPLC system consisted

Alberto Sanchez-Medina; Christopher J. Etheridge; Geoffrey E. Hawkes; Peter J. Hylands; Barbara A. Pendry; Michael J. Hughes; Olivia Corcoran

326

Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Essential Oils from Melissa officinalis ( Labiatae Family) and Pellargonium ssp. ( Geraniaceae Family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we report upon the development of a novel methodology based on electrospray (ESI) high capacity ion trap\\u000a (HCT) multistage mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS), for assessing the composition and structure of essential volatile oils. The method\\u000a was particularly applied to a native terpenoid mixture extracted from Melissa officinalis and different species of Pellargonium genus. Optimized ESI HCT MS

Claudia C. Toma; Ioan B. Pancan; Marius Chiri??; Florina M. Vata; Alina D. Zamfir

327

“High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

2011-01-01

328

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3–1000 mg\\/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg\\/kg. In the

Giselle Guginski; Ana Paula Luiz; Morgana Duarte Silva; Murilo Massaro; Daniel Fernandes Martins; Juliana Chaves; Robson Willain Mattos; Damaris Silveira; Vânia M. M. Ferreira; João Batista Calixto; Adair R. S. Santos

2009-01-01

329

Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

(+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal

C. Funk; R. Croteau

1993-01-01

330

Extraction of soluble dietary fiber and hemicellulose from Cornus officinalis residue and preparation of fiber drinking water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soluble dietary fiber (SDF) is an extract from spent residue of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc fruit by ultrasonic. The conditions of the experiment optimized with response surface methodology were ambient\\u000a temperature of 70.3°C, the ratio of solvent to solid being 30 mL\\/g, and processing time of 110 min under the ultrasonic wave\\u000a frequency of 40 kHz and ultrasonic power

Yitian Shao; Cunli Zhang; Ying Guo; Pengzhou Xi; Jie Guo

331

Among-Population Variation in Microbial Community Structure in the Floral Nectar of the Bee-Pollinated Forest Herb Pulmonaria officinalis L  

PubMed Central

Background Microbial communities in floral nectar have been shown to be characterized by low levels of species diversity, yet little is known about among-plant population variation in microbial community composition. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the microbial community structure (yeasts and bacteria) in floral nectar of ten fragmented populations of the bee-pollinated forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. We also explored possible relationships between plant population size and microbial diversity in nectar, and related microbial community composition to the distance separating plant populations. Culturable bacteria and yeasts occurring in the floral nectar of a total of 100 plant individuals were isolated and identified by partially sequencing the 16S rRNA gene and D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene, respectively. A total of 9 and 11 yeast and 28 and 39 bacterial OTUs was found, taking into account a 3% (OTU0.03) and 1% sequence dissimilarity cut-off (OTU0.01). OTU richness at the plant population level (i.e. the number of OTUs per population) was low for yeasts (mean: 1.7, range: 0–4 OTUs0.01/0.03 per population), whereas on average 6.9 (range: 2–13) OTUs0.03 and 7.9 (range 2–16) OTUs0.01 per population were found for bacteria. Both for yeasts and bacteria, OTU richness was not significantly related to plant population size. Similarity in community composition among populations was low (average Jaccard index: 0.14), and did not decline with increasing distance between populations. Conclusions/Significance We found low similarity in microbial community structure among populations, suggesting that the assembly of nectar microbiota is to a large extent context-dependent. Although the precise factors that affect variation in microbial community structure in floral nectar require further study, our results indicate that both local and regional processes may contribute to among-population variation in microbial community structure in nectar. PMID:23536759

Jacquemyn, Hans; Lenaerts, Marijke; Brys, Rein; Willems, Kris; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart

2013-01-01

332

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260?nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia

2013-01-01

333

Medicinal plant treatments for fleas and ear problems of cats and dogs in British Columbia, Canada.  

PubMed

Research conducted in 2003/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale, organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic farmers or holistic medicinal/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based treatments. This paper reports on the medicinal plants used for fleas in cats and dogs. Fleas and flies are treated with Artemisia vulgaris L. (Asteraceae), Citrus x limon (L.), Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh. (Cupressaceae), Lavandula officinalis L. (Labiatae), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae), and Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don (Cupressaceae). All of the plants used have insecticidal activity. Ear problems are treated with Achillea millefolium L., Calendula officinalis L., and Helichrysum angustifolium (Roth.) G. Don. (Asteraceae), Allium sativum L. (Alliaceae), Berberis aquifolium Pursh./Mahonia aquifolium (Berberidaceae), Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), Lobelia inflata L. (Campanulaceae), Matricaria recutita L., Melaleuca alternifolia L. (Myrtaceae), Origanum vulgare L. (Labiatae), Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae), Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L. M. Perry (Myrtaceae), Thymus vulgaris L. (Lamiaceae), and Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae). PMID:18563443

Lans, Cheryl; Turner, Nancy; Khan, Tonya

2008-09-01

334

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

335

Nitrogen mineralization and crop uptake of N from decomposing 15N labelled red clover and yellow sweetclover plant fractions of different age  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen mineralization from 15N labelled red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis\\u000a Lam.) plant fractions of three different ages (8-, 14- and 20-week old) was studied in an out-door pot experiment during 8.5\\u000a months. Individual plant fractions (leaves\\/stems\\/roots\\/flowers), 23 g dry matter pot-1 (corresponding to 7300 kg ha-1), were\\u000a incorporated into a sandy soil. The net mineralization

Maria Wivstad

1999-01-01

336

Extraction of polysaccharides from Fomes officinalis Ames and their antitumor activity  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to optimize the extraction parameters of Fomes officinalis Ames polysaccharides (FOAPs) and evaluate their antitumor activity. FOAPs were extracted using the hot water extraction, acid extraction and alkali extraction methods, respectively. Alcohol precipitation and acetone washes were conducted to separate and purify the FOAPs. The FOAP content was determined using the phenol-sulfuric acid method. The effects of raw material particle size, extraction time and material-liquid ratio on the yield of FOAPs were investigated, and the effects of FOAPs on the immune function of S180 tumor-bearing mice and their antitumor activity were evaluated. The yield of FOAPs obtained with the hot water extraction method was higher compared with the yields of the other methods. The optimum extraction conditions were as follows: a raw material particle size of 24 mesh; an extraction time of 2.5 h; and a material-liquid ratio of 1 g:12 ml. Under these conditions, the yield of FOAPs was 1.13%. FOAPs significantly inhibited tumor growth and enhanced the immune function in S180 tumor-bearing mice. FOAPs extracted using the hot water extraction method have antitumor activity. PMID:24137206

HU, MINGDONG; ZHANG, HUIFENG; FENG, BO; LIU, KE; GUO, SHUYING

2013-01-01

337

Magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective extraction of quercetagetin from Calendula officinalis extract.  

PubMed

A new magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for quercetagetin was prepared by surface molecular imprinting method using super paramagnetic core-shell nanoparticle as the supporter. Acrylamide as the functional monomer, ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate as the crosslinker and acetonitrile as the porogen were applied in the preparation process. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) were applied to characterize the MMIPs, and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was utilized to analyze the target analytes. The selectivity of quercetagetin MMIPs was evaluated according to their recognition to template and its analogues. Excellent binding for quercetagetin was observed in MMIPs adsorption experiment, and the adsorption isotherm models analysis showed that the homogeneous binding sites were distributed on the surface of the MMIPs. The MMIPs were employed as adsorbents in solid phase extraction for the determination of quercetagetin in Calendula officinalis extracts. Furthermore, this method is fast, simple and could fulfill the determination and extraction of quercetagetin from herbal extract. PMID:25618718

Ma, Run-Tian; Shi, Yan-Ping

2015-03-01

338

Production of oleanolic acid glycosides by hairy root established cultures of Calendula officinalis L.  

PubMed

In order to initiate hairy root culture initiation cotyledons and hypocotyls of Calendula officinalis L. were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834 or the same strain containing pCAMBIA 1381Z vector with ?-glucuronidase reporter gene under control of promoter of NIK (Nematode Induced Kinase) gene. The efficiency of induction of hairy roots reached 33.8% for cotyledons and 66.6% for hypocotyls together for both transformation experiments. Finally, eight control and nine modified lines were established as a long-term culture. The hairy root cultures showed the ability to synthesize oleanolic acid mainly (97%) as glycosides; control lines contained it at the average 8.42 mg ? g(-1) dry weight in tissue and 0.23 mg ? dm(-3) in medium; modified lines: 4.59 mg ? g(-1) for the tissue, and 0.48 mg ? dm(-3) for the medium. Additionally lines showed high positive correlation between dry/fresh weight and oleanolic acid concentration in tissue. Using the Killiani mixture in acidic hydrolysis of oleanolic acid glycosides released free aglycones that were partially acetylated in such conditions. PMID:24040627

D?ugosz, Marek; Wiktorowska, Ewa; Wi?niewska, Anita; P?czkowski, Cezary

2013-01-01

339

Antibacterial and antiparasitic activity of oleanolic acid and its glycosides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis).  

PubMed

The antibacterial and antiparasitic activities of free oleanolic acid and its glucosides and glucuronides isolated from marigold (Calendula officinalis) were investigated. The MIC of oleanolic acid and the effect on bacterial growth were estimated by A600 measurements. Oleanolic acid's influence on bacterial survival and the ability to induce autolysis were measured by counting the number of cfu. Cell morphology and the presence of endospores were observed under electron and light microscopy, respectively. Oleanolic acid inhibited bacterial growth and survival, influenced cell morphology and enhanced the autolysis of Gram-positive bacteria suggesting that bacterial envelopes are the target of its activity. On the other hand, glycosides of oleanolic acid inhibited the development of L3 Heligmosomoides polygyrus larvae, the infective stage of this intestinal parasitic nematode. In addition, both oleanolic acid and its glycosides reduced the rate of L3 survival during prolonged storage, but only oleanolic acid glucuronides affected nematode infectivity. The presented results suggest that oleanolic acid and its glycosides can be considered as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:18951335

Szakiel, Anna; Ruszkowski, Dariusz; Grudniak, Anna; Kurek, Anna; Wolska, Krystyna I; Doligalska, Maria; Janiszowska, Wirginia

2008-11-01

340

Novel polysaccharide from Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan can improve immune response to ovalbumin in mice.  

PubMed

This study was designed to investigate the effects of oral administration of the polysaccharide from the Radix Cyathulae officinalis Kuan (RCPS) for its adjuvant potential on the specific cellular and humoral immune responses in mice. In this study, our data demonstrated that oral administration of RCPS significantly enhanced the phagocytic capacity of peritoneal macrophage, splenocyte proliferation, the activity of natural killer (NK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) and OVA-speci?c IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody titers. Furthermore, RCPS promoted the level of interleukin-2(IL-2), IFN-? and IL-4 in CD4(+)T cells and level of IFN-? in CD8(+)T cells. In addition, RCPS enhanced the expression of CD40(+), CD80(+) and CD86(+) on the dendritic cells (DCs). Importantly, RCPS down-regulated the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells. Taken together, these results suggested that RCPS could increase both cellular and humoral immune responses via up-regulating DCs maturation, and suppressing Treg frequency. PMID:24418339

Feng, Haibo; Du, Xiaogang; Liu, Juan; Han, Xingfa; Cao, Xiaohan; Zeng, Xianyin

2014-04-01

341

Dried leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis as a treatment for streptococcosis in tilapia.  

PubMed

Dietary application of dried Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) leaves as a treatment for streptococcal infection was studied in tilapia, Oreochromis sp. Feeding with dried rosemary leaves significantly reduced mortality following infection with Streptococcus iniae: 44% mortality in the group fed 8% rosemary, similar to oxytetracycline treatment (43% mortality), and significantly lower than the control (65%). Dietary administration of 16% rosemary significantly reduced mortality because of Streptococcus agalactiae infection in 44 g fish (62% and 76% in 16% rosemary and control, respectively), but not in a similar experiment conducted with 5.5 g fish. The antibacterial effect of rosemary on S. iniae was studied. Activity of rosemary cultivar Israel was reduced during the winter, but there was no significant change in cultivars Oranit and Star. Storage of powdered rosemary leaves at 50 degrees C resulted in fourfold and eightfold higher MIC(24 h) values after 3 and 4.5 months, respectively. Storage at -20 degrees C, 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C and autoclaving (120 degrees C) each resulted in a twofold increase in MIC(24 h). Repeated exposures of S. iniae to rosemary did not affect minimal inhibitory concentration, suggesting no development of resistance to rosemary. PMID:20158579

Zilberg, D; Tal, A; Froyman, N; Abutbul, S; Dudai, N; Golan-Goldhirsh, A

2010-04-01

342

Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5?mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000?mg/kg?b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity. PMID:24959547

Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

2013-01-01

343

Effect of bioclimatic area on the composition and bioactivity of Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of eight Tunisian Rosmarinus officinalis L. populations (A-H) from different bioclimatic areas has been examined by gas chromatography (GC) and GC-mass spectrometry. The essential oils are characterised by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes (58.2-71.7%) followed by monoterpene hydrocabons (15.1-26.7%). 1,8-Cineole, camphor, ?-pinene and borneol are the main representative components. The antioxidant activity was investigated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH), ferric reducing ability power assay and ?-carotene bleaching test. Samples showed antiradical activity by inhibiting DPPH radical with IC50 values ranging from 375.3 to 592.8 ?g mL(- 1) for samples F and A, respectively. Sample A also showed the most promising activity in ?-carotene bleaching test (IC50 of 31.9 ?g mL(- 1)). The essential oils were also screened for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Sample G showed the highest activity against AChE (IC50 of 64.7 ?g mL(- 1)) while sample D (IC50 of 29.5 ?g mL(- 1)) exhibited the most potent activity against BChE. PMID:25104041

Ben Jemia, Mariem; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Senatore, Felice; Bruno, Maurizio; Kchouk, Mohamed Elyes; Loizzo, Monica Rosa

2015-02-01

344

Effect of different format-solvent rosemary extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen chicken nuggets quality.  

PubMed

Three kinds of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (powder-acetone, liquid-methanol, liquid-acetone) were used to examine the effects of format-solvent on the active compounds extracted (total phenolic, carnosol and carnosic acid content) and antioxidant activity (FRAP, ABTS). The results showed that both, as the format but also the solvent used, had significant effect on the parameters analyzed (p < 0.05). The highest antioxidant activity was found for the powder-acetone extract followed by the liquid methanol and liquid acetone extracts (p < 0.05). The effect of the three different extracts on the physical-chemical and sensory quality of frozen chicken nuggets was evaluated. At the dose proposed by the European Union Directive 2010/69/EU for the carnosic and carnosol compounds [150 ppm (mg/kg fat basic)], the format-solvent combination of the rosemary extracts used did not modify the chicken nuggets quality characteristics (pH, colour, sensory quality) and still underlines the effectiveness of these extracts. PMID:25442521

Rocío Teruel, M; Garrido, M Dolores; Espinosa, Miriam C; Linares, M Belén

2015-04-01

345

An arabino(glucurono)xylan isolated from immunomodulatory active hemicellulose fraction of Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

From the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) an arabino-(4-O-methyl-glucurono)-xylan (AGX) was isolated by alkaline extraction followed by precipitation with barium hydroxide solution. Polymer was isolated from sage as a light brown polysaccharide material of molecular mass (Mp) 84,000. Compositional analyses of sage AGX revealed xylose (81%), arabinose (10%), glucuronic acid (8%) and small amounts of hexoses (1%). Linkage sugar analyses showed the (1?4)-linked xylopyranosyl backbone with low degree of substitution (9-10%) at O-2 and O-3. Arabinofuranose residues were found as the terminal, 1,3-, 1,5- and 1,3,5-linked. NMR structural analyses of acidic oligomers, generated by partial acidic hydrolysis of AGX, confirmed a substitution of xylose residues by glucuronic acid and its 4-O-methyl derivate at O-2 at an average on every fourteenth xylose residue. NMR and FT-IR measurements, as well as a high negative optical rotation confirmed the ? configuration of glycosidic linkages in AGX backbone. PMID:23664938

Capek, P; Matulová, M

2013-08-01

346

Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

Barros, Lillian; Dueñas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inês; Sousa, Maria João; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-01

347

Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 ?g/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 ?g/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 ?g/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h). PMID:21964875

Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íñiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

2011-11-01

348

ILME: a waterborne pheromonal peptide released by the eggs of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

A novel tetrapeptide modulating the oviduct contractions was characterized from egg mass of Sepia officinalis. After two purification steps by rpHPLC, an apparent pure fraction containing the biological activity was submitted to MALDI-TOF analysis. The mass spectrum revealed 6 peaks of m/z 293, 505, 596, 613, 728, and 745. The tissue peptide mapping performed in LC-MS demonstrated the occurrence of the m/z 505 peptide in the follicles, the full-grown oocytes, and in the eggs. This peptide was also recovered in the seawater after the incubation of full grown oocytes or eggs, demonstrating a release in the genital tract and in the environment. Edman degradation gave the following sequence: Ileu-Leu-Met-Glu. The synthetic peptide applied to the whole genital tract triggered a cyclisation of the contractions at 10(-14) M. ILME appeared to be a chemical messenger released by the oocytes and the eggs, and was able to exert both paracrine and pheromonal activity. PMID:10944467

Zatylny, C; Gagnon, J; Boucaud-Camou, E; Henry, J

2000-08-18

349

Lack of Nephroprotective Efficacy of Althaea Officinalis Flower Extract Against Gentamicin Renal Toxicity in Male Rats  

PubMed Central

Background: Gentamicin (GM) is used as antibiotic for Gram-negative infections, but its administration is limited due to a side-effect of nephrotoxicity. It was attempted to investigate the effect of Althaea officinalis flower extract (AOFE) against nephrotoxicity induced by GM in male rats. Methods: 30-year-old male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. Group 1 as a negative control group received AOFE 250 mg/kg/day. Groups 2-5 received saline, AOFE 50 mg/kg/day, AOFE 250 mg/kg/day, and AOFE 500 mg/kg/day for 9 days, respectively, and GM (100 mg/kg/day) was added from the 3rd day on. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were obtained, animals were sacrificed, and the kidneys were removed immediately. Results: Gentamicin (in group 2) significantly increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine as well as the pathological damage score (P < 0.05) when compared with group 1. Low dose of AOFE did not decrease the nephrotoxicity induced by GM while the high dose of AOFE aggravated renal toxicity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Although AOFE acts as an antioxidant, at the doses used in the current study did not ameliorate nephrotoxicity induced by GM.

Talebi, Ardeshir; Karimi, Amirhossein; Ouguerram, Khadija; Vahidi-Ataabadi, Nasrin; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Mansouri, Azam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

2014-01-01

350

Effect of pasteurized egg and Rosmarinus officinalis supplementation on quality of cryopreserved ram semen.  

PubMed

The aim was to assess the in vitro effect of pasteurized egg (PE) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on frozen-thawed ram semen. Ejaculates from three mature rams of the Rasa Aragonesa breed were cryopreserved using a 2-step dilution method (Fraction 1: F1; Fraction 2: F2). In Experiment 1, semen was frozen in egg yolk (EY) or PE extenders. After thawing, similar results were obtained in terms of total and progressive motility, viability, hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) and acrosome integrity after 2 h incubation. In Experiment 2, addition of rosemary to F1, F2 or both fractions to EY extenders was evaluated. Rosemary in F1 decreased progressive motility (p = 0.013) after 2 h incubation. Finally, PE can be used as a substitute for EY to reduce hygienic risks in extenders and is easier to standardize. Supplementation of EY extender with rosemary in F1 reduced progressive motility. Rosemary supplementation in F2 does not affect semen quality. PMID:23995410

Mascaro, F; Gil, L; Malo, C; Gonzales, N; Martinez, F; de Blas, I

2013-01-01

351

A new dopachrome-rearranging enzyme from the ejected ink of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed Central

A melanogenic enzyme catalysing the rearrangement of dopachrome has been identified in the ejected ink of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. This enzyme occurs as a heat-labile protein which co-migrates with tyrosinase under a variety of chromatographic and electrophoretic conditions. On SDS/PAGE it shows like a single band with an approx. molecular mass of 85 kDa. The enzyme possesses high substrate specificity, acting on L-dopachrome (Km = 1 mM at pH 6.8) and on L-alpha-methyl-dopachrome, but not on D-dopachrome, L-dopachrome methyl ester, dopaminochrome and adrenochrome. Significant inhibition of the catalytic activity was observed with tropolone and L-mimosine. H.p.1.c. analysis of the enzyme-catalysed rearrangement of L-dopachrome revealed the quantitative formation of the decarboxylated product, 5,6-dihydroxyindole. These results point to marked differences between melanogenesis in cephalopod pigment cells and in melanocytes, which may have important implications in relation to the use of sepiomelanin as a model for studies of mammalian melanins. Images Figure 2 PMID:8192674

Palumbo, A; d'Ischia, M; Misuraca, G; De Martino, L; Prota, G

1994-01-01

352

Protective Effect of Lavandula stoechas and Rosmarinus officinalis Essential Oils Against Reproductive Damage and Oxidative Stress in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats.  

PubMed

Abstract The authors aimed in the present study to assess the protective effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils (ROEO) and Lavandula stoechas essential oils (LSEO) against reproductive damage and oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male rats. Essential oil samples were obtained from the aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Rats were divided into four groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy+ROEO (H+ROEO), healthy+LSEO (H+LSEO), diabetic+ROEO (D+ROEO), and diabetic+LSEO (D+LSEO). The use of GC-MS allowed to the identification of 15 and 22 compounds in ROEO and LSEO, respectively. In addition, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test showed that ROEO and LSEO had an important antioxidant capacity. In vivo, we initially found that ROEO and LSEO treatment protected against the decrease in alloxan-induced body weight gain, relative reproductive organ weights, testosterone level, as well as sperm quality decline. On the other hand, we showed that alloxan administration was accompanied by an oxidative stress status assessed by an increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels, as well as a depletion of sulfhydril group content (-SH) and antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in testis, epididymis, and sperm. More importantly, ROEO and LSEO treatment significantly protected against oxidative damage of the male reproductive organ systems in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. These findings suggested that ROEO and LSEO exerted a potential protective effect against alloxan-induced reproductive function damage and oxidative stress in male rat. The beneficial effect of ROEO and LSEO might be related, in part, to their antioxidant properties. PMID:25105335

Sebai, Hichem; Selmi, Slimen; Rtibi, Kais; Gharbi, Najoua; Sakly, Mohsen

2014-08-01

353

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis  

PubMed Central

The concentration of CO2 in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO2 emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO2 concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO2 concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO2 concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO2 and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO2. Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO2, while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO2. The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO2 due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO2 are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C.

2013-01-01

354

Study on spectrum-effect relationship of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and their formula.  

PubMed

Rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and fructus Aurantii Immaturus compose dachengqi tang (DCQT), a classical formula of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that is used for acute intestinal obstruction and has been proven to be effective and economic. However, the ingredients of TCM are complicated, and it is unclear which ingredients are the most important for its effects. In this paper, the relationship between the spectra and effects is discussed to provide a powerful method and some insights into the quality control of the herbs and their formula. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) fingerprint analysis was performed to investigate the chemical structures in different batches of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and DCQT. Hierarchical clustering analysis was employed to evaluate the similarities between fingerprints. Animal model of small intestinal propulsion was established to study the purgative functions of the herbs and DCQT. The relationship between the chemical ingredients and the effects was explored by regression analysis. HPLC fingerprint analysis results demonstrated variations between ingredients in different batches of rhizoma Rhei, cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, fructus Aurantii Immaturus and DCQT. The origin, collection time and preparation process may have contributed to these differences. Small intestinal propulsion results showed that, compared with the control group, the positive and therapeutic groups including single herbs and formula were significantly effective (P < 0.05). Spectrum-effect relationship results indicated that seven peak ingredients, hesperidin, aloe-emodin, honokiol, rhein, magnolol, emodin and sennoside A, were inducted in the regression equation, among which, the influence of sennoside A was the largest and most positively associated with the effects. The data analysis results indicated that many ingredients contributed to the purgative effects, among which, sennoside A might be the most important effective component; therefore, sennoside A should be determined for quality control. Furthermore, the spectrum-effect relationship is simple, operative and suitable for the quality evaluation of TCM. PMID:23118210

Xie, Rui-Fang; Zhou, Xin; Shi, Zhi-Na; Li, Yi-Ming; Li, Zhi-Cheng

2013-07-01

355

Comparative study of rosmarinic acid content in some plants of Labiatae family  

PubMed Central

Background: Plants of Labiatae are used in traditional medicine and phytotherapy. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound which is found in many genus of Labiatae and exhibits important biological activities. Materials and Methods: In this investigation, RA contents of 29 species of Labiatae named Salvia officinalis, Salvia limbata, Salvia virgata, Salvia hypoleuca, Salvia macrosiphon, Salvia choloroleuca, Melissa officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus daenensis, Thymus citriodorous, Thymus pubescens, Thymus vulgaris, Zataria multiflora, Mentha piperita, Mentha pulegium, Mentha longifolia, Mentha spicata, Mentha aquatica, Mentha crispa, Perovskia artemisoides, Zhumeria majdae, Satureja hortensis, Satureja khuzistanica, Satureja bachtiarica, Satureja atropatana, Satureja mutica and Satureja macrantha were determined by using high-performance liquid chromatographic method. Results: The results showed that RA content in different species of Labiatae was 0.0-58.5 mg g-1 of dried plants. The highest amount of RA was found in Mentha species especially M. spicata. Conclusion: M. spicata can be considered as a new source of rosmarinic acid . PMID:22438661

Shekarchi, Maryam; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Gohari, Ahmad Reza; Hamedani, Morteza Pirali

2012-01-01

356

Total phenolic content and antioxidative properties of commercial tinctures obtained from some Lamiaceae plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant level of commercial tinctures from three Lamiaceae plants, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, and Melissa officinalis, have been determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the 2.2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging technique and ABTS assay. Total phenolic content was expressed as GAE (gallic acid equivalent) and ranged from 0.24 to 3.99 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, calculated as TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ranged from 23.5 to 35.6 micromol Trolox/mL, while in the DPPH method, the EC50 value ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 mL/assay. Radical scavenging activity was correlated with total phenolic content. Correlations between ABTS and F-C methods, DPPH and F-C methods and ABTS and DPPH methods were calculated. The obtained results can be useful as additional information about the antioxidant activity of galenical preparations. PMID:23413570

Kowalczyk, Adam; Biskup, Izabela; Fecka, Izabela

2012-12-01

357

[FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in monitoring of hydroxyl stretching vibrations in plant hydrogels].  

PubMed

In recent years, some bioactive hydrogels isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive hydrogels isolated from following plant: Symphytum officinale, Thymus pulegioides, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Tussilago farfara L., Hyssopus officinalis, Althaea officinalis L., Equisetum arvense L. Linum usitatissimum L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional polysaccharide macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed a strong band at 3500-3100 cm(-1) attributed to hydroxyl (the intermolecular and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds) stretching vibrations changes. PMID:22332324

Pielesz, Anna; Binia?, Dorota; Wieczorek, Joanna

2011-01-01

358

Elemental characterization of wild edible plants from countryside and urban areas.  

PubMed

Thirteen elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Ni and Pb) in 11 different wild edible plants (WEP) (Amaranthus retroflexus, Foeniculum vulgare, Cichorium intybus, Glebionis coronaria, Sonchus spp., Borago officinalis, Diplotaxis tenuifolia, Sinapis arvensis, Papaver rhoeas, Plantago lagopus and Portulaca oleracea) collected from countryside and urban areas of Bari (Italy) were determined. B.officinalis and P.rhoeas could represent good nutritional sources of Mn and Fe, respectively, as well as A.retroflexus and S.arvensis for Ca. High intake of Pb and Cd could come from P.lagopus and A.retroflexus (1.40 and 0.13mgkg(-1) FW, respectively). WEP may give a substantial contribution to the elements intake for consumers, but in some cases they may supply high level of elements potentially toxic for human health. Anyway, both ANOVA and PCA analyses have highlighted the low influence of the harvesting site on the elements content. PMID:25660854

Renna, Massimiliano; Cocozza, Claudio; Gonnella, Maria; Abdelrahman, Hamada; Santamaria, Pietro

2015-06-15

359

Effects of dry plant extracts on feed degradation and the production of rumen microbial biomass in a dual outflow fermenter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a 214–10 fractional factorial design, 13 plant extracts containing flavonoids were screened to determine their influence on rumen microbial metabolism in continuous culture systems. Each extract was supplied at the rate of 0.5g per day, which corresponded to a concentration of 15gkg?1 dietary dry matter (DM). Outflow of VFA was enhanced with Lavandula officinalis (+9.8%) and Solidago virga-aurea (+6.4%),

Laurent-Philippe Broudiscou; Yves Papon; Anne F Broudiscou

2002-01-01

360

Distribution of oleanolic acid glycosides in vacuoles and cell walls isolated from protoplasts and cells of Calendula officinalis leaves.  

PubMed

The contents of oleanolic acid and its 3-0-glucuronide derivatives as well as of 3-0-glucoside derivatives were determined in vacuoles prepared from protoplasts and cell walls obtained from cells of Calendula officinalis leaves. In both cell compartments studied 37% of total cellular oleanolic acid were accumulated, 0.6% occurring as free oleanolic acid (only in vacuoles). Glucuronides accounted for 31.1% (20.7% in vacuoles and 10.4% in cell walls), and glucosides for 5.3% (2.6% in vacuoles and 2.7% in cell walls). PMID:2799856

Szakiel, A; Kasprzyk, Z

1989-01-01

361

Ethno-medicinal plants used to cure jaundice by traditional healers of mashhad, iran.  

PubMed

Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; Taghavizadehyazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

2014-01-01

362

Ethno-Medicinal Plants Used to Cure Jaundice by Traditional Healers of Mashhad, Iran  

PubMed Central

Jaundice is the commonest ailments affecting the citizens of both developed and poor Asians countries including Iran. An ethnobotanical survey of plants used by the traditional healers for the treatment of jaundice was conducted in the Mashhad city, Northeastern Iran. A total of 37 plants belonging to 32 genera and 26 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against jaundice. The plant families which contained the most commonly used species for their effects are: Fabaceae (5 species), Polygonaceae (4 sp.), Asteraceae (3 sp.), Plantaginaceae (2 sp.) and Salicaceae (2 sp.). The plants were arranged with correct nomenclature along with their common name, family, the part used and their medicinal value. The use of decoction is the most preferred method of herbal preparation. In all cases, the treatment involved oral administration of the extracts 2 to 3 times daily from a week to month till the problem disappears. Cichorium intybus, Salix alba, Cotoneaster nummularius, Descurainia sophia, Malva sylvestris, Berberis integrrima, Rumex acetosella, Phyllanthus emblica and Alhagi maurorum were repeatedly mentioned by the traditional healers as the most widely used for the treatment of jaundice in the study area. The study indicates that the local inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for treatment. This paper suggested that further clinical experimentation is needed to scientifically evaluate these widely used herbal remedies for possible bioactive effects. PMID:24734067

Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza; TaghavizadehYazdi, Mohammad Ehsan

2014-01-01

363

Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.  

PubMed

The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915

Höfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonçalves, R B

2010-11-01

364

Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats  

PubMed Central

Purpose Advanced glycation end products (AGE) are associated in the development of several pathophysiologies including diabetic cataract. Earlier we have reported that some common dietary agents have antiglycating activity and ginger (Zingiber officinalis) was one of the few prominent agents that effectively prevented AGE formation in vitro. In this study we investigated the potential of ginger to prevent diabetic cataract in rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in Wistar-NIN rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg bodyweight) and the control rats received vehicle alone. While a set of diabetic animals received AIN-93 diet, another set received either 0.5 or 3% ginger in their diet for a period of two months. Cataract progression was monitored by slit-lamp biomicroscope. At the end of two months, the animals were sacrificed to evaluate non-enzymatic glycation and osmotic stress in the eye lens. Results Slit-lamp examination revealed that feeding of ginger not only delayed the onset but also the progression of cataract in rats. Molecular analyses indicated that feeding of ginger significantly inhibited the formation of various AGE products including carboxymethyl lysine in the eye lens. In addition, ginger also countered hyperglycemia-induced osmotic stress in the lens. Conclusions The results indicated that ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Thus, ingredients of dietary sources, such as ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications. PMID:20806076

Saraswat, Megha; Suryanarayana, Palla; Patil, Madhoosudan A.; Balakrishna, Nagalla

2010-01-01

365

Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in creosote-induced hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

Coal tar is a significant product generated from coal pyrolysis. Coal tar can be utilized as raw materials for various industries. It is also a type of raw material from which phenols, naphthalenes, and anthracene can be extracted. The present study was designed to investigate the possibility of coal tar creosote to induce oxidative stress and biochemical perturbations in rat liver and the role of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) in ameliorating its toxic effects. Male Wister Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven each, group I served as control; group II treated with rosemary (10 mL of water extract/kg BW for 21 days), group III received coal tar creosote (200 mg/4 mL olive oil/kg BW for 3 days), and group IV treated with both rosemary and coal tar creosote. The administration of coal tar creosote significantly caused elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S-transferase (GST). A significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) content was also observed. Liver aminotransferases aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT)] and alkaline phosphatase (AlP) were significantly decreased while lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was increased. Rosemary pretreatment to coal tar creosote-treated rats decreased LPO level and normalized GPx, GR, SOD, CAT, and GST activities, while GSH content was increased. Also, liver AST, ALT, AlP, and LDH were maintained near normal level due to rosemary treatment. In conclusion, rosemary has beneficial effects and could be able to antagonize coal tar creosote toxicity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014. PMID:25044495

El-Demerdash, Fatma M; Abbady, Ehab A; Baghdadi, Hoda H

2014-07-01

366

Life table and consumption capacity of corn earworm, Helicoverpa armigera, fed asparagus, Asparagus officinalis.  

PubMed

The life table and consumption rate of Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) reared on asparagus, Asparagus officinalis L. (Asparagales: Asparagaceae) were studied under laboratory conditions to assess their interaction. Development, survival, fecundity, and consumption data were analyzed by the age-stage, twosex life table. This study indicated that asparagus is a natural host of H. armigera. However, the poor nutritional content in asparagus foliage and the poor fitness of H. armigera that fed on asparagus indicated that asparagus is a suboptimal host in comparison to hybrid sweet corn. The uncertainty associated with life table parameters was estimated by using jackknife and bootstrap techniques, and the results were compared for statistical inference. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (?), net reproductive rate (R0), and mean generation time (T) were estimated by the jackknife technique to be 0.0780 day(-1), 1.0811 day(-1), 67.4 offspring, and 54.8 days, respectively, while those estimated by the bootstrap technique were 0.0752 day(-1), 1.0781 day(-1), 68.0 offspring, and 55.3 days, respectively. The net consumption rate of H. armigera, as estimated by the jackknife and bootstrap technique, was 1183.02 and 1132.9 mg per individual, respectively. The frequency distribution of sample means obtained by the jackknife technique failed the normality test, while the bootstrap results fit the normal distribution well. By contrast, the relationship between the mean fecundity and the net reproductive rate, as estimated by the bootstrap technique, was slightly inconsistent with the relationship found by mathematical proof. The application of the jackknife and bootstrap techniques in estimating population parameters requires further examination. PMID:25373181

Jha, Ratna Kumar; Tuan, Shu-Jen; Chi, Hsin; Tang, Li-Cheng

2014-01-01

367

Chemotype diversity of indigenous Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) populations in Montenegro.  

PubMed

To identify how many chemotypes of Salvia officinalis exist in Montenegro, the chemical composition of the essential oils of 12 wild-growing populations was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Among the 40 identified constituents, the most abundant were cis-thujone (16.98-40.35%), camphor (12.75-35.37%), 1,8-cineol (6.40-12.06%), trans-thujone (1.5-10.35%), camphene (2.26-9.97%), borneol (0.97-8.81%), viridiflorol (3.46-7.8%), limonene (1.8-6.47%), ?-pinene (1.59-5.46%), and ?-humulene (1.77-5.02%). The composition of the essential oils under study did not meet the ISO 9909 requirements, while the oils of populations P02-P04, P09, and P10 complied with the German Drug Codex. A few of the main essential-oil constituents appeared to be highly intercorrelated. Strong positive correlations were observed between ?-pinene and camphene, camphene and camphor, as well as between cis-thujone and trans-thujone. Strong negative correlations were evidenced between cis-thujone and ?-pinene, cis-thujone and champhene, cis-thujone and camphor, as well as between trans-thujone and camphene. Multivariate analyses allowed the grouping of the populations into three distinct chemotypes, i.e., Chemotype A, rich in total thujones, Chemotype B, with intermediate contents of thujones, ?-pinene, camphene, and camphor and high borneol contents, and Chemotype C, rich in camphor, camphene, and ?-pinene. The chemotypes did not significantly differ in the total essential-oil content and the cis/trans-thujone ratio. PMID:24443430

Steševi?, Danijela; Risti?, Mihailo; Nikoli?, Vuko; Nedovi?, Marijana; Cakovi?, Danka; Šatovi?, Zlatko

2014-01-01

368

Graded behavioral responses and habituation to sound in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Sound is a widely available and vital cue in aquatic environments, yet most bioacoustic research has focused on marine vertebrates, leaving sound detection in invertebrates poorly understood. Cephalopods are an ecologically key taxon that likely use sound and may be impacted by increasing anthropogenic ocean noise, but little is known regarding their behavioral responses or adaptations to sound stimuli. These experiments identify the acoustic range and levels that elicit a wide range of secondary defense behaviors such as inking, jetting and rapid coloration change. Secondarily, it was found that cuttlefish habituate to certain sound stimuli. The present study examined the behavioral responses of 22 cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) to pure-tone pips ranging from 80 to 1000 Hz with sound pressure levels of 85-188 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and particle accelerations of 0-17.1 m s(-2). Cuttlefish escape responses (inking, jetting) were observed between frequencies of 80 and 300 Hz and at sound levels above 140 dB re. 1 ?Pa rms and 0.01 m s(-2) (0.74 m s(-2) for inking responses). Body patterning changes and fin movements were observed at all frequencies and sound levels. Response intensity was dependent upon stimulus amplitude and frequency, suggesting that cuttlefish also possess loudness perception with a maximum sensitivity around 150 Hz. Cuttlefish habituated to repeated 200 Hz tone pips, at two sound intensities. Total response inhibition was not reached, however, and a basal response remained present in most animals. The graded responses provide a loudness sensitivity curve and suggest an ecological function for sound use in cephalopods. PMID:25394634

Samson, Julia E; Mooney, T Aran; Gussekloo, Sander W S; Hanlon, Roger T

2014-12-15

369

Chemical composition and anticancer activity of essential oils of Mediterranean sage (Salvia officinalis L.) grown in different environmental conditions.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. can be found worldwide and its leaves are commonly used as ingredient in food industry. Sage essential oil is applied in the treatment of a range of diseases and has been shown to possess different biological activities. The objectives of our research were to study the effects of environment on crop, chemical composition and anticancer activity on S. officinalis essential oil. Sage was cultivated at eighteen experimental sites in south-central Italy (Molise) in different growing environments. The essential oils (S1-S18), extracted by hydrodistillation, were analyzed by GC and CG/MS. Results show that the main components were ?-thujone, camphor, borneol, ?-muurolene and sclareol for all the samples, but the percentages of these compounds varied depending on environmental factors such as altitude, water availability and pedo-climatic conditions. The growth-inhibitory and proapoptotic effects of the eighteen sage essential oils were evaluated in three human melanoma cell lines, A375, M14, and A2058. PMID:23291326

Russo, Alessandra; Formisano, Carmen; Rigano, Daniela; Senatore, Felice; Delfine, Sebastiano; Cardile, Venera; Rosselli, Sergio; Bruno, Maurizio

2013-05-01

370

Evaluation of in vitro anticancer activity of Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris.  

PubMed

The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

Behbahani, Mandana

2014-01-01

371

Evaluation of In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Ocimum Basilicum, Alhagi Maurorum, Calendula Officinalis and Their Parasite Cuscuta Campestris  

PubMed Central

The present investigation was carried out to study the relationship between presence of cytotoxic compounds in Ocimum basilicum, Alhagi maurorum, Calendula officinalis and their parasite Cuscuta campestris. The cytotoxic activity of the pure compounds was performed by MTT assay against breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) and normal breast cell line (MCF 10A). The induction of apoptosis was measured by the expression levels of p53, bcl-2, bax and caspase-3 genes using quantitative Real Time PCR. Three active fractions were detected by nuclear magnetic resonance as lutein, lupeol and eugenol, respectively, in C. officinalis, A. maurorum and O. basilicum. These compounds and their epoxidized forms were also detected in their parasite C. campestris. The cytotoxic activity of lutein epoxide, lupeol epoxide and eugenol epoxide was significantly more than lutein, lupeol and eugenol. The mRNA expression level of p53, caspase-3 and bax genes were increased in both cancer cells treated with all pure compounds. However, bcl-2 gene expression decreased in treated breast cancer cells. In conclusion, all the data indicated that the epoxide forms of lupeol, lutein and eugenol are potential drug candidates for inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells. PMID:25548920

Behbahani, Mandana

2014-01-01

372

Salvia officinalis L.: composition and antioxidant-related activities of a crude extract and selected sub-fractions.  

PubMed

The composition and antioxidant properties of a methanol: acetic acid (99:1, v/v) soluble crude extract isolated from S. officinalis L. leaves through maceration and selected fractions isolated thereof are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents, whilst qualitative-quantitative phenolic content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Antioxidant evaluation consisted of ferric reductive capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging determinations. The crude extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and diterpenoids, whilst caffeic acid, carnosic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were identified from their chromatographic and spectral characteristics and quantified from their respective calibration curves. The crude extract and sub-fractions demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in the antioxidant-related assays used, except the n-hexane fraction, which was unable to reduce iron(III) at reasonable concentrations. Although the positive controls, ascorbic acid, BHA and BHT, were more potent than the S. officinalis samples, two fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent iron(III) reducing agents than pycnogenol, a proanthocyanidin-rich commercial preparation. PMID:20923007

Ko?ar, Müberra; Dorman, H J Damien; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Hiltunen, Raimo

2010-09-01

373

Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalis) eggs: specific activity and effects of Ag, Cd, Cu exposures2  

E-print Network

1 Variation of acid phosphatases and cathepsins activities in the cuttlefish1 (Sepia officinalisP) and cathepsin24 activities throughout the cuttlefish embryo development. The enzyme activity kinetics25 appeared-11Oct2010 #12;3 Introduction40 41 Among cephalopods, Sepioidea (cuttlefishes) lay singly medium size

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

374

Subcellular distribution of Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn in the digestive gland of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis  

E-print Network

of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis P. Bustamante1* , M. Bertrand2 , E. Boucaud-Camou3 , P. Miramand1 1 mainly associated to cytosolic compounds in the cuttlefish digestive gland. hal-00473915,version1-16Apr;2 ABSTRACT The subcellular fractionation of the digestive gland cells of the common cuttlefish Sepia

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

375

Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses to the Ag and Cu exposure2  

E-print Network

Phenoloxidase activation in the embryo of the common cuttlefish Sepia1 officinalis and responses in the cuttlefish embryo sampled at the end of the26 organogenesis and few hours before hatching. Various modulators demonstrated the28 evidence of a true phenoloxidase activity in the cuttlefish embryo. However, SDS and LPS29

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

376

Uptake, transfer and distribution of silver and cobalt in tissues of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis at different stages of its life cycle  

E-print Network

1 Uptake, transfer and distribution of silver and cobalt in tissues of the common cuttlefish Sepia examined to determine transfer of 110m Ag and 57 Co in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Additional experiments were conducted on adult cuttlefish and their eggs/embryos in order to assess bioaccumulation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

377

Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential  

PubMed Central

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:24224168

Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Gonçalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

2013-01-01

378

Studies on the feeding attractants for fishes and shellfishes. XXVI. Probable feeding attractants in allspice Pimenta officinalis for black abalone Haliotis discus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attraction activity of allspice Pimenta officinalis was statistically estimated based on the exploratory and feeding behaviour of the black abalone Haliotis discus. The ether fraction (oils) from the water extract of allspice was the most attractive. The essential oil of allspice was separated into four fractions (phenolic, acidic, neutral and basic) by extraction using a mixture of pentane-dichloromethane (1:1,

Katsuhiko Harada; Taiko Miyasaki; Shigeyasu Kawashima; Haruyasu Shiota

1996-01-01

379

Genetic diversity patterns and functional traits of Bradyrhizobium strains associated with Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. in Caribbean islands and Amazonian forest (French Guiana).  

PubMed

Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. is a legume tree native to the Caribbean islands and South America growing as a dominant species in swamp forests. To analyze (i) the genetic diversity and (ii) the symbiotic properties of its associated nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria, root nodules were collected from P. officinalis distributed in 16 forest sites of the Caribbean islands and French Guiana. The sequencing of the 16S-23S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region (ITS) showed that all bacteria belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus. Bacteria isolated from insular zones showed very close sequence homologies with Bradyrhizobium genospecies V belonging to the Bradyrhizobium japonicum super-clade. By contrast, bacteria isolated from continental region displayed a larger genetic diversity and belonged to B. elkanii super-clade. Two strains from Puerto Rico and one from French Guiana were not related to any known sequence and could be defined as a new genospecies. Inoculation experiments did not show any host specificity of the Bradyrhizobium strains tested in terms of infectivity. However, homologous Bradyrhizobium sp. strain-P. officinalis provenance associations were more efficient in terms of nodule production, N acquisition, and growth than heterologous ones. The dominant status of P. officinalis in the islands may explain the lower bacterial diversity compared to that found in the continent where P. officinalis is associated with other leguminous tree species. The specificity in efficiency found between Bradyrhizobium strains and host tree provenances could be due to a coevolution process between both partners and needs to be taken in consideration in the framework of rehabilitation plantation programs. PMID:24595907

Le Roux, Christine; Muller, Félix; Bouvet, Jean-Marc; Dreyfus, Bernard; Béna, Gilles; Galiana, Antoine; Bâ, Amadou M

2014-08-01

380

ARTICLE Soil characteristics of Rocky Mountain National Park grasslands invaded by Melilotus officinalis and M. alba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim Invasion of nitrogen-fixing non-native plant species may alter soil resources and impact native plant communities. Altered soils may be the driving mechanism that provides a suitable environment to facilitate future invasions and decrease native biodiversity. We hypothesized that Melilotus invasion would increase nitrogen availability and produce soil microclimate and biochemical changes, which could in turn alter plant species composition

J. J. Wolf; S. W. Beatty; T. R. Seastedt

381

Determination of phenolic antioxidant compounds produced by calli and cell suspensions of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) calli were established by culturing internodal segments, excised from aseptic seedlings, on MS basal medium gellied with agar and supplemented with 0.05 mg/L dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in presence of benzyladenine (BA) or zeatin (ZEA) or kinetin (KIN), at 1.5 mg/L. Suspended cells were established by transferring one callus to 50 mL of liquid MS basal medium devoid of agar and containing the same type of hormonal supplementation used in respective calli growth. The highest growth of calli and suspensions occurred with 1.5 mg/L ZEA. However, with this cytokinin supplementation, as well as with 1.5 mg/L KIN, both in presence of 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D, suspensions differentiated small root shaped structures. Well shaped, majority single cell suspensions were formed under the effect of 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/L KIN. Calli grown with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and 1.5 mg/L BA and suspended cells grown with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-D and ZEA or KIN at 1.5 mg/L, or KIN at 0.5 mg/L, were searched for phenolics production. Twelve phenolic compounds were identified in calli: gallic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid, hesperetin, epirosmanol, hispidulin, genkwanin, carnosol, carnosic acid, and methyl carnosate. With the exception for genkwanin and epirosmanol all of these phenolic compounds were also produced by the sage suspension cultures grown in the presence of 1.5 or 0.5 mg/L KIN. Genkwanin was the only phenolic absent in the suspensions grown with 1.5 ZEA. Suspended cells, grown with 0.5 mg/L KIN, and calli cultures showed the highest specific accumulation of the total phenolics, with rosmarinic acid representing 94-97%. PMID:14593803

Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Seabra, Rosa M; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

2003-09-01

382

Trace metal concentrations in post-hatching cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and consequences of dissolved zinc exposure.  

PubMed

In this study, we investigated the changes of 13 trace metal and metalloid concentrations (i.e. Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn) and their subcellular fractionation in juvenile cuttlefish Sepia officinalis reared in controlled conditions between hatching and 2 months post-hatching. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations were determined. Our results highlighted contrasting changes of studied metals. Indeed, As and Fe concentrations measured in hatchlings suggested a maternal transfer of these elements in cuttlefish. The non-essential elements Ag and Cd presented the highest accumulation during our study, correlated with the digestive gland maturation. During the 6 first weeks of study, soluble fractions of most of essential trace metals (i.e. Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Se, Zn) slowly increased consistently with the progressive needs of cuttlefish metabolism during this period. In order to determine for the first time in a cephalopod how metal concentrations and their subcellular distributions are impacted when the animals are trace metal-exposed, we studied previously described parameters in juveniles exposed to dissolved Zn at environmental (i.e. 50?gl(-1)) and sublethal (i.e. 200?gl(-1)) levels. Moreover, oxidative stress (i.e. glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities, and lipid peroxidation (LPO)) was assessed in digestive gland and gills after 1 and 2 months exposures. Our results highlighted no or low ability of this stage of life to regulate dissolved Zn accumulation during the studied period, consistently with high sensitivity of this organism. Notably, Zn exposures caused a concentration-dependent Mn depletion in juvenile cuttlefish, and an increase of soluble fraction of Ag, Cd, Cu without accumulation modifications, suggesting substitution of these elements (i.e. Mn, Ag, Cd, Cu) by Zn. In parallel, metallothionein concentrations decreased in individuals most exposed to Zn. Finally, no perturbations in oxidative stress management were detected in gills, whereas modifications of GST, SOD and catalase activity levels were recorded in digestive gland, resulting in an increase of LPO content after a 6-week exposure to low Zn concentration. Altogether, these perturbations are consistent with previously described high sensitivity of juvenile cuttlefish towards Zn. Our results underlined the need to study deeply contamination impact on this animal at this stage of life. PMID:25500620

Le Pabic, Charles; Caplat, Christelle; Lehodey, Jean-Paul; Milinkovitch, Thomas; Koueta, Noussithé; Cosson, Richard Philippe; Bustamante, Paco

2015-02-01

383

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L., Santolina chamaecyparissus L., Thymus vulgaris L., Zingiber officinaie L.) were screened in guinea pig and rat plasma in order to assess antiplatelet activity and inhibition of clot retraction. The oils were chemically analysed and a relationship between components and ability to affect hemostasis was evidenced. O. quixos, F. vulgaris, and A. dracunculus showed the highest antiplatelet activity against ADP, Arachidonic Acid and the Thromboxane A2 agonist U46619 (IC50, 4-132 microg ml(-1)), and a good ability to destabilize clot retraction (IC50, 19-180 microg ml(-1)). For these oils a significant correlation between antiplatelet potency and phenylpropanoids content (54-86%) was evidenced thus suggesting a key role for this moiety in the prevention of clot formation. These findings provide the rationale to take in account the antiplatelet activity in the pharmacological screening of natural products containing phenylpropanoids. PMID:16274702

Tognolini, M; Barocelli, E; Ballabeni, V; Bruni, R; Bianchi, A; Chiavarini, M; Impicciatore, M

2006-02-23

384

Compost spreading in Mediterranean shrubland indirectly increases biogenic emissions by promoting growth of VOC-emitting plant parts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated the effect of sewage sludge compost spreading on plant growth and leaf terpene emissions and content of Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis and Cistus albidus in a Mediterranean shrubland. Measurements were performed during 3 consecutive summers on 2 different plots treated in 2002 or 2007 with 50 or 100 tons of compost per hectare, corresponding to observations carried out 2 months to 7 years after spreading. A slight nutrient enrichment of soil and leaves ( R. officinalis and C. albidus) was observed, especially for phosphorous. Terpene emissions were not affected by compost spreading, although they tended to increase on treated plots after 6 and 7 years for R. officinalis and C. albidus respectively. Terpene content was not affected by any compost treatment. Leaf and stem growth were significantly enhanced by compost spreading after 2 and/or 7 years in all species with little difference between doses. Total leaf biomass on the last growth units was increased by more than 50% in C. albidus and more than 90% in Q. coccifera. The results suggest that compost spreading in Meditteranean shrublands has no or little direct effect on leaf terpene emissions, but indirectly leads to their increase through leaf biomass enhancement. Simulation of terpene emissions at stand level revealed an increase of terpene fluxes ranging between 6 and 13%, depending on the plant species. Overall, compost spreading was assessed to result in an emission rate of 1.1 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical Q. coccifera shrubland, but can reach 2.6 kg ha -1 y -1 for a typical R. officinalis shrubland.

Olivier, Romain; Lavoir, Anne-Violette; Ormeño, Elena; Mouillot, Florent; Greff, Stéphane; Lecareux, Caroline; Staudt, Michael; Fernandez, Catherine

2011-07-01

385

Investigation of the Effect of Rice Wine on the Metabolites of the Main Components of Herbal Medicine in Rat Urine by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry: A Case Study on Cornus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) was developed for rapid and sensitive analysis of the effect of rice wine on the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine in rat urine. Using Cornus officinalis as a model of herbal medicine, the metabolite profiles of crude and processed (steaming the crude drug presteeped in rice wine) Cornus officinalis extracts in rat urine were investigated. The metabolites of Cornus officinalis were identified by using dynamic adjustment of the fragmentor voltage to produce structure-relevant fragment ions. In this work, we identified the parent compounds and metabolites of crude and processed Cornus officinalis in rats. In total, three parent compounds and seventeen new metabolites of Cornus officinalis were found in rats. The contents of the parent compounds and metabolites in vivo varied significantly after intragastric (i.g.) administration of aqueous extracts of crude and processed Cornus officinalis. Data from this study suggests that UPLC-QTOF/MS could be used as a potential tool for uncovering the effects of excipients found in the metabolites of the main components of herbal medicine, in vivo, to predict and discover the processing mechanisms of herbal medicine. PMID:23737825

Cao, Gang; Cai, Hao; Yue, Xianke; Tu, Sicong; Cai, Baochang; Xu, Zhiwei

2013-01-01

386

Tropical American plants in the treatment of infectious diseases.  

PubMed

The increasingly diverse U.S. immigrant populations and the growing use of medicinal herbs create a need for health care professionals to expand their knowledge in this area. This is a review of tropical plants, Annona Muricata, Artemisia absinthium, Cinchona officinalis, Illicium verum, Momordica charantia, Opuntia streptacantha, Schinus terebinthifolius, and Tabebuia avellanedae (impetiginosa), commonly used by Latino and Haitian populations for the treatment of infectious disease. All the eight plants discussed here have one or more of the following: antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, or antiparasitic properties. All of these plants are primarily known and used in the tropical region, but they are also readily available for purchase in the United States, specifically in the ethnic markets. This review discusses their traditional uses, chemical constituents, proven scientific evidence, and toxicities. PMID:22436096

Dvorkin-Camiel, Lana; Whelan, Julia S

2008-01-01

387

Larvicidal activity of some Labiatae (Lamiaceae) plant extracts from Turkey.  

PubMed

Ethanol extracts of the aerial parts from five Labiatae (Lamiaceae) species, obtained from Antalya, Turkey, were tested for larvicidal activity against the house mosquito Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) under laboratory conditions. Third and fourth instar mortality from six concentrations (5, 10, 25, 50, 100 and 200 ppm) of each plant extract were compared against the organophosphorus insecticide, temephos which is currently used for larval control. All plant extracts showed high larvicidal activity in 24 h exposure tests. Teucrium divaricatum Sieber was the most toxic, followed by Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds., Melissa officinalis L., Salvia sclarea L. and Mentha pulegium L. with LC(50) values of 18.6, 26.8, 39.1, 62.7 and 81.0 ppm, respectively. This study is the first to report on the larvicidal activity of ethanol extracts of these five plant species against C. pipiens. PMID:17009204

Cetin, Huseyin; Cinbilgel, Ilker; Yanikoglu, Atila; Gokceoglu, Mustafa

2006-12-01

388

Behavior of Free Aromatic Amino Acid Pools in Rosmarinic Acid-Producing Cell Cultures of Anchusa officinalis L. 1  

PubMed Central

The pool sizes of free l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine, the precursors of rosmarinic acid in Anchusa officinalis L. cell suspension cultures, fluctuated during the culture cycle. The major increase in pool sizes was preceded by a peak of prephenate aminotransferase activity, while the subsequent decrease coincided with the presence of high activities of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine aminotransferase, the two entrypoint enzymes of the rosmarinic acid biosynthesis pathway. Timecourse feeding studies with linear growth stage cells revealed that the tyrosine pool turned over rapidly, consistent with direct participation in rosmarinic acid synthesis. Since externally applied l-tyrosine was rapidly incorporated into rosmarinic acid with little evidence of radioactively labeled intermediates, it is suggested that there exists a close coupling between the l-tyrosine pool and the rosmarinic acid biosynthetic pathway, which may involve the channelling of intermediates both into and within the pathway. PMID:16666560

De-Eknamkul, Wanchai; Ellis, Brian E.

1989-01-01

389

GC-MS analysis of essential oils from Salvia officinalis L.: comparison of extraction methods of the volatile components.  

PubMed

In this paper, comparison of the volatile components composition in the samples obtained by hydrodistillation and solid-phase microextraction of Salvia officinalis was described. Different sample preparation techniques showed considerable differences in volatiles composition, especially with respect to sesqui- and diterpenoids. The comparison of the sage essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation in the Deryng and Clevenger type apparatus, according to the pharmacopoeial methods (FP VI and VII), showed the presence of the same terpenoids in both essential oils, however, the relative percentage composition of the components were different. These differences are caused by the different extraction times used in both methods. Since each essential oil to be admitted to medicinal use should meet requirements regarding the composition of major chemical components, the minimum time for the hydrodistillation of the essential oils from sage should be 1 h. PMID:23610957

Baj, Tomasz; Ludwiczuk, Agnieszka; Sieniawska, Elwira; Skalicka-Wo?niak, Krystyna; Widelski, Jaros?aw; Zieba, Krzysztof; G?owniak, Kazimierz

2013-01-01

390

Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.  

PubMed

Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ?-6/?-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

2014-03-01

391

Expression of the SOFaRP2 gene in the central nervous system of the adult cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

FMRFamide-related Peptides (FaRPs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes, including reproduction, feeding, development, body patterning and osmoregulation in vertebrates and invertebrates. Here we investigate the expression pattern of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis FaRP2 gene in the brain by in situ hybridization. The SOFaRP2 gene was found to be expressed most intensively in the posterior chromatophore lobe, vasomotor lobe and subvertical lobe. In addition, positive staining was also found in the fin lobe, brachial lobe, anterior chromatophore lobe, anterior, dorsal and lateral basal lobes, inferior and superior frontal lobes, and optic lobe. The expression pattern of SOFaRP2 suggests its involvement in chromatophore regulation, feeding behavior, and learning and memory. PMID:23465584

Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

2013-06-01

392

Evaluation of benzaldehyde derivatives from Morinda officinalis as anti-mite agents with dual function as acaricide and mite indicator  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by SFTS virus with 12–30% fatality rate. Despite severity of the disease, any medication or treatment for SFTS has not developed yet. One approach to prevent SFTS spreading is to control the arthropod vector carrying SFTS virus. We report that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues from M. officinalis have a dual function as acaricide against Dermatophagoides spp. and Haemaphysalis longicornis and indicator (color change) against Dermatophagoides spp. Based on the LD50 values, 2,4,5–trimethylbenzaldehyde (0.21, 0.19, and 0.68??g/cm3) had the highest fumigant activity against D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and H. longicornis, followed by 2,3–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.46, 0.44, and 0.79??g/cm3), 2,4–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.66, 0.59, and 0.95??g/cm3), 2,5–dimethylbenzaldehyde (0.65, 0.68, and 0.88??g/cm3), 2–methylbenzaldehyde (0.95, 0.87, and 1.28??g/cm3), 3–methylbenzaldehyde (0.99, 0.93, and 1.38??g/cm3), 4–methylbenzaldehyde (1.17, 1.15, and 3.67??g/cm3), and M. officinalis oil (7.05, 7.00, and 19.70??g/cm3). Furthermore, color alteration of Dermatophagoides spp. was shown to be induced, from colorless to dark brown, by the treatment of 2,3–dihydroxybenzaldehyde. These finding indicated that 2–methylbenzaldehyde analogues could be developed as functional agent associated with the arthropod vector of SFTS virus and allergen. PMID:25434408

Yang, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Min-Gi; Park, Jun-Hwan; Hong, Seong-Tshool; Lee, Hoi-Seon

2014-01-01

393

Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression  

PubMed Central

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg?1) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg?1 bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg?1 bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg?1 bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

394

Hypoglycemic Effects of Three Medicinal Plants in Experimental Diabetes: Inhibition of Rat Intestinal ?-glucosidase and Enhanced Pancreatic Insulin and Cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs Expression.  

PubMed

Garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae), Persian shallot (Allium ascalonicum L., Alliaceae ) and Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are believed to have hypoglycemic properties and have been used traditionally as antidiabetic herbal medicines in Iran. In this study, diabetes was induced by subcutaneous injection of alloxan monohydrate (100 mg kg(-1)) to male Wistar rats. Antidiabetic effects of methanolic extracts of the above mentioned three plants on alloxan-diabetic rats was investigated in comparison with the effects of antidiabetic drugs such as acarbose, glibenclamide and metformin by measuring postprandial blood glucose (PBG), oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), inhibition of rat intestinal ?-glucosidase enzymes activities and pancreatic Insulin and cardiac Glut-4 mRNAs expression. In short term period, hypoglycemic effects of A. sativum and A. ascalonicum showed significant reduction of PBG similar to glibenclamide (5 mg kg(-1) bw) while S. officinalis significantly reduced PBG similar to acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). After 3 weeks of treatment by methanolic plant extracts, significant chronic decrease in the PBG was observed similar to metformin (100 mg kg(-1) bw). For OGTT, S. officinalis reduced PBG in a similar way as acarbose (20 mg kg(-1) bw). Intestinal sucrase and maltase activities were inhibited significantly by A. sativum, A. ascalonicum and S. officinalis. In addition, we observed increased expression of Insulin and Glut-4 genes in diabetic rats treated with these plants extracts. Up regulation of Insulin and Glut-4 genes expression and inhibition of ?-glucosidaseactivities are the two mechanisms that play a considerable role in hypoglycemic action of garlic, shallot and sage. PMID:24250646

Moradabadi, Leila; Montasser Kouhsari, Shideh; Fehresti Sani, Mohammad

2013-01-01

395

Simultaneous quantitative determination of eight triterpenoid monoesters from flowers of 10 varieties of Calendula officinalis L. and characterisation of a new triterpenoid monoester.  

PubMed

Dichloromethane extracts of dried flowers of Calendula officinalis contain eight known bioactive triterpendiol monoesters, namely, faradiol-3-O-palmitate, faradiol-3-O-myristate, faradiol-3-O-laurate, arnidiol-3-O-palmitate, arnidiol-3-O-myristate, arnidiol-3-O-laurate, calenduladiol-3-O-palmitate and calenduladiol-3-O-myristate. These pentacyclic terpenoids have been quantified simultaneously using reversed-phase HPLC with isocratic elution and internal standardisation. Of the 10 varieties of C. officinalis investigated, Calypso Orange Florensis produced the highest amounts of the bioactive monoesters, followed by Fiesta Gitana Gelb and May Orange Florensis. The lipophilic extract from the flowers of Calypso Orange Florensis variety also contained low levels of the newly characterised calenduladiol-3-O-laurate. PMID:14979524

Neukirch, Hannes; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Dalla Via, Josef; Guerriero, Antonio

2004-01-01

396

Chemical composition analysis of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Kurdistan, Iran by HS/SPME method and calculation of the biophysicochemical coefficients of the components.  

PubMed

The volatile constituents of the essential oil of wild Melissa officinalis L. obtained from the Kurdistan province of Iran were extracted by headspace/solid-phase micro-extraction and were analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Of a total of 14 compounds in the oil, 12 (85.7%) were identified. The main components were as follows: (E)-citral (37.2%), neral (23.9%) and citronellal (20.3%). Some physicochemical properties, such as the logarithm of calculated octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log?K (ow))(,) total biodegradation (TB (d) in mol?h(-1) and g?h(-1)), water solubility (S (w), mg?L(-1) at 25°C) and median lethal concentration 50 (LC(50)), were calculated for compounds 1-14 from M. officinalis L. PMID:21809949

Taherpour, Avat Arman; Maroofi, Hossein; Rafie, Zeinab; Larijani, Kambiz

2012-01-01

397

Effect of the environmental conditions on essential oil profile in two Dinaric Salvia species: S. brachyodon Vandas and S. officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two species belonging to the genus Salvia (Salvia brachyodon Vandas and Salvia officinalis L.) from Dalmatian region were studied for their essential oil composition, genome size and base composition. These species showed the same chromosome number (2n=14), similar genome size (0.95 and 0.97pg\\/2C) and base composition (38.52 and 38.55 GC%), respectively. This is the first estimation of DNA content and

Milka Maksimovi?; Danijela Vidic; Mladen Miloš; Marija Edita Šoli?; Sabaheta Abadži?; Sonja Siljak-Yakovlev

2007-01-01

398

Microwave-assisted extraction of coumarin and related compounds from Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas as an alternative to Soxhlet and ultrasound-assisted extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soxhlet extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction (USAE) and microwaves-assisted extraction (MAE) in closed system have been investigated to determine the content of coumarin, o-coumaric and melilotic acids in flowering tops of Melilotus officinalis. The extracts were analyzed with an appropriate HPLC procedure. The reproducibility of extraction and of chromatographic analysis was proved. Taking into account the extraction yield, the cost and the

Emanuela Martino; Ilaria Ramaiola; Mariangela Urbano; Francesco Bracco; Simona Collina

2006-01-01

399

The effects of feeding with shrimp or fish fry on growth and mantle lipid composition of juvenile and adult cuttlefish ( Sepia officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) aged 60-day-old (age-group I) and 120-day-old (age-group II) were fed with live shrimp and live fish fry for 60 days, in order to study the diet influence on growth, mantle lipid composition, and astaxanthin content in the skin. The most noteworthy difference was the higher growth observed in shrimp-fed cuttlefish with respect to

Eduardo Almansa; Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Noemi Tejera; António Lorenzo; José P. Andrade

2006-01-01

400

Effects of feeding live or frozen prey on growth, survival and the life cycle of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of feeding live or frozen grass shrimp (Palaemonetes varians) to the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, were determined in two experiments. During Experiment I, two populations of 30 cuttlefish (aged 90 days old) were fed either\\u000a live or frozen grass shrimp. Cuttlefish fed live shrimp grew larger, matured earlier, had a shorter life cycle (255 days)\\u000a than the ones fed

Pedro Domingues; António Sykes; Anne Sommerfield; José P. Andrade

2003-01-01

401

The use of Artemia sp. or mysids as food source for hatchlings of the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis L.); effects on growth and survival throughout the life cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twoexperiments were conducted to determine the effects ofArtemia sp. or mysids on growth and survival ofS. officinalis hatchlings, and their effect throughout thelife cycle. For experiment I, for the first 20 days, one group was fed adultArtemia sp. and the other was fed mysid shrimp(Paramysis nouvelli). Eggs laid by females in both groupswere counted and weighed, and hatchlings were weighed,

Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2001-01-01

402

The effects of temperature in the life cycle of two consecutive generations of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), cultured in the Algarve (South Portugal)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are presently culturing the 4th generation of thecuttlefish, Sepia officinalis in our laboratory. A firstgeneration (F1) was grown from eggs collected from the wild (Ria Formosa–South Portugal) during the summer, at mean temperatures of 27°C ± 3°. In the present study, a second generation(F2), originated from eggs laid in the laboratory by females from F1 wascultured between the start

Pedro M. Domingues; António Sykes; José P. Andrade

2002-01-01

403

Octopine metabolism in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis : Octopine production by muscle and its role as an aerobic substrate for non-muscular tissues  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.The metabolism of the glycolytic end product, octopine, was investigated in vivo in the cuttlefish,Sepia officinalis. Octopine was the major mantle muscle end product produced during hypoxia, exhaustive swimming, or exhaustive swimming followed by hypoxia (muscle octopine rose from 0.2 to 3.7, 8.6, and 13.4 µmol\\/g wet wt. respectively). Octopine concentration was inversely correlated with muscle glycogen and arginine phosphate

Kenneth B. Storey; Janet M. Storey

1979-01-01

404

Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit ( Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7°C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were

Vivian C. H. Wu; Xujian Qiu; Y.-H. Peggy Hsieh

2008-01-01

405

Repellent Effect of Extracts and Essential Oils of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) and Melissa officinalis (Labiatae) Against Main Malaria Vector, Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Repellet effect of extracts and essential oils of Citrus limon (L.) Burm.F., (lemon) and Melissa officinalis, (balm) were evaluated against Anopheles stephensi in laboratory on animal and human and compared with synthetic repellent, N,N- diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) as a standard. Results of statistical analysis revealed significant differences between oils and extracts (P< 0.05) against the tested species, thus oils were more

MA Oshaghi; R Ghalandari; H Vatandoost; M Shayeghi; M Kamali-nejad; H Tourabi-Khaledi; M Abolhassani; M Hashemzadeh

406

Effects of chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract on anxiety-like reactivity and on circadian and exploratory activities in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to determine the effects of chronic (15 consecutive days of treatment) per os administration of Melissa officinalis L. extract (Cyracos®, Naturex) on anxiety-like reactivity in mice. As measured by HPLC, Cyracos® contains significant amounts of rosmarinic acid and the triterpenoids oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, which inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid transaminase (GABA-T) activity and increase GABA levels in

Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillere; Marc Roller; Edith Lesburgere; Daniel Beracochea

2010-01-01

407

Modulation of Mood and Cognitive Performance Following Acute Administration of Single Doses of Melissa Officinalis (Lemon Balm) with Human CNS Nicotinic and Muscarinic Receptor-Binding Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (Lemon balm) is a herbal medicine that has traditionally been attributed with memory-enhancing properties, but which is currently more widely used as a mild sedative and sleep aid. In a previous study it was demonstrated that a commercial Melissa extract led to dose-specific increases in calmness, and dose-dependent decrements in timed memory task performance. However, the extract utilized

D O Kennedy; G Wake; S Savelev; N T J Tildesley; E K Perry; K A Wesnes; A B Scholey

2003-01-01

408

Selenium, iodine, ?-3 PUFA and natural antioxidant from Melissa officinalis L.: A combination of components from healthier dry fermented sausages formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of dry fermented sausage, including ingredients that improve the nutritional and health benefits of this type of product is presented. Se yeast (2g\\/kg), iodized salt (26g\\/kg), linseed:algae (3:2) emulsion (62.5g\\/kg), and lyophilized water extract of Melissa officinalis L. as a source of natural antioxidants (686mg\\/kg), yielded dry fermented sausages with technological and sensory properties similar to traditional

Mikel García-Íñiguez de Ciriano; Eduardo Larequi; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íñigo Navarro-Blasco; Iciar Astiasarán; Diana Ansorena

2010-01-01

409

Effects of Valeriana Officinalis Extracts on [ 3 H]Flunitrazepam Binding, Synaptosomal [ 3 H]GABA Uptake, and Hippocampal [ 3 H]GABA Release  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of Valeriana officinalis have been used in folkloric medicine for its sedative, hypnotic, tranquilizer and anticonvulsant effects, and may interact with ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and\\/or benzodiazepine sites. At low concentrations, valerian extracts enhance [3H]flunitrazepam binding (EC50 4.13 × 10-10 mg\\/ml). However, this increased [3H]flunitrazepam binding is replaced by an inhibition at higher concentrations (IC50 of 4.82 × 10-1 mg\\/ml).

José G. Ortiz; Jennifer Nieves-Natal; Pedro Chavez

1999-01-01

410

Functional Identification of Valerena-1,10-diene Synthase, a Terpene Synthase Catalyzing a Unique Chemical Cascade in the Biosynthesis of Biologically Active Sesquiterpenes in Valeriana officinalis*  

PubMed Central

Valerian is an herbal preparation from the roots of Valeriana officinalis used as an anxiolytic and sedative and in the treatment of insomnia. The biological activities of valerian are attributed to valerenic acid and its putative biosynthetic precursor valerenadiene, sesquiterpenes, found in V. officinalis roots. These sesquiterpenes retain an isobutenyl side chain whose origin has been long recognized as enigmatic because a chemical rationalization for their biosynthesis has not been obvious. Using recently developed metabolomic and transcriptomic resources, we identified seven V. officinalis terpene synthase genes (VoTPSs), two that were functionally characterized as monoterpene synthases and three that preferred farnesyl diphosphate, the substrate for sesquiterpene synthases. The reaction products for two of the sesquiterpene synthases exhibiting root-specific expression were characterized by a combination of GC-MS and NMR in comparison to the terpenes accumulating in planta. VoTPS7 encodes for a synthase that biosynthesizes predominately germacrene C, whereas VoTPS1 catalyzes the conversion of farnesyl diphosphate to valerena-1,10-diene. Using a yeast expression system, specific labeled [13C]acetate, and NMR, we investigated the catalytic mechanism for VoTPS1 and provide evidence for the involvement of a caryophyllenyl carbocation, a cyclobutyl intermediate, in the biosynthesis of valerena-1,10-diene. We suggest a similar mechanism for the biosynthesis of several other biologically related isobutenyl-containing sesquiterpenes. PMID:23243312

Yeo, Yun-Soo; Nybo, S. Eric; Chittiboyina, Amar G.; Weerasooriya, Aruna D.; Wang, Yan-Hong; Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Vaillancourt, Brieanne; Buell, C. Robin; DellaPenna, Dean; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Jones, A. Daniel; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Ransom, Nick; Dudareva, Natalia; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Tibrewal, Nidhi; Chandra, Suman; Smillie, Troy; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Coates, Robert M.; Watt, David S.; Chappell, Joe

2013-01-01

411

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances.  

PubMed

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia. Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which Cyracos(®), a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos(®) contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was a prospective, open-label, 15-day study to evaluate the efficacy of Cyracos(®) on stressed volunteers, who have mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances. Using clinician rating criteria, primary outcomes showed improvement of symptoms. Cyracos(®) reduced anxiety manifestations by 18% (p < 0.01), ameliorated anxiety-associated symptoms by 15% (p < 0.01) and lowered insomnia by 42% (p < 0.01). As much as 95% of subjects (19/20) responded to treatment, of which 70% (14/20) achieved full remission for anxiety, 85% (17/20) for insomnia, and 70% (14/20) for both. Our study demonstrates, for the first time that chronic administration of Melissa officinalis L. relieves stress-related effects. It is critical that further studies incorporate a placebo and investigate physiological stress markers. PMID:22207903

Cases, Julien; Ibarra, Alvin; Feuillère, Nicolas; Roller, Marc; Sukkar, Samir G

2011-12-01

412

In vitro conservation of twenty-three overexploited medicinal plants belonging to the Indian sub continent.  

PubMed

Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions. PMID:22593711

Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

2012-01-01

413

In Vitro Conservation of Twenty-Three Overexploited Medicinal Plants Belonging to the Indian Sub Continent  

PubMed Central

Twenty-three pharmaceutically important plants, namely, Elaeocarpus spharicus, Rheum emodi, Indigofera tinctoria, Picrorrhiza kurroa, Bergenia ciliata, Lavandula officinalis, Valeriana wallichii, Coleus forskohlii, Gentiana kurroo, Saussurea lappa, Stevia rebaudiana, Acorus calamus, Pyrethrum cinerariaefolium, Aloe vera, Bacopa monnieri, Salvia sclarea, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Swertia cordata, Psoralea corylifolia, Jurinea mollis, Ocimum sanctum, Paris polyphylla, and Papaver somniferum, which are at the verge of being endangered due to their overexploitation and collection from the wild, were successfully established in vitro. Collections were made from the different biodiversity zones of India including Western Himalaya, Northeast Himalaya, Gangetic plain, Western Ghats, Semiarid Zone, and Central Highlands. Aseptic cultures were raised at the morphogenic level of callus, suspension, axillary shoot, multiple shoot, and rooted plants. Synseeds were also produced from highly proliferating shoot cultures of Bacopa monnieri, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Stevia rebaudiana, Valeriana wallichii, Gentiana kurroo, Lavandula officinalis, and Papaver somniferum. In vitro flowering was observed in Papaver somniferum, Psoralea corylifolia, and Ocimum sanctum shoots cultures. Out of 23 plants, 18 plants were successfully hardened under glasshouse conditions. PMID:22593711

Verma, Priyanka; Mathur, Ajay Kumar; Jain, Sheetal Prasad; Mathur, Archana

2012-01-01

414

The promotive effects of a peptidyl plant growth factor, phytosulfokine-?, on the formation of adventitious roots and expression of a gene for a root-specific cystatin in cucumber hypocotyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytosulfokines (PSKs) were the first peptidyl growth factors from a higher plant to be characterized. They induce the proliferation\\u000a in suspension culture of mesophyll cells of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.; Matsubayashi and Sakagami 1996b). We examined the effects of PSK-? on the formation of adventitious roots on cucumber\\u000a hypocotyls. The number of roots increased 2- to 2.5-fold after treatment with

Seiyei Yamakawa; Chiyoko Sakuta; Yoshikatsu Matsubayashi; Youji Sakagami; Hiroshi Kamada; Shinobu Satoh

1998-01-01

415

Power Plant Power Plant  

E-print Network

Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) 2 Nevada Geodetic LaboratoryStillwater Power Plant Wabuska Power Plant Casa Diablo Power Plant Glass Mountain Geothermal Area Lassen Geothermal Area Coso Hot Springs Power Plants Lake City Geothermal Area Thermo Geothermal Area

Tingley, Joseph V.

416

Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and ziziphora (Ziziphora bungeana Yur.). The results of radio-activation analysis were compared with the results of standard spectral analysis performed in another laboratory and the accuracy of the procedures developed was evaluated on the basis of the results.

Mukhammedov, S.; Tillaeva, K.; Badalov, N.B.

1987-06-01

417

Screening of plants used in Danish folk medicine to treat memory dysfunction for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

Aqueous and methanolic extracts of 11 plants, used in Danish folk medicine for improvement of memory and cognition, and 3 Corydalis species were tested for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using the Ellman colorimetric method. Significant inhibitory activity in dose-dependent manner was observed for extracts of Corydalis cava, Corydalis intermedia, Corydalis solida ssp. laxa and Corydalis solida ssp. slivenensis. Extracts of Ruta graveolens, Lavandula angustifolia, Rosmarinus officinalis, Petroselinum crispum and Mentha spicata exhibited moderate inhibition of the enzyme, defined as more than 15% at 0.1 mg/ml. PMID:16280217

Adsersen, Anne; Gauguin, Bente; Gudiksen, Lene; Jäger, Anna K

2006-04-01

418

Characterization of some plant extracts by GC-MS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Different types of herbs often used in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industry were extracted and then analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The method validation parameters showed good linearity, precision and recovery for a standard mixture. Herbs from different zones of Romania were studied: melissa ( Melissa officinalis), nettle ( Urtica dioica, Lamium album), camomile ( Matricaria chamomilla). The study was applied for fingerprint chromatograms to characterize the flavors extracted from herb plants of different sources. The identity and quantity of the measured active compounds was correlated with the expected therapeutic effects. The active principles content was determined for the same herb, and different amounts of the active principles were determined for plants of different origin.

Iordache, A.; Culea, M.; Gherman, C.; Cozar, O.

2009-01-01

419

The effects of intellan and cytacon on hematological and biochemical parameter in rabbits: a comparative study.  

PubMed

Several plants have been selected based on their use in traditional systems of medicine, and research has identified a number of natural compounds that could act as Nootropicagents. In this study a herbal product Intellan containing Centella asiatica, Bacopa monniera, Coriandum sativum, Amomum subulatum, Emblica officinalis and another product Cytacon (Cyanocobalamine) were selected The study was designed on animal models to explore the effects on different parameters. For this the animals were given chronic dosing for 6-8 weeks during and after which the parameters were observed to determine their effects. The purpose of focusing on such formulations is to do hematological screening in long-term use. The hematological parameter included hemoglobin/HCT, total leucocyte count, platelets. The lymphocytes and the monocytes counts were increased significantly by intellan, while cyanocobalamine increases RBC counts, platelet counts, monocyte counts, hematocrit etc significantly. The SGPT, SGOT were found increased in both of these drugs. PMID:25176357

Anser, Humera; Najam, Raheela; Khan, Saira Saeed; Riaz, Bushra; Sarfaraz, Sana

2014-09-01

420

Polyphenols and antioxidant capacity of Bulgarian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate, rooibos and honeybush, and to that of green and black tea, well known for their high antioxidant potential. The content of total phenolics in the teas was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as quercetin equivalents (QE). Seven Bulgarian medicinal plants were with high phenolics content and antioxidant properties: Pulmonaria officinalis L. (Boraginaceae) (TEAC 2.02+/-0.14 mM/QE 673.39+/-9.92 microM), Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae) (TEAC 3.75+/-0.14 mM/QE 881.93+/-6.68 microM), Agrimonia eupatoria L. (Rosaceae) (TEAC 3.76+/-0.5mM/QE 702.29+/-6.82 microM), Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 5.87+/-0.2mM/QE 1653.61+/-11.52 microM), Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (TEAC 4.06+/-0.31 mM/QE 1370.09+/-41.38 microM), Rubus sp. diversa (Rosaceae) (TEAC 4.23+/-0,12 mM/QE 608.95+/-5.95 microM), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (Anacardiaceae) (TEAC 7.05+/-0.19 mM/QE 923.33+/-14.19 microM). Therefore, Bulgarian herbs can be considered to be a rich source of water-soluble antioxidants and/or phenolic compounds as compared to studied foreign plants. PMID:15588663

Ivanova, D; Gerova, D; Chervenkov, T; Yankova, T

2005-01-01

421

Comparison between effects of different doses of Melissa officinalis and atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in hypercholesterolemia rats  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Liver is one of the most sensitive tissues to oxidant damage. Hence, the present study was conducted to compare the effects of Melissa officinalis (MO) extract and Atorvastatin on the activity of liver enzymes in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 60 male Wistar rats were selected and allocated to six groups (n=10). The control group received a normal diet, sham group received a fatty diet while other groups received a fatty diet and the alcoholic extract of MO, at minimum (25 mg/kg), moderate (50 mg/kg), and maximum (75 mg/kg) doses (i.p.). The last group received Atorvastatin (10 mg/kg) through gavage with a fatty diet over a 21-day period. At the end of this 21-day period, blood samples were drawn and the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), activity of liver enzymes as well as cholesterol in the samples were measured. Results: The obtained results showed that the activity of liver enzymes in the treatment groups receiving MO extract and the group receiving Atorvastatin decreased significantly. MO extract reduced the level of liver enzymes. Conclusion: Therefore, further studies for obtaining a better understanding of the mechanism of effect of MO for treating liver diseases are recommended. PMID:25050297

Zarei, Ali; Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Taheri, Soheila; Rasekh, Fateme

2014-01-01

422

Anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor-promoting, and cytotoxic activities of constituents of marigold (Calendula officinalis) flowers.  

PubMed

Ten oleanane-type triterpene glycosides, 1-10, including four new compounds, calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-methyl ester (2), calendulaglycoside A 6'-O-n-butyl ester (3), calendulaglycoside B 6'-O-n-butyl ester (5), and calendulaglycoside C 6'-O-n-butyl ester (8), along with five known flavonol glycosides, 11-15, were isolated from the flowers of marigold (Calendula officinalis). Upon evaluation of compounds 1-9 for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds, except for 1, exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values of 0.05-0.20 mg per ear. In addition, when 1-15 were evaluated against the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA, compounds 1-10 exhibited moderate inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 471-487 mol ratio/32 pmol TPA). Furthermore, upon evaluation of the cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines in vitro in the NCI Developmental Therapeutics Program, two triterpene glycosides, 9 and 10, exhibited their most potent cytotoxic effects against colon cancer, leukemia, and melanoma cells. PMID:17190444

Ukiya, Motohiko; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; Suzuki, Takashi; Kimura, Yumiko

2006-12-01

423

Assessment of the effect of the climate variations of coastal surface water and study of Sepia officinalis spawing.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish whether climate change affected migratory behaviour of Sepia officinalis (Linnaeus, 1758), which is an important resource for small-scale fishermen of Abruzzo region (Italy). Starting at the beginning of March until the end of April, the cuttlefish in this area migrates from deep cold water towards warmer coastal waters, where they spawn. Small-scale fishing of cuttlefish is permitted in costal waters from March to September. During the study period, between March and September 2008, both cuttlefish traps and trammel nets were used in 5 sampling areas along the Abruzzo coast to test their relative efficiency in catching cuttlefish. Trapped specimens were counted, weighed and measured, their gender and sexual maturity were also determined. The data obtained from the sampling were correlated to surface water temperature to assess possible changes in migration behaviours. The obtained data show that during the first months of migration (March and April), a greater percentage of large males was caught, while females and smaller males predominated later in the year. The study also showed that surface water temperature did not reveal any significant shifts from the trend over the last 10 years. As for the efficiency of the fishing methods, traps were found to be more effective than trammel nets. PMID:25110776

Giansante, Carla; Conte, Annamaria; Giovannini, Armando; Castriota, Luca; Andaloro, Franco; Ferri, Nicola

2014-01-01

424

Relations between total mercury, methylmercury and selenium in five tissues of Sepia officinalis captured in the south Portuguese coast.  

PubMed

Mercury, methylmercury and selenium were determined in digestive gland, branchial hearts, mantle, kidney and gills of Sepia officinalis from two areas of the south Portuguese coast. To the best of our knowledge these are the first data on Hg, MeHg and Se in branchial hearts, kidney and gills of cuttlefish. Digestive gland, branchial hearts and kidney presented higher levels of Hg and Se than mantle and gills. Methylmercury was significantly higher in digestive gland, branchial hearts and mantle. The enhanced levels of Hg in digestive gland and branchial heart reinforce the elevated storage capacity of these two tissues. The percentage of MeHg varied from 6.1% in gills to 92% in mantle. Linear and positive MeHg-Hg relations were obtained for the five tissues, being the better relation and higher slope observed for mantle, followed by branchial hearts, digestive gland, kidney and gills. The Se:Hg molar ratios showed a surplus of Se in all tissues. Calculations based on the equimolarity of Se:Hg point that 95-99% of Se are not linked to Hg (Se free). The negligible quantity of Se associated with Hg suggests that the mechanism of MeHg demethylation was not triggered in none of the tissues, presumably because the threshold for MeHg toxicity was not achieved. PMID:24582035

Raimundo, Joana; Pereira, Patrícia; Vale, Carlos; Canário, João; Gaspar, Miguel

2014-08-01

425

Characterization of homeobox genes reveals sophisticated regionalization of the central nervous system in the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

Cephalopod mollusks possess a number of anatomical traits that often parallel vertebrates in morphological complexity, including a centralized nervous system with sophisticated cognitive functionality. Very little is known about the genetic mechanisms underlying patterning of the cephalopod embryo to arrive at this anatomical structure. Homeodomain (HD) genes are transcription factors that regulate transcription of downstream genes through DNA binding, and as such are integral parts of gene regulatory networks controlling the specification and patterning of body parts across lineages. We have used a degenerate primer strategy to isolate homeobox genes active during late-organogenesis from the European cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. With this approach we have isolated fourteen HD gene fragments and examine the expression profiles of five of these genes during late stage (E24-28) embryonic development (Sof-Gbx, Sof-Hox3, Sof-Arx, Sof-Lhx3/4, Sof-Vsx). All five genes are expressed within the developing central nervous system in spatially restricted and largely non-overlapping domains. Our data provide a first glimpse into the diversity of HD genes in one of the largest, yet least studied, metazoan clades and illustrate how HD gene expression patterns reflect the functional partitioning of the cephalopod brain. PMID:25286399

Focareta, Laura; Sesso, Salvatore; Cole, Alison G

2014-01-01

426

Effect of Calendula officinalis Flower Extract on Acute Phase Proteins, Antioxidant Defense Mechanism and Granuloma Formation During Thermal Burns  

PubMed Central

Effect of Calendula officinalis flower extract was investigated against experimentally induced thermal burns in rats. Burn injury was made on the shaven back of the rats under anesthesia and the animals were treated orally with different doses of the flower extract (20 mg, 100 mg and 200 mg/kg body weight). The animals treated with the extract showed significant improvement in healing when compared with the control untreated animals. The indicators of the wound healing such as collagen-hydroxyproline and hexosamine contents were significantly increased in the treated group indicating accelerated wound healing in the treated animals. The acute phase proteins—haptoglobin and orosomucoid which were increased due to burn injury were found to be decreased significantly in 200 mg/kg body weight extract treated animals. The antioxidant defense mechanism, which was decreased in the liver during burn injury, was found to be enhanced in treated animals. The lipid peroxidation was significantly lowered in the treated group when compared to control animals. Tissue damage marker enzymes- alkaline phosphatase, alanine and aspartate transaminases were significantly lowered in the treated groups in a dose dependant manner. The histopathological analyses of skin tissue also give the evidence of the increased healing potential of the extract after burn injury. PMID:18818737

Chandran, Preethi K.; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2008-01-01

427

A Randomized Comparative Trial on the Therapeutic Efficacy of Topical Aloe vera and Calendula officinalis on Diaper Dermatitis in Children  

PubMed Central

Introduction. Diaper dermatitis (DD) is a common inflammatory disorder among children and infants. The objective of the present randomized and double-blind trial was to compare the therapeutic efficacies of Aloe vera cream and Calendula officinalis ointment on the frequency and severity of DD in children. Methods. Sixty-six infants with DD (aged < 3 years) were randomized to receive either Aloe cream (n = 32) or Calendula ointment (n = 34). Infants were treated with these drugs 3 times a day for 10 days. The severity of dermatitis was graded at baseline as well as at the end of trial using a 5-point scale. The adverse effects of study medications were assessed during the trial. Results. Although improvement in the severity of DD was observed in both treatment groups (P < 0.001), patients receiving Calendula ointment had significantly fewer rash sites compared to Aloe group (P = 0.001). No adverse effect was reported from either of the medications. Discussion. The evidence from this study suggests that topical Aloe and in particular Calendula could serve as safe and effective treatment for the treatment of diaper dermatitis in infants. PMID:22606064

Panahi, Yunes; Sharif, Mohamad Reza; Sharif, Alireza; Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Zahiri, Zahra; Amirchoopani, Golnoush; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

2012-01-01

428

Antifungal activity and inhibition of fumonisin production by Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg.  

PubMed

The chemical composition of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil (REO) was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The main compounds of the REO were 1.8 cineole (52.2%), camphor (15.2%) and ?-pinene (12.4%). The mycelial growth of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg was reduced significantly by 150 ?g/mL of REO. Significant microscopic morphological changes were visualised, such as the rupture of the cell wall and the leakage of cytoplasm at 300 ?g/mL of REO. At lower concentrations of REO, the effects on the production of ergosterol and the biomass of mycelium varied, as did the effects on the production of fumonisins, but at ?300 ?g/mL of REO, these processes were significantly inhibited, showing the effectiveness of the REO as an antifungal agent. The results suggested that the REO acts against F. verticillioides by disrupting the cell wall and causing the loss of cellular components, subsequently inhibiting the production of fumonisins and ergosterol. PMID:25053064

da Silva Bomfim, Natalia; Nakassugi, Lydiana Polis; Faggion Pinheiro Oliveira, Jessica; Kohiyama, Cassia Yumie; Mossini, Simone Aparecida Galerani; Grespan, Renata; Nerilo, Samuel Botião; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto; Alves Abreu Filho, Benicio; Machinski, Miguel

2015-01-01

429

Antioxidant Capacity and Polyphenolic Composition as Quality Indicators for Aqueous Infusions of Salvia officinalis L. (sage tea)  

PubMed Central

Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is used as an herbal medicinal product, with the most typical form of application as infusion with boiling water (sage tea). The well-established traditional uses include symptomatic treatment of mild dyspeptic complaints, the treatment of inflammations in the mouth and the throat, and relief of excessive sweating and relief of minor skin inflammations. In this study, sage teas prepared from commercially available products were chemically analyzed for polyphenolic content using liquid chromatography, for antioxidant potential using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity method, and for the Folin–Ciocalteu (FC) index. The sage teas showed a high variation for all parameters studied (up to 20-fold differences for rosmarinic acid). Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the antioxidant potential, which varied between 0.4 and 1.8?mmol trolox equivalents/100?mL, was highly dependent on rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. The FC index also showed a high correlation to these polyphenols, and could therefore be used as a screening parameter for sage tea quality. The considerable differences in polyphenolic composition and antioxidant capacity between the brands lead to a demand for quality standardization, especially if these sage teas are to be used for therapeutic purposes. Further research also appears to be necessary to characterize the dose–benefit relationship, as sage may also contain a constituent (thujone) with potentially adverse effects. PMID:22194722

Walch, Stephan G.; Tinzoh, Laura Ngaba; Zimmermann, Benno F.; Stühlinger, Wolf; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

2011-01-01

430

Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of antioxidants from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) leaves for use in edible vegetable oils.  

PubMed

Supercritical extraction was employed to produce rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts with different composition and antioxidant activity. CO? was utilized as supercritical solvent and diverse extraction conditions (temperature, pressure, amount of cosolvent and fractionation scheme) were applied. The extracts with higher antioxidant content were selected to study their capability as natural antioxidant of several commercial edible vegetable oils. Linseed oil (LO), grape seed oil (GO) and sesame oil (SO) were oxidized under Rancimat conditions in presence of 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg of selected extracts. Antioxidant activity index (AAI) was estimated as the ratio of induction time in presence of extracts to induction time in absence of extract. Induction time in absence of extracts was 3.3, 7.9 and 23.4 h for LO, GO and SO, respectively. Regardless of these different susceptibilities, the highest AAI for the three oils was obtained for the extract with the highest antioxidant-enrichment (33.25% carnosic acid plus carnosol) and added at the highest level (300 mg/kg). However, at such conditions, the AAI was significantly higher (p<0.001) for LO (3.5), followed by SO (2.2) and the poorest value was for GO (1.1). Therefore, the magnitude of the AAI depended on the antioxidant-enrichment of the extracts, the level of addition within the oils, but also on the own individual oils. PMID:23196869

Vicente, Gonzalo; Martín, Diana; García-Risco, Mónica R; Fornari, Tiziana; Reglero, Guillermo

2012-01-01

431

"High in omega-3 fatty acids" bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed. The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6/?-3 ratio from 17.3 to 1.9, and also the Atherogenic Index and Thr