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1

Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in interfering with rheumatoid arthritis complications of the bone skeleton leading to joint destruction, and preventing and reducing osteoporosis. Accordingly, we suggest the application of Emblica officinalis extracts as an alternative tool for therapy applied to bone diseases.

Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

2008-01-01

2

Identification of pyrogallol as an antiproliferative compound present in extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis: effects on in vitro cell growth of human tumor cell lines.  

PubMed

In this study we compared the in vitro antiproliferative activity of extracts from medicinal plants toward human tumor cell lines, including human erythromyeloid K562, B-lymphoid Raji, T-lymphoid Jurkat, erythroleukemic HEL cell lines. Extracts from Emblica officinalis were the most active in inhibiting in vitro cell proliferation, after comparison to those from Terminalia arjuna, Aphanamixis polystachya, Oroxylum indicum, Cuscuta reflexa, Aegle marmelos, Saraca asoka, Rumex maritimus, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Red Sandalwood. Emblica officinalis extracts have been studied previously, due to their hepatoprotective, antioxidant, antifungal, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory medicinal activities. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses allowed to identify pyrogallol as the common compound present both in unfractionated and n-butanol fraction of Emblica officinalis extracts. Antiproliferative effects of pyrogallol were therefore determined on human tumor cell lines thus identifying pyrogallol as an active component of Emblica officinalis extracts. PMID:12063567

Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Martello, Dino; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Jabbar, Shaila; Choudhuri, Mohammad Shahabuddin Kabir; Datta, Bidduyt Kanti; Gambari, Roberto

2002-07-01

3

Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India.  

PubMed

In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal; Joshi, S R

2012-03-01

4

Roles of Emblica officinalis in Medicine - A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emblica officinalis (Amla) are widely used in the Indian system of medicine and believed to increase defense against diseases. This article discuses and summarizes important medicinal values of Emblica officinalis (EO). In this communication, we reviewed the applications of EO in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart disease, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. The use of EO as antioxidant, immunomodulatory,

K. H. Khan

2009-01-01

5

Protective effects of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. in cyclophosphamide-treated mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs in spite of its toxic side effects including immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity and a host of others. The present study was undertaken to assess the protective effects of total aqueous extract of a medicinal plant, Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) in mice treated with CP. These protective effects were studied

R. Haque; B. Bin-Hafeez; I. Ahmad; S. Parvez; S. Pandey; S. Raisuddin

2001-01-01

6

Comparative antimicrobial activities of Emblica officinalis and Ocimum sanctum.  

PubMed

The aqueous and successive extracts of the fruit pulp of Emblica officinalis and fresh leaves and stems of Ocimum sanctum were prepared and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether,chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol were prepared by successive solvent extraction method and aqueous extract by maceration process and screened for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, gram negative bacteria E.coli and fungal strains of Candida species by using agar cup plate method. The extracts showed different degree of activity against pathogenic microbes. The results obtained were compared with standard drugs Amoxicillin (10?g) and Amphotericin B(10?g). The methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis was found to be more effective than the leaf and stem extracts of Ocimum sanctum in inhibiting all the microbial strains. PMID:22557261

Vijayalakshmi, S; Arunkumar, V; Anju, D; Gunasundari, P; Moorthy, P; Chandrasekharan, A K

2007-10-01

7

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica—effectiveness for dyslipidemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica.

L Anila; N. R Vijayalakshmi

2002-01-01

8

Protective effect of Emblica officinalis (amla) on isoproterenol-induced cardiotoxicity in rats.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant reputed for its dietary and therapeutic uses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective role of E. officinalis against isoproterenol (ISP)-induced cardiotoxicity in rats and elucidate the possible mechanism involved. Rats were administered E. officinalis (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) or vehicle (normal saline) for 30 days, with concurrent subcutaneous injections of ISP (85 mg/kg, at 24 h interval) on 29th and 30th day. ISP-induced cardiac dysfunction as evidenced by decreased mean arterial pressure, heart rate, contractility (+LVdP/dt) and relaxation (-LVdP/dt) along with increased left ventricular end diastolic pressure. ISP significantly (p < 0.05) decreased antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and myocyte-injury-specific marker enzymes, creatine phosphokinase-MB and lactate dehydrogenase in heart. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of reduced glutathione and increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances along with histopathological alteration has further indicated the oxidative damage of myocardium. However, pretreatment with E. officinalis exhibited restoration of hemodynamic and left ventricular function along with significant preservation of antioxidants, myocytes-injury-specific marker enzymes and significant inhibition of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, histopathological salvage of myocardium reconfirmed the protective effects of E. officinalis. Results of the present study demonstrate cardioprotective potential of E. officinalis attributed to its potent antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity as evidenced by favorable improvement in hemodynamic, contractile function and tissue antioxidant status. PMID:22033422

Ojha, Shreesh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Kumari, Santosh; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2012-06-01

9

Emblica officinalis Gaertn and serum cholesterol level in experimental rabbits.  

PubMed Central

Twelve albino rabbits of either sex weighing 1.0-1.25 kg were fed a standard laboratory diet of green grass and sattu (roasted Bengal gram). After a 2-week run-in period their serum cholesterol levels were estimated. All animals were now fed 0.5 g cholesterol and 1.0 g clarified butter daily and were not divided into 3 groups of 4 animals each. While all received the standard cholesterol-rich diet, Group A animals received no additional substances, animals in Group B were each fed 10 mg vitamin C daily, while those in Group C were each given 1.0 g fresh Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn). Mean serum cholesterol levels in all three groups rose to significantly higher levels by the end of the second week. There was a further rise by the end of the third and fourth weeks in Groups A and B. However, animals in Group C (i.e. those given Amla) showed significantly lower mean serum cholesterol levels at the end of the second week than their counterparts in Groups A and B. At the end of the third and fourth weeks the differences were even more pronounced.

Mishra, M.; Pathak, U. N.; Khan, A. B.

1981-01-01

10

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities. PMID:24967413

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

11

Dietary Intake of Curcuma longa and Emblica officinalis Increases Life Span in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Intake of food and nutrition plays a major role in affecting aging process and longevity. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the ageing process are still unclear. To this respect, diet has been considered to be a determinant of ageing process. In order to better illustrate this, we used Drosophila melanogaster as a model and fed them orally with different concentrations of two commonly used Indian medicinal plant products, Curcuma longa (rhizome) and Emblica officinalis (fruit). The results revealed significant increase in life span of Drosophila flies on exposure to both the plant products, more efficiently by C. Longa than by E. officinalis. In order to understand whether the increase in lifespan was due to high-antioxidant properties of these medicinal plants, we performed enzymatic assays to assess the SOD and catalase activities in case of both treated and control Drosophila flies. Interestingly, the results support the free radical theory of aging as both these plant derivatives show high reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activities.

Rawal, Shilpa; Singh, Pavneet; Gupta, Ayush; Mohanty, Sujata

2014-01-01

12

Effect of drying methods on nutritional composition of dehydrated aonla fruit ( Emblica officinalis Garten) during storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla fruit (Emblica officinalis Garten) cv. Chakaiya was dried using four different methods viz., osmo-air drying, direct sun drying, indirect solar drying and oven drying. The osmo-air drying method was found to be the best method for drying of aonla because of better retention of nutrients like ascorbic acid and sugars. The level of antinutrients like tannins was also found

Pragati; S. S. Dhawan

2003-01-01

13

Antioxidant action of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis in hypercholesterolemic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oral administration of flavonoids from Mangifera indica and Emblica officinalis at a dose of 10 mg kg?1 body weight day?1 showed significant antioxidant action in cholesterol-fed experimental rats. The antioxidant activity of flavonoids was investigated on the basis of their effects on the activities of oxidative free radical scavenging enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase,

L. Anila; N. R. Vijayalakshmi

2003-01-01

14

Emblica officinalis Garten fruits extract ameliorates reproductive injury and oxidative testicular toxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in male rats.  

PubMed

Organophosphate pesticides have destroying properties on male reproduction and chlorpyrifos adversely affects the male reproductive system. Emblica offcinalis Garten plays a vital role to challenge many diseases in human body. We investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the male reproductive system of adult rats (Wistar Strain) exposed to widely used organophosphate pesticide, Chlorpyrifos, and tried to establish the ameliorative properties of Emblica officinalis Garten with respect to reproductive reconstruction in them. Rats were divided into 2 groups, control group and experimental group, and the experimental group was divided into 3 groups (G1-G3). All the groups had 5 rats each. Control group received water, experimental group, G1, received 20 mg/kg bw/day Emblica officinalis Garten, G2 received 12 mg/kg bw/day chlorpyrifos and G3 received 12 mg chlorpyrifos with 20 mg Emblica officinalis Garten /kg bw/day. Treatment was done orally from 30 days. Thereafter body weight, male reproductive organs weight, sperm count, sperm morphology, ACP, ALP, total protein, uric acid and testis and serum testosterone level were determined using standard methods. The changes recorded are indicative of infertility in male rats because of chlorpyrifos exposure. When the subjects were treated with Emblica officinalis Garten in conjunction with chlorpyrifos, these parameters exhibited recovery and when treated with Emblica officinalis Garten alone, these parameters were more or less near to the control group. This highlights the debilitating effect of chlorpyrifos and scavenging property of Emblica officinalis Garten. PMID:24255841

Dutta, Abir Lal; Sahu, Chitta Ranjan

2013-01-01

15

Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer's yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, carbohydrates and amino acids, which may be responsible for anti-pyretic and analgesic activities. PMID:15374611

Perianayagam, James B; Sharma, S K; Joseph, Aney; Christina, A J M

2004-11-01

16

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica-effectiveness for dyslipidemia.  

PubMed

Flavonoids from Emblica officinalis and Mangifera indica effectively reduce lipid levels in serum and tissues of rats induced hyperlipidemia. Hepatic HMG CoA reductase activity was significantly inhibited in rats fed E. officinalis flavonoids. But increase of this enzyme was observed in rats administered M. indica flavonoids. LCAT showed elevated levels in rats fed flavonoids from E. officinalis and M. indica. The degradation and elimination of cholesterol was highly enhanced in both the groups. In E. officinalis, the mechanism of hypolipidemic action is by the concerted action of inhibition of synthesis and enhancement of degradation. In the other group (M. indica) inhibition of cholesterogenesis was not encountered but highly significant degradation of cholesterol was noted, which may be the pivotal factor for hypolipidemic activity in this case. Though the mechanisms differ in the two cases, the net effect is to lower lipid levels. PMID:11744299

Anila, L; Vijayalakshmi, N R

2002-01-01

17

Evaluation of antioxidant profile and activity of amalaki (Emblica officinalis) , spirulina and wheat grass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of amalki (Emblica officinalis), spirulina and wheatgrass were prepared and analyzed for antioxidant\\u000a vitamin content (vitamin C and E), total phenolic compounds. Antioxidant status, reducing power and effect on glutathione\\u000a S-transferase (GST) activity were evaluated in vitro. Vitamin C content of crude amalaki powder was found to be 5.38 mg\\/g,\\u000a while very less amount 0.22 mg\\/g

Vasudha Shukla; Manish Vashistha; Som Nath Singh

2009-01-01

18

The isolation and characterization of ?-glucogallin as a novel aldose reductase inhibitor from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is recognized as a leading cause of new cases of blindness. The prevalence of diabetic eye disease is expected to continue to increase worldwide as a result of the dramatic increase in the number of people with diabetes. At present, there is no medical treatment to delay or prevent the onset and progression of cataract or retinopathy, the most common causes of vision loss in diabetics. The plant Emblica officinalis (gooseberry) has been used for thousands of years as a traditional Indian Ayurvedic preparation for the treatment of diabetes in humans. Extracts from this plant have been shown to be efficacious against the progression of cataract in a diabetic rat model. Aldose reductase (ALR2) is implicated in the development of secondary complications of diabetes including cataract and, therefore, has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic disease. Herein, we present the bioassay-guided isolation and structure elucidation of 1-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose (?-glucogallin), a major component from the fruit of the gooseberry that displays selective as well as relatively potent inhibition (IC(50) = 17 µM) of AKR1B1 in vitro. Molecular modeling demonstrates that this inhibitor is able to favorably bind in the active site. Further, we show that ?-glucogallin effectively inhibits sorbitol accumulation by 73% at 30 µM under hyperglycemic conditions in an ex-vivo organ culture model of lenses excised from transgenic mice overexpressing human ALR2 in the lens. This study supports the continued development of natural products such as ?-glucogallin as therapeutic leads in the development of novel therapies to treat diabetic complications such as cataract. PMID:22485126

Puppala, Muthenna; Ponder, Jessica; Suryanarayana, Palla; Reddy, Geereddy Bhanuprakash; Petrash, J Mark; LaBarbera, Daniel V

2012-01-01

19

Pyrogallol, an active compound from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis, regulates expression of pro-inflammatory genes in bronchial epithelial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most relevant cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is the lung pathology characterized by chronic infection and inflammation sustained mainly by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). Innovative pharmacological approaches to control the excessive inflammatory process in the lung of CF patients are thought to be beneficial to reduce the extensive airway tissue damage. Medicinal plants from

Elena Nicolis; Ilaria Lampronti; Maria Cristina Dechecchi; Monica Borgatti; Anna Tamanini; Nicoletta Bianchi; Valentino Bezzerri; Irene Mancini; Maria Grazia Giri; Paolo Rizzotti; Roberto Gambari; Giulio Cabrini

2008-01-01

20

The antiinflammatory potential of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis L. in rat.  

PubMed

Antiinflammatory effects of phenolic compounds from Emblica officinalis were evaluated in carrageenan and cotton pellet induced acute and chronic inflammatory animal model. Fractions of E. officinalis containing free (FPEO) and bounded (BPEO) phenolic compounds were assessed by HPLC technique. The free and bound phenolic compounds were studied for their acute and chronic antiinflammatory activity at dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg. The carrageenan induced acute inflammation was assessed by measuring rat paw volume at different time of intervals. Further, cotton pellet induced chronic inflammation was assessed by granulomatous tissue mass estimation along with the estimation of tissue biomarker changes (i.e. lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and plasma extravasation). The results indicated that in both acute and chronic inflammation, FPEO and BPEO show reduction in the inflammation, but significant effects was observed only at high doses of both fractions which was comparable to diclofenac treated group. In conclusion, phenolic compounds of E. officinalis may serve as potential herbal candidate for amelioration of acute and chronic inflammation due to their modulatory action of free radicals. PMID:20596897

Muthuraman, Arunachalam; Sood, Shailja; Singla, Sumeet Kumar

2011-12-01

21

Instrumental neutron activation analysis of Emblica officinalis, Terminalia belerica and Terminalia chebula for trace element efficacy and safety.  

PubMed

To assess the efficacy and safety, essential (Cl, Co, Cr, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic (As, Br, Hg, Sb,) and other elements (Ba, Ce, Cs, Eu, Rb, Sc) were determined in Emblica officinalis (EO), Terminalia belerica (TB) and Terminalia chebula (TC) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. These herbs contain K as a major element, while Co, Cr and Na in EO, Fe, K and Mn in TB and Cl and Zn in TC are the highest. PMID:23608598

Waheed, S; Fatima, I

2013-07-01

22

Studies on effects of Emblica officinalis (Amla) on oxidative stress and cholinergic function in scopolamine induced amnesia in mice.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla, is an important medicinal plant of India. Its fruits have potent antioxidant activity due to the presence of tannoids, tannins, vitamin C and flavonoids. The aim of this study was to investigate the beneficial effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of the fruits of Emblica officinalis (EO) on memory impairment in Swiss albino mice. Scopolamine (1 mg kg(-1), i.p)was administered to induce amnesia and the memory was evaluated by using elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance tests. Piracetam (200 mg kg(-1), i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. The EO extract was administered intraperitoneally in four graded doses (150, 300, 450 and 600 mg kg(-1)) for 7 consecutive days to different groups of mice. The mice were sacrificed on the 8th day following assessment of memory. The brain malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) as well as acetylcholinesterase (AchE)) activity was determined. It was observed that EO extract reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine. The mean transfer latency and retention latency in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group vs the vehicle treated scopolamine group was 13.46 sec (p<0.001) and 134.4 sec (p<0.001) vs 23.99 sec and 44.55 sec, respectively. EO extract treatment also significantly (p<0.001) ameliorated the oxidative stress induced by scopolamine administration. The mice brain MDA and GSH levels in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group vs the scopolamine group were 29.95 nmol g(-1) of wet tissue and 51.87 microg g(-1) tissue vs 55.22 nmol g(-1) of wet tissue and 28.33 microg g(-1) tissue, respectively. Further, EO extract (300, 450 and 600 mg kg(-1), i.p) significantly (p<0.001) reversed the rise in brain acetyl cholinesterase (AchE) level induced by scopolamine. The mice brain Ach E levels in the EO extract 600 mg kg(-1) group as compared to the scopolamine group was 70.23 vs 151.49 U mg(-1) protein(-1), respectively. These results suggestthat EO possesses memory enhancing, antioxidant and anti-cholinesterase activity. It may be useful for the treament of cognitive impairments induced by cholinergic dysfunction. Its potential in the management of dementia and Azheimer disease needs to be further explored. PMID:23033650

Golechha, Mahaveer; Bhatia, Jagriti; Arya, Dharmveer Singh

2012-01-01

23

Alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rat liver microsomes: Protective effect of Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

The protective effect of Emblica officinalis fruit extract (EFE) against alcohol-induced oxidative damage in liver microsomes was investigated in rats. EFE (250mg/kg b.wt/day) and alcohol (5g/kg b.wt/day, 20%, w/v) were administered orally to animals for 60 days. Alcohol administration significantly increased lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyls with decreased sulfhydryl groups in microsomes, which were significantly restored to normal levels in EFE and alcohol co-administered rats. Alcohol administration also markedly decreased the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) in the liver microsomes, which were prevented with EFE administration. Further, alcohol administration significantly increased the activities of cytochrome P-450, Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and also membrane fluidity. But, administration of EFE along with alcohol restored the all above enzyme activities and membrane fluidity to normal level. Thus, EFE showed protective effects against alcohol-induced oxidative damage by possibly reducing the rate of lipid peroxidation and restoring the various membrane bound and antioxidant enzyme activities to normal levels, and also by protecting the membrane integrity in rat liver microsomes. In conclusion, the polyphenolic compounds including flavonoid and tannoid compounds present in EFE might be playing a major role against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. PMID:24393670

Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Hymavathi, Reddyvari; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Varadacharyulu, N Ch

2014-06-01

24

Anti-diabetic effects of the Indian indigenous fruit Emblica officinalis Gaertn: active constituents and modes of action.  

PubMed

Dietary constituents are shown to play an important role in the development of diabetes. Studies have shown that the fruits of Emblica officinalis Gaertn or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, colloquially known as Indian gooseberry or amla and/or some of its important constituents (including gallic acid, gallotanin, ellagic acid and corilagin), possess anti-diabetic effects through their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. Amla has also been reported to prevent/reduce hyperglycemia, cardiac complications, diabetic nephropathy, neuropathy, cataractogenesis and protein wasting. However, clinical trial data with human subjects are limited and preliminary. For the first time this review summarizes the anti-diabetic affects of amla and also addresses the mechanisms mediating these properties. PMID:24577384

D'souza, Jason Jerome; D'souza, Prema Pancy; Fazal, Farhan; Kumar, Ashish; Bhat, Harshith P; Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath

2014-04-01

25

Comparative study of the antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging properties in the extracts of the fruits of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been implicated in several diseases, and hence natural antioxidants have significant importance in human health. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and reactive oxygen species scavenging activities of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica and Emblica officinalis fruit extracts. METHODS: The 70% methanol extracts were studied

Bibhabasu Hazra; Rhitajit Sarkar; Santanu Biswas; Nripendranath Mandal

2010-01-01

26

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GALLIC ACID, ELLAGIC ACID AND ASCORBIC ACID IN EMBLICA OFFICINALIS AND IN UNANI POLYHERBAL FORMULATIONS BY VALIDATED HPLC METHOD  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple rapid and economic simultaneous HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantification of Gallic acid (GA), Ellagic acid (EA) and Ascorbic acid (AA), in Emblica officinalis Linn. (aamla) and in two poly herbal Unani formulations, containing aamla as an ingredient. Separation of was achieved on a reverse phase C18 (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) column with mobile phase 0.1% orthophosphoric

Mhaveer Singh; Y. T. Kamal; E. T. Tamboli; Rabea Parveen; Khalid M. Siddiqui; S. M. A. Zaidi; Sayeed Ahmad

2012-01-01

27

Emblica officinalis corrects functional, biochemical and molecular deficits in experimental diabetic neuropathy by targeting the oxido-nitrosative stress mediated inflammatory cascade.  

PubMed

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus which affects more than 50% of diabetic patients. Diabetic neuropathic pain is amongst the most difficult types of pain to treat mainly due to the lack of understanding of its etiology and inadequate relief with available drug therapy. The present study targeted oxidative stress mediated nerve damage in diabetic rats using an aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis, a potent natural antioxidant. Diabetic rats exhibited significantly decreased tail-flick latency in the tail-immersion test (thermal hyperalgesia) and decreased paw withdrawal threshold in both Randall-Selitto (mechanical hyperalgesia) and von-Frey hair test (mechanical allodynia). A decrease in the nociceptive threshold was accompanied by significantly increased oxidative stress, nitrite levels and cytokines (TNF-?, IL-1? and TGF-?1) both in the serum and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats. Treatment with the Emblica officinalis aqueous extract (250, 500 and 1000?mg/kg/day) significantly attenuated all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular alterations in a dose-dependent manner. The major finding of the study is that insulin alone corrected the hyperglycemia and partially reversed the pain response in diabetic rats. However, combination with Emblica officinalis extract not only attenuated the diabetic condition but also reversed neuropathic pain through modulation of oxidative-nitrosative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:21394805

Tiwari, Vinod; Kuhad, Anurag; Chopra, Kanwaljit

2011-10-01

28

Amelioration of iron overload-induced liver toxicity by a potent antioxidant and iron chelator, Emblica officinalis Gaertn.  

PubMed

In liver, the major site of iron storage, iron overload is associated with oxidative damage of protein, lipid, and DNA and causes protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and rupture of hepatocytes, leading to cell death. Serum ferritin and liver iron content are the main forecasters of moderate to severe iron overload in the liver. The sequels of excess iron deposition in the liver are fibrosis and enhanced levels of serum enzymes and bilirubin markers. Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract was found efficient in lessening intraperitoneally injected iron dextran-induced liver toxicity in Swiss albino mice. Mice administered with different doses of 70% methanol extract of EO (50, 100, and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight) showed significant decrease in liver iron, serum ferritin, and serum enzyme levels, along with the decrease in lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and collagen content. The activity was further supported by its considerable iron chelation with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 70.24 ± 2.74 ?g ml(-1) and the protection on ferrous ion-mediated DNA breakdown with 50% protection ([P]50) of 1.04 ± 0.01 ?g ml(-1). Simultaneously, the extract effectively induced the antioxidant enzyme levels and also exhibited the potential activity of reductive release of ferritin iron. These findings suggest that the EO extract may be used as a potent drug for the treatment of pathological sequences arisen in the iron overload-induced liver damage. PMID:23524878

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Hazra, Bibhabasu; Mandal, Nripendranath

2013-03-22

29

Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanoparticles prepared using precipitation polymerisation method for selective extraction of gallic acid from Emblica officinalis.  

PubMed

This paper reports the preparation of gallic acid (GA) molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) by the precipitation polymerisation and highlights the effect of porogen on particle size and specific molecular recognition properties. MIP, M-100 prepared in the porogen acetonitrile and MIP, M-75 prepared in a mixture of acetonitrile-toluene (75:25 v/v), resulted in the formation of microspheres with approximately 4?m particle size and surface area of 96.73m(2)g(-1) and nanoparticles (0.8-1000nm) and a surface area of 345.9m(2)g(-1), respectively. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm study revealed that M-75 has comparatively higher number of binding sites which are homogenous and has higher affinity for GA. The MIPs selectively recognised GA in presence of its structural analogues. Pure GA with percent recovery of 75 (±1.6) and 83.4 (±2.2) was obtained from the aqueous extract of Emblica officinalis by M-100 and M-75, respectively and hot water at 60°C served as the eluting solvent. PMID:24176358

Pardeshi, Sushma; Dhodapkar, Rita; Kumar, Anupama

2014-03-01

30

Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens  

PubMed Central

The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis.

Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

2014-01-01

31

Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters.  

PubMed

Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Rajendra S; Tirgar, Pravin R; Jadav, Pinakin D

2013-10-01

32

Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract.  

PubMed Central

Dietary supplementation with extract of fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (a rich source of vitamin C) to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene. Age-matched Swiss albino mice were fed by gavaging the fruit extract daily for 28 days. From day 9, one dose of the carcinogen was given on alternate days up to a total of eight doses. On day 29, all mice were transferred to normal diet. Control sets received the extract alone, the carcinogen alone and olive oil alone. All mice were sacrificed at 12 weeks and 14 weeks after the end of the experiment. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow after the usual colchicine-hypotonic-fixative-air drying-Giemsa staining schedule. Cytogenetic end points screened were the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of damaged cells induced. The cytotoxic effects were significantly lower in the mice given the fruit extract with the carcinogen than in those given the carcinogen alone.

Nandi, P.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A.

1997-01-01

33

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extract inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced procoagulant and pro-inflammatory factors in cultured vascular endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) has been used for many centuries in traditional Indian Ayurvedic formulations for the prevention and treatment of many inflammatory diseases. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant properties of amla fruit extract. The amla fruit extract potentially and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tissue factor expression and von Willebrand factor release in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations (1-100 ?g/ml). In a leucocyte adhesion model of inflammation, it also significantly decreased LPS-induced adhesion of human monocytic cells (THP-1) to the HUVEC, as well as reduced the expression of endothelial-leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin) in the target cells. In addition, the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects were evaluated in a LPS-induced endotoxaemia rat model. Oral administration of the amla fruit extract (50 mg/kg body weight) significantly decreased the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-6 in serum. These results suggest that amla fruit extract may be an effective anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory agent. PMID:23742702

Rao, Theertham Pradyumna; Okamoto, Takayuki; Akita, Nobuyuki; Hayashi, Tatsuya; Kato-Yasuda, Naomi; Suzuki, Koji

2013-12-01

34

Effect of Amla fruit (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) on blood glucose and lipid profile of normal subjects and type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The present study evaluated the anti-hyperglycemic and lipid-lowering properties of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit in normal and diabetic human volunteers. The results indicated a significant decrease (P <  0.05) in fasting and 2-h post-prandial blood glucose levels on the 21st day in both normal and diabetic subjects receiving 1, 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day as compared with their baseline values. Significant (P <  0.05) decreases were also observed in total cholesterol and triglycerides in both normal and diabetic volunteers on day 21 that were given either 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder per day. However, diabetic volunteers receiving only 3 g E. officinalis powder exhibited a significant (P <  0.05) decrease in total lipids on day 21. Both normal and diabetic volunteers receiving 2 or 3 g E. officinalis powder significantly (P <  0.05) improved high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lowered low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels. PMID:21495900

Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Ramzan, Ayesha; Ali, Amanat; Ahmad, Maqsood

2011-09-01

35

Emblica officinalis exerts antihypertensive effect in a rat model of DOCA-salt-induced hypertension: role of (p) eNOS, NO and oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Emblica officinalis (EO) has antioxidant properties that could improve redox-sensitive vascular, cardiac and renal changes associated with deoxycorticosterone acetate/1% NaCl high salt (DOCA/HS)-induced hypertension. We determined whether hydroalcoholic lyophilized extract of EO may influence DOCA/HS-induced hypertension by modulating activity of (p) eNOS and endogenous antioxidants. Hypertension was induced in rats by DOCA-salt (20 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly for 5 weeks and replacing drinking water with 1% NaCl solution. These rats received cotreatment of different doses of EO (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg/day) for 5 weeks. EO significantly decreased arterial blood pressure and heart rate along with cardiac and renal hypertrophy in a dose-dependent fashion as compared to DOCA control rats. Increased TBARS and decreased endogenous antioxidants including GSH, SOD and GSHPx activity in serum, heart and kidney tissues of hypertensive rats were also normalized. Furthermore, this antihypertensive activity of EO was also linked with increased serum NO, K(+) levels and decreased Na(+) levels. Moreover, EO robustly increased activated eNOS expression in heart. Our results demonstrate that EO reduces oxidative stress, prevents development and progression of hypertension as well as cardiac and renal hypertrophy in DOCA/HS-induced hypertension via modulation of activated eNOS, endogenous antioxidants, serum NO and electrolyte levels. PMID:21748534

Bhatia, Jagriti; Tabassum, Fauzia; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Bharti, Saurabh; Golechha, Mahaveer; Joshi, Sujata; Sayeed Akhatar, Md; Srivastava, Abhay Krishna; Arya, Dharamvir Singh

2011-09-01

36

Arsenic-Induced Hepatic Toxicity and Its Attenuation by Fruit Extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in Mice.  

PubMed

Arsenic a metalloid and environmental contaminated has been found to be associated with public health problems in the affected areas. It is naturally occurred in groundwater and its accumulation in plant and animals leads to toxicity in several tissues most notably hepatic organ. Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) in mice exhibited increased arsenic and Zn levels in hepatocytes associated with enhanced oxidative stress in hepatocytes while there were no significantly changes were observed in Cu level. An increase in the lipid peroxidation and decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase were observed in arsenic treated mice as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure in mice also caused a significant change in serum biomarkers in the SGOT, SGPT and creatinine as compared to the controls. There were no significant changes in the serum levels of total protein in these mice. Co-administration of arsenic and fruit extract of amla (500 mg/kg body weight/day for 30 days) caused a significant reduction of arsenic transference associated with significantly decreases hepatic arsenic levels and balanced the antioxidant enzyme and levels of serum hepatic enzymes like SGOT and SGPT. The results of the present study clearly demonstrate the antioxidant property of amla that could be responsible for its protective efficacy in arsenic induced hepatic toxicity. PMID:24478546

Singh, Manish K; Dwivedi, Shailendra; Yadav, Suraj S; Sharma, Praveen; Khattri, Sanjay

2014-01-01

37

Emblica officinalis extract induces autophagy and inhibits human ovarian cancer cell proliferation, angiogenesis, growth of mouse xenograft tumors.  

PubMed

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen - CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K

2013-01-01

38

Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors  

PubMed Central

Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1? expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC.

De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

2013-01-01

39

Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.  

PubMed

The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

Nurzy?ska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

2014-05-01

40

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

41

Antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts having hepatoprotective effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of hot water and ethanolic extracts of six plant extracts, utilized in Pakistan for the cure of liver damage, were studied. The extracts of Acacia arabica, Nymphaea lotus, Sphareranthus hirtus, Emblica officinalis, Cinchorium intybus and Cardus marianum were tested in vitro against seven bacterial species and two fungal species by well-diffusion method and micro- dilution methods. The

Ammara Hassan; Salma Rahman; Farah Deeba; Shahid Mahmud

42

Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization  

PubMed Central

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds.

Gallo, Loreana; Ramirez-Rigo, Maria Veronica; Pina, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucala, Veronica

2012-01-01

43

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds,\\u000a the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds,\\u000a two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL),\\u000a were investigated in suspension cultures of

Corinna Weitzel; Maike Petersen

2010-01-01

44

Biodeterioration in Emblica based Medicinal products and their Aflatoxin contamination.  

PubMed

In the present investigation, Emblica officinalis Gaerth. Syn Phyllanthus emblica linn. has been selected on account of its large scale use in manufacture of indigenous drugs. Among the various fungal, species, Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant and frequent species in most of food stuffs studied. The total population of Aspergillus. flavus was recorded in range of 20.30 × 10(3) - 89.50 × 10(3) colonies/g in dried Aonla, 8.00 - 42.25 × 10(3) colonies/g in dried Aonla, 8.00 - 42.25 × 10(3) colonies/g Triphala, 1.25 × 10(3) - 19.83 × 10(3) colonies/g in hair oil and 1.20- 27.00 × 10(3) colonies/g in Aonla syrup. Minimum 26.66% percentage incidence of aflatoxin contamination was recorded in samples where the frequency of Aspergillus flavus was 91.50%. PMID:22557430

Choudhary, G P

2011-01-01

45

Biodeterioration in Emblica based Medicinal products and their Aflatoxin contamination  

PubMed Central

In the present investigation, Emblica officinalis Gaerth. Syn Phyllanthus emblica linn. has been selected on account of its large scale use in manufacture of indigenous drugs. Among the various fungal, species, Aspergillus flavus was the most dominant and frequent species in most of food stuffs studied. The total population of Aspergillus. flavus was recorded in range of 20.30 × 103 - 89.50 × 103 colonies/g in dried Aonla, 8.00 - 42.25 × 103 colonies/g in dried Aonla, 8.00 - 42.25 × 103 colonies/g Triphala, 1.25 × 103 - 19.83 × 103 colonies/g in hair oil and 1.20- 27.00 × 103 colonies/g in Aonla syrup. Minimum 26.66% percentage incidence of aflatoxin contamination was recorded in samples where the frequency of Aspergillus flavus was 91.50%.

Choudhary, G.P.

2011-01-01

46

Cadmium-induced Oxidative Stress and Evaluation of Embilica Officinalis and Stressroak in Broilers  

PubMed Central

Cadmium (Cd) toxicity was studied in broilers, and efficacy of Emblica officinalis (500 ppm in feed), vitamin E (300 ppm in feed), and stressroak (1 g/kg feed) were evaluated for prophylactic and therapeutic management of Cd toxicity. One-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into eight groups consisting of 10 chicks in each. Groups 1 and 2 were maintained as plain control and Cd (100 ppm in feed) toxic control (for six weeks). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were maintained on a combination of Cd (100 ppm in feed) and Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak for six weeks. Groups 6, 7, and 8 were maintained with Cd for the first four weeks and on Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak during the subsequent two weeks without Cd. Body weights, feed consumed, Feed conversion ratio (FCR), and glulathione (GSH) were significantly (P<0.05) decreased, whereas the activities of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and Superoxide dismutase (SOD)) and concentration of Thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) were significantly (P<0.05) increased in toxic control group. After treatment with Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in groups 6, 7, and 8 during last two weeks and discontinuation of Cd, the parameters revealed improvement. From this study, it is concluded that Cd induces toxicity by oxidative stress, and supplementing Emblica officinalis, vitamin E, and stressroak in feed is useful in preventing and treating the toxicity.

Swapna, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala; Reddy, A. Rajasekhar

2010-01-01

47

Effect of propagation method, plant density, and age on lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) herb and oil yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of cultivation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) in the Thrace region of north?western Turkey, which has a rich flora with many medicinal and aromatic plants. The study evaluated two propagation methods (cuttings with roots and seedlings) and three row spacings (40 × 20 cm, 40 × 30 cm, and 50

C. Saglam; I. Atakisi; H. Turhan; S. Kaba; F. Arslanoglu; F. Onemli

2004-01-01

48

Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2010-08-01

49

Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.  

PubMed

The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 ?g/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

2013-12-01

50

Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

2002-06-01

51

Thesinine-4?- O-?- d-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4?-O-?-d-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of dried seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

Martina Herrmann; Holger Joppe; Gerhard Schmaus

2002-01-01

52

Variations in water status, gas exchange, and growth in Rosmarinus officinalis plants infected with Glomus deserticola under drought conditions.  

PubMed

The influence of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus deserticola on the water relations, gas exchange parameters, and vegetative growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water stress was studied. Plants were grown with and without the mycorrhizal fungus under glasshouse conditions and subjected to water stress by withholding irrigation water for 14 days. Along the experimental period, a significant effect of the fungus on the plant growth was observed, and under water stress, mycorrhizal plants showed an increase in aerial and root biomass compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. The decrease in the soil water potential generated a decrease in leaf water potential (psi(l)) and stem water potential (psi(x)) of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants, with this decrease being lower in mycorrhizal water-stressed plants. Mycorrhization also had positive effects on the root hydraulic conductivity (Lp) of water stressed plants. Furthermore, mycorrhizal-stressed plants showed a more important decrease in osmotic potential at full turgor (psi(os)) than did non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants, indicating the capacity of osmotic adjustment. Mycorrhizal infection also improved photosynthetic activity (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) in plants under water stress compared to the non-mycorrhizal-stressed plants. A similar behaviour was observed in the photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) with this parameter being lower in non-mycorrhizal plants than in mycorrhizal plants under water stress conditions. In the same way, under water restriction, mycorrhizal plants showed higher values of chlorophyll content than did non-mycorrhizal plants. Thus, the results obtained indicated that the mycorrhizal symbiosis had a beneficial effect on the water status and growth of Rosmarinus officinalis plants under water-stress conditions. PMID:15266714

Sánchez-Blanco, Ma Jesús; Ferrández, Trinitario; Morales, Ma Angeles; Morte, Asunción; Alarcón, Juan José

2004-06-01

53

Development and application of RAPD-SCAR marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN.  

PubMed

Correct genotype identification of medicinal plant material remains important for botanical drug industry. Limitations of chemical and morphological approaches for authentication have generated need for newer methods in quality control of botanicals. The present study was carried out to develop DNA based marker for identification of Phyllanthus emblica LINN. A putative marker (1.1 kb) specific for P. emblica was identified by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. Sequence Characterized Amplified Region (SCAR) marker was developed from the RAPD amplicon. The SCAR marker was found useful for identification of P. emblica in its commercial samples and Triphalachurna, a multi-component Ayurvedic formulation. PMID:17077537

Dnyaneshwar, Warude; Preeti, Chavan; Kalpana, Joshi; Bhushan, Patwardhan

2006-11-01

54

DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm. PMID:22614273

Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

2012-01-01

55

Effects of lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract on germination and seedling growth of six plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The n-hexane-, acetone- and water-soluble fractions obtained from an aqueous acetone extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) shoots inhibited the germination and the growth of roots and shoots of cockscomb (Amaranthus caudatus L.), cress (Lepidium sativum L.), crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis L.), timothy (Phleum pratense L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.). The inhibitory activity of the

Hisashi Kato-Noguchi

2001-01-01

56

Effect of irrigation frequency and planting density on herbage biomass and oil production of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris) and hyssop ( Hyssopus officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was undertaken to determine the herbage biomass and oil production of thyme (Thymus vulgaris Linn.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis Linn.) in 2003 and 2004 in the semi-arid region of Khorasan in Iran. The experiment was a split plot with three irrigation intervals as main plots and three planting densities as subplots, all of which replicated three times. Irrigation

H. R. Khazaie; F. Nadjafi; M. Bannayan

2008-01-01

57

The interplay of pollination, costs of reproduction and plant size in maternal fertility limitation in perennial Paeonia officinalis.  

PubMed

Although several factors can limit female fertility in perennial plants, rarely have they been jointly studied in a single species over several years. In this study we experimentally manipulate seed production and simultaneously analyse the potential contribution of pollen limitation, costs of reproduction and plant size to variation in seed output over a 3-year period in the perennial herb Paeonia officinalis, in southern France. Since this rare species is threatened by forest closure in many sites we also examine the causes of female fertility variation in relation to habitat closure (open habitat vs. woodland). P. officinalis has a partial self-incompatibility system and only very low ability for autonomous self pollination in the absence of pollinators. However, supplementary pollination of individual plants in three consecutive years did not significantly increase seed production above natural levels. Forest closure was associated with a decline in ovule and seed production, which again was not due to pollen limitation since supplementary pollination had no significant effect on seed set in the woodland habitat. Comparison of the maternal fertility of plants which were previously excluded from reproduction with those which were hand pollinated to maximise seed set in two previous years produced no evidence that seed production in year three is limited by costs associated with prior reproduction. Likewise, flowering probability was not related to prior seed production but was however positively related to plant size. The absence of any influence of pollen limitation or prior reproduction on seed production suggests that sub-maximal seed production in long-lived perennial herbs may be part of a size-dependent strategy that maximises life-time seed production and fitness without compromising survival. PMID:17277927

Andrieu, Emilie; Debussche, Max; Galloni, Marta; Thompson, John D

2007-06-01

58

Role of root hydrophobic barriers in salt exclusion of a mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis.  

PubMed

Salt exclusion at the roots and salt secretion in the leaves were examined in a mangrove, Avicennia officinalis. The non-secretor mangrove Bruguiera cylindrica was used for comparative study of hydrophobic barrier formation in the roots. Bypass flow was reduced when seedlings were previously treated with high salt concentration. A biseriate exodermis was detected in the salt-treated roots, along with an enhanced deposition of hydrophobic barriers in the endodermis. These barriers reduced Na(+) loading into the xylem, accounting for a 90-95% salt exclusion in A.?officinalis. Prominent barriers were found in the roots of B.?cylindrica even in the absence of salt treatment. A cytochrome?P450 gene that may regulate suberin biosynthesis was up-regulated within hours of salt treatment in A.?officinalis roots and leaves, corresponding with increased suberin deposition. X-ray microanalysis showed preferential deposition of Na(+) and Cl(-) in the root cortex compared with the stele, suggesting that the endodermis is the primary site of salt exclusion. Enhanced salt secretion and increased suberin deposition surrounding the salt glands were seen in the leaves with salt treatment. Overall, these data show that the deposition of apoplastic barriers increases resistance to bypass flow leading to efficient salt exclusion at the roots in mangroves. PMID:24417377

Krishnamurthy, Pannaga; Jyothi-Prakash, Pavithra A; Qin, Lin; He, Jie; Lin, Qingsong; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash P

2014-07-01

59

The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25–50 mg\\/kg), similar to clinically effective

Zhong-Qi Zhang; Li Yuan; Ming Yang; Zhi-Pu Luo; Yi-Min Zhao

2002-01-01

60

Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from leaves of Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

Leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica L. have been used for the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic treatment of rural populations in its growing areas in subtropical and tropical parts of China, India, Indonesia, and the Malay Peninsula. In the present study, leaves of Ph. emblica were extracted with ten different solvents (n-hexane, diethyl ether, methanol, tetrahydrofuran, acetic acid, dichloromethane, 1,4-dioxane, toluene, chloroform, and water). The inhibitory activity of the extracts against human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) and platelet functions was studied. Methanol, tetrahydrofuran, and 1,4-dioxane extracts (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited leukotriene B4-induced migration of human PMNs by 90% and N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced degranulation by 25-35%. The inhibitory activity on receptor-mediated migration and degranulation of human PMNs was associated with a high proportion of polar compounds in the extracts as assessed by normal phase thin layer chromatography. Diethyl ether extract (50 micrograms/ml) inhibited calcium ionophore A23187-induced leukotriene B4 release from human PMNs by 40%, thromboxane B2 production in platelets during blood clotting by 40% and adrenaline-induced platelet aggregation by 36%. Ellagic acid, gallic acid and rutin, all compounds isolated earlier from Ph. emblica, could not explain these inhibitory activities on PMNs or platelets by Ph. emblica extracts. These results show that the leaves of Ph. emblica have inhibitory activity on PMNs and platelets, which confirm the anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties of this plant as suggested by its use in traditional medicine. The data suggest that the plant leaves contain as yet unidentified polar compound(s) with potent inhibitory activity on PMNs and chemically different apolar molecule(s) which inhibit both prostanoid and leukotriene synthesis. PMID:9434603

Ihantola-Vormisto, A; Summanen, J; Kankaanranta, H; Vuorela, H; Asmawi, Z M; Moilanen, E

1997-12-01

61

A novel phenolic compound from Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

A new compound, mucic acid 3-O-gallate (1), was isolated from the fruit of Phyllanthus emblica L, together with 5 known compounds (2-6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, and by comparison with literature data. PMID:23738453

She, Gaimei; Cheng, Ruiyang; Sha, Lei; Xu, Yixia; Shi, Renbin; Zhang, Lanzhen; Guo, Yajian

2013-04-01

62

Effects of Phyllanthus emblica extract on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that hyperglycemia can induce endothelial dysfunction via increased oxidative stress and that it plays a central role in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Phyllanthus emblica (Emblica officinalis, amla) is known for its antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic activity. The present study compared the effects of an aqueous extract of P. emblica (highly standardized by high-performance liquid chromatography to contain low molecular weight hydrolyzable tannins, ie, emblicanin A, emblicanin B, pedunculagin, and punigluconin) versus those of atorvastatin and placebo on endothelial dysfunction and biomarkers of oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods Eligible patients were randomized to receive either P. emblica 250 mg twice daily, P. emblica 500 mg twice daily, atorvastatin 10 mg in the evening and matching placebo in the morning, or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary efficacy parameter was the change in endothelial function identified on salbutamol challenge at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Secondary efficacy parameters were changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and glutathione), high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, the lipid profile, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels. Laboratory safety parameters were measured at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Results Eighty patients completed the study. Treatment with P. emblica 250 mg, P. emblica 500 mg, or atorvastatin 10 mg produced significant reductions in the reflection index (?2.25%±1.37% to ?9.13%±2.56% versus ?2.11%±0.98% to ?10.04%±0.92% versus ?2.68%±1.13% to ?11.03%±3.93%, respectively), suggesting improvement in endothelial function after 12 weeks of treatment compared with baseline. There was a significant improvement in biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation compared with baseline and placebo. Further, the treatments significantly improved the lipid profile and HbA1c levels compared with baseline and placebo. All treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion Both atorvastatin and P. emblica significantly improved endothelial function and reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, without any significant changes in laboratory safety parameters.

Usharani, Pingali; Fatima, Nishat; Muralidhar, Nizampatnam

2013-01-01

63

Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.  

PubMed

The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

2012-01-01

64

Effects of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants on in vitro proliferation of human breast cancer cell lines and expression of estrogen receptor alpha gene.  

PubMed

In this study we determined the activity of extracts from Bangladeshi medicinal plants (Emblica officinalis, Aegle marmelos, Vernonia anthelmintica, Oroxylum indicum, Argemone mexicana) on human breast tumor cell lines. Extracts from E. officinalis and O. indicum displayed anti-proliferative activity on MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, while extracts from A. mexicana were active on MCF7 cells, exhibiting on the contrary low antiproliferative effects on MDA-MB-231 cells. Extracts from A. marmelos and V. anthelmintica were antiproliferative on both cell lines, but at higher concentrations. The accumulation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) mRNA, a marker of neoplastic status, was analysed by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The data obtained demonstrated that only extracts from E. officinalis induce an increase of ERalpha mRNA in MCF7 cells. When MDA-MB-231 cell line was employed, extracts from E. officinalis, V. anthelmintica and A. mexicana were found to be inducers of the increase of ERalpha mRNA accumulation. Since activation of ERalpha gene expression could have clinical impact, our results suggest a possible use of extracts from medicinal plants to identify compounds of possible interest in the treatment of breast cancer. PMID:14719119

Lambertini, Elisabetta; Piva, Roberta; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Lampronti, Ilaria; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Gambari, Roberto

2004-02-01

65

Bioactivities of alcohol based extracts of Phyllanthus emblica branches: antioxidation, antimelanogenesis and anti-inflammation.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica is an euphorbiaceous plant that has long been used in traditional medicines for health promotion, anti-aging and also for treatment of wide ranges of symptoms and diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the pharmacological activity of the plant branch. Alcohol based extracts of P. emblica branch were prepared in 50 % ethanolic extract by maceration (EPE) and methanolic extract by Soxhlet apparatus (MPE). EPE and MPE contained high total phenolic content and strong antioxidative activity. By HPLC analysis, gallic acid and vanillic acid are the major phenolic compounds of these extracts. Both EPE and MPE inhibited tyrosinase activity stronger than the ethanolic extract of P. emblica fruit (IC50 of 247.37 ± 18.57 and 193.75 ± 44.90 versus 4346.95 ± 166.23 ?g/ml). EPE significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of tyrosinase, and tyrosinase related proteins (TRP-1 and TRP-2) in B16 murine melanoma cells and suppressed the expression of LPS-induced pro-inflammatory genes (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-?, IL-16 and IL-6) in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells in a dose-dependent manner. These extracts significantly suppressed the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:24557876

Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn; Junlatat, Jintana

2014-07-01

66

Hepatoprotective studies on Phyllanthus emblica Linn. and quercetin.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica is a constituent of many hepatoprotective formulations available in market. 50% alcoholic extract of P. emblica and quercetin isolated from it were studied for hepatoprotective effect against country made liquor (CML) and paracetamol challenge in albino rats and mice respectively. The extract at the dose of 100 mg/100 g [corrected], po and quercetin at the dose of 15 mg/100 g, po, produced significant hepatoprotection. PMID:7558182

Gulati, R K; Agarwal, S; Agrawal, S S

1995-04-01

67

Assessment of Antioxidative, Chelating, and DNA-Protective Effects of Selected Essential Oil Components (Eugenol, Carvacrol, Thymol, Borneol, Eucalyptol) of Plants and Intact Rosmarinus officinalis Oil.  

PubMed

Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists. PMID:24955655

Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

2014-07-16

68

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism  

PubMed Central

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans.

Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

2012-01-01

69

Efficacy of E. officinalis on the cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans: a novel and alternative approach to suppress quorum-sensing mechanism.  

PubMed

The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

Hasan, Sadaf; Danishuddin, Mohd; Adil, Mohd; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K; Khan, Asad U

2012-01-01

70

Efeito cicatrizante e atividade antibacteriana da Calendula officinalis L. cultivada no Brasil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healing effect and antibacterial activity of Calendula officinalis L. cultivated in Brazil. Since ancient history medicinal properties are attributed to flowers of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae), mainly concerning its healing activity. Studies about the general activity of medicinal plants in healing wounds have been conducted without specifying in which healing phase the plant acts. In this work, the anti-inflammatory and

Patologia Geral

71

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer’s patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened

Keyvan Dastmalchi; Velimatti Ollilainen; Petri Lackman; Gustav Boije af Gennäs; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Järvinen; Jari Yli-Kauhaluoma; Raimo Hiltunen

2009-01-01

72

Neuroprotective and Neurological Properties of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective\\u000a effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a enzymes and affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on

Víctor López; Sara Martín; Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Maria Emilia Carretero; Anna K. Jäger; Maria Isabel Calvo

2009-01-01

73

The interplay of pollination, costs of reproduction and plant size in maternal fertility limitation in perennial Paeonia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although several factors can limit female fertility in perennial plants, rarely have they been jointly studied in a single\\u000a species over several years. In this study we experimentally manipulate seed production and simultaneously analyse the potential\\u000a contribution of pollen limitation, costs of reproduction and plant size to variation in seed output over a 3-year period in\\u000a the perennial herb Paeonia

Emilie Andrieu; Max Debussche; Marta Galloni; John D. Thompson

2007-01-01

74

Chondroprotective Potential of Fruit Extracts of Phyllanthus emblica in Osteoarthritis  

PubMed Central

There is a need for effective nutraceuticals for osteoarthritis care. The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica is used as a powerful rejuvenator in Ayurvedic medicine. This study measured the chondroprotective potential of P. emblica (‘Amalaki’) fruits in vitro. We used aqueous extracts of unprocessed P. emblica fruit powder (powder A), and the powder obtained after hot water extraction and drying of powder A (powder B). Chondroprotection was measured in three different assay systems. First, we tested the effects of both fruit powders on the activities of the enzymes hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2. Second, an in vitro model of cartilage degradation was set-up with explant cultures of articular knee cartilage from osteoarthritis patients. Cartilage damage was assayed by measuring glycosaminoglycan release from explants treated with/without P. emblica fruit powders. Aqueous extracts of both fruit powders significantly inhibited the activities of hyaluronidase and collagenase type 2 in vitro. Third, in the explant model of cartilage matrix damage, extracts of glucosamine sulphate and powder B (0.05 mg/ml) exhibited statistically significant, long-term chondroprotective activity in cartilage explants from 50% of the patients tested. This result is important since glucosamine sulphate is the leading nutraceutical for osteoarthritis. Powder A induced a statistically significant, short-term chondroprotective activity in cartilage explants from all of the patients tested. This is the first study to identify and quantitate new chondroprotective activities of P. emblica fruits. These data provide pilot pre-clinical evidence for the use of P. emblica fruits as a chondroprotective agent in osteoarthritis therapy.

Kulkarni, Asavari; Chandwaskar, Rucha; Harsulkar, Abhay; Patwardhan, Bhushan; Chopra, Arvind; Wagh, Ulhas V.

2008-01-01

75

Effect of blanching on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla (Emblica officinalis) shreds.  

PubMed

The effect of hot water blanching treatment on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla shreds was studied at drying air temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C with the air velocity of 1.2 m/s. The drying time decreased with the increase in air temperature and blanching. The drying process was observed in falling rate. Drying after blanching reduced the vitamin C content of aonla shreds by 69.36% whereas it decreased by 27.78% in unblanched shreds. Eight commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying behavior of aonla shreds. The Midilli model described the drying behaviour of unblanched aonla shreds at all temperatures better than other models whereas two-term model described the drying kinetics of blanched aonla shreds satisfactorily. The effective diffusivities of the unblanched and blanched aonla shreds were determined using Fick's law of diffusion. The activation energy was found to be 47.21 kJ/mol for unblanched and 43.98 kJ/mol for blanched aonla shreds. PMID:24966422

Gupta, R K; Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Pradeep; Vishwakarma, R K; Patil, R T

2014-07-01

76

Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The antioxidant properties of amla extracts and their effects on the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined in rats. Amla in the form of either the commercial enzymatic extract SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi, Japan) (20 or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a polyphenol-rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day) was given orally for 20 days to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Amla extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Amla also showed strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral administration of amla extracts to the diabetic rats slightly improved body weight gain and also significantly alleviated various oxidative stress indices of the serum of the diabetic rats. The elevated serum levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a glycosylated protein that is an indicator of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced dose-dependently in the diabetic rats fed amla. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, yet another oxidative stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were significantly reduced with amla, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in the diabetic rats were significantly improved with amla. Amla also significantly improved the serum adiponectin levels. These results form the scientific basis supporting the efficacy of amla for relieving the oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes. PMID:16176148

Rao, T P; Sakaguchi, N; Juneja, L R; Wada, E; Yokozawa, T

2005-01-01

77

Optimum extraction process of polyphenols from the bark of Phyllanthus emblica L. based on the response surface methodology.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica L. is an economic plant used in Chinese medicine for the treatment of various diseases. The bark of P. emblica is rich in polyphenols and its extractions have shown strong antioxidative and radical scavenging activity. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to assess the optimal extraction of polyphenols from P. emblica bark. Various extraction parameters including ethanol concentration, extraction time, temperature, solid-liquid ratio, and extraction times were chosen to identify their effects on polyphenols extraction. Among these parameters, extraction times and solvent concentration were found to have significant effect on polyphenols extraction. RSM was applied to obtain the optimal combination of solvent concentration, extraction time, temperature, and extraction time for maximum rate of extraction. The most suitable condition for the extraction of polyphenols was at ethanol concentration 75%, extraction time 25 min, extraction temperature 45 degrees C, and extraction times 3. At these optimal extraction parameters, the maximum extraction of polyphenols obtained experimentally was found to be very close to its predicted value. The extraction rate of polyphenols was 19.78% at the optimum conditions. The mathematical model developed was found to fit with the experimental data of polyphenols extraction. PMID:19350583

Yang, Li; Jiang, Jian-Guo; Li, Wei-Feng; Chen, Jian; Wang, Ding-Yong; Zhu, Liang

2009-05-01

78

In vitro antioxidant activity of Valeriana officinalis against different neurotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerian) is widely used as a traditional medicine to improve the quality of sleep. Although V. officinalis have been well documented as promising pharmacological agent; the exact mechanisms by which this plant act is still unknown. Limited literature data have indicated that V. officinalis extracts can exhibit antioxidant properties against iron in hippocampal neurons in vitro. However, there is no data available about the possible antioxidant effect of V. officinalis against other pro-oxidants in brain. In the present study, the protective effect of V. officinalis on lipid peroxidation (LPO) induced by different pro-oxidant agents with neuropathological importance was examined. Ethanolic extract of valerian (0-60 microg/ml) was tested against quinolinic acid (QA); 3-nitropropionic acid; sodium nitroprusside; iron sulfate (FeSO4) and Fe2+/EDTA induced LPO in rat brain homogenates. The effect of V. officinalis in deoxyribose degradation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was also investigated. In brain homogenates, V. officinalis inhibited thiobarbituric acid reactive substances induced by all pro-oxidants tested in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, V. officinalis caused a significant decrease on the LPO in cerebral cortex and in deoxyribose degradation. QA-induced ROS production in cortical slices was also significantly reduced by V. officinalis. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in modulating LPO induced by different pro-oxidant agents. These data may imply that V. officinalis extract, functioning as antioxidant agent, can be beneficial for reducing insomnia complications linked to oxidative stress. PMID:19191025

Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Fachinetto, Roselei; Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Felix Antunes; de Vargas Barbosa, Nilda Berenice; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

2009-08-01

79

The antioxidant and Flavonoids contents of Althaea officinalis L. flowers based on their color  

PubMed Central

Objective: There has been a growing interest in finding plants with biological active ingredients for medicinal application. Materials and Methods: Three colors of petals of Althaea officinalis (A. officinalis) flowers, i.e., pink, reddish pink, and white were examined for total antioxidant activity and ?avonoids content. Results: The reddish pink flowers of A. officinalis have more antioxidant activity and the power of antioxidant activity was reddish pink > pink > white. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the dark color can serve as an indicator of antioxidant content of the plant. Flavonoid content was highest in white flower thus this result indicated that flowers with light color can be considered for medicinal uses.

Sadighara, Parisa; Gharibi, Soraya; Moghadam Jafari, Amir; Jahed Khaniki, Golamreza; Salari, Samira

2012-01-01

80

Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC–MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon

P. Schnitzler; A. Schuhmacher; A. Astani; Jürgen Reichling

2008-01-01

81

Saponins in Calendula officinalis L. – Structure, Biosynthesis, Transport and Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trends in research on Calendula officinalis L. saponins performed in Department of Plant Biochemistry at Warsaw University are reviewed. Calendula officinalis, a well known medicinal plant, contains significant amounts of oleanane saponins, which form two distinct series of related\\u000a compounds, called “glucosides” and “glucuronides” according to the structure of the respective precursor. Both series differ\\u000a in the pathway of their

Anna Szakiel; Dariusz Ruszkowski; Wirginia Janiszowska

2005-01-01

82

Isolation of high quality RNA from Phyllanthus emblica and its evaluation by downstream applications.  

PubMed

Next generation sequencing is a high-throughput technique widely used for transcriptome profiling. Isolation of high quality RNA is a prerequisite for such large scale transcriptome analysis. Phyllanthus emblica is an important medicinal plant having high amount of metabolites like vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenolic compounds, tannins, which are responsible for its wondered medicinal properties. High concentration of secondary metabolites like polysaccharides and polyphenols proved to be an obstacle in isolating RNA of good quality. Any compromise with quality of RNA affects the downstream applications and requires extra cleaning steps that further reduce RNA quantity. We have developed a protocol for isolation of high quality RNA from P. embilca. RNA was successfully assessed for downstream applications like reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, rapid amplification of cDNA ends, mRNA library preparation, and sequencing using HiSeq(™) 2000 sequencing technology. The protocol is simple and can be completed in 4-5 h. PMID:22209897

Kumar, Avneesh; Singh, Kashmir

2012-11-01

83

Determination of Uracil Herbicide Residues and Components in Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. in Its Main Development Phases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uracil herbicide residues were studied in the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L. c.v. citra) grown under standard agrochemical conditions. The residues from the uracil herbicides bromacil, lenacil, and terbacil were determined at selected phases of flower development. In addition the main components of the M. officinalis oil were determined by GC\\/MS at the same stages of development such

Jozef Tekel; Magda Hollá; Stefánla Vaverková; Emil Svajdlenka

1997-01-01

84

Protective effect of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract against hydrogen peroxide-induced endothelial cell death.  

PubMed

Numerous antioxidants from natural products have been shown to lower ROS levels and enhance vascular endothelial function. The fruits of Phyllanthus emblica are well-known in possessing antioxidative properties but its role and mechanisms in the protection of vascular endothelial cells from ROS damage have not yet been established. The present study was aimed to determine the possible protective effect of P. emblica fruit extract (PE) on human EA.hy926 endothelial cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and PE protective mechanisms. Following incubation of endothelial cells with 300 microM H2O2 for 2 h, cell viability was decreased to 50.65 +/- 0.94% and intracellular ROS levels was increased to 159.01% +/- 6.27% as measured by MTT assay and DCF fluorescent intensity, respectively. Cytotoxic effect of PE was not observed in the range of 0.1 to 100 microM Pretreatment with PE (20 to 100 microg/mL) for 48 h significantly ameliorated the cytotoxic effect of H2O2 and attenuated the excessive intracellular ROS formation in endothelial cells. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that PE pretreatment (40 microg/L) induced Akt phosphorylation but did not activate NF-kappaB pathway. These findings suggest that PE could effectively protect human endothelial cell death induced by H2O2 via modification of ROS-related mechanism along with activation of PI3K/Akt pathway. However the value of this plant in vivo needs further investigations in supporting them to be developed as nutraceuticals for cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:23724454

Wongpradabchai, Sudjai; Chularojmontri, Linda; Phornchirasilp, Srichan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

2013-01-01

85

HPLC ANALYSIS OF PHENOLIC ACIDS IN MELISSA OFFICINALIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and effective HPLC assay for determination of the main phenolic acids (rosmarinic, caffeic, protocatechuic) that were isolated from medicinal plant Melissa officinalis has been developed. The main goal of this work was to test and evaluate the liquid extraction procedure for plant samples. As the effective extraction media, mixtures of methanol-water and methanol-water (pH 2.5) were chosen. The

Alicia Caniova; Eva Brandsteterova

2001-01-01

86

Isolation of chemically induced mutants in borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

?-Linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3 ?6,9,12) has been reported to be helpful in the treatment of a wide range of disorders. Borage\\u000a (Borago officinalis L.) is an annual plant of renewed interest because the seeds are an important source of GLA. The failure to retain mature\\u000a seeds until harvest limits the total seed and GLA yield per plant and is the

A. De Haro-Bailón; M. Del Rio

1998-01-01

87

Phyllanemblinins A-F, new ellagitannins from Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

Six new ellagitannins, phyllanemblinins A-F (1-6), were isolated from Phyllanthus emblica, along with 30 known tannins and related compounds. Their structures were determined by spectral and chemical methods. Phyllanemblinins A (1) and B (2) were confirmed to be ellagitannins having a tetrahydroxybenzofuran dicarboxyl group and a hexahydroxydiphenoyl group, respectively, by chemical synthesis from furosin (8). Phyllanemblinin C (3) has a new acyl group at the glucose 2,4-positions and is structurally related to chebulagic acid. Phyllanemblinins D (4), E (5), and F (6) were found to be positional isomers of neochebuloyl 1(beta)-O-galloylglucose. PMID:11754604

Zhang, Y J; Abe, T; Tanaka, T; Yang, C R; Kouno, I

2001-12-01

88

Neuroprotective and neurological properties of Melissa officinalis.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase enzymes and affinity to the GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity in PC12 cells. The radical scavenging properties were also investigated in cells and in cell free systems, where this plant was shown to be a good free radical scavenger. The MAO-A bioassay was also performed to detect possible antidepressant activities demonstrating that both extracts inhibited this enzyme, which has a key role in neurotransmitters metabolism. However, no activity was detected in the acetylcholinesterase and GABA assays. In general, the methanolic extract was more effective than the aqueous. PMID:19760174

López, Víctor; Martín, Sara; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Carretero, Maria Emilia; Jäger, Anna K; Calvo, Maria Isabel

2009-11-01

89

Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-ÂłH)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root

R. Croteau; H. El-Bialy; S. S. Dehal

1987-01-01

90

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.  

PubMed

India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620

Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot

2003-01-01

91

FACTORES QUE INFLUYEN SOBRE LA EMERGENCIA DE PLÁNTULAS DE BORRAJA (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) FACTORS INFLUENCING BORAGE (BORAGO OFFICINALIS L.) SEEDLING EMERGENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Borago officinalis L. seeds and the whole plant are used as medicinal plants. Gamma linolenic acid, an important essential fatty acid from the omega-6 family is present in its seeds. Objectives: To analyze the effect of the seeding depth, seed maturity, germination promoters, and\\/or stratification on the emergence percentage, vigor index and time to reach a 50% emergence were

Alejandro Solís; Rosemarie Wilckens; Maritza Tapia; Susana Fischer; Daniel Sorlino; Marisol Berti

92

Lemon Balm ( Melissa officinalis ) Stalk: Chemical Composition and Fiber Morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work investigates the potentials of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) stalk (LBS), a massive waste part of medicinal plant, for pulp and papermaking by assessing its fiber characteristics\\u000a and chemical composition. In addition, LBS properties were compared with some important agro-residues such as bagasse stalk\\u000a (BS), cotton stalk (CS) and tobacco stalk (TS). There is no information about suitability

Yahya Hamzeh; Fatemeh Amani

2011-01-01

93

[HPLC-fingerprint-based quality evaluation on a Tibetan medicine Phyllanthus emblica and its tannin parts].  

PubMed

This study is to establish the fingerprint for Phyllanthus emblica and their tannin parts from different habitats by HPLC for its quality control. The determination was carried out on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column, with methanol-0.2% glacial acetic acid as mobile phase with gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL x min(-1). The temperature was maintained at 30 degrees C and the detected wavelength is 260 nm, Thirteen chromatographic peaks were extracted as the common peaks of the fingerprint of P. emblica, and eleven as the common peaks of P. emblica tannin parts, and five peaks were identified by comparing with referent samples. The fingerprints of 8 samples were compared and classified by similarity evaluation, cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA). The similarity degrees of eight P. emblica were between 0.763 and 0.993, while tannin parts were between 0.903 and 0.991. All the samples of P. emblica and their tannin parts were classified into 3 categories. The method was so highly reproducible, simple and reliable that it could provide basis for quality control and evaluation of P. emblica from different habitats. PMID:25011249

Sun, Xue-Fei; Zhang, Hong-Yan; Xia, Qing; Zhao, Hai-Juan; Wu, Ling-Fang; Zhang, Lan-Zhen; Shi, Ren-Bing

2014-04-01

94

Small brown planthopper resistance loci in wild rice (Oryza officinalis).  

PubMed

Host-plant resistance is the most practical and economical approach to control the rice planthoppers. However, up to date, few rice germplasm accessions that are resistant to the all three kinds of planthoppers (1) brown planthopper (BPH; Nilaparvata lugens Stĺl), (2) the small brown planthopper (SBPH; Laodelphax striatellus Fallen), and (3) the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera Horvath) have been identified; consequently, the genetic basis for host-plant broad spectrum resistance to rice planthoppers in a single variety has been seldom studied. Here, one wild species, Oryza officinalis (Acc. HY018, 2n = 24, CC), was detected showing resistance to the all three kinds of planthoppers. Because resistance to WBPH and BPH in O. officinalis has previously been reported, the study mainly focused on its SBPH resistance. The SBPH resistance gene(s) was (were) introduced into cultivated rice via asymmetric somatic hybridization. Three QTLs for SBPH resistance detected by the SSST method were mapped and confirmed on chromosomes 3, 7, and 12, respectively. The allelic/non-allelic relationship and relative map positions of the three kinds of planthopper resistance genes in O. officinalis show that the SBPH, WBPH, and BPH resistance genes in O. officinalis were governed by multiple genes, but not by any major gene. The data on the genetics of host-plant broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers in a single accession suggested that the most ideally practical and economical approach for rice breeders is to screen the sources of broad spectrum resistance to planthoppers, but not to employ broad spectrum resistance gene for the management of planthoppers. Pyramiding these genes in a variety can be an effective way for the management of planthoppers. PMID:24504629

Zhang, Weilin; Dong, Yan; Yang, Ling; Ma, Bojun; Ma, Rongrong; Huang, Fudeng; Wang, Changchun; Hu, Haitao; Li, Chunshou; Yan, Chengqi; Chen, Jianping

2014-06-01

95

Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationships of phytosterol from Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

Fourteen sterols (1-14), including two new sterols, trihydroxysitosterol (2) and 5?,6?,7?-7?-acetoxysitosterol (3), were isolated from the branches and leaves of Phyllanthus emblica L. The isolated compounds and a structurally related sterol 15 from Aphanamixis grandifolia were screened for cytotoxicity in two tumor cell lines (HL-60 and SMMC-7721) and a non-tumor cell line (HL-7702) using RSB assay. Within the series of phytosterol derivatives tested, compound 15 was the most active, displaying potent cytotoxicity against HL-60 with IC(50) of 5.10?mol/L, and most of the active compounds showed selective cytotoxicity against tumor and non-tumor cell lines, especially compound 10 with a safety index of 4.42. PMID:23266735

Qi, Wei-Yan; Li, Ya; Hua, Lei; Wang, Ke; Gao, Kun

2013-01-01

96

Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla.

Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

2014-01-01

97

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied\\u000a using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA).\\u000a A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty

Sooah Kim; Min Hye Shin; Eun Ju Yun; Hojoung Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2011-01-01

98

Isolation and purification of honokiol and magnolol from cortex Magnoliae officinalis by high-speed counter-current chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed counter-current chromatography was used to isolate and purify honokiol and magnolol from cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Magnolia officinalis Rehd. et Wils.), a plant used in the traditional Chinese medicine. A crude sample, 150mg, was successfully separated with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane–ethyl acetate–methanol–water (1:0.4:1:0.4, v\\/v), and the fractions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The separation produced 80

Xiao Wang; Yuqiang Wang; Yanling Geng; Fuwei Li; Chengchao Zheng

2004-01-01

99

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Alnamer, Rachad; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

100

In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400?mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6?h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6?h at 200 and 400?mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.

Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

2013-01-01

101

Steroidal saponins from Smilax officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three new steroidal saponins were isolated from the rhizomes of Smilax officinalis. The structures of these saponins were established by extensive spectral data, hydrolysis and chemical correlation as sarsasapogenin 3-O-?-d-glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside, neotigogenin 3-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside and 25S-spirostan-6?-ol 3-O-?-d- glucopyranosyl-(1?4)-[?-l-arabinopyranosyl-(1?6)]-?-d-glucopyranoside. Acid hydrolysis of the latter compound gave a sapogenin which has a new orientation of an hydroxyl on the steroidal skeleton. A route

Ribson Roney Bernardo; Antonio Ventura Pinto; JoséPaz Parente

1996-01-01

102

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

103

Chromatographic Determination of Derivatives of p?Hydroxybenzoic Acid in Melissa officinalis by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a fast method for the determination of phenolic compounds–benzoic acids in Melissa officinalis. Soxhlet extraction has been optimized for the isolation of benzoic acids (gallic acid, p?hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, gentisic acid, vanillic acid, and syringic acid) from plant material. The conditions of Soxhlet extraction, such as solvent composition and extraction time were studied. The efficient extraction

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay

2005-01-01

104

Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes.

Alica Žiaková; Eva Brandšteterová; Eva Blahová

2003-01-01

105

Melissa officinalis Extract Inhibits Attachment of Herpes Simplex Virus in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs for antiherpetic agents, since the herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral drugs. Methods: An aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis as well as phenolic extract compounds, i.e. caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid were examined for their antiviral activity against

Akram Astani; Jürgen Reichling; Paul Schnitzler

2012-01-01

106

Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. PMID:21354582

Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

2011-05-01

107

Studies on prokinetic, laxative and spasmodic activities of Phyllanthus emblica in experimental animals.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to provide pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Phyllanthus emblica fruit in indigestion and constipation using the in-vivo and in-vitro assays. The crude extract of the dried fruits of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe.Cr) and its fractions were tested positive for alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenes, flavonoids, sterols and coumarins. Pe.Cr at the doses of 100 and 300?mg/kg exhibited the prokinetic and laxative activities in mice, which were found partially sensitive to atropine. In isolated guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum, the crude extract and its aqueous fraction (Pe.Aq) caused concentration-dependent and partially atropine-sensitive stimulatory effects followed by relaxation at higher tested concentrations, being more efficacious in guinea pig, while more potent in rabbit tissues. The petroleum fraction (0.003-0.1?mg/mL) exhibited fully atropine-sensitive contractions in both guinea-pig and rabbit tissues. However, the ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions (0.003-1.0?mg/mL) showed only spasmolytic activity when studied in spontaneously contracting rabbit jejunum. This study showed that the Phyllanthus emblica possesses prokinetic and laxative activities in mice along with spasmodic effect in the isolated tissues of guinea pig and rabbit, mediated partially through activation of muscarinic receptors; thus, this study provides a rationale for the medicinal use of Phyllanthus emblica fruits in indigestion and constipation. PMID:22972571

Mehmood, Malik Hassan; Rehman, Abdul; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

2013-07-01

108

Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat  

PubMed Central

Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant’s leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive.

Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

2013-01-01

109

Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.  

PubMed

Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:18693101

Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

2008-09-01

110

Validation of HPLC Determination of Phenolic Acids Present in Some Lamiaceae Family Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

HPLC columns with different length, particle size, and chemical properties of sorbent were tested and compared for the application in the development of the universal HPLC assay for determination of phenolic compounds, which could be present in some medicinal plants from the Lamiaceae family (Melissa officinalis, Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Thymus serpyllum, and Origanum vulgare). More RP?18 columns have been

Alica Ziaková; Eva Brandšteterová

2003-01-01

111

Antioxidant Effects of Different Extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence\\u000a of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate\\u000a the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The

Romaiana Picada Pereira; Roselei Fachinetto; Alessandro de Souza Prestes; Robson Luiz Puntel; Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva; Berta Maria Heinzmann; Ticiane Krapf Boschetti; Margareth Linde Athayde; Marilise Escobar Bürger; Ademir Farias Morel; Vera Maria Morsch; Joăo Batista Teixeira Rocha

2009-01-01

112

The physical map of the chloroplast DNA from Asparagus officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The genus Asparagus consists of 100–300 species of both dioecious and hermaphrodite plants. Since there are diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid plants in this genus, RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) is suitable for examining the phylogenetic relationships. We have constructed a physical map of the ctDNA of garden asparagus (A. officinalis L. cv Mary Washington 500

Y.-O. Lee; A. Kanno; T. Kameya

1996-01-01

113

Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.  

PubMed

Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

2009-05-01

114

RAPD based genetic variability among cultivated varieties of Aonla (Indian Gooseberry, Phyllanthus emblica L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aonla, the Indian Gooseberry (Phyllanthus emblica) is widely grown in India due to its neutraceutical properties. Investigations on the use of RAPD markers enabled us to estimate\\u000a genetic variability among commercially cultivated varieties. This study also enabled us to distinguish these varieties using\\u000a a set of four decamer primers, which was otherwise difficult by using morphological markers. Cluster analysis revealed

A. K. Chaurasia; V. R. Subramaniam; Bal Krishna; P. V. Sane

2009-01-01

115

Final Report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel Amended Safety Assessment of Calendula officinalis—Derived Cosmetic Ingredients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies

F. Alan Andersen; Wilma F. Bergfeld; Donald V. Belsito; Ronald A. Hill; Curtis D. Klaassen; Daniel C. Liebler; James G. Marks; Ronald C. Shank; Thomas J. Slaga; Paul W. Snyder

2010-01-01

116

Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections  

PubMed Central

In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

2013-01-01

117

Protective role of Melissa officinalis L. extract on liver of hyperlipidemic rats: A morphological and biochemical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, the effects of Melissa officinalis L. extract on hyperlipidemic rats were investigated, morphologically and biochemically. The animals were fed a lipogenic diet consisting of 2% cholesterol, 20% sunflower oil and 0.5% cholic acid added to normal chow and were given 3% ethanol for 42 days. The plant extract was given by gavage technique to rats to a

S. Bolkent; R. Yanardag; Omur Karabulut-Bulan; B. Yesilyaprak

2005-01-01

118

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total

Iuliana Spiridon; Svetlana Colceru; Narcis Anghel; Carmen Alice Teaca; Ruxanda Bodirlau; Alice Armatu

2011-01-01

119

Effect of drying on the volatile constituents of thyme ( Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage ( Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The losses of volatile constituents in herbs and spices depend mainly on drying parameters and biological characteristics of the plants. In the present study, two methods were applied in the analysis of the effect of drying on the aroma constituents of the widely used herbs thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The volatile constituents of herbs (fresh,

P. R. Venskutonis

1997-01-01

120

Characterization of Essential Oils from Three Italian Ecotypes of Hyssop [Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus (Godron) Briq.  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three Italian strains of hyssop wildly grown in different natural habitats of the Abruzzi region (Central Italy) and classified as Hyssopus officinalis L. subsp. aristatus, were characterized on the basis of their essential oil composition. The oils were obtained by steam distillation of the fresh aerial parts of the plants and analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. Thirty-three compounds were identified.

R. Piccaglia; L. Pace; F. Tammaro

1999-01-01

121

Comparative Responses of Borago officinalis and Echium vulgare to Different Nitrogen and Phosphorus Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of organic and mineral nitrogen, phosphorus, and bio-fertilizers on growth, yield, and fixed oil content of borage (Borago officinalis L.) and viper's bugloss (Echium vulgare L.) plants were studied in two field experiments. Nitrogen as ammonium nitrate at 0.75 and 110 kg N hectare; phosphorus as calcium super-phosphate at 50 and 75 kg P2O5 hectare; compost at 1.32

S. F. Hendawy; S. El-Gengaihi

2010-01-01

122

Investigation of ?-Linolenic Acid and Stearidonic Acid Biosynthesis During a Life Cycle of Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the levels of ?-linolenic (GLA, 18:3n-6) and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4n-3) in various parts of the\\u000a borage plant (Borago officinalis L.) to elucidate ?6-desaturase activity. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) composition during germination of the seeds and\\u000a FA composition of various borage parts were determined as well as FA compositions of neutral lipids (NL), polar lipids

Kathrin Stähler; Siew-Young Quek; Matthew R. Miller

123

The effects of drying on the chemical components of essential oils of Calendula officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis is a medicinal plant whose essential oils are used for various purposes. The oils were extracted by hydrodistillation from fresh leaves, dry leaves and fresh flowers of the herb yielding 0.06, 0.03 and 0.09%, respectively. The analysis of the oils by GC-MS revealed a total of 30, 21 and 24 compounds from the fresh leaves, dry leaves and

Okoh O. O; Sadimenko A. P; Asekun O. T; Afolayan A. J

2008-01-01

124

HPLC analysis of carotenoids in four varieties of Calendula officinalis L. flowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis L. is a medicinal plant that accumulates large amounts of carotenoids in its inflorescences. The yellow-to-orange colour of inflorescences is mostly due to carotenoids and the shade is dependent on pigments content and profile.We investigated the carotenoid content and profile in four selected varieties of Calendula: Double Esterel Orange, Radio Extra Selected, Bonbon Abricot and Double Esterel Jaune.

Adela Pintea; Constantin Bele; Sanda Andrei; Carmen Socaciu

125

Drought effects on polyphenol composition and antioxidant activities in aerial parts of Salvia officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. is a medicinal plant containing several compounds with important pharmacological activity. In this study, we investigated\\u000a the effects of water deficit (moderate and severe water deficits) on the contents of total and individual polyphenols of the\\u000a aerial parts. Also, we studied the effect of drought on the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts. Our results showed\\u000a that water

Iness Bettaieb; Ibtissem Hamrouni-Sellami; Soumaya Bourgou; Ferid Limam; Brahim Marzouk

2011-01-01

126

Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).  

PubMed

The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200?g of each part was soaked in 1000?mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000?ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC(50) value of 30.71?ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC(50) value of 298.93?ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC(50) values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67?ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants. PMID:22536188

Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

2012-01-01

127

 Isolation, purifi cation and characterisation of transglutaminase from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves.  

PubMed

 Background. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a spice and medicinal herb widely used around the world of the natural antioxidants, and it has been widely accepted as one of the spices with the highest antioxidant activity. Transglutaminase (EC 2.3.2.13: TGase) is an enzyme capable of catalysing acyl transfer reactions by introducing covalent cross-links between proteins, as well as peptides and various primary amines. TGase activity in plants was first observed in pea seedlings, and subsequently found in organs of both lower and higher plants. Recently. TGase has captured researchers' interest due to its attractive potential application in food industries. Therefore, the objectives of this study are isolation and purification of TGase from new plant source rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves at the laboratory scale. Moreover, investigation of the biochemical properties of the purified TGase to provide a suitable TGase enzyme for food industry applications are in focus. Material and methods. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves was used as a new plant source to TGase. The biochemical characteristics of the crude and purified enzyme were determined. Results. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) TGase was purified to homogeneity by successive three purification steps including ammonium sulfate precipitatation, ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sephadex A-50 column and Size exclusion column chromatography on Sephadex G-100 column. Under experimental conditions. 20-30% of ammonium sulfate saturation in the enzyme solution had a high yield of enzyme activity could be obtained. The purified enzyme from the Sephadex G-100 column had 21.35% yield with increased about 7.31 in purification fold. Rosemary TGase exhibited optimum activity at pH 7.0 and 55°C for the catalytic reaction of hydroxylarnine and Z-Gln-Gly. The purified TGase almost maintained full activity after incubation for 15 ruin up to 60°C and it was completely inactivated at 85°C. The rosemary TGase was stimulated at 2-6 rnM CaCl2 concentrations while it lost about 5-20% from its activity by increasing CaCl2 concentration. Sodium chloride (2-14%) shows no noticeable inhibition of the purified TGase activity. Mg+2, Ba+2 were acivited by the purified TGase while it was str ongly inhibited by Fe+2, moderately by Cir2 and Mn+2. Conclusion. This paper reports on the purification and characterisation of TGase from newly isolated plant, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) leaves. Finding results of the TGase properties make this enzyme a good candidate for application in the food industry. However, additional work is required to increase activity yield during extraction and purification for commercial scale of TGase from this plant. PMID:24887942

El-Hofi, Mahmoud; Ibrahim, Osama; Ismail, Azza; Nour, Maher

2014-07-01

128

Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.  

PubMed

Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

2014-05-01

129

Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis  

SciTech Connect

The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

1987-07-01

130

Somatic embryogenesis and in vitro rosmarinic acid accumulation in Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa leaf callus cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of explant age, plant growth regulators and culture conditions on somatic embryogenesis and rosmarinic acid production\\u000a from leaf explants of Salvia officinalis and S. fruticosa plants collected in Greece was investigated. Embryogenic callus with numerous spherical somatic embryos could be induced\\u000a on explants derived from both species and cultured for 3 weeks on a Murashige and Skoog (MS)

S. Kintzios; A. Nikolaou; M. Skoula

1999-01-01

131

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta.  

PubMed

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10(-5)M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium intact or endothelium denuded effect was determined. The agents used were N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME), an irreversible inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, indomethacin (10 microM), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, and glibenclamide (10 microM), an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker. The extract was found to exert a vasorelaxant effect and rosmarinic acid quantity, the characteristic compound of the plant, was analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (18.75%), and was further confirmed by LC-MS analysis giving a prominent [M(+1)] molecular ion peak at m/z 365. Total phenol amount in the extract was determined using Folin-Ciocalteau reagent (0.284 mg/mg extract). Vasorelaxant effect of the extract was entirely dependent on the presence of endothelium and was abolished by pretreatment with L-NAME, whereas pretreatment with indomethacin and glibenclamide reduced the relaxation to a minor extent. Rosmarinic acid was also tested in the same manner as the extract and was found to exert vasorelaxant effect. These results suggest that the aqueous extract of MOO vasodilates via nitric oxide pathway with the possible involvement of prostacycline and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathways as well. PMID:18606529

Ersoy, S; Orhan, I; Turan, N N; Sahan, G; Ark, M; Tosun, F

2008-12-01

132

Endothelium-dependent induction of vasorelaxation by Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis in rat isolated thoracic aorta  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the current study, vasorelaxant effect produced by the aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis L. ssp. officinalis (MOO) (Lamiaceae) and its possible mechanism in isolated rat aortic rings precontracted with phenylephrine were examined. In the first series of experiments, effect of MOO on the baseline and phenylephrine (10?5M) precontracted arteries was investigated, while in the second group of experiments, endothelium

S. Ersoy; I. Orhan; N. N. Turan; G. ?ahan; M. Ark; F. Tosun

2008-01-01

133

Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of Melissa officinalis L.  

PubMed

The plant Melissa officinalis L. has been used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive dysfunction. Based on its traditional medicinal use, it was assessed for its clinical efficacy in mild to moderate Alzheimer's patients. The plant was effective in the management of the disease. Therefore, based on this result, a similar plant extract was prepared in order to be screened for bioactivities which are relevant in Alzheimer's disease therapy. The extract was recently screened for antioxidant activity and it showed a wide range of antioxidant properties. Another important bioactivity is acetylcholinesterase inhibition, which the extract was screened for in the current investigation. The extract was capable of inhibiting the enzyme in a time and dose-dependent manner. Activity of the extract at 10 min was estimated as 1.72+/-0.16 microg equivalents of physostigmine/mg of the extract. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory guided fractionation of the extract was then carried out. Most of the fractions showed inhibitory activity and were more potent than the extract. The contents of the most potent fraction were identified as cis- and trans-rosmarinic acid isomers and a rosmarinic acid derivative using LC-DAD-ESI-MS and NMR methods. PMID:19070498

Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Lackman, Petri; Boije af Gennäs, Gustav; Dorman, H J Damien; Järvinen, Päivi P; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Hiltunen, Raimo

2009-01-15

134

Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 ?g/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-1? and HIF-1? mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1? gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury.

2012-01-01

135

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corręa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-04-01

136

Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice  

PubMed Central

Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance.

de Carvalho, Natalia Cassettari; Correa-Angeloni, Maria Julia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patricia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

2011-01-01

137

Neuroprotective Properties of Melissa Officinalis L. Extract Against Ecstasy-Induced Neurotoxicity  

PubMed Central

Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Melissa officinalis, a major antioxidant plant, against neuron toxicity in hippocampal primary culture induced by 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or ecstasy, one of the most abused drugs, which causes neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2 thiazoyl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to assess mitochondrial activity, reflecting cell survival. Caspase-3 activity assay and Hoechst / propiedium iodide (PI) staining were done to show apoptotic cell death. Results: A high dose of ecstasy caused profound mitochondrial dysfunction, around 40% less than the control value, and increased apoptotic neuronal death to around 35% more than the control value in hippocampal neuronal culture. Co-treatment with Melissa officinalis significantly reversed these damages to around 15% and 20% respectively of the MDMA alone group, and provided protection against MDMA-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in neurons. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis has revealed neuroprotective effects against apoptosis induced by MDMA in the primary neurons of hippocampal culture, which could be due to its free radical scavenging properties and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory effects.

Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Akbari, Mohammad; Shokri, Saeed; Ghahremani, Mohammadhosein; Amin, Gholamreza; Kashani, Iraj; Azami Tameh, Abolfazl

2011-01-01

138

La mélisse ( Melissa officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Résumé: La mélisse, malgré des références anciennes, est une nouvelle venue en phytothérapie moderne. Quoiqu’elle ait des propriétés spécifiques lorsqu’on utilise des extraits, elle garde les propriétés de la médecine traditionnelle quand on l’utilise en tisane; c’est sous cette forme une plante importante dans les affections ŕ spasme du tube digestif et en particulier pour les dystonies neurovégétatives. Nous indiquons

P. Babulka

2005-01-01

139

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits  

PubMed Central

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100–200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase.

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

2011-01-01

140

Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits.  

PubMed

Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1-10 ?g/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 ?g/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 10(6) cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean survival time (MST) lifespan, reduction in the solid tumor volume, and also the reversal of altered hematological parameters almost equal to normal. The methanolic extract (100-200 mg/kg/day orally) was found to be cytotoxic on human cancer cell lines. In addition, the methanolic extract had an antioxidant effect as reflected by a decrease in LPO, GST, and GPx (oxidant enzymes), and an increase in SOD and catalase. PMID:22529657

Shivhare, Shaktikumar C; Patidar, Arjun O; Malviya, K G; Shivhare-Malviya, K K

2011-07-01

141

Global profiling of ultraviolet-induced metabolic disruption in Melissa officinalis by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis contains various secondary metabolites that have health benefits. Generally, irradiating plants with ultraviolet (UV)-B induces the accumulation of secondary metabolites in plants. To understand the effect of UV-B irradiation on the metabolism of M. officinalis, metabolomics based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used in this study. The GC-MS analysis revealed 37 identified metabolites from various chemical classes, including alcohols, amino acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, and sugars. The metabolite profiles of the groups of M. officinalis irradiated with UV-B were separated and differentiated according to their irradiation times (i.e., 0, 1, and 2 h), using principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), respectively. The PCA score plots of PC1 and PC2 showed that the three groups with different irradiation times followed a certain trajectory with increasing UV-B irradiation. HCA revealed that metabolic patterns differed among the three groups, and the 1 h-irradiated group was more similar to the control group (0 h) than the 2 h-irradiated group. In particular, UV-B irradiation of plants led to a decrease in sugars such as fructose, galactose, sucrose, and trehalose and an increase in metabolites in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, and the phenylpropanoid pathway. This study demonstrated that metabolite profiling with GC-MS is useful for gaining a holistic understanding of UV-induced changes in plant metabolism. PMID:22729379

Kim, Sooah; Yun, Eun Ju; Hossain, Md Aktar; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2012-08-01

142

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.  

PubMed

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

143

Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings  

PubMed Central

This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000?mg/L and 5000?mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height.

Guney, Kerim

2013-01-01

144

TLC-Based Start-to-End Method of Analysis of Selected Biologically Active Compounds Contained in Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) is an herb native to the Mediterranean region and nowadays is cultivated in many parts of the world. This plant has been known and utilized for hundreds of years in natural medicine, due to its curative properties and good performance in combating various diseases. In spite of its well recognized curative potential, the chemical composition

Gabriela Grygierczyk; Mieczys?aw Sajewicz; Dorota Staszek; ?ukasz Wojtal; Monika Waksmundzka-Hajnos; Teresa Kowalska

2009-01-01

145

The physical map of the chloroplast DNA from Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The genus Asparagus consists of 100-300 species of both dioecious and hermaphrodite plants. Since there are diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid plants in this genus, RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis of chloroplast DNA (ctDNA) is suitable for examining the phylogenetic relationships. We have constructed a physical map of the ctDNA of garden asparagus (A. officinalis L. cv 'Mary Washington 500 W') using five restriction endonucleases, namely, BamHI, PstI, SalI, HindIII, and XhoI. Asparagus ctDNA was digested with restriction enzymes and cloned into plasmid and ? phage vectors, and a clone bank was constructed that covered 70% of the genome. A physical map was constructed by Southern hybridization of total DNA from asparagus with homologous and heterologous probes. The asparagus ctDNA was about 155 kb long and it contained two inverted repeats (23kb each) separated by a large single-copy region (90kb) and a small single-copy region (19kb). Fifteen genes, encoding photosynthesis-related proteins, rDNAs, and tRNAs, were localized on the physical map of asparagus ctDNA. Comparing the length and the gene order of asparagus ctDNA with that of other plants, we found that asparagus ctDNA was similar to tobacco ctDNA but different from rice ctDNA. The restriction patterns of the ctDNAs from several varieties of A. officinalis and three species of Asparagus were analyzed. The restriction patterns of the varieties of A. officinalis were very similar, but polymorphisms were detected among the three species of Asparagus. PMID:24166110

Lee, Y O; Kanno, A; Kameya, T

1996-01-01

146

Changes in fatty acid and essential oil composition of sage ( Salvia officinalis L.) leaves under NaCl stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acids and essential oils from hydroponically cultivated Salvia officinalis leaves were analyzed by GC and GC–MS. Four different levels of NaCl (25, 50, 75 and 100mM) were applied. The first results showed that salt treatment reduced significantly the plant growth by 61% and the total fatty acids (TFA) content by 32% at 100mM NaCl. Alpha-linolenic, gadoleic, palmitic and oleic

Mouna Ben Taarit; Kamel Msaada; Karim Hosni; Brahim Marzouk

2010-01-01

147

In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.  

PubMed

Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC??) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 ?g/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000??g/mL. The IC?? of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9??g/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

2011-01-01

148

Antibacterial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals on antibiotic-resistant bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activity of plant extracts and phytochemicals was evaluated with antibiotic susceptible and resistant microorganisms. In addition, the possible synergistic effects when associated with antibiotics were studied. Extracts from the following plants were utilized: Achillea millifolium (yarrow), Caryophyllus aromaticus (clove), Melissa offficinalis (lemon-balm), Ocimun basilucum (basil), Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Salvia officinalis (sage), Syzygyum

Gislene G. F. Nascimento; Juliana Locatelli; Paulo C. Freitas; Giuliana L. Silva

2000-01-01

149

New iridoid glycoside from Gratiola officinalis.  

PubMed

A new iridoid glycoside, 1?,6?-di-O-trans-cinnamoyl-9-O-?-D-glucopyranosyl-3-iridene-5?-ol (1), along with four known compounds loliolide (2), ?-sitosterol-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside (3), betulinic acid (4), and ?-amyrin (5), was isolated from the aerial parts of Gratiola officinalis L. The structure of the new compound was deduced on the basis of 1D ąH and ąłC NMR and 2D HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments, and mass spectrometric techniques (EI-MS and HR-EI-MS). The relative configuration of 1 was assigned by comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with known analogs, together with NOESY experiments. PMID:23134347

Ali, Liaqat; Rizvi, Tania Shamim; Ahmad, Manzoor; Shaheen, Farzana

2012-01-01

150

Chemopreventative strategies targeting the MGMT repair protein: augmented expression in human lymphocytes and tumor cells by ethanolic and aqueous extracts of several Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

O6-alkylguanines are potent mutagenic, pro-carcinogenic and cytotoxic lesions induced by exogenous and endogenous alkylating agents. A facilitated elimination of these lesions by increasing the activity of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is likely to be a beneficial chemoprevention strategy, which, however, has not been examined. Because, a marginal enhancement of this protein may be adequate for genomic protection, we studied alterations in MGMT activity and expression in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and cancer cell lines induced by water-soluble and alcohol-soluble constituents of several plants with established antioxidant and medicinal properties. Both the ethanolic and aqueous extracts from neem (Azadirachta indica), holy basil (Ocimum sanctum), winter cherry (Withania somnifera), and oregano (Origanum majorana) increased the levels of MGMT protein and its demethylation activity in a time-dependent manner with a maximum of 3-fold increase after 72-h treatment. The extracts from gooseberry (Emblica officinalis), common basil (Ocimum basilicum), and spearmint (Mentha viridis) were relatively less efficient in raising MGMT levels. Increased levels of MGMT mRNA accounted at least, in part, for the increased activity of the DNA repair protein. The herbal treatments also increased glutathione S-transferase-pi (GSTP1) expression, albeit to a lesser extent than MGMT. These data provide the first evidence for the upregulation of human MGMT by plant constituents and raise the possibility of rational dietary approaches for attenuating alkylation-induced carcinogenesis. Further, they reveal the putative antioxidant responsiveness of the MGMT gene in human cells. PMID:17016661

Niture, Suryakant K; Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S

2006-11-01

151

[Diuretic activity of the infusion of flowers from Lavandula officinalis].  

PubMed

The diuretic activity of an infusion of Lavandula officinalis was studied in the Wistar rat. Thus, the kinetics of hydroelectrolytic elimination in response to the oral administration of an infusion of pharmaceutical lavender flowers were measured in the rats. Experiments were completed under similar conditions using a synthetic pharmacological diuretic, Diamox. The aqueous extract of this aromatic plant accelerated the elimination of the water overload. At the peak of the diuretic response, urinary osmolarity was significantly less than that of controls (111+/-14 vs. 195+/-11 mosmol x kg(-1)). Sodium excretion was moderate following administration of the infusion when compared to the synthetic diuretic. The stability of the aldosterone concentrations in the plasma and the absence of correlation with plasma sodium concentrations, coupled with the observed clearance of the free water (0.055+/-0.007 vs. 0.045+/-0.012 mL x min(-1)) show that the increase in diuresis and the moderate increase in sodium excretion are of tubular origin. The result of the phytochemical analysis of hexane extracts in the infusion and in urine indicated that four or five chemical factors may be involved in the diuretic effect of lavender. PMID:12014366

Elhajili, M; Baddouri, K; Elkabbaj, S; Meiouat, F; Settaf, A

2001-01-01

152

Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.  

PubMed

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

153

How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

2014-03-01

154

Analysis of Transposable Elements in the Genome of Asparagus officinalis from High Coverage Sequence Data  

PubMed Central

Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant.

Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

2014-01-01

155

Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.  

PubMed

The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

2011-10-01

156

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C(8)mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid-liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

157

Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis  

PubMed Central

Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential.

Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

2012-01-01

158

Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials.  

PubMed

The use of plants is as old as the mankind. Natural products are cheap and claimed to be safe. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) is a common household plant grown in many parts of the world. It is used for flavouring food, a beverage drink, as well as in cosmetics; in folk.medicine it is used as an antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhoea, in relieving respiratory disorders and to stimulate growth of hair. Extract of rosemary relaxes smooth muscles of trachea and intestine, and has choleretic, hepatoprotective and antitumerogenic activity. The most important constituents of rosemary are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid. These compounds have antioxidant effect. The phenolic compound, rosmarinic acid, obtains one of its phenolic rings from phenylalanine via caffeic acid and the other from tyrosine via dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid. Relatively large-scale production of rosmarinic acid can be obtained from the cell culture of Coleus blumei Benth when supplied exogenously with phenylalanine and tyrosine. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and from the skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotriene B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and inhibits the complement system. It is concluded that rosemary and its constituents especially caffeic acid derivatives such as rosmarinic acid have a therapeutic potential in treatment or prevention of bronchial asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, hepatotoxicity, atherosclerosis, ischaemic heart disease, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility. PMID:10641130

al-Sereiti, M R; Abu-Amer, K M; Sen, P

1999-02-01

159

Methanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. with cytotoxic activity against PC3 human prostate cancer cells.  

PubMed

Sanguisorba officinalis is a natural plant that has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory and metabolic diseases. Several studies have reported that its extracts exhibit anticancer, antioxidative and anti-lipid peroxidation activities. However, the effects of this plant on human prostate cancer cells have not yet been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects and underlying mechanisms of a methanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis (MESO) in PC3 human prostate cancer cells. MESO significantly decreased cell growth and induced apoptosis through the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. MESO decreased the expression levels of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1), a Bcl?2?like anti-apoptotic protein that is highly expressed in various cancer cell lines. Expression levels of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax were increased by MESO whereas those of Bak and Bcl-xL were unchanged. In addition, MESO induced the oligomerization of Bax in the mitochondrial outer membrane. These results suggest that MESO inhibits the growth of prostate cancer cells and induces apoptotic cell death by the downregulation of Mcl-1 protein expression and the oligomerization of Bax. Therefore, MESO has potential as a drug candidate for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:22710351

Choi, Eun-Sun; Kim, Jun-Sung; Kwon, Ki-Han; Kim, Hyng-Seop; Cho, Nam-Pyo; Cho, Sung-Dae

2012-09-01

160

Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil: antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to investigate and compare the antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil, native to Pakistan. The essential oil content from the leaves of R. officinalis was 0.93 g 100g-1. The GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that the major components determined in R. officinalis essential oil were 1,8-cineol (38.5%), camphor (17.1%), ?-pinene (12.3%), limonene (6.23%), camphene (6.00%) and linalool (5.70%). The antiproliferative activity was tested against two cancer (MCF-7 and LNCaP) and one fibroblast cell line (NIH-3T3) using the MTT assay, while, the antioxidant activity was evaluated by the reduction of 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and measuring percent inhibition of peroxidation in linoleic acid system. The disc diffusion and modified resazurin microtitre-plate assays were used to evaluate the inhibition zones (IZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of R. officinalis essential oil, respectively. It is concluded from the results that Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil exhibited antiproliferative, antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

Hussain, Abdullah Ijaz; Anwar, Farooq; Chatha, Shahzad Ali Shahid; Jabbar, Abdul; Mahboob, Shahid; Nigam, Poonam Singh

2010-01-01

161

Variations in essential oil, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity of tunisian cultivated Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

The variation in the chemical composition of the essential oil of Salvia officinalis , growing in different habitats, was studied. GC-MS analysis revealed 57 compounds representing 94.68-96.80% of total oils. The major components were alpha-thujone (11.55-19.23%), viridiflorol (9.94-19.46%), 1,8-cineole (8.85-15.60%), camphor (5.08-15.06%), manool (5.52-13.06%), beta-caryophyllene (2.63-9.24%), alpha-humulene (1.93-8.94%), and beta-thujone (5.45-6.17%), showing significant differences between different collection sites. Analysis of some representative polyphenolic compounds and antioxidant activity was performed using postdistilled dry samples. Rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid were the prevalent compounds of S. officinalis methanolic extracts. The results revealed differences in the polyphenolic composition and also exhibited antioxidant and radical-scavenging activities at different magnitudes of potency. However, within the used methods, only the DPPH(*) assay showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in free radical scavenging activity among samples collected in different regions. Plants collected in the coastal regions Soliman and Kelibia accumulate more polyphenolic compounds, known to be responsible for the main antioxidant activity of sage (rosmarinic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid), than those growing inland at Bou Arada and Sers. Moreover, the former presented a higher radical-scavenging activity. The methanolic extracts of postdistilled S. officinalis might be valuable antioxidant natural sources and seemed to be applicable in both the health medicine and food industries. PMID:19886685

Ben Farhat, Mouna; Jordán, María J; Chaouech-Hamada, Rym; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Sotomayor, Jose A

2009-11-11

162

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use.

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

163

Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran.  

PubMed

Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin-Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g(-1) and 51 mgGAE g(-1) in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-?-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10(-3), 103×10(-3), 25×10(-3) mg mL(-1) respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10(-3)mg mL(-1)). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100(-1)g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL(-1)). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

2011-01-01

164

Assessment of the antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts – In vitro and in vivo experiments on pork  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts was assessed in vitro and in vivo experiments on pork. In the in vitro experiment, the anti-oxidative capacity of ethanol–water extract of Melissa officinalis (MW), ethanol–propylene–glycol extracts of M. officinalis (MP), Origanum vulgaris (O) and Salvia officinalis (S) at different dilutions was analysed. Furthermore a 2% essential oil concentrate was added to Origanum

Rudolf Lahucky; Karin Nuernberg; Lubomir Kovac; Ondrej Bucko; Gerd Nuernberg

2010-01-01

165

Flavonoids and phenolic compounds from Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

A new flavonoid, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylhomoplantaginin (1), and 14 known compounds, 6''-O-(E)-feruloylnepitrin (2), 6''-O-(E)-p-coumaroylnepitrin (3), 6-methoxyluteolin 7-glucopyranoside (4), luteolin 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide (5), luteolin 3'-O-(3''-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucuronide (6), kaempferol (7), luteolin (8), genkwanin (9), and ladanein (10), together with 1-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranose (11), 1-O-(4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranose (12), rosmarinic acid (13), carnosic acid (14), and carnosol (15), were isolated from the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis . The structures were established on the basis of NMR spectroscopic methods supported by HRMS. All isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity in human cancer cell lines (HepG2, COLO 205, and HL-60) and for anti-inflammatory activities in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Among them, compounds 14 and 15 were modestly active in the inhibition of nitrite production in macrophages, followed by compounds 8 and 5. Compounds 14 and 15 were more effective as an antiproliferative agent in HL-60 cells with IC(50) values of 1.7 and 5.5 microM, followed by compounds 8 and 7 with IC(50) of 39.6 and 82.0 microM, respectively. In addition, compounds 14 and 15 showed potent antiproliferative effects on COLO 205 cells with IC(50) values of 32.8 and 29.9 microM, respectively. PMID:20397728

Bai, Naisheng; He, Kan; Roller, Marc; Lai, Ching-Shu; Shao, Xi; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Ho, Chi-Tang

2010-05-12

166

Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

2011-04-01

167

Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.  

PubMed

Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances. PMID:22164787

Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

2011-10-01

168

How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?  

PubMed

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

2014-01-01

169

Inhibitory and cytotoxic activities of salvia officinalis L. Extract on human lymphoma and leukemia cells by induction of apoptosis.  

PubMed

Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin's B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 ?g/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 ?g/ml), U937 (229.312 ?g/ml) and Raji (239.692 ?g/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

Zare Shahneh, Fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

2013-01-01

170

A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.  

PubMed

Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of ?-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

2013-10-01

171

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also

A. Ferreira; C. Proença; M. L. M. Serralheiro; M. E. M. Araújo

2006-01-01

172

Seed treatment with aqueous extract of Viscumalbum induces resistance to pearl millet downy mildew pathogen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Downy mildew (Sclerosporagraminicola [Sacc.] Schroet.) is a serious agricultural problem for pearl millet (Pennisetumglaucum [L.] R. Br.) grain production under field conditions. Six medicinally important plant species Azadirachta indica, Argemone mexicana, Commiphora caudata, Mentha piperita, Emblica officinalis and Viscum album were evaluated for their efficacy against pearl millet downy mildew. Seeds of pearl millet were treated with different concentrations of

Chandrashekhara; S. Niranjan Raj; G. Manjunath; S. Deepak; H. Shekar Shetty

2010-01-01

173

Phyllanthus emblica L. Enhances Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Wound Healing and Sprouting  

PubMed Central

Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of impaired wound healing and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants from natural sources decrease oxidative stress and protect against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the antioxidant constituents and capacity of Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) fruit in freeze-dried power form. The pharmacological properties of PE were investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the aspects of endothelial cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, wound healing, cell migration, in vitro angiogenesis, and VEGF gene expression. The ASC content of PE was 1.574% + 0.046% (w/w) as determined by HPLC and the total phenolic content was 36.1%?± 0.7% gallic acid equivalent when measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The FRAP assay revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity at 3,643 + 192.5?µmole/mg. PE at 0.1 to 10?µg/mL did not significantly influence endothelial cell proliferation, but at higher concentrations PE decreased cell survival to 62%. PE significantly promoted NO production, endothelial wound closure, endothelial sprouting, and VEGF mRNA expression. Therefore, PE is a candidate for antioxidant supplement that promotes endothelial function and restores wound healing competency.

Chularojmontri, Linda; Suwatronnakorn, Maneewan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

2013-01-01

174

Suppression of human fibrosarcoma cell metastasis by Phyllanthus emblica extract in vitro.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica (PE) is known to exhibit various pharmacological properties. This study aimed to evaluate the antimetastatic potential of a PE aqueous extract. Cytotoxicity to human fibrosarcoma cells, HT1080, was determined by viability assay using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol,2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reagent. Cell migration and invasion were investigated using chemotaxis chambers containing membranes pre- coated with collagen IV and Matrigel, respectively. Cell attachment onto normal surfaces of cell culture plates was tested to determine the cell-adhesion capability. The molecular mechanism of antimetastatic activity was assessed by measuring the gene expression of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP2, and MMP9, using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The mRNA levels of both genes were significantly down-regulated after pretreatment with PE extract for 5 days. Our findings show the antimetastatic function of PE extract in reducing cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and adhesion in both dose- and time-dependent manners, especially growth arrest with low IC50 value. A decrease in the expression of both MMP2 and MMP9 seems to be the cellular mechanism for antimetastasis in this case. There is a high potential to use PE extracts clinically as an optional adjuvant therapeutic drug for therapeutic intervention strategies in cancer therapy or chemoprevention. PMID:24377618

Yahayo, Waraporn; Supabphol, Athikom; Supabphol, Roongtawan

2013-01-01

175

Antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury  

PubMed Central

Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) occurs after the administration of intravenous iodinated contrast agents. Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the most important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of the extract from Phyllanthus emblica (PE) in preventing CI-AKI. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected into eight groups, were given water (control) or PE extract (125 or 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 5 days before the induction of CI-AKI. Renal function and oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in plasma and renal tissue. Kidney sections were performed for histopathological examination. Results In the contrast media (CM) group, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were demonstrated which correlated with severity of tubular necrosis, peritubular capillary congestion and interstitial edema. Moreover, an increase in MDA and a decrease in TAC SOD and CAT activity in CM group were significantly changed when compared with the control (P?

2014-01-01

176

Phyllanthus emblica L. Enhances Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Wound Healing and Sprouting.  

PubMed

Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of impaired wound healing and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants from natural sources decrease oxidative stress and protect against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the antioxidant constituents and capacity of Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) fruit in freeze-dried power form. The pharmacological properties of PE were investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the aspects of endothelial cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, wound healing, cell migration, in vitro angiogenesis, and VEGF gene expression. The ASC content of PE was 1.574% + 0.046% (w/w) as determined by HPLC and the total phenolic content was 36.1%?± 0.7% gallic acid equivalent when measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The FRAP assay revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity at 3,643 + 192.5?µmole/mg. PE at 0.1 to 10?µg/mL did not significantly influence endothelial cell proliferation, but at higher concentrations PE decreased cell survival to 62%. PE significantly promoted NO production, endothelial wound closure, endothelial sprouting, and VEGF mRNA expression. Therefore, PE is a candidate for antioxidant supplement that promotes endothelial function and restores wound healing competency. PMID:23606890

Chularojmontri, Linda; Suwatronnakorn, Maneewan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

2013-01-01

177

Effects of plants containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids on the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla  

Microsoft Academic Search

1,2-Dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), known to be nematotoxic in vitro, represent a class of secondary plant metabolites from hundreds of plant species worldwide. Pot experiments with the commercially\\u000a available PA-containing plants Ageratum houstonianum, Borago officinalis, Senecio bicolor, and Symphytum officinalis demonstrate that Meloidogyne hapla is not per se repelled by these plants as all species were infested with nematodes. However, the

Tim C. Thoden; Johannes Hallmann; Michael Boppré

2009-01-01

178

Micropropagation of Melissa officinalis L. through proliferation of axillary shoots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple shoots were differentiated in cotyledonary nodes of 10 d old seedlings of Melissa officinalis, cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (0-4 mg\\/l). The production of shoots was further induced in subcultures of the original expiant, after the first harvest of shoots (stump), using similar conditions. The highest average number of shoots in the two inoculations was obtained with

A. C. Tavares; M. C. Pimenta; M. T. Gonçalves

1996-01-01

179

Melissa officinalis, L.: study of antioxidant activity in supercritical residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

The supercritical CO2 extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.) at pressures from 10 to 18 MPa and at temperatures of 308–313 K was studied. The antioxidant activity of lemon balm extracts, obtained from solid residues of supercritical extraction and from raw lemon balm leaves, was performed using the Rancimat method. The best protection factor curve was obtained when extracts

M. A Ribeiro; M. G Bernardo-Gil; M. M Esqu??vel

2001-01-01

180

Electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from Sepia officinalis cartilage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrophoretic and Western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. The antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: Sepia I-like; fish I; human I; chicken I, II, and IX; rat V; and calf IX and

C Rigo; D. J Hartmann; A Bairati

2002-01-01

181

Diurnal temperature alternations (DIF\\/drop) affect chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a\\/chlorophyll b ratio in Melissa officinalis L. and Ocimum basilicum L., but not in Viola× wittrockiana Gams  

Microsoft Academic Search

DIF, defined as day temperature (DT) minus night temperature (NT), influences plant morphology in a wide range of species. A controlled climate experiment was conducted to elucidate whether negative DIF (?6°C) or positive DIF (+6°C) treatments or a 2-h temperature drop or increase at different times during the day, would affect chlorophyll concentration in Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm), Ocimum

Ingunn M. Vĺgen; Roar Moe; Eli Ronglan

2003-01-01

182

TÝbbi AdaŤayÝ (Salvia officinalis L.) ‚eliklerinde Kšk Olußumu ve Gelißimi EsnasÝnda Mineral Element Konsantrasyonunda Meydana Gelen DeŰißiklikler ve IBA Etkisi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in the tissue elemental concentration in stem cuttings of sage (Salvia officinalis) and the effects of IBA on the variation of plant nutrients and rooting were studied during the initiation and development of adventitious roots. In the study, three different treatments, 100 ppm, 200 ppm IBA application and no IBA application (control) were used on S. offic- inalis L.

Filiz AYANOÚLU

183

Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.  

PubMed

Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

2004-01-01

184

The effect of triacontanol on micropropagationof balm, Melissa officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Triacontanol, a long-chain primary alcohol was found to be an effective growth regulator in the micropropagation of balm,\\u000a Melissa officinalis. In both the multiplication and the rooting phase, concentrations of 2, 5, 10 and 20??g triacontanol per liter were applied.\\u000a After 4 weeks of culture, the fresh weight of shoots was measured in the multiplication phase and root formation, photosynthetic

Á. Tantos; A. Mészáros; J. Kissimon; G. Horváth; T. Farkas

1999-01-01

185

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the seeds of Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae) led to the isolation of three new phytoconstituents, identified as n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide (altheahexacosanyl lactone), 2beta-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and 5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6beta-D-glucopyranoside (altheacoumarin glucoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, beta-sitosterol and lanosterol. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectral analysis and chemical reactions. PMID:20803381

Rani, Sunita; Khan, Suroor A; Ali, M

2010-09-01

186

Volatiles From Leaves and Flowers of Borage (Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils obtained from the fresh leaves and flowers of Borago officinalis collected in the region of Amdoun (northwestern Tunisia) were examined by GC and GC\\/MS. Twenty-three volatile compounds were identified. The oil yields expressed on a dry weight basis were 0.14% and 0.24% for the leaves and flowers, respectively. The main compound determined in flower and leaf oil

Baya Mhamdi; Wissem A. Wannes; Wissal Dhiffi; Brahim Marzouk

2009-01-01

187

Antioxidant and Antifungal Activity of Verbena officinalis L. Leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform,\\u000a ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were\\u000a also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered\\u000a as excellent and readily available

E. Casanova; J. M. García-Mina; M. I. Calvo

2008-01-01

188

DETERMINATION OF Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd AND Se CONTENT IN MEDICAL PLANTS BY X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS AND GALVANOSTATIC STRIPPING CHRONOPOTENTIOMETRIC ANALYSIS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The contents of selected metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd and Se) in five species of medical plants (Melissa officinalis L., Agrimonia eupatoria L., Hypericum perforatum L., Salvia officinalis L. and Achillea millefolium L.) collected during the year 2006 in one Slovak locality, the region of Nitra, were studied in this work. The study was realized by the determination of the

Tomus LV

2008-01-01

189

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student’s t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect.

Feliu-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, Cesar

2013-01-01

190

Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion as physiological stress decreaser.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion on the severity of physiological chronic stress induced by movement restriction in CF-1 mice. 40 CF-1 male mice, six weeks of age, were divided into 4 groups (n = 10 for each group): (1) Group RS/MP received two treatments, induced stress through movement restriction and a infusion of Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea in a dose of 200 mg/kg, (2) RS group with induced stress using movement restriction, (3) MP group, which received only a infusion, and (4) a CONTROL group that received no treatment. The severity of the stress was obtained by analysis of the physical parameters of body weight, thymus and spleen, and associated biomarkers with stress, corticosterone, and glucose. Animals that consumed Melissa officinalis and Passiflora caerulea infusion had lower plasma corticosterone levels (Student's t test, Welch, p = 0.05), which is the most important biomarker associated with physiological stress, demonstrating a phytotherapy effect. PMID:23844268

Feliú-Hemmelmann, Karina; Monsalve, Francisco; Rivera, César

2013-01-01

191

Composition of the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and evaluation of skin irritation in a reconstituted human epidermis model.  

PubMed

The composition of a centrifuged product obtained from the fresh leaves and stems of Melissa officinalis and skin irritation in the reconstituted human epidermis (Episkin model) have been investigated in comparison to the EtOH-H(2)O (1:1) extract obtained by Soxhlet from the dried plant. Two new sulfated triterpenes (1 and 2) and two ionol derivatives have been isolated for the first time from Melissa officinalis together with caffeic and rosmarinic acids. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. Both the centrifuged material and its major constituents neither affected cell viability nor caused the release of pro-inflammatory mediators or the decrease of trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) in the reconstituted human epidermis. PMID:19653667

Mencherini, Teresa; Picerno, Patrizia; Russo, Paola; Meloni, Marisa; Aquino, Rita

2009-08-01

192

New pharmacological properties of Medicago sativa and Saponaria officinalis saponin-rich fractions addressed to Candida albicans.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of the saponin-rich fractions (SFs) from Medicago sativa (aerial parts and roots) and Saponaria officinalis (used as a well-known source of plant saponins) against Candida albicans reference and clinical strains, their yeast-to-hyphal conversion, adhesion, and biofilm formation was investigated. Direct fungicidal/fungistatic properties of the tested phytochemicals used alone, as well as their synergy with azoles (probably resulting from yeast cell wall instability) were demonstrated. Here, to the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time the ability of saponin-rich extracts of M. sativa and S. officinalis to inhibit C. albicans germ tube formation, limit hyphal growth, reduce yeast adherence and biofilm formation, and eradicate mature (24 h) Candida biofilm. Moreover, M. sativa SFs (mainly obtained from aerial parts), in the range of concentrations which were active modulators of Candida virulence factors, exhibited low cytotoxicity against the mouse fibroblast line L929. These properties seem to be very promising in the context of using plant-derived SFs as potential novel antifungal therapeutics supporting classic drugs or as ingredients of disinfectants. PMID:24850879

Sadowska, Beata; Budzy?ska, Aleksandra; Wi?ckowska-Szakiel, Marzena; Paszkiewicz, Ma?gorzata; Stochmal, Anna; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalczyk, Mariusz; Ró?alska, Barbara

2014-08-01

193

Capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of

Valeria Radulescu; Silvia Chiliment; Eliza Oprea

2004-01-01

194

Glandular trichomes of Rosmarinus officinalis L.: Anatomical and phytochemical analyses of leaf volatiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinus officinalis is known for the production of volatile compounds used in medicinal and food preparations. Leaves of R. officinalis are densely covered with capitate and peltate glandular trichomes where biosynthesis of volatiles mainly occurs. This study aims to conduct a morphological assessment to identify anatomical characteristics of both leaves and trichomes, as well as a chemical analysis of leaf

Yilan Fung Boix; Cristiane Pimentel Victório; Anna Carina Antunes Defaveri; Rosani Do Carmo De Oliveira Arruda; Alice Sato; Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

2011-01-01

195

In vitro anti-oxidant activity, fluorescence quenching study and structural features of carbohydrate polymers from Phyllanthus emblica.  

PubMed

The water-extracted carbohydrate polymers (WE) of Phyllanthus emblica are analyzed using chemical, chromatographic, and spectroscopic methods. Anion-exchange-chromatography of WE yielded four fractions (F1-F4) with different chemical compositions and all of them contain phenolics. The major fraction F4 possesses 50% polysaccharide and 26% phenol, and is a glycoconjugate. The antioxidant capacities of WE and F4 are comparable to standard anti-oxidants. Notably, activities of F1-F4 correlate with their phenol content. Evidence for the complexation of F4 with bovine serum albumin is presented by fluorescence quenching measurement. The results also indicate conformational change of protein at high carbohydrate polymer concentration. PMID:21741399

Chatterjee, Udipta Ranjan; Bandyopadhyay, Shruti S; Ghosh, Debjani; Ghosal, Pradyot K; Ray, Bimalendu

2011-11-01

196

Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A ?-Induced Toxicity.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (A?) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on A?-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with A? and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against A?-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

197

Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A ?-Induced Toxicity  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (A?) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on A?-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with A? and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against A?-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction.

Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

2013-01-01

198

Transformation of Althaea officinalis L. by Agrobacterium rhizogenes for the production of transgenic roots expressing the anti-HIV microbicide cyanovirin-N.  

PubMed

The marshmallow plant (Althaea officinalis L.) has been used for centuries in medicine and other applications. Valuable secondary metabolites have previously been identified in Agrobacterium rhizogenes-generated transgenic 'hairy' roots in this species. In the present study, transgenic roots were produced in A. officinalis using A. rhizogenes. In addition to wild-type lines, roots expressing the anti-human immunodeficiency virus microbicide candidate, cyanovirin-N (CV-N), were generated. Wild-type and CV-N root lines were transferred to liquid culture and increased in mass by 49 and 19 % respectively over a 7 day culture period. In the latter, the concentration of CV-N present in the root tissue was 2.4 ?g/g fresh weight, with an average secretion rate into the growth medium of 0.02 ?g/ml/24 h. A. officinalis transgenic roots may therefore in the future be used not only as a source of therapeutic secondary metabolites, but also as an expression system for the production of recombinant pharmaceuticals. PMID:23852261

Drake, Pascal M W; de Moraes Madeira, Luisa; Szeto, Tim H; Ma, Julian K-C

2013-12-01

199

Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.  

PubMed

Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-?-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

2013-01-01

200

[Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].  

PubMed

Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it. PMID:16544510

Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

2005-12-01

201

Interactions of Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. in a patient treated with lorazepam.  

PubMed

There is an increasing interest in the health risks related to the use of herbal remedies. Although most consumers think that phytomedicines are safe and without side effects, interactions between complementary alternative and conventional medicines are being described. The aim of this clinical case report is to highlight the importance of the safe use of herbal remedies by providing a clinical interaction study between pharmaceutical medicines and herbal medicinal products. The case of a patient self-medicated with Valeriana officinalis L. and Passiflora incarnata L. while he was on lorazepam treatment is described. Handshaking, dizziness, throbbing and muscular fatigue were reported within the 32 h before clinical diagnosis. The analysis of family medical history ruled out essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, Wilson's disease and other symptom-related pathologies. His medical history revealed a generalized anxiety disorder and medicinal plant consumption but no neurological disorder. Appropriate physical examination was carried out. An additive or synergistic effect is suspected to have produced these symptoms. The active principles of Valerian and passionflower might increase the inhibitory activity of benzodiazepines binding to the GABA receptors, causing severe secondary effects. Due to the increase in herbal product self-medication, the use of herbal remedies should be registered while taking the personal clinical history. Multidisciplinary teams should be created to raise studies on medicinal plants with impact on medical praxis. PMID:19441067

Carrasco, María Consuelo; Vallejo, José Ramón; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Peral, Diego; Martín, Miguel Angel; Altimiras, Jacinto

2009-12-01

202

Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.  

PubMed

The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual dimorphism in plants without the confounding effects of genetic differences between separate male and female individuals. PMID:24690875

Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

2014-01-01

203

Pharmacological basis for the use of Borago officinalis in gastrointestinal, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn this study, we investigated the crude extract of Borago officinalis leaves (Bo.Cr) for its antispasmodic, bronchodilator, vasodilator and cardio-depressant activities to rationalize some of the traditional uses.

Anwarul Hassan Gilani; Samra Bashir; Arif-ullah Khan

2007-01-01

204

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis L. extract contains an anti-HSV-2 substance. PMID:15636181

Allahverdiyev, A; Duran, N; Ozguven, M; Koltas, S

2004-11-01

205

Composition of the Essential Oil from Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in Slovak Republic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf oil obtained by hydrodistillation from Melissa officinalis L. c. v. citra cultivated at Nitra locality (Slovak Republic) was analyzed by GC and GC\\/MS. M. officinalis oil was found to contain geranial (33.60%), neral (22.18%), citronellal (11.30%), caryophyllene oxide (8.35%), geranyl acetate (5.89%), and ?-caryophyllene (4.20%) as the major components. More than 50 components were identified in the oil.

Magda Hollá; Emil Svajdlenka; Jozef Tekel; Stefánia Vaverková; Emil Havránek

1997-01-01

206

Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200?g\\/ml) of volatile oils were examined.

A. Allahverdiyev; N. Duran; M. Ozguven; S. Koltas

2004-01-01

207

Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 ?M) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC50 of approximately 20 ng\\/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on

H. Sadraei; A. Ghannadi; K. Malekshahi

2003-01-01

208

Aerobiological and clinical aspects of Parietaria officinalis in the area of Thessaloniki, Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  We collected the daily pollen samples during a 3-year period (Febr '87–Dec '89), using a Burkard volumetric trap, located on a high level area in the center of the city.Parietaria officinalis pollen was not differentiated under microscope from the other Urticaceae but through phenological criteria. The patients included in the detection of the sensitivity toP. officinalis pollen came from the

Dimitrios Gioulekas; Georgios Chatzigeorgiou; Despina Papakosta; Elias Eleftherochorinos; Frits Th. Spieksma

1991-01-01

209

Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oils from Laurus nobilis and Melissa officinalis: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation and ultrasound extraction.  

PubMed

Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) has been applied to the extraction of essential oils from Melissa officinalis L. and Laurus nobilis L. The results of SFME were compared with those obtained by hydro-distillation (HD) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (USE) of essential oils from dried plant materials. The compositions of the essential oils were identified by GC-MS. The essential oil obtained with SFME contained substantially higher amounts of oxygenated compounds and lower amounts of monoterpenes than the oils obtained by conventional methods. The three different extraction methods used showed differences in the compositions and contents of the essential oils. PMID:20184034

Uysal, Burcu; Sozmen, Fazli; Buyuktas, Birsen S

2010-01-01

210

Antioxidative activity and phenolic composition of pilot-plant and commercial extracts of sage and rosemary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight sage (Salvia officinalis) and twenty-four rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extracts, originating from pilot-plant or commercial sources, had different antioxidative activities as measured by accelerated\\u000a autoxidation of methyl linoleate. Twenty-seven compounds were characterized in the Labiatae family extracts by high-performance\\u000a liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry, equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization interface,\\u000a and by HPLC coupled with a

Marie-Elisabeth Cuvelier; Hubert Richard; Claudette Berset

1996-01-01

211

Preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of roots of Paeonia officinalis Linn.  

PubMed Central

Objective To carry out a preliminary phytochemical, acute oral toxicity and antihepatotoxic study of the roots of Paeonia officinalis (P. officinalis) L. Methods Preliminary phytochemical investigation was done as per standard procedures. Acute oral toxicity study was conducted as per OECD 425 guidelines. The antihepatotoxic activity of aqueous extract of root of P. officinalis was evaluated against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic damage in rats. Aqueous extract of P. officinalis at the dose levels of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight was administered daily for 14 d in experimental animals. Liver injury was induced chemically, by CCl4 administration (1 mL/kg i.p.). The hepatoprotective activity was assessed using various biochemical parameters like aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP), total bilirubin and total protein (TP) along with histopathological studies. Result Phytochemical screening revealed that the roots of P. officinalis contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, carbohydrates, flavonoids, terpenes, steroids and proteins. The aqueous extract did not cause any mortality up to 2?000 mg/kg. In rats that had received the root extract at the dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the substantially elevated AST, ALT, SALP, total bilirubin levels were significantly lowered, respectively, in a dose dependent manner, along with CCl4 while TP levels were elevated in these groups. Histopathology revealed regeneration of the livers in extract treated groups while Silymarin treated rats were almost normal. Conclusions The aqueous extract of P. officinalis is safe and possesses antihepatotoxic potential.

Ahmad, Feroz; Tabassum, Nahida

2013-01-01

212

Oxidative stress modulation by Rosmarinus officinalis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) possesses antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects, and so may provide a possible therapeutic alternative for chronic liver disease. The effect produced by a methanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on CCl(4)-induced liver cirrhosis in rats was investigated using both prevention and reversion models. Over the course of the development of cirrhosis, the increased enzymatic activities of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and alanine aminotransferase, and the rise in bilirubin levels caused by CCl(4) administration, were prevented by Rosmarinus officinalis co-administration. When the cirrhosis by oxidative stress was evaluated as an increase on liver lipoperoxidation, total lipid peroxides, nitric oxide in serum, and loss of erythrocyte plasma membrane stability, R. officinalis was shown to prevent such alterations. On cirrhotic animals treated with CCl(4), histological studies showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation and fibrosis which were modified by R. officinalis. These benefits on experimental cirrhosis suggest a potential therapeutic use for R. officinalis as an alternative for liver cirrhosis. PMID:19827016

Gutiérrez, Rosalinda; Alvarado, José L; Presno, Manuel; Pérez-Veyna, Oscar; Serrano, Carmen J; Yahuaca, Patricia

2010-04-01

213

Gallic Acid Enriched Fraction of Phyllanthus emblica Potentiates Indomethacin-Induced Gastric Ulcer Healing via e-NOS-Dependent Pathway.  

PubMed

The healing activity of gallic acid enriched ethanolic extract (GAE) of Phyllanthus emblica fruits (amla) against the indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice was investigated. The activity was correlated with the ability of GAE to alter the cyclooxygenase- (COX-) dependent healing pathways. Histology of the stomach tissues revealed maximum ulceration on the 3rd day after indomethacin (18?mg/kg, single dose) administration that was associated with significant increase in inflammatory factors, namely, mucosal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and inducible nitric oxide synthase (i-NOS) expression. Proangiogenic parameters such as the levels of prostaglandin (PG) E(2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), von Willebrand Factor VIII, and endothelial NOS (e-NOS) were downregulated by indomethacin. Treatment with GAE (5?mg/kg/day) and omeprazole (3?mg/kg/day) for 3 days led to effective healing of the acute ulceration, while GAE could reverse the indomethacin-induced proinflammatory changes of the designated biochemical parameters. The ulcer healing activity of GAE was, however, compromised by coadministration of the nonspecific NOS inhibitor, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not the i-NOS-specific inhibitor, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl) lysine hydrochloride (L-NIL). Taken together, these results suggested that the GAE treatment accelerates ulcer healing by inducing PGE(2) synthesis and augmenting e-NOS/i-NOS ratio. PMID:22966242

Chatterjee, Ananya; Chatterjee, Sirshendu; Biswas, Angshuman; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Chattopadhyay, Subrata; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K

2012-01-01

214

Cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to the sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene by an enzyme system from sage (Salvia officinalis).  

PubMed

A soluble enzyme preparation obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves was shown to catalyze the divalent metal-ion dependent cyclization of trans, trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate to the macrocyclic sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene. The identities of the biosynthetic products were confirmed by radiochromatographic analysis and by preparation of crystalline derivatives, and the specificity of labeling in the cyclization reaction was established by chemical degradation of the olefins derived enzymatically from [1-3H2]farnesyl pyrophosphate. These results constitute the first report on the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to humulene and caryophyllene, two of the most common sesquiterpenes in nature, and the first description of a soluble sesquiterpene cyclase to be isolated from leaves of a higher plant. PMID:6486812

Croteau, R; Gundy, A

1984-09-01

215

Steroidal saponins from Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Two oligofurostanosides were isolated from the seeds of Asparagus officinalis L and their structures characterized as 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl- (1-->4))-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-26-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-(25R) -22 alpha-methoxyfurost-5-ene-3 beta,26-diol(methyl protodioscin) and its corresponding 22 alpha-hydroxy analogue (protodioscin). The structural identification was performed using detailed analysis of 1H- and 13C-NMR spectra including two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy (COSY, HMQC, NOESY and HMBC), and chemical conversions. These two compounds have been shown to inhibit the growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells in culture and macromolecular synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis was found to be irreversible. PMID:9225609

Shao, Y; Poobrasert, O; Kennelly, E J; Chin, C K; Ho, C T; Huang, M T; Garrison, S A; Cordell, G A

1997-06-01

216

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

2008-01-01

217

Seasonal variations of phenolic compounds and biological properties in sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The aim was to investigate the phenolic content, antioxidant capacity, and antibacterial activity of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves collected during different vegetation periods. Separation and quantification of the individual phenols were performed by reversed-phase (RP)-HPLC coupled with a PDA (photodiode array) detector and using an internal standard, while the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, flavones, and flavonols were determined spectrophotometrically. The antioxidant properties of the sage leaf extracts were evaluated using five different antioxidant assays (FRAP, DPPH, ABTS, Briggs-Rauscher reaction, and ?-carotene bleaching). The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was tested against two Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative (Salmonella Infantis and Escherichia coli) bacterial reference strains. All extracts were extremely rich in phenolic compounds, and provided good antioxidant and antibacterial properties, but the phenophase in which the leaves were collected affected the phenolic composition of the sage extracts and consequently their biological activity. The May Extract, the richest in total flavonoids, showed the best antioxidant properties and the highest antimicrobial activity. Thus, collection of the plants during May seems the best choice for further use of them in the pharmaceutical and food industry. PMID:22344920

Generali?, Ivana; Skroza, Danijela; Surjak, Jana; Možina, Sonja Smole; Ljubenkov, Ivica; Katalini?, Ana; Simat, Vida; Katalini?, Višnja

2012-02-01

218

Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)  

SciTech Connect

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

1990-08-01

219

Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168

Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

2001-04-15

220

Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Salvia officinalis L. leaves: the relevance of ursolic acid.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis L. leaves, obtained from four plant populations of different origin, were investigated for their topical anti-inflammatory properties. The n-hexane and the chloroform extracts dose-dependently inhibited the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice, the chloroform extracts being the most active. By contrast, the methanol extracts showed a very low effect and the essential oil was inactive. Chemical and pharmacological investigation of the most potent chloroform extract, issued from an autochthonous sage population grown in the submediterranean climatic region of Slovenia, revealed ursolic acid as the main component involved in its anti-inflammatory activity. The anti-inflammatory effect of ursolic acid (ID50 = 0.14 microMoles/cm2) was two fold more potent than that of indomethacin (ID50 = 0.26 microMoles/cm2), which was used as a reference non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The content of ursolic acid in sage and sage-based remedies for the topical treatment of inflammatory diseases is proposed as a parameter for quality control purposes. PMID:11297842

Baricevic, D; Sosa, S; Della Loggia, R; Tubaro, A; Simonovska, B; Krasna, A; Zupancic, A

2001-05-01

221

Constituents of Asparagus officinalis evaluated for inhibitory activity against cyclooxygenase-2.  

PubMed

As part of a project directed toward the discovery of new cancer chemopreventive agents from plants, two new natural products, asparagusic acid anti-S-oxide methyl ester (1) and asparagusic acid syn-S-oxide methyl ester (2), a new acetylenic compound, 2-hydroxyasparenyn [3',4'-trans-2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-4-[5-(4-methoxyphenoxy)-3-penten-1-ynyl]-benzene] (3), as well as eleven known compounds, asparenyn (4), asparenyol (5), (+/-)-1-monopalmitin (6), ferulic acid (7), 1,3-O-di-p-coumaroylglycerol (8), 1-O-feruloyl-3-O-p-coumaroylglycerol (9), blumenol C, (+/-)-epipinoresinol, linoleic acid, 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol, and 1,2-O-diferuloylglycerol, were isolated from an ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of Asparagus officinalis (Asparagus), using a bioassay based on the inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 to monitor chromatographic fractionation. The structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). All the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects against both cyclooxygenase-1 and -2, with the most active compound being linoleic acid. PMID:15080623

Jang, Dae Sik; Cuendet, Muriel; Fong, Harry H S; Pezzuto, John M; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2004-04-21

222

Metabolism of Monoterpenes in Cell Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis) 1  

PubMed Central

Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from [U-14C]sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+)-camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+)-camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+)-camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

Falk, Kimberly L.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Croteau, Rodney

1990-01-01

223

Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).  

PubMed

The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, ? carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

2014-05-01

224

Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.  

PubMed

Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66?±?4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04?±?0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p?officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells. PMID:23432355

Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

2013-06-01

225

Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).  

PubMed

Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, ?- and ?-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for ?-/?-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively). PMID:22196947

Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

2012-03-01

226

In vitro effects of Salvia officinalis L. essential oil on Candida albicans  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the anticandidal activities of Salvia officinalis L. (S. officinalis) essential oil against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and the inhibitory effects on the adhesion of C. albicans to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin surface. Methods Disc diffusion method was first used to test the anticandidal activities of the S. officinalis L. essential oil against the reference strain (ATCC 90028) and 2 clinical strains of C. albicans. Then the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were determined by modified membrane method. The adhesion of C. albicans to PMMA resin surface was assessed after immersion with S. officinalis L. essential oil at various concentrations of 1×MIC, 0.5×MIC and 0.25×MIC at room temperature for 30 min. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the Candida cell adhesion with the pretreatment agents and Tukey's test was used for multiple comparisons. Results S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activity against all strains of C. albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 40.5 mm to 19.5 mm. The MIC and MLC of the oil were determined as 2.780 g/L against all test strains. According to the effects on C. albicans adhesion to PMMA resin surface, it was found that immersion in the essential oil at concentrations of 1×MIC (2.780 g/L), 0.5×MIC (1.390 g/L) and 0.25×MIC (0.695 g/L) for 30 min significantly reduced the adhesion of all 3 test strains to PMMA resin surface in a dose dependent manner (P<0.05). Conclusions S. officinalis L. essential oil exhibited anticandidal activities against C. albicans and had inhibitory effects on the adhesion of the cells to PMMA resin surface. With further testing and development, S. officinalis essential oil may be used as an antifungal denture cleanser to prevent candidal adhesion and thus reduce the risk of candida-associated denture stomatitis.

Sookto, Tularat; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj; Thaweboon, Sroisiri; Thaweboon, Boonyanit; Shrestha, Binit

2013-01-01

227

Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.  

PubMed

To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

2013-09-01

228

Protective effect of Calamintha officinalis Moench leaves against alcohol-induced gastric mucosa injury in rats. Macroscopic, histologic and phytochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Calamintha officinalis Moench (Lamiaceae) is an aromatic plant used since ancient times for its preservative and medicinal properties. The plant, known as 'Mentuccia' in Central Italy, is used in cooking as an aromatizant and to impart aroma and flavour to food. The methanol extract of the leaves was subjected to phytochemical and biological investigations. The extract contains polyphenols, catechic tannins and terpenes and shows radical scavenger activity. By means of HPLC analysis, eriocitrin, eriodyctiol, acacetin, linarin, benzoic acid and some phenolic acids, such as caffeic, chlorogenic, p-coumaric, were determined. The gastroprotective activity of the extract was investigated using ethanol-induced ulcer in rats, with sucralfate as a reference drug. Samples of gastric mucosa, stained by PAS and haematoxylin/eosin, were observed by light microscopy. The efficacy of the extract was comparable to that of the reference drug. Probably the gastroprotective effect depends on a synergistic action of all the compounds occurring in C. officinalis leaves, even if the antioxidant potential of the leaves plays an important role by removing damaging agents from the gastric mucosa. PMID:22076933

Monforte, M T; Lanuzza, F; Pergolizzi, S; Mondello, F; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

2012-06-01

229

Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.  

PubMed

Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts. PMID:19249334

Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

2009-06-01

230

In vivo assessment of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis) in alloxan-diabetic rabbits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), used in traditional Turkish folk medicine for the treatment of hyperglycaemia, is widely accepted as one of the medicinal herb with the highest antioxidant activity. Accordingly, the present study was designed to investigate the possible actions of ethanolic extract of the leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in rabbits. In the first set

Tülay Bak?rel; Utku Bak?rel; Oya Üstüner Kele?; Sinem Güne? Ülgen; Hasret Yardibi

2008-01-01

231

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Berneski, Miss

2011-12-10

232

Local intranasal immunotherapy with allergen in powder in atopic patients sensitive to Parietaria officinalis pollen.  

PubMed

Local Intranasal Immunotherapy (LII) is a new approach to the treatment of allergic rhinitis due to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis. The aim of this study was to verify the usefulness of LII and to determine the proper doses. Twenty adult patients all presenting a sensitization to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis were randomly divided into two groups: 15 received the treatment and five were the control group. Treatment started before the beginning of the pollinic season of Parietaria officinalis and continued during the season. The extract used was an active extract of macronized powder Parietaria officinalis pollen in increasing doses. Doses were determined periodically with specific nasal provocation tests. Results in the treated group compared to the control group were statistically significant if one considers the increase in threshold sensitivity in the nasal provocation test, the diminution of clinical symptomatology and the quantity of drug required to control symptoms in the treated group. The side effects were few; it was only in one case that the treatment had to be interrupted. LII for allergic rhinitis due to the pollen of Parietaria officinalis seems an effective and practicable method even during the pollinic season. PMID:7582157

Ariano, R; Panzani, R C; Chiapella, M; Augeri, G; Falagiani, P

1995-01-01

233

Valeriana officinalis ameliorates vacuous chewing movements induced by reserpine in rats.  

PubMed

Oral movements are associated with important neuropathologies as Parkinson's disease and tardive dyskinesia. However, until this time, there has been no known efficacious treatment, without side effects, for these disorders. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the possible preventive effects of V. officinalis, a phytotherapic that has GABAergic and antioxidant properties, in vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) induced by reserpine in rats. Adult male rats were treated with reserpine (1 mg/kg, s.c.) and/or with V. officinalis (in the drinking water, starting 15 days before the administration of the reserpine). VCMs, locomotor activity and oxidative stress measurements were evaluated. Furthermore, we carried out the identification of valeric acid and gallic acid by HPLC in the V. officinalis tincture. Our findings demonstrated that reserpine caused a marked increase on VCMs and the co-treatment with V. officinalis was able to reduce the intensity of VCM. Reserpine did not induce oxidative stress in cerebral structures (cortex, hippocampus, striatum and substantia nigra). However, a significant positive correlation between DCF-oxidation (an estimation of oxidative stress) in the cortex and VCMs (p < 0.05) was observed. Moreover, a negative correlation between Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity in substantia nigra and the number of VCMs was observed (p < 0.05). In conclusion, V. officinalis had behavioral protective effect against reserpine-induced VCMs in rats; however, the exact mechanisms that contributed to this effect have not been completely understood. PMID:21476069

Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Wagner, Caroline; Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira

2011-11-01

234

Chemopreventive efficacy of Phyllanthus emblica L. (amla) fruit extract on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced oral carcinogenesis--a dose-response study.  

PubMed

Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae), a novel natural fruit has long been used as a home remedy by the medical practitioners. In this report, we investigated the chemopreventive effect of P. emblica fruit methanolic extract (PFMet) on oxidant-antioxidant status in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Buccal pouch carcinoma was induced in hamsters by painting with DMBA (0.5% in mineral oil) on the left buccal pouch three times a week for 14 weeks. By means of HPLC analysis, ascorbic acid (24.13%), gallic acid (10.45%), ellagic acid (1.74%) and quercetin (0.009%) were identified and quantified in the PFMet. The results showed that depleted activities of SOD, CAT and TBARS level and significant elevation were observed in the levels of GSH, vitamin E and activity of GPx in DMBA group of buccal pouch. The level of TBARS was significantly enhanced and the activities of enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GPx) and non-enzymatic (vitamin E, vitamin C and GSH) antioxidants were diminished significantly in plasma of tumor bearing animals. The effects were dose dependent and the above noted parameters were renovated to near normal after supplementation with different doses of PFMet (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BW). The data obtained in this study clearly indicate that PFMet at a dose of 200mg/kg BW possesses optimum chemopreventive effect against DMBA-induced buccal pouch carcinogenesis. PMID:23058484

Krishnaveni, Mani; Mirunalini, Sankaran

2012-11-01

235

Pharmacognostical Studies on Balanophora fungosa - a Negative Listed Plant  

PubMed Central

Balanophora fungosa Forster & Forster ssp. indica (Arn.) B. Hansen var. indica, (Balanophoraceae) syn. B. indica, is a root parasite found in hills of south India. This plant is included in the list of negative list, which are restricted and prohibited for export. Though it is not an official drug in any of the indigenous systems of medicine in India, it is used in tribal medicines in south India. However, it is found in crude drug markets as substitute/adulterant for the Ayurvedic drug Gajapippali (Scindapsus officinalis). Few phytochemical constituents were reported on this plant. However, there is no pharmacognostical report to authenticate the commercial samples of B. fungosa and to differentiate them from Scindapsus officinalis. This article describes the pharmacognostical characteristics of Balanophora fungosa and diagnostic features to differentiate it from Scindapsus officinalis.

Kannan, R.; Babu, U. V.

2011-01-01

236

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

PubMed

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

237

Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNF?. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease. PMID:20874690

Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

2010-12-01

238

Acylated iridoids from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia.  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia resulted in the isolation and characterization of six new acylated iridoids, (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-8-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (1), (5S,7S,8S,9S)-7-hydroxy-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (2), (5S,8S,9S)-10-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-dihyronepetalactone (3), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-1,3-diol (4), (5S,6S,8S,9R)-1,3-isovaleroxy-?4,11-1,3-diol (5), and (5S,6S,8S,9R)-3-isovaleroxy-6-isovaleroyloxy-??,ąą-1,3-diol (6). Their structures were determined mainly by 1D and 2D?NMR spectroscopic techniques. We also report herein for the first time the single crystal X-ray structure of compound 1. In addition, the cytotoxic activities of compounds 1-6 were evaluated against A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HCT116 (human colon carcinoma), SK-BR-3 (human breast carcinoma), and HepG2 (human hepatoma) cell lines. Compound 6 showed weak cell growth inhibition of A549, HCT116, SK-BR-3, and HepG2 cells. PMID:22872588

Han, Zhu-zhen; Yan, Zhao-hui; Liu, Qing-xin; Hu, Xian-qing; Ye, Ji; Li, Hui-liang; Zhang, Wei-dong

2012-10-01

239

Electrophoretic and immunochemical study of collagens from Sepia officinalis cartilage.  

PubMed

Electrophoretic and Western blot studies were conducted on collagen fractions extracted from Sepia officinalis (cuttlefish) cartilage using a modified salt precipitation method developed for the isolation of vertebrate collagens. The antibodies used had been raised in rabbit against the following types of collagen: Sepia I-like; fish I; human I; chicken I, II, and IX; rat V; and calf IX and XI. The main finding was that various types of collagen are present in Sepia cartilage, as they are in vertebrate hyaline cartilage. However, the main component of Sepia cartilage is a heterochain collagen similar to vertebrate type I, and this is associated with minor forms similar to type V/XI and type IX. The cephalopod type I-like heterochain collagen can be considered a first step toward the evolutionary development of a collagen analogous to the typical collagen of vertebrate cartilage (type II homochain). The type V/XI collagen present in molluscs, and indeed all phyla from the Porifera upwards, may represent an ancestral collagen molecule conserved relatively unchanged throughout evolution. Type IX-like collagen seems to be essential for the formation of cartilaginous tissue. PMID:12204335

Rigo, C; Hartmann, D J; Bairati, A

2002-08-15

240

Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammatory Responses  

PubMed Central

Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation.

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

2013-01-01

241

Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.  

PubMed

Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-?B activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1? production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

2013-04-01

242

Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.  

PubMed

We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

2013-01-01

243

Effect of Salvia officinalis L. leaves on serum glucose and insulin in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.  

PubMed

The leaves of sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) are reported to have a wide range of biological activities, such as anti-bacterial, fungistatic, virustatic, astringent, eupeptic and anti-hydrotic effects. To determine the hypoglycaemic effect of sage leaves, we investigated the effects of essential oil and methanolic effect of the plant on healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were made diabetic using by streptozotocin (70 mg/kg, i.p.). The methanolic extract (100, 250, 400 and 500 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.042, 0.125, 0.2 and 0.4 ml/kg) were injected intraperitoneally. The control groups were administered water and sunflower oil as vehicles of methanolic extract and essential oil, respectively. Blood samples were obtained from retro-orbital sinus before administration and 1, 3 and 5 h after administrations. The serum glucose was measured by the enzymatic method of glucose oxidase. The results showed that the essential oil of sage did not change serum glucose, while the plant extract significantly decreased serum glucose in diabetic rats in 3h without effect on insulin releasing from the pancreas but not in healthy rats. Also, the LD(50) of the methanolic extract is measured (4000 mg/kg, i.p.). The present data indicate that sage extract has hypoglycaemic effect on diabetic animals and the plant should be considered in future therapeutic researches. PMID:16125023

Eidi, Maryam; Eidi, Akram; Zamanizadeh, Hamidreza

2005-09-14

244

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed Central

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. Images Fig. 2.

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-01-01

245

Ribosome-inactivating proteins from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis L. (soapwort), of Agrostemma githago L. (corn cockle) and of Asparagus officinalis L. (asparagus), and from the latex of Hura crepitans L. (sandbox tree).  

PubMed

Ribosome-inactivating proteins, similar to those already known [Barbieri & Stirpe (1982) Cancer Surveys 1, 489-520] were purified from the seeds of Saponaria officinalis (two proteins), of Agrostemma githago (three proteins), and of Asparagus officinalis (three proteins), and from the latex of Hura crepitans (one protein). The yield ranged from 8 to 400 mg/100 g of starting material. All proteins have an Mr of approx. 30000 and an alkaline isoelectric point. Their sugar content varies from 0 (proteins from S. officinalis) to 40% (protein from H. crepitans). The ribosome-inactivating proteins inhibit protein synthesis by rabbit reticulocyte lysate, the ID50 (concentration giving 50% inhibition) ranging from 1 ng/ml (a protein from S. officinalis) to 18 ng/ml (a protein from A. githago). Those which were tested (the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago) also inhibit polymerization of phenylalanine by isolated ribosomes, acting in an apparently catalytic manner. The protein from H. crepitans inhibited protein synthesis by HeLa cells, with an ID50 of 4 micrograms/ml, whereas the proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago had an ID50 of more than 50-100 micrograms/ml. The ribosome-inactivating proteins from S. officinalis and from A. githago reduced the number of local lesions by tobacco-mosaic virus in the leaves of Nicotiana glutinosa. PMID:6667259

Stirpe, F; Gasperi-Campani, A; Barbieri, L; Falasca, A; Abbondanza, A; Stevens, W A

1983-12-15

246

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

247

Biological screening of 100 plant extracts for cosmetic use (II): anti-oxidative activity and free radical scavenging activity.  

PubMed

Methanol aqueous extracts of 100 plants were screened for anti-oxidative activity using Fenton's reagent/ethyl linoleate system and for free radical scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical generating system. The results suggest that 14 plants - Alpinia officinarum, Areca catechu, Brassica alba, Cannabis sativa, Curcuma longa, Curcuma aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Evodia officinalis, Paeonia suffruticosa, Rhaphanus sativus, Rheum palmatum, Rhus verniciflua, Trapa bispinosa, Zanthoxylum piperitum - may be potential sources of anti-oxidants. Eight plants - Citrus aurantium, Cornus officinalis, Gleditsia japonica, Lindera strychnifolia, Phragmites communis, Prunus mume, Schizandra chinensis, Terminalia chebula - may be the potential source of free radical scavengers from natural plant. PMID:18505484

Kim, B J; Kim, J H; Kim, H P; Heo, M Y

1997-12-01

248

An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.  

PubMed

Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

2010-12-01

249

Evaluation of two natural extracts (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Melissa officinalis L.) as antioxidants in cooked pork patties packed in MAP.  

PubMed

Two natural extracts, from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.; Nutrox) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Meliox) showing a potential antioxidant activity, have been evaluated and compared with a synthetic antioxidant (Butylated hydroxytoluene; BHT) and a control batch. Pork meat patties were made by addition of the mentioned compounds, cooked and packed in modified atmosphere and stored under illumination for 6 days. A descriptive sensory analysis was also conducted. The patties with natural extracts showed higher a*-values (P<0.001) than control and BHT samples. Cooked pork hardness was the lowest for Meliox batch after 0 and 3 days of storage in comparison with the rest of the batches. Nutrox batch showed the lowest TBARS values and hexanal content (P<0.05) throughout the storage period. The batches with natural antioxidants produced the highest concentrations of free thiol groups after 0 and 3 days. Differences in sensory attributes among batches were not detected by the judge panel. PMID:21345605

Lara, M S; Gutierrez, J I; Timón, M; Andrés, A I

2011-07-01

250

Extraction and Liquid Membrane Preconcentration of Rosmarinic Acid from Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liquid membrane separation technique was applied for the recovery and preconcentration of rosmarinic acid from aqueous extract of dried leaves of Balm lemon (Melissa officinalis L.). Among several studied organic solvents, diisopropyl ether and ethylacetate appeared to be appropriate membrane liquids for recovery and selective preconcentration of the acid. The difference in pH values between the two aqueous solutions was

Lubomir Boyadzhiev; Valentina Dimitrova

2006-01-01

251

INVESTIGATIONS ON THE IN VITRO MORPHOGENETIC REACTION OF MELISSA OFFICINALIS L. SPECIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some preliminary results concerning the in vitro initiation of Melissa officinalis species and the morphogenetic reaction of some explants on several hormonal formuli of the basal Murashige-Skoog medium. We recommended some medium formuli that are effective for this species' micropropagation as well as the appropriate accommodation to septic conditions of the neoplantlets obtained in vitro and for

GOGU I. GHIORGHI; DIANA ELENA; T. MAFTEI; DANIELA N. NICU

252

Oil of Melissa officinalis L., as Affected by Storage and Herb Drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oils of the fresh and dried herb Melissa officinalis L., grown in Egypt were subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 60 constituents separated, 21 were identified. The oil consisted mainly of geranial, neral, citronellal, caryophyllene oxide, ?-caryophyllene and geraniol. Drying the herb prior to distillation did not change the qualitative composition of the oil, but the relative amount

A. S. Shabby; S. El-Gengaihi; M. Khattab

1995-01-01

253

Improved in vitro culture and micropropagation of different Melissa officinalis L. genotypes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. is widely cultivated in the world and Iran as well, due to its useful application in medicine. In order to establish a stable and high frequency of regeneration system with 4 landrace collected from different climate in Iran, major parameters such as regeneration rate, rooting percentage, shooting and proliferation rate were investigated. Statistical analysis of results showed

H. Meftahizade; H. Moradkhani; B. Naseri; M. Lofti; A. Naseri

254

Modulation of mood and cognitive performance following acute administration of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) is a traditional herbal medicine, which enjoys contemporary usage as a mild sedative, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent. It has been suggested, in light of in vitro cholinergic binding properties, that Melissa extracts may effectively ameliorate the cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease. To date, no study has investigated the effects on cognition and mood of administration

D. O Kennedy; Andrew B Scholey; N. T. J Tildesley; E. K Perry; K. A Wesnes

2002-01-01

255

Response surface optimised extraction and chromatographic purification of rosmarinic acid from Melissa officinalis leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) leaves with aqueous methanol was optimised using response surface methodology. Fifteen runs were conducted following a Box-Behnken design (BBD) followed by ridge analysis using the concentration of methanol, the extraction temperature and time as the independent variables and taking the extraction yield of RA from lemon balm as the response variable. The optimal

Sooah Kim; Eun Ju Yun; Jin Seop Bak; Hojoung Lee; Sung Joon Lee; Cheong Tae Kim; Jong-Hoon Lee; Kyoung Heon Kim

2010-01-01

256

Composition of the Essential Oil of Melissa officinalis L. from Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential oil of dried herb of Melissa officinalis L. grown in Cuba was subjected to GC\\/MS investigation. Among the 28 constituents separated, 17 were identified (88% of the oil composition). The oil consisted mainly of neral (29–9%) and geranial (41.0%).

Jorge A. Pino; Aristides Rosado; Victor Fuentes

1999-01-01

257

Solvent extraction study of antioxidants from Balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, the extraction of antioxidants from Balm (Melissa officinalis L.) leaves with ethanol is presented. Effects of particle size, amount of solvent and temperature on the extraction rates and concentrations of antioxidants in the extracts were studied and kinetics was determined. Individual antioxidants (carnosic, ursolic and oleanolic acids) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that

Špela Stangler Herodež; Majda Hadolin; Mojca Škerget; Željko Knez

2003-01-01

258

Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81),

G. Mazzanti; L. Battinelli; C. Pompeo; A. M. Serrilli; R. Rossi; I. Sauzullo; F. Mengoni; V. Vullo

2008-01-01

259

Comparison of Several Extraction Methods for the Isolation of Benzoic Acid Derivatives from Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several extraction techniques, such as Soxhlet extraction, solid phase extraction using molecularly imprinted polymer, matrix solid phase dispersion, and supercritical fluid extraction were evaluated for the isolation and purification of phenolic compounds, e.g., benzoic acids from natural samples of Melissa officinalis. The extracts of benzoic acids were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in reversed phase modus (C18 column)

Gabriela Karasová; Jozef Lehotay; Ewa K?odzinska; Bogus?aw Buszewski

2006-01-01

260

Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of Salvia officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and infusion of Salvia officinalis leaves have been widely applied in traditional medicine since ancient times and nowadays subjected to extensive research of their antibacterial, antiviral and cytotoxic properties. This paper shows chemical composition data of S. officinalis leaves essential oil isolated by steam distillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus. Also, the paper presents the chemical content of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion. The volatile and semi-volatile compounds of S. officinalis leaves infusion were isolated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction with hexane and dichloromethane. SPE was carried out on 500 mg octadecylsilane (C18) cartridges and elution with dichloromethane. Liquid-liquid extraction was performed with hexane and dichloromethane. The essential oil in dichloromethane and infusion extracts in hexane and dichloromethane were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. The quantitative results obtained by solid-phase extraction and liquid-liquid extraction showed that SPE on C18 performed the highest recovery of the volatile compounds from infusion sample. PMID:14971492

Radulescu, Valeria; Chiliment, Silvia; Oprea, Eliza

2004-02-20

261

Calendula officinalis—production potential and crop agronomy in southern England  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in Calendula officinalis L. as an industrial oil crop has developed from the discovery that it has a seed-oil content of around 20%, of which up to 60% is calendic acid, a useful industrial feedstock. An EU AIR project `vegetable oils with specific fatty acids', is in progress to further develop this and other species. The first 2 years

H. T. H Cromack; J. M Smith

1998-01-01

262

Seeding date and nitrogen fertilization effects on the performance of borage ( Borago officinalis L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, borage (Borago officinalis L.) has been the subject of increasing agricultural interest because of the potential market for gamma linolenic acid (GLA), an unusual fatty acid extracted from the seed. GLA is an omega-6 essential fatty acid which has been identified as having several beneficial therapeutic effects such as treatment of atopic eczema, diabetes, cyclic mastalgia, heart disease, arthritis,

R El Hafid; S. F Blade; Y Hoyano

2002-01-01

263

Effect of harvesting time on phenolic compounds and antiradical scavenging activity of Borago officinalis seed extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage seeds (Borago officinalis L.) were sampled in Amdoun region (North of Tunisia) during their ripening stage in order to analyse their phenolic compounds and to ascertain their antiradical scavenging activity. The harvesting time effect on some physical properties of borage seed was significant. The increase of dry weight (from 10 to 90%) during ripeness was correlated negatively with that

B. Mhamdi; W. Aidi Wannes; J. Sriti; I. Jellali; R. Ksouri; B. Marzouk

2010-01-01

264

Determination of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis by capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capillary electrophoresis with electrochemical detection has been employed for the determination of honokiol and magnolol in Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (i.e. Magnolia Bark) for the first time. Effects of several important factors such as the concentration and the acidity of the running buffer, separation voltage, injection time, and detection potential were investigated to acquire the optimum conditions. The detection electrode was

Gang Chen; Xuejiao Xu; Yizhun Zhu; Luyan Zhang; Pengyuan Yang

2006-01-01

265

The susceptibility of Escherichia coli strains to essential oils of Rormarinus officinalis and Eucalyptus globulus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Essential oils are frequently used for flavour and fragrance in the perfume, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. They are also suitable raw material for production of new synthetic agents. The antibacterial activity of the essential oils obtained by steam distillation of Rosmarinus officinalis L and Eucalyptus globules collected in south Morocco was studied by micro-atmospheric technique against Escherichia coli CIP54127

K. Mounchid; F. Bourjilat; N. Dersi; T. Aboussaouira; A. Rachidai; A. Tantaoui-Elaraki

266

Solid–liquid extraction of protopine from Fumaria officinalis L.—Experimental study and process optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optimization of the protopine batch extraction from Fumaria officinalis was studied by experimental design. Several parameters were first studied in order to measure their influence on batch extraction thus enabling to choose the most accurate model. A response surface method design that allows investigating the simultaneous variations of the three main parameters (percentage of ethanol in solvent, temperature, solid–liquid weight

Lovasoa Rakotondramasy-Rabesiaka; Jean-Louis Havet; Catherine Porte; Henri Fauduet

2008-01-01

267

SUPERCRITICAL CO2, HYDRODISTILLATION EXTRACTIONS OF SALVIA OFFICINALIS L. INFLUENCE OF EXTRACTION PROCESS ON ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a perennial woody shrub, cultivated in the Mediterranean countries, mainly to obtain dried leaves used as raw material in medicine, perfumery and food industry. The aim of this paper is to compare the antioxidant properties and the chemical composition of essentials oils obtain by two extraction process: the hydrodistillation and the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction.

S. FELLAH; P. N. DIOUF; M. PETRISSANS; D. BARTH; M. ROMDHANE; D. PERRIN; M. ABDERRABBA

268

Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopic Study of Size-Controlled Ink Particles Isolated from Sepia officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paramagnetic properties of size-controlled ink particles isolated from the ink sacs of Sepia officinalis were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Both the size-controlled ink particles and synthetic melanins seemingly yielded similar ESR spectra consisting of a singlet with a slightly asymmetrical signal. However, the progressive microwave power saturation revealed a clear difference between their paramagnetic behaviors. In

Toshihiko Matsuura; Shingo Watanabe; Sei-ichi Akutagawa; Yuhei Shimoyama; Takanori Kobayashi; Yoshihiro Taya; Takashi Ueno

2010-01-01

269

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

270

Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage).

Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

2011-01-01

271

Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).  

PubMed

Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone was not transcriptionally regulated. PMID:20163890

Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

2010-07-01

272

Ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced memory deficiency via its antineuroinflammatory and antiamyloidogenic effects.  

PubMed

Magnolia bark contains several compounds such as magnolol, honokiol, 4-O-methylhonokiol, obovatol, and other neolignan compounds. These compounds have been reported to have various beneficial effects in various diseases. There is sufficient possibility that ethanol extract of Magnolia officinalis is more effective in amyloidogenesis via synergism of these ingredients. Neuroinflammation has been known to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated whether the ethanol extract of M.?officinalis (10?mg/?kg in 0.05% ethanol) prevents memory dysfunction and amyloidogenesis in AD mouse model by intraperitoneal lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 250?µg/?kg/day for seven times) injection. We found that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevented LPS-induced memory deficiency as well as inhibited the LPS-induced elevation of inflammatory proteins, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and activation of astrocytes and microglia. In particular, administration of M.?officinalis ethanol extract inhibited LPS-induced amyloidogenesis, which resulted in the inhibition of amyloid precursor protein, beta-site amyloid-precursor-protein-cleaving enzyme 1 and C99. Thus, this study shows that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis prevents LPS-induced memory impairment as well as amyloidogenesis via inhibition of neuroinflammation and suggests that ethanol extract of M.?officinalis might be a useful intervention for neuroinflammation-associated diseases such as AD. PMID:22628265

Lee, Young-Jung; Choi, Dong-Young; Yun, Yeo-Pyo; Han, Sang Bae; Kim, Hwan Mook; Lee, Kiho; Choi, Seok Hwa; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Jea-Hwang; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin Tae

2013-03-01

273

Metabolism of monoterpenes: demonstration of the hydroxylation of (+)-sabinene to (+)-cis-sabinol by an enzyme preparation from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.  

PubMed

A microsomal preparation from the epidermis of Salvia officinalis leaves catalyzed the NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylation of the monoterpene olefin (+)-sabinene to (+)-cis-sabinol. The reaction catalyzed is a key step in the biosynthesis of C3-oxygenated thujane monoterpenes, and the hydroxylase is highly specific for (+)-sabinene as substrate. The hydroxylase from leaf homogenates was solubilized and characterized with regard to reaction conditions, inhibitors, and activators. Activity was partially inhibited by rabbit anti-rat cytochrome P-450 and by CO, and the latter inhibition was reversed by 450 nm light. A CO-difference spectrum and type I substrate binding spectrum were obtained. The hydroxylase meets most of the established criteria for a cytochrome P-450-dependent mixed function oxygenase and represents one of very few enzyme systems of this type to be isolated from leaves of a higher plant. PMID:3111374

Karp, F; Harris, J L; Croteau, R

1987-07-01

274

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

2012-01-01

275

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf extract improves memory impairment and affects acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase activities in rat brain.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaf as part of a diet and medication can be a valuable proposal for the prevention and treatment of dementia. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of subchronic (28-fold) administration of a plant extract (RE) (200 mg/kg, p.o.) on behavioral and cognitive responses of rats linked with acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) activity and their mRNA expression level in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The passive avoidance test results showed that RE improved long-term memory in scopolamine-induced rats. The extract inhibited the AChE activity and showed a stimulatory effect on BuChE in both parts of rat brain. Moreover, RE produced a lower mRNA BuChE expression in the cortex and simultaneously an increase in the hippocampus. The study suggests that RE led to improved long-term memory in rats, which can be partially explained by its inhibition of AChE activity in rat brain. PMID:24080468

Ozarowski, Marcin; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Bogacz, Anna; Gryszczynska, Agnieszka; Kujawska, Malgorzata; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga; Piasecka, Anna; Napieczynska, Hanna; Szulc, Micha?; Kujawski, Radoslaw; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Cichocka, Joanna; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa; Czerny, Boguslaw; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M

2013-12-01

276

Lead content in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves: impact of precipitations and vicinity of motorway.  

PubMed

Trace metal contamination is a major environmental and health problem virtually in all countries. The present study was aimed to estimate the lead content of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves collected from a nonpolluted test field. The lead content in dry pot marigold inflorescences was 9.34?±?0.79 µg/g, in dry leaves 11.57?±?0.47 µg/g, and in soil 0.649?±?0.012 µg/g. The distance of pot marigold collection beds (30-220 m from the motorway) had no effect on lead content. There was a strong positive correlation between the amount of precipitations and lead content of pot marigold leaves but not inflorescences indicating the soil as primarily the source of increased lead content. In conclusion, no effect of motorway vicinity was found for pot marigold inflorescences or leaves lead content; however, as a precaution, it is not recommended to collect the plants during or just after showers. PMID:20405338

Meos, Andres; Jüriado, Tiiu; Matto, Vallo; Raal, Ain

2011-05-01

277

Influence of ionic interactions on essential oil and phenolic diterpene composition of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

The potential of four essential cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)) to alleviate salt toxicity was studied in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants grown in pots. Two concentrations of the following chloride salts: KCl, CaCl?, MgCl? and FeCl?, were used together with 100mM NaCl to study the effects of these nutrients on plant growth, leaf essential oils (EOs) and phenolic diterpenes composition. The sage plants accumulated Na(+) in their leaves (includers); this has affected secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Treatment with 100mM NaCl slightly decreased borneol and viridiflorol, while increased manool concentrations. Addition of KCl, CaCl? and MgCl? increased considerably in a dose-dependent manner the oxygen-containing monoterpenes (1.8-cineole, camphor, ?-thujone and borneol) in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Whereas, the contents of viridiflorol decreased further with the addition of KCl in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Our results suggest that the changes in EOs composition were more related to K(+) and Ca(2+) availability than to Na(+) toxicity. Furthermore, treatment with NaCl decreased by 50% carnosic acid (CA), a potent antioxidant, content in the leaves. K(+) and Ca(2+) promoted the accumulation of CA and its methoxylated form (MCA) in the leaves. The concentration of CA was positively correlated with leaf K(+) (r=0.56, P=0.01) and Ca(2+) (r=0.44, P=0.05) contents. It appears that different salt applications in combination with NaCl treatments had a profound effect on EOs and phenolic diterpene composition in sage. Therefore, ionic interactions may be carefully considered in the cultivation of this species to get the desired concentrations of these secondary metabolites in leaf extracts. PMID:20846870

Tounekti, Taieb; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Vadel, A M; Chtara, Chaker; Khemira, Habib

2010-01-01

278

[Royleanones in the roots of Salvia officinalis L. of domestic provenance and their antimicrobial activity].  

PubMed

The reported investigation of the constituents of the petroleum ether extract of the root of Salvia officinalis L. confirmed the presence of the following diterpene quinones: 12.hydroxy-8, 12-abietadiene-11, 14-dione (royleanone), 7 alpha, 12-dihydroxy-8.12-abistadiene-11-14-dione (horminone) and 7 alpha-acetoxy-12-hydroxy-8, 12-abietadiene-11,14-dione (7-O-acetylhorminone). The compounds were identified on the basic of the interpretation of results of spectral analysis. Isolated royleanones show antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus). A study of abietate diterpenoids in the root of Salvia officinalis L. of Slovak provenance has been performed for the first time. PMID:9011311

Masterová, I; Misíková, E; Sirotková, L; Vaverková, S; Ubik, K

1996-09-01

279

Purification and spectroscopic studies on catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis).  

PubMed

A catechol oxidase from lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) moCO which only catalyzes the oxidation of catechols to quinones without hydroxylating tyrosine was purified. The molecular mass of the M. officinalis enzyme of 39,370 Da was obtained by MALDI mass spectrometry and the isoelectric point was determined to be 3.4. Addition of 2 eq. H(2)O(2) to the enzyme leads to oxy catechol oxidase. In the UV/Vis spectrum two new absorption bands occur at 343 nm (?=8510 M(-1)cm(-1)) and 580 nm (?=580 M(-1)cm(-1)) due to O(2)(2-)Cu (II) charge transfer transitions in accordance with the oxy forms of other type 3 copper proteins. The N-terminal sequence has been determined by Edman degradation to NPVQAPELDKCGTAT, exhibiting a proline at the second and sixth position conserved in other polyphenol oxidases. PMID:22727580

Rompel, Annette; Büldt-Karentzopoulos, Klaudia; Molitor, Christian; Krebs, Bernt

2012-09-01

280

Enzyme assisted extraction of polysaccharides from the fruit of Cornus officinalis.  

PubMed

Process of enzyme assisted extraction (EAE) of polysaccharides from Cornus officinalis was optimized by response surface methodology (RSM). The influence of four different factors on the yield of C. officinalis polysaccharides (COP) was studied. Results showed that the optimal conditions were compound enzyme amount of 2.15%, extraction pH of 4.2, extraction temperature of 55 °C and extraction time of 97 min. Under these conditions, the COP yield was 9.29±0.31%, which was well in agreement with the value predicted by the model. The three methods, EAE, hot water extraction (HWE), ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for extracting COP by RSM were further compared. Results showed that EAE had the largest yield of polysaccharides with lower equipment cost. PMID:23987388

You, Qinghong; Yin, Xiulian; Zhao, Yuping

2013-10-15

281

Effects of s. Officinalis L. Radix triterpene glycosides on innate immunity factors.  

PubMed

The effects of triterpene glycosides (saponins) extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radices, on the cellular and humoral innate immunity factors were studied. Saponins stimulated the phagocytic, bactericidal, and adhesion activities of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Optimal conditions of saponin treatment (dose and duration) were determined for mice. Saponins promoted the maturation of human peripheral blood dendritic cells, which was proven by high expression of CD83 (terminal differentiation marker) and CD86 (bone-stimulating molecule) and of HLA-DR and HLA-ABC molecules on the cell membrane. Saponins modulated the production of TNF-?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, and IFN-? in cultured peripheral blood intact cells. The results help to understand some mechanisms of the effects of saponins extracted from Saponaria officinalis L. radix on the cellular and humoral factors of innate immunity and demonstrate good prospects of their practical use. PMID:24771377

Kuznetsova, T A; Ivanushko, L A; Makarenkova, I D; Cherevach, E I; Ten'kovskaya, L A

2014-01-01

282

Effects of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris on oxidant-induced DNA damage and antioxidant status in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Salvia officinalis (SO) and Thymus vulgaris (TV) are medicinal plants well known for their curative powers. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these abilities of sage and thyme have not been fully understood yet. In this study we investigated the composition and the quantitative estimation of plant extracts, the protective effects of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide- and 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-induced DNA damage, and levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione) in human HepG2 cells. To measure antioxidative activity of plant extracts we used three assays: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS). The results showed that the oxidant-induced DNA lesions were significantly reduced in cells pre-treated with the plant extracts studied. The observed DNA-protective activity could be explained by both elevation of GPx activity in cells pre-treated with SO and TV and antioxidant activity of SO and TV. PMID:23870948

Kozics, Katarína; Klusová, Veronika; Sran?íková, Annamária; Mu?aji, Pavol; Slame?ová, Darina; Hunáková, Lubica; Kusznierewicz, Barbara; Horváthová, Eva

2013-12-01

283

Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative activity of a lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis L.) extract  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaf material of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) was extracted with 450ml\\/l aqueous ethanol by medium pressure liquid–solid extraction. The total phenolic content of the extract was estimated as gallic acid equivalents by Folin–Ciocalteu reagent method and a qualitative–quantitative compositional analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. The lemon balm extract contained

Keyvan Dastmalchi; H. J. Damien Dorman; Päivi P. Oinonen; Yusrida Darwis; Into Laakso; Raimo Hiltunen

2008-01-01

284

Melissa officinalis L. (Lemon Balm): In Vitro Culture and the Production and Analysis of Volatile Compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The genus Melissa belongs to the family Labiatae (Lamiaceae) and comprises erect branched herbs with crenate opposite leaves and a two-lipped\\u000a corolla. It includes very few species, which chiefly occur in many parts of Europe and Asia. For the European region two individual\\u000a species are differentiated by the Flora Europaea (Tutin et al. 1972): M. officinalis L. (comprising the two

W. Schultze; S. Hose; A. Abou-Mandour; F.-C. Czygan

285

Carnosol and Carnosic Acids from Salvia officinalis Inhibit Microsomal Prostaglandin E2 Synthase-1  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), the most relevant eicosanoid promoting inflammation and tumorigenesis, is formed by cyclooxygenases (COXs) and PGE2 synthases from free arachidonic acid. Preparations of the leaves of Salvia officinalis are commonly used in folk medicine as an effective antiseptic and anti-inflammatory remedy and possess anticancer activity. Here, we demonstrate that a standard ethyl acetate extract of S. officinalis efficiently suppresses the formation of PGE2 in a cell-free assay by direct interference with microsomal PGE2 synthase (mPGES)-1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extract yielded closely related fractions that potently suppressed mPGES-1 with IC50 values between 1.9 and 3.5 ?g/ml. Component analysis of these fractions revealed the diterpenes carnosol and carnosic acid as potential bioactive principles inhibiting mPGES-1 activity with IC50 values of 5.0 ?M. Using a human whole-blood assay as a robust cell-based model, carnosic acid, but not carnosol, blocked PGE2 generation upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (IC50 = 9.3 ?M). Carnosic acid neither inhibited the concomitant biosynthesis of other prostanoids [6-keto PGF1?, 12(S)-hydroxy-5-cis-8,10-trans-heptadecatrienoic acid, and thromboxane B2] in human whole blood nor affected the activities of COX-1/2 in a cell-free assay. Together, S. officinalis extracts and its ingredients carnosol and carnosic acid inhibit PGE2 formation by selectively targeting mPGES-1. We conclude that the inhibitory effect of carnosic acid on PGE2 formation, observed in the physiologically relevant whole-blood model, may critically contribute to the anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties of S. officinalis.

Bauer, Julia; Kuehnl, Susanne; Rollinger, Judith M.; Scherer, Olga; Northoff, Hinnak; Stuppner, Hermann; Werz, Oliver; Koeberle, Andreas

2012-01-01

286

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity  

PubMed Central

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties.

2012-01-01

287

Lipid components of borage ( Borago officinalis L.) seeds and their changes during germination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The changes in composition of total and neutral lipids (NL) as well as glycolipids (GL) and phospholipids (PL) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seeds, germinated in the dark at 25°C for 10 d, were studied. Total lipids constituted 34.0% of the dry matter of borage seeds. During germination, the content\\u000a of total lipids was decreased by 95%. NL accounted for

S. P. J. Namal Senanayake; Fereidoon Shahidi

2000-01-01

288

Essential oils from normal and hairy roots of Valeriana officinalis var. sambucifolia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition of the steam-distilled oil from the roots of 9-month-old field-grown Valeriana officinalis var. sambucifolia was analysed and compared with that from Agrobacterium-mediated transformed roots of the same species. Capillary GC and GC-MS studies revealed that the normal oil contained bornyl acetate (13.3%) and valerenal (12.4%) and the transformed oil kessane derivatives, tentatively identified as kessyl alcohol (10.5%) and

François Gränicher; Philippe Christen; Ilias Kapetanidis

1995-01-01

289

Effect of gibberellic acid on the growth of main shoot and axillary branches in Calendula officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calendula officinalis L. bears a short main axis and branches of several orders. The upper axillary branches grow vigorously whereas the lower\\u000a branches remain arrested at different levels. Foliar application of gibberellic acid (GA3) stimulated the elongation of the main shoot and of the upper few primary axillary branches (PAB’s). The length of the main\\u000a axis nearly doubled 10 days

H Y Mohan Ram; Usha Mehta

1978-01-01

290

Hybrid magnetite nanoparticles/Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil nanobiosystem with antibiofilm activity.  

PubMed

Biofilms formed by fungal organisms are associated with drastically enhanced resistance against most antimicrobial agents, contributing to the persistence of the fungi despite antifungal therapy. The purpose of this study is to combine the unique properties of nanoparticles with the antimicrobial activity of the Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil in order to obtain a nanobiosystem that could be pelliculised on the surface of catheter pieces, in order to obtain an improved resistance to microbial colonization and biofilm development by Candida albicans and C. tropicalis clinical strains. The R. officinalis essential oils were extracted in a Neo-Clevenger type apparatus, and its chemical composition was settled by GC-MS analysis. Functionalized magnetite nanoparticles of up to 20 nm size had been synthesized by precipitation method adapted for microwave conditions, with oleic acid as surfactant. The catheter pieces were coated with suspended core/shell nanoparticles (Fe3O4/oleic acid:CHCl3), by applying a magnetic field on nanofluid, while the CHCl3 diluted essential oil was applied by adsorption in a secondary covering treatment. The fungal adherence ability was investigated in six multiwell plates, in which there have been placed catheters pieces with and without hybrid nanoparticles/essential oil nanobiosystem pellicle, by using culture-based methods and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). The R. officinalis essential oil coated nanoparticles strongly inhibited the adherence ability and biofilm development of the C. albicans and C. tropicalis tested strains to the catheter surface, as shown by viable cell counts and CLSM examination. Due to the important implications of Candida spp. in human pathogenesis, especially in prosthetic devices related infections and the emergence of antifungal tolerance/resistance, using the new core/shell/coated shell based on essential oil of R. officinalis to inhibit the fungal adherence could be of a great interest for the biomedical field, opening new directions for the design of film-coated surfaces with antibiofilm properties. PMID:22490675

Chifiriuc, Carmen; Grumezescu, Valentina; Grumezescu, Alexandru Mihai; Saviuc, Crina; Laz?r, Veronica; Andronescu, Ecaterina

2012-01-01

291

Survival of cultured cells and somatic embryos of Asparagus officinalis cryopreserved by vitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultured cells and somatic embryos derived from the mesophyll tissue of asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) were cryopreserved by vitrification. The vitrification solution (PVS) contains (w\\/v) 22% glycerol, 15% ethylene glycol, 15% propylene glycol and 7% DMSO in Murashige-Skoog medium enriched with 0.5M sorbitol. After initial cryoprotection with sorbitol supplemented MS medium containing 12% ethylene glycol, cells or embryos were exposed

A. Uragami; A. Sakai; M. Nagai; T. Takahashi

1989-01-01

292

Composition and insect attracting activity of the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis.  

PubMed

The essential oil and a number of extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in solvents of increasing polarity were isolated, and their components identified and tested as pest control agents. Ethanol and acetone extracts attract grape berry moth Lobesia botrana. However, none of the extracts had a significant effect on western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis, which is attracted by 1,8-cineole, a major essential oil component. PMID:15839484

Katerinopoulos, Haralambos E; Pagona, Georgia; Afratis, Athanasios; Stratigakis, Nicolaos; Roditakis, Nikolaos

2005-01-01

293

Diversity of centromeric repeats in two closely related wild rice species, Oryza officinalis and Oryza rhizomatis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oryza officinalis (CC, 2n=24) and Oryza rhizomatis (CC, 2n=24) belong to the Oryza genus, which contains more than 20 identified wild rice species. Although much has been known about the molecular composition\\u000a and organization of centromeres in Oryza sativa, relatively little is known of its wild relatives. In the present study, we isolated and characterized a 126-bp centromeric\\u000a satellite (CentO-C)

Weidong Bao; Wenli Zhang; Qiuying Yang; Yu Zhang; Bin Han; Minghong Gu; Yongbiao Xue; Zhukuan Cheng

2006-01-01

294

Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255

Pavela, Roman

2004-12-01

295

Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of Melissa officinalis L. extracts.  

PubMed

The aromatic herb Melissa officinalis L. can be used as an easily accessible source of natural antioxidants and as a possible food supplement and as a phytochemical. Radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water extracts of M. officinalis L. extracts were investigated. The results of antioxidative activity, obtained by electron spin resonance spectroscopy, confirmed that investigated extracts suppressed the formation of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and lipid peroxyl radicals in all investigated systems in a dose-dependent manner. The maximum DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities (SA(DPPH) = SA(OH) = 100%) were achieved in the presence of n-butanol extract at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL and 0.5 mg/mL, respectively. The highest lipid peroxyl scavenging activity (93.20%) was observed at a higher concentration (5 mg/mL) of n-butanol extract in the lipid peroxidation system. The most effective antibacterial activities were expressed by petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts on Sarcina lutea. Chloroform extract showed the strongest antiproliferative effect with 50% inhibitory concentration values of 0.09 mg/mL and 0.10 mg/mL for HeLa and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The present study demonstrated the high phenolic content and radical scavenging, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities of extracts of M. officinalis L. originating from Serbia. PMID:18361749

Canadanovi?-Brunet, Jasna; Cetkovi?, Gordana; Djilas, Sonja; Tumbas, Vesna; Bogdanovi?, Gordana; Mandi?, Anamarija; Markov, Sinisa; Cvetkovi?, Dragoljub; Canadanovi?, Vladimir

2008-03-01

296

Alaska Melilotus invasions: Distribution, origin, and susceptibility of plant communities  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Melilotus alba and M. officinalis were introduced to Alaska in 1913 as potential forage crops. These species have become naturalized and are now invading large, exotic plant-free regions of Alaska. We determined distributions of M. alba and M. officinalis in Alaska from surveys conducted each summer from 2002 to 2005. Melilotus alba and M. officinalis occurred at 721 and 205 sites, respectively (39,756 total sites surveyed). The northward limit for M. alba and M. officinalis was 67.15??N and 64.87??N, respectively. Both species were strictly associated with soil disturbance. Melilotus alba extended no farther than 15 m from road edges except where M. alba on roadsides met river floodplains and dispersed downriver (Matanuska and Nenana Rivers). Melilotus has now reached the Tanana River, a tributary of the Yukon River. Populations on floodplains were most extensive on braided sections. On the Nenana River, soil characteristics did not differ between where M. alba was growing versus similar areas where it had not yet reached. The pH of river soils (7.9-8.3) was higher than highway soils (7.3). Upland taiga plant communities grow on acid soils which may protect them from invasion by Melilotus, which prefer alkaline soils; however, early succession communities on river floodplains are susceptible because soils are alkaline. ?? 2008 Regents of the University of Colorado.

Conn, J. S.; Beattie, K. L.; Shephard, M. A.; Carlson, M. L.; Lapina, I.; Hebert, M.; Gronquist, R.; Densmore, R.; Rasy, M.

2008-01-01

297

Differences in fine-scale spatial genetic structure across the distribution range of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae)  

PubMed Central

Background Geographical ranges of plants and their pollinators do not always entirely overlap and it has been suggested that the absence of specialized pollinators at range margins may induce changes in mating systems. Because a species’ mating system is known to have a considerable effect on within-population pollen movement, the extent of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (SGS) can be expected to differ between populations located at different parts of their geographical range. To test this prediction, we compared the fine-scale SGS between two core and two disjunct populations of the distylous forest herb Pulmonaria officinalis. Because in disjunct populations of this species the heteromorphic self-incompatibility system showed relaxation in the long-styled morph, but not in the short-styled morph, we also hypothesized that the extent of fine-scale SGS and clustering differed between morphs. Results Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed a significant decrease in genetic relatedness with spatial distance for both core and disjunct populations with the weakest SGS found in one of the core populations (Sp?=?0.0014). No evidence of stronger SGS in the long-styled morph was found in the center of the range whereas one disjunct population showed a significantly (P?=?0.029) higher SGS in the long-styled morph (SpL?=?0.0070) than in the short-styled morph (SpS?=?0.0044). Conclusions Consistent with previous analyses on distylous plant species, we found weak, but significant spatial genetic structure. However, the extent of SGS varied substantially between populations within regions, suggesting that population characteristics other than mating system (e.g. local pollinator assemblages, population history) may be as important in determining variation in SGS.

2013-01-01

298

Influęncia do horário de colheita e secagem de folhas no óleo essencial de melissa (Melissa officinalis L.) cultivada em dois ambientesa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on the essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in two environments. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of harvest times and drying of leaves on content and chemical composition of essential oil of Melissa officinalis L. cultivated in greenhouse and field. The assay was conducted at the

S. FONTES; CARVALHO FILHO; P. B. ALVES; R. SILVA-MANN; M. O. RODRIGUES; Bairro Jardim; Rosa Elze

299

Regulation of obesity and lipid disorders by herbal extracts from Morus alba, Melissa officinalis, and Artemisia capillaris in high-fat diet-induced obese mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Melissa officinalis L. (Labiatae), Morus alba L. (Moraceae), and Artemisia capillaris Thunb. (Compositae) are suggested to be involved in the regulation of hyperlipidemia. We hypothesized that Ob-X, a mixture of three herbs, Morus alba, Melissa officinalis and Artemisia iwayomogi, improves lipid metabolism, body weight gain and adiposity and that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is associated with these events. Mice

Jinmi Lee; Kyungsil Chae; Juran Ha; Byung-Young Park; Hee Suk Lee; Sunhyo Jeong; Min-Young Kim; Michung Yoon

2008-01-01

300

Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) explains interspecific crossability between the garden asparagus (A. officinalis) and other Asparagus species.  

PubMed

The genus Asparagus comprises approximately 200 species, some of which are commercially cultivated, such as the garden asparagus (A. officinalis). Many Asparagus species, including A. officinalis, are dioecious and have been grouped into a subgenus distinct from that of hermaphroditic species. Although many interspecific crossings have been attempted to introduce useful traits into A. officinalis, only some of the dioecious species were found to be cross-compatible with A. officinalis. Here, molecular phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine whether interspecific crossability is proportional to the genetic distance between the crossing pairs and to further clarify the evolutionary history of the Asparagus genus. A clade with all cross-compatible species and no cross-incompatible species was recovered in the phylogenetic tree based on analyses of non-coding cpDNA regions. In addition, a sex-linked marker developed for A. officinalis amplified a male-specific region in all cross-compatible species. The phylogenetic analyses also provided some insights about the evolutionary history of Asparagus; for example, by indicating that the genus had its origin in southern Africa, subsequently spreading throughout the old world through intensive speciation and dispersal. The results also suggest that dioecious species were derived from a single evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism in Asparagus. These findings not only contribute towards the understanding of the evolutionary history of the genus but may also facilitate future interspecific hybridization programs involving Asparagus species. PMID:21947345

Kubota, Shosei; Konno, Itaru; Kanno, Akira

2012-02-01

301

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Children will learn a variety of themes that will teach children about spring and how to grow plants while incorporating core related material. Flowers, The children will learn about different qualities of flowers while learning shapes, counting, and colors. Flowers Gardens, The children will learn how to plant and take care of a garden. Gardens Rain, The children will learn that gardens need rain to grow. Students will also learn about evaporation. Rain Making Rain Story Time Flower Story ...

Srowley

2006-04-28

302

Analysis of hydrolyzable tannins and other phenolic compounds in emblic leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruits by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Phenolic compounds were extracted from dried emblic leafflower (Phyllanthus emblica L.) fruits with methanol and separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The raw extracts and fractions were analyzed with HPLC coupled with diode array UV spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry. Mucic acid gallate, mucic acid lactone gallate, monogalloylglucose, gallic acid, digalloylglucose, putranjivain A, galloyl-HHDP-glucose, elaeocarpusin, and chebulagic acid were suggested to be the most abundant compounds in the crude methanol extracts of the fruits. In addition, 144 peaks were detected, of which 67 were tentatively identified mostly as ellagitannins, flavonoids, and simple gallic acid derivatives in the fractions. The results indicated the presence of neochebulagic acid, isomers of neochebuloyl galloylglucose, chebuloyl neochebuloyl galloylglucose, ellagic acid glycosides, quercetin glycosides, and eriodictyol coumaroyl glycosides in the fruits. The study provides a systematic report of the retention data and characteristics of UV, MS, and MS/MS spectra of the phenolic compounds in the fruits of emblic leafflower. The fruits of two varieties (Ping Dan No 1 and Fruity) from Guangxi Province differed from those of wild Tian Chuan emblic leafflower from Fujian Province in the content and profile of phenolic compounds. PMID:22889097

Yang, Baoru; Kortesniemi, Maaria; Liu, Pengzhan; Karonen, Maarit; Salminen, Juha-Pekka

2012-09-01

303

Spatial and temporal variations of soil moisture under Rosmarinus officinalis and Quercus coccifera in a burned soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When studying surface runoff processes, measurement of the soil moisture content (SMC) at the surface could be used to identify sinks and sources areas of runoff. Surface soil moisture patterns variability have been studied in a burned Mediterranean semi-arid area. Since surface SMC and soil water repellency (SWR) are influenced by fire and vegetation (see previous abstract), and soil water dynamics and vegetation dynamics are functionally related, it could be expected to find some changes during the following months after fire when vegetation starts to recover. The identification of these changes is the main goal of this research. The study area is located at the municipality of Les Useres, 40 km from Castellón city (E Spain), where a wildfire occured in August 2007. We selected a burned SSE facing hillslope, located at 570 m a.s.l., with 12° slope angle, in which it was possible to identify the presence of two unique shrub species: Quercus coccifera L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L., which were distributed in a patchy mosaic. Twenty microsites with burned R. officinalis and eight microsites with burned Q. coccifera were selected in an area of 7 m wide by 14 m long. At the burned microsites, it was possible to distinguish three concentric zones (I, II and III) around the stumps showing differences on their soil surface appearance, which indicate a gradient of fire severity. Those differences were considered for field soil moisture measurements. Five measurements of SMC separated approximately 10 cm per zone at each microsite (n= 420) were carried out after different rainfall events. Volumetric soil moisture was measured by means of the moisture meter HH2 with ThetaProbe sensor type ML2x, 6 cm long. SMC was monitored on three occasions, always one day after the following rainfall events: (1) the first rainfall event after fire, when 11 mm were registered (Oct-07); (2) four months later than fire (Dec-07), after six consecutive raining days with a total rain volume of 172 mm; and (3) ten months after fire (Jun-08), when 50 mm were registered in the previous ten days. The spatial pattern of SMC was determined trough geostatistical analysis using GS+ software, calculating the semivariograms, to analyse the spatial correlation scale, interpolating data to estimate values of SMC at unsampled locations by means of kriging and finally, the results of kriging were displayed as different contour maps. Results showed that spatial pattern of SMC was highly variable, with important differences recorded within short distances. In fact, the range of spatial correlation (a0), which is the distance at that spatial correlation exists, varied between 0.5 to 1.4 m. A0 also varied according to the time from fire, with values of 0.5 m in the first rainfall after fire, 0.9 m four months later and 1.4 m ten months after fire occurs. This result suggests that the extent of the wettest areas increase as the vegetation recover. After the first rainfall, the SMC spatial pattern seems to be related to the soil microsite characteristics, mainly organic matter content, presence of hydrophobicity and soil clay content. Generally, the highest SMC (26-31%) appears at the burned bare soil areas. Four months later, as the same time as Q. coccifera resprouts, and in the R. officinalis microsites an important regrowth of Brachypodium resutum is observed, the spatial pattern of SMC changed according this plant cover distribution. This pattern is more clearly observed ten months after fire, when the highest SMC values were located at Q. coccifera and B. resutum areas (28-33%). At this time, no evidence of germination of R. officinalis (obligate seeder specie) was found. The lowest SMC (19-22%) appeared at the half lower part of the plot, where there was a central strip dominated by bare soil, with scarce presence of resprouter species. These results showed that at detailed working scale, the soil moisture pattern in this burned area was highly heterogeneous and the microsite characteristics (mainly soil properties and vegetation regrowth) seem to control the

Gimeno-García, E.; Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Llovet, J.

2009-04-01

304

Selenium uptake by plants: Effects of soil steaming, root addition, and selenium augmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the effects of soil steaming, root additions, and selenium (Se) supplements on the uptake of Se by two plant species, yellow sweet clover [Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas], and fourwing saltbush [Atriplex canescens (Pursh) Nutt.]. Although treatments used to test the effects of vesicular?arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) did not result in differences in Se uptake,

Patsy L. Wanek; George F. Vance; Peter D. Stahl

1999-01-01

305

Determination of the content of elements in some wild medicinal plants of Uzbekistan by radioactivation analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors have developed a complex of activation methods of analysis using a nuclear reactor (nuclear activation analysis) and a cyclotron (charged-particle activation analysis). The methods have been used to determine the concentrations of more than 20 elements in five medicinal plants native to Uzbekistan: Syrian rue (Peganum harmala L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), peppermint (Mentha piperata L.), sage (Salvia officinalis

S. Mukhammedov; K. Tillaeva; N. B. Badalov

1987-01-01

306

Phenylpropanoids from Medicinal Plants: Distribution, Classification, Structural Analysis, and Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature and our own research results on phenylpropanoids from medicinal plants were reviewed and systematized. Data were presented for the distribution of phenylpropanoids. Their classification was proposed. The biological structure-activity relationships for compounds found in roseroot (Rhodiola rosea), thorny eleutherococcus (Eleutherococus senticosus), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), purple echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), medicinal melissa (Melissa officinalis), variegated milk-thistle (Silybum marianum), and

V. A. Kurkin

2003-01-01

307

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na+/K+-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na+/K+-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na+/K+-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos.

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Lena; Bouteau, Francois

2013-01-01

308

A study of the electrical polarization of Sepia officinalis yolk envelope, a role for Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases in osmoregulation?  

PubMed

The cuttlefish Sepia officinalis mate and spawn in the intertidal zone where eggs are exposed during low tide to osmotic stress. Embryonic outer yolk sac is a putative site for osmoregulation of young S. officinalis embryos. By using electrophysiological recordings and immunostaining we showed, (i) that the chorion is only a passive barrier for ions, since large molecules could not pass through it, (ii) that a complex transepithelial potential difference occurs through the yolk epithelium, (iii) that ionocyte-like cells and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPases were localized in the yolk epithelium and (iv) that ouabain sensitive Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity could participate to this yolk polarization. These data warrant further study on the role of ion transport systems of this epithelium in the osmoregulation processes in S. officinalis embryos. PMID:24505501

Bonnaud, Laure; Franko, Delphine; Vouillot, Léna; Bouteau, François

2013-11-01

309

Dynamics of yield components and essential oil production in a commercial hybrid sage (Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa cv. Newe Ya'ar no. 4).  

PubMed

The fresh yields, the essential oil content, and the quality of a sage hybrid (Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa, cv. Newe Ya'ar No. 4, Lamiaceae) as affected by development and harvest time were determined. Marked increases in plant height and in the number of nodes developed per plant together with a modest increase in leaf size were accompanied by dramatic increases (more than 20-fold) in the fresh yields throughout a 50-day growth period. No major changes in the essential oil content per fresh weight and its composition were detected throughout the growth period. In contrast, the compositions of the essential oils obtained from stems, as compared to leaves and leaf-primordia, had marked differences. Developmentally controlled changes in the extractives from individual leaf pairs from the same plant were also noted. In upper young leaves, the oxygenated diterpene manool and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbons alpha-humulene and beta-caryophyllene constituted up to 20%, 8%, and 4% of the total extractives, respectively. In older leaves, the abundance of these components steadily dropped to roughly half their levels in young leaves. Conversely, the proportions of the monoterpenes, particularly the ketones camphor and alpha-thujone, steadily increased with leaf position. Minor changes in the levels of other extractives were also recorded. These studies imply independent regulatory patterns for di-, sesqui-, and monoterpenes in this sage hybrid, and suggest possible agrotechnical means to obtain preferred chemical compositions of its essential oil. PMID:10552813

Dudai, N; Lewinsohn, E; Larkov, O; Katzir, I; Ravid, U; Chaimovitsh, D; Sa'adi, D; Putievsky, E

1999-10-01

310

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this logic activity, students must determine how to represent three quantities using a fixed amount of space (Venn diagram) and objects. The goal is to represent the siblingsâ ages, 5,6, and 7, using only ten plants. This resource includes teacher notes with extension suggestions and possible support options.

Team, Nrich

2012-01-01

311

In vivo fungicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against six phytopathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanol extracts from 27 medicinal plant species were tested at concentrations of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg\\/mL for their in vivo fungicidal activities against six phytopathogenic fungi. Their efficacy varied with plant pathogen, tissue sampled and plant species. Very strong fungicidal activity was produced by extracts of Boswellia carterii, Saussurea lappa, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Piper nigrum, Rheum coreanum, Lysimachia foenum-graecum, Evodia officinalis,

Il-Kwon Park; Junheon Kim; Yeon-Suk Lee; Sang-Chul Shin

2008-01-01

312

Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn) is an essential element for biological systems; however occupational exposure to high levels of this metal may lead to neurodegenerative disorders, resembling Parkinson's disease (PD). While its mechanisms of neurotoxicity have yet to be fully understood, oxidative stress plays a critical role. Thus, the main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of aqueous extract of Melissa officinalis in attenuating Mn-induced brain oxidative stress in mice. Sixteen male mice were randomly divided into two groups and treated for 3 months: the first group consumed tap water (control group) and the second group was treated with Mn (50 mg/kg/day for habituation during the first 15 days followed by 100 mg/kg/day for additional 75 days) in the drinking water. After 3 months both groups were sub divided (n=4 per group) and treated for additional 3 months with Mn and/or M. officinalis in the drinking water. The first group (control) was treated with water and served as control; the second group (M. officinalis) was treated with M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day); the third group was treated with Mn (100 mg/kg/day); the fourth group (Mn+M. officinalis) was treated with both Mn and M. officinalis (100 mg/kg/day each). Mn-treated mice showed a significant increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) levels (a marker of oxidative stress) in both the hippocampus and striatum. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in total thiol content in the hippocampus and a significant increase in antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase and catalase) in the hippocampus, striatum, cortex and cerebellum. Co-treatment with M. officinalis aqueous extract in Mn-treated mice significantly inhibited the antioxidant enzyme activities and attenuated the oxidative damage (TBARS and decreased total thiol levels). These results establish that M. officinalis aqueous extract possesses potent antioxidative properties, validating its efficacy in attenuating Mn-induced oxidative stress in the mouse brain. PMID:22020131

Martins, Eduarda N; Pessano, Naira T C; Leal, Luiza; Roos, Daniel H; Folmer, Vanderlei; Puntel, Gustavo O; Rocha, Joăo Batista Teixeira; Aschner, Michael; Ávila, Daiana Silva; Puntel, Robson Luiz

2012-01-01

313

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in cotyledons and microsomal preparations of the developing seeds of common borage (Borago officinalis).  

PubMed

The developing seeds of Borago officinalis (common borage) accumulate a triacylglycerol oil that is relatively rich in the uncommon fatty acid gamma-linolenate (octadec-6,9,12-trienoic acid). Incubation of developing, whole, cotyledons with [14C]oleate and [14C]linoleate showed that the gamma-linolenate was synthesized by the sequential desaturation of oleate----linoleate----gamma-linolenate. Microsomal membrane preparations from the developing cotyledons contained an active delta 6-desaturase enzyme that catalysed the conversion of linoleate into gamma-linolenate. Experiments were designed to manipulate the [14C]linoleate content of the microsomal phosphatidylcholine. The [14C]linoleoyl phosphatidylcholine labelled in situ was converted into gamma-linolenoyl phosphatidylcholine in the presence of NADH. The substrate for the delta 6-desaturase in borage was, therefore, the linoleate in the complex microsomal lipid phosphatidylcholine, rather than, as in animals, the acyl-CoA. This was further confirmed in experiments that compared the specific radioactivity of the gamma-linolenate, in acyl-CoA and phosphatidylcholine, that was synthesized when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was incubated with microsomal membranes, NADH and non-radioactive gamma-linolenoyl-CoA. The delta 6-desaturase was positionally specific and only utilized the linoleate in position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine. Analysis of the positional distribution of fatty acids in the endogenous microsomal sn-phosphatidylcholine showed that, whereas position 1 contained substantial linoleate, only small amounts of gamma-linolenate were present. The results shed further light on the synthesis of C18 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plants and in particular its relationship to the regulation of the acyl quality of the triacylglycerols in oilseeds. PMID:3028375

Stymne, S; Stobart, A K

1986-12-01

314

Effect of Magnolia officinalis and Phellodendron amurense (Relora®) on cortisol and psychological mood state in moderately stressed subjects  

PubMed Central

Background Magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) and Phellodendron (Phellodendron amurense) barks are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional remedies for reducing stress and anxiety. Modern dietary supplements are intended to induce relaxation and reduce stress as well as stress-related eating. Previous studies have shown the combination of Magnolia/Phellodendron (MP) to reduce both cortisol exposure and the perception of stress/anxiety, while improving weight loss in subjects with stress-related eating. Competitive athletes are “stressed” by their intense exercise regimens in addition to their normal activities of daily living and thus may benefit from a natural therapy intended to modulate baseline perceptions of stress and stress hormone exposure. Methods We assessed salivary cortisol exposure and psychological mood state in 56 subjects (35 men and 21 women) screened for moderate stress and supplemented with a standardized/patented MP combination (Relora®, Next Pharmaceuticals) or Placebo for 4 weeks. Results After 4 weeks of supplementation, salivary cortisol exposure was significantly (p<0.05) lower (?18%) in the Relora group compared to Placebo. Compared to Placebo, the Relora group had significantly better (p<0.05) mood state parameters, including lower indices of Overall Stress (?11%), Tension (?13%), Depression (?20%), Anger (?42%), Fatigue (?31%), and Confusion (?27%), and higher indices of Global Mood State (+11%) and Vigor (+18%). Conclusion These results indicate that daily supplementation with a combination of Magnolia bark extract and Phellodendron bark extract (Relora®) reduces cortisol exposure and perceived daily stress, while improving a variety of mood state parameters, including lower fatigue and higher vigor. These results suggest an effective natural approach to modulating the detrimental health effects of chronic stress in moderately stressed adults. Future studies should examine the possible performance and recovery benefits of Relora supplementation in athletes overstressed by the physical and psychological demands of training and competition.

2013-01-01

315

Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl?, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC?? value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC?? 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC?? 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC?? 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC?? 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause. PMID:23670626

Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

2013-06-01

316

Emergence of sensory structures in the developing epidermis in sepia officinalis and other coleoid cephalopods.  

PubMed

Embryonic cuttlefish can first respond to a variety of sensory stimuli during early development in the egg capsule. To examine the neural basis of this ability, we investigated the emergence of sensory structures within the developing epidermis. We show that the skin facing the outer environment (not the skin lining the mantle cavity, for example) is derived from embryonic domains expressing the Sepia officinalis ortholog of pax3/7, a gene involved in epidermis specification in vertebrates. On the head, they are confined to discrete brachial regions referred to as "arm pillars" that expand and cover Sof-pax3/7-negative head ectodermal tissues. As revealed by the expression of the S. officinalis ortholog of elav1, an early marker of neural differentiation, the olfactory organs first differentiate at about stage 16 within Sof-pax3/7-negative ectodermal regions before they are covered by the definitive Sof-pax3/7-positive outer epithelium. In contrast, the eight mechanosensory lateral lines running over the head surface and the numerous other putative sensory cells in the epidermis, differentiate in the Sof-pax3/7-positive tissues at stages ?24-25, after they have extended over the entire outer surfaces of the head and arms. Locations and morphologies of the various sensory cells in the olfactory organs and skin were examined using antibodies against acetylated tubulin during the development of S. officinalis and were compared with those in hatchlings of two other cephalopod species. The early differentiation of olfactory structures and the peculiar development of the epidermis with its sensory cells provide new perspectives for comparisons of developmental processes among molluscs. J. Comp. Neurol. 522:3004-3019, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24549606

Buresi, Auxane; Croll, Roger P; Tiozzo, Stefano; Bonnaud, Laure; Baratte, Sébastien

2014-09-01

317

The in vitro screening for acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antioxidant activity of medicinal plants from Portugal.  

PubMed

Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also as aromatics. Melissa officinalis and Mentha suaveolens showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher then 50% in the essential oil fraction. Laurus nobilis, Hypericum undulatum, and Sanguisorba minor showed a high inhibition value of AChE in the ethanolic fraction, 64% (1 mg ml(-1)) 68% (0.5 mg ml(-1)), and 78% (1 mg ml(-1)), respectively. Higher values of AChE inhibitory activity were found using decoctions of Lavandula pedunculata, Mentha suaveolens and Hypericum undulatum, 68, 69 and 82% (at a concentration of 5mg dry plant ml(-1) of assay), respectively. The free radical scavenger activity was higher for the polar extracts. In the water extracts most of the plants showed values around 90%. When antioxidant activity was measured with the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay high activity (65-95%) was also found in the water extracts. Hypericum undulatum, Melissa officinalis and Laurus nobilis showed both high AChE inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity. PMID:16737790

Ferreira, A; Proença, C; Serralheiro, M L M; Araújo, M E M

2006-11-01

318

Apoptosis-Inducing Effects of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil in Glioblastoma Multiforme Cells.  

PubMed

Current therapies for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) are not effective. This study investigated the activity of the M. officinalis essential oil (EO) and its major component (citral) in GBM cell lines. Both EO and citral decreased the viability and induced apoptosis of GBM cells as demonstrated by DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activation. Antioxidant prevented citral-induced death, indicating its dependence on the production of reactive oxygen species. Citral downmodulated the activity and inhibited the expression of multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1). These results show that EO, through its major component, citral, may be of potential interest for the treatment of GBM. PMID:24745610

Queiroz, Rafaela Muniz de; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Guimarăes, Lívia Paes Tavares Pacheco; Rocha, Gleice da Graça; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Gattass, Cerli Rocha

2014-07-01

319

Componential Profile and Amylase Inhibiting Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Calendula officinalis L. Leaves  

PubMed Central

An ethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from leaves of Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) were found to show an inhibitory effect on amylase. From the crude extract fractions, one new phenolic acid glucoside, 6?-O-vanilloyl-?-D-glucopyranose, was isolated, together with twenty-four known compounds including five phenolic acid glucosides, five phenylpropanoids, five coumarins, and nine flavonoids. Their structures were elucidated based on chemical and spectral data. The main components, isoquercitrin, isorhamnetin-3-O-?-D-glucopyranoside, 3,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin-3-O-(6??-acetyl)-?-D-glucopyranoside, exhibited potent inhibitory effects on amylase.

Olennikov, Daniil N.; Kashchenko, Nina I.

2014-01-01

320

Protective effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis on bone loss in ovariectomized rats.  

PubMed

In order to examine the effect of polysaccharides from morinda officinalis (MOP) on bone quality of osteoporosis rats. The osteoporosis in rats was induced by ovariectomy, and MOP (100 or 300 mg/kg) was orally administrated once daily. The animals were assessed 30 days after the operation for bone mineral density, serum cytokines level and mineral element concentration. MOP administration in rats resulted in an increase in bone mineral density and mineral element concentration, a decrease in serum cytokines level, which indicated that MOP administration may play an important role in the development of osteoporosis. PMID:18638500

MengYong, Zhu; CaiJiao, Wang; HuSheng, Zhang; XianWu, Pei; JianMin, Fen

2008-10-01

321

Antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of an acidic polysaccharide from Morinda officinalis.  

PubMed

An acidic polysaccharide APMO was isolated from Morinda officinalis by alkaline solvent extraction followed by fractionation treatments. Its antioxidant activities were evaluated by various methods in vitro, APMO presented excellent capability in scavenging DPPH radicals, chelating ferrous ions and inhibiting hemolysis of rats erythrocyte induced by H2O2, which was stronger than those of Vc at high concentration. Moreover, APMO displayed moderate reducing power. Physicochemical characteristics of APMO were observed by a combination of chemical and instrumental analysis. APMO predominantly consisted of galacturonic acid, arabinose and galactose. Galacturonic acid was assigned to be 1?4 glycosyl linkage in the skeleton of APMO. PMID:23511058

Zhang, Hualin; Li, Jun; Xia, Jingmin; Lin, Sanqing

2013-07-01

322

Cytoprotective Effect of Valeriana officinalis Extract on an In Vitro Experimental Model of Parkinson Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parkinson?s disease (PD) is one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders. The potential cytoprotective\\u000a effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. The cytotoxicity, cell viability and\\u000a analysis of cellular morphology were performed by MTT-tetrazole (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide)\\u000a assay and phase contrast microscopy, respectively. Significant changes in the cellular morphology, and

Dięgo Madureira de Oliveria; George Barreto; Deyse Valverde G. De Andrade; Ezequiel Saraceno; Laura Aon-Bertolino; Francisco Capani; Ramon Dos Santos El Bachá; Lisandro Diego Giraldez

2009-01-01

323

In vivo and in vitro lipid accumulation in Borago officinalis L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seeds of 13 accessions of borage (Borago officinalis) varied in total fatty acid content from 28.6 to 35.1% seed weight, with linoleic, ?-linolenic, oleic and palmitic as the\\u000a predominant fatty acids, averaging 38.1%, 22.8%, 16.3% and 11.3% of total fatty acids, respectively. There was an inverse\\u000a relation between ?-linolenic acid (25.0 to 17.6%) and oleic acid (14.5 to 21.3%). Fatty

Anna Whipkey; James E. Simon; Jules Janick

1988-01-01

324

Simultaneous Determination of Honokiol and Magnolol in Magnolia Officinalis by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and rapid capillary electrophoretic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of honokiol and magnolol in Magnolia officinalis extracts and dextrorphan was used as the internal standard. The running buffer was composed of 22.5 mM Na2HPO4 and 10 mM Na2B4O7 (pH 9.1–9.2). The linear calibration range was 2 – 20 ?g\\/mL for honokiol and 5–50 ?g\\/mL for magnolol.

Cynthia Y. C. Chou; T. H. Tsai; M. F. Lin; C. F. Chen

1996-01-01

325

Fertilization in Sepia officinalis: the first mollusk sperm-attracting peptide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Egg mass extract was used to characterize regulatory peptides, involved in the successive steps of egg-laying of the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Among these peptides, a C-terminally amidated hexapeptide revealed a sperm-attracting activity. MALDI-TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry) and Edman degradation led to a peptide of m\\/z 596.6 and the following primary sequence: Pro–Ile–Asp–Pro–Gly–Val–CONH2. From concentrations

Céline Zatylny; Laure Marvin; Jean Gagnon; Joël Henry

2002-01-01

326

Identification of Sensory-Active Phytochemicals in Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).  

PubMed

Sensory-directed fractionation of extracts prepared from raw and cooked asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), respectively, followed by LC-TOF-MS, LC-MS/MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments revealed the chemical structures of nine bitter tasting mono- and bidesmotic saponins as well as the previously not reported 1,2-dithiolan-4-carboxylic acid 6-D-?/?-glucopyranose ester exhibiting an interesting buttery mouth-coating effect. Sensory studies showed that the orosensation imparted by this sulfur compound was reminiscent to that of melting butter and revealed an orosensory recognition threshold of 276.8 ?mol/L. PMID:23136992

Dawid, Corinna; Hofmann, Thomas

2012-12-01

327

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants.  

PubMed

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth. PMID:24657421

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A

2014-06-01

328

FTIR spectroscopic evaluation of changes in the cellular biochemical composition of the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata induced by extracts of some Greek medicinal and aromatic plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the biological activity of aquatic extracts of selected Greek medicinal and aromatic plants to the phytopathogenic fungus Alternaria alternata was investigated. Lamiaceae species (Hyssopus officinalis L., Melissa officinalis L., Origanum dictamnus L., Origanum vulgare L. and Salvia officinalis L.) were found to enhance significantly the mycelium growth whereas Crocus sativus appears to inhibit it slightly. M. officinalis and S. officinalis caused the highest stimulation in mycelium growth (+97%) and conidia production (+65%) respectively. In order to further investigate the bioactivity of plant extracts to A. alternata, we employed Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Differences of original spectra were assigned mainly to amides of proteins. The second derivative transformation of spectra revealed changes in spectral regions corresponding to absorptions of the major cellular constituents such as cell membrane and proteins. Principal component analysis of the second derivative transformed spectra confirmed that fatty acids of the cell membranes, amides of proteins and polysaccharides of the cell wall had the major contribution to data variation. FTIR band area ratios were found to correlate with fungal mycelium growth.

Skotti, Efstathia; Kountouri, Sophia; Bouchagier, Pavlos; Tsitsigiannis, Dimitrios I.; Polissiou, Moschos; Tarantilis, Petros A.

2014-06-01

329

Evaluation of the antioxidants activities of four Slovene medicinal plant species by traditional and novel biosensory assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the antioxidant activity of methanolic and water extracts of Slovene accessions of four medicinal plant species (Salvia officinalis, Achillea millefolium, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and Gentiana lutea). Their free radical-scavenging activity against the DPPH· free radical was studied with a spectrophotometric assay, while their biological activity with the help of a laboratory-made biosensor based on immobilized fibroblast cells

Spiridon Kintzios; Katerina Papageorgiou; Iakovos Yiakoumettis; Dea Bari?evi?; Anita Kušar

2010-01-01

330

Antimicrobial activity of Calendula officinalis petal extracts against fungi, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive clinical pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of methanol and ethanol extracts of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis) petals against clinical pathogens. The antimicrobial potential of C. officinalis extracts was evaluated against a panel of microorganisms isolated from patients at the Belfast City Hospital (BCH), including bacteria and fungi, using disc diffusion assay. Methanol extract of C. officinalis exhibited better antibacterial activity against most of the bacteria tested, than ethanol extract. Both methanol and ethanol extracts showed excellent antifungal activity against tested strains of fungi, while comparing with Fluconazole. PMID:22789794

Efstratiou, Efstratios; Hussain, Abdullah I; Nigam, Poonam S; Moore, John E; Ayub, Muhammad A; Rao, Juluri R

2012-08-01

331

Qualitative and quantitative high performance thin layer chromatography analysis of Calendula officinalis using high resolution plate imaging and artificial neural network data modelling.  

PubMed

Calendula officinalis, commonly known Marigold, has been traditionally used for its anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of an artificial neural network (ANN) to analyse thin layer chromatography (TLC) chromatograms as fingerprint patterns for quantitative estimation of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and rutin in Calendula plant extracts. By applying samples with different weight ratios of marker compounds to the system, a database of chromatograms was constructed. A hundred and one signal intensities in each of the HPTLC chromatograms were correlated to the amounts of applied chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, and rutin using an ANN. The developed ANN correlation was used to quantify the amounts of 3 marker compounds in calendula plant extracts. The minimum quantifiable level (MQL) of 610, 190 and 940 ng and the limit of detection (LD) of 183, 57 and 282 ng were established for chlorogenic, caffeic acid and rutin, respectively. A novel method for quality control of herbal products, based on HPTLC separation, high resolution digital plate imaging and ANN data analysis has been developed. The proposed method can be adopted for routine evaluation of the phytochemical variability in calendula extracts. PMID:24070490

Agatonovic-Kustrin, S; Loescher, Christine M

2013-10-10

332

Repellency Effects of Essential Oils of Myrtle (Myrtus communis), Marigold (Calendula officinalis) Compared with DEET against Anopheles stephensi on Human Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background: Malaria and leishmaniasis are two most significant parasitic diseases which are endemic in Iran. Over the past decades, interest in botanical repellents has increased as a result of safety to human. The comparative efficacy of essential oils of two native plants, myrtle (Myrtus communis) and marigold (Calendula officinalis) collected from natural habitats at southern Iran was compared with DEET as synthetic repellent against Anopheles stephensi on human subjects under laboratory condition. Methods: Essential oils from two species of native plants were obtained by Clevenger-type water distillation. The protection time of DEET, marigold and myrtle was assessed on human subject using screened cage method against An. stephensi. The effective dose of 50% essential oils of two latter species and DEET were determined by modified ASTM method. ED50 and ED90 values and related statistical parameters were calculated by probit analysis. Results: The protection time of 50% essential oils of marigold and myrtle were respectively 2.15 and 4.36 hours compared to 6.23 hours for DEET 25%. The median effective dose (ED50) of 50% essential oils was 0.1105 and 0.6034 mg/cm2 respectively in myrtle and marigold. The figure for DEET was 0.0023 mg/cm2. Conclusion: This study exhibited that the repellency of both botanical repellents was generally lower than DEET as a synthetic repellent. However the 50% essential oil of myrtle showed a moderate repellency effects compared to marigold against An. stephensi.

Tavassoli, M; Shayeghi, M; Abai, MR; Vatandoost, H; Khoobdel, M; Salari, M; Ghaderi, A; Rafi, F

2011-01-01

333

Use of Immobilised Lipase from Candida antarctica in Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Seed Oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary This study aims at the investigation of the possibilities to use immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica in supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil. The first series of experiments was performed to measure the extract yields obtained with pure CO2 and with the added entrainer (ethanol). The yield increased more than twi- ce after increasing

Petras Rimantas Venskutonis; Egidijus Dauk; Björn Sivik

334

Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Rosmarinic Acid in Extracts of "Melissa officinalis" and Spectrophotometric Measurement of Their Antioxidant Activities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The students prepare tea samples using different quantities of lemon balm leaves ("Melissa officinalis") and measure the rosmarinic acid contents by an HPLC-DAD method. The antioxidant properties of the tea samples are evaluated by a spectrophotometric method using a radical-scavenging assay with DPPH. (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). Finally the…

Canelas, Vera; da Costa, Cristina Teixeira

2007-01-01

335

First Field Trials of Borage (Borago officinalis L.) in Andalusia (Southern Spain) as a Source of “Biological” Gamma Linolenic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is cultivated in the north of Spain for fresh edible production and is gathered from natural populations for its fresh flowers with saline, cucumber-like flavor. It is considered as a weed in the rest of Spain. Nevertheless, the agroecological mediterranean conditions in the south of Spain are adequate for growing borage as an oilseed crop for

C. Gálvez; A. De Haro

2002-01-01

336

Antidepressant-like effects of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol from the barks of Magnolia officinalis in stressed rodents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Honokiol and magnolol are the main constituents simultaneously identified in the barks of Magnolia officinalis, which have been used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat a variety of mental disorders including depression. In the present study, we reported on the antidepressant-like effects of oral administration of the mixture of honokiol and magnolol in well-validated models of depression in rodents: forced

Qun Xu; Li-Tao Yi; Ying Pan; Xing Wang; Yu-Cheng Li; Jian-Mei Li; Cai-Ping Wang; Ling-Dong Kong

2008-01-01

337

Genotoxicity and mutagenicity of Rosmarinus officinalis (Labiatae) essential oil in mammalian cells in vivo.  

PubMed

Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary) oil is widely used by the cosmetic, food, and pharmaceutical industries as a fragrance component of soaps, creams, lotions, and perfumes. Although it is popular, potential harmful side-effects of the oil have been described. We investigated the genotoxic and mutagenic potential of essential oil of R. officinalis in rodents, using comet, micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. The animals were treated by gavage with one of three dosages of rosemary oil (300, 1000 or 2000 mg/kg). Liver and peripheral blood cells were collected from Swiss mice 24 h after treatment for the comet assay (genotoxicity endpoint), along with bone marrow cells for the micronucleus test (mutagenicity endpoint). Bone marrow cells were collected from Wistar rats 24 h after oil treatment for the micronucleus and chromosome aberration assays. Based on the comet assay, all three doses of rosemary oil induced significant increases in DNA damage in the mouse cells. There was a significant increase in micronucleated cells and chromosome aberrations only at the two higher doses. We conclude that rosemary essential oil provokes genotoxic and mutagenic effects when administered orally. PMID:21038297

Maistro, E L; Mota, S F; Lima, E B; Bernardes, B M; Goulart, F C

2010-01-01

338

In vitro amoebicidal activities of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis on Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts and trophozoites.  

PubMed

Amoebic keratitis is difficult to treat without total efficacy in some patients because of cysts, which are less susceptible than trophozoites to the usual treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro amoebicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Satureja cuneifolia and Melissa officinalis. In the presence of methanolic extracts (ranging from 1.0 to 32.0 mg/ml), numbers of the viable Acanthamoe castellanii trophozoites and cysts were decreased during the experimental process. Both extracts showed a time- and dose-dependent amoebicidal action on the trophozoites and cysts. Among the extracts tested, S. cuneifolia showed the strongest amoebicidal effect on the trophozoites and cysts. In the presence of 32 mg/ml extract, no viable trophozoites were observed within 24 h. At the same concentration value, the extract was found effective against the cysts at a rate of 46.3% within 72 h of the experimental process. At 16 mg/ml extract concentration, no viable trophozoites were also observed in the 24th hour of the experiment. At the end of the experimental process, 34.7% of the cysts were killed by the extract. M. officinalis showed moderate amoebicidal effect. At the concentration of 32 mg/ml, 44.3% and 30.0% of the trophozoites and cysts were killed by the extract, respectively. Results obtained from these concentration values were found statistically different in terms of their actions both on trophozoites and cysts (p<0.05). PMID:22160280

Malatyali, E; Tepe, B; Degerli, S; Berk, S

2012-06-01

339

New protocols to improve the deposition and hatching of Sepia officinalis' eggs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was the development of hatching protocols in controlled conditions to obtain juveniles, in order to restock and increase the resource of Sepia officinalis. The study was divided into the following phases: development and application of artificial surfaces at specific sites of the Molise coast in Italy; induction of eggs hatching and juveniles maintenance under controlled condition; juveniles introduction into specific sites and assessment their increment; experimental data elaboration. The obtained results concerned both the effectiveness of the artificial surfaces tasted during the study and the importance of the recovery of the eggs laid on artificial surfaces (artefacts and fishing gear) for preservation and the management of the Sepia officinalis resource. The induction tests conducted on eggs hatching under controlled conditions confirmed what described in the extant literature. Water salinity was detected as the only limiting factor, with values ? 20% related to the absence of hatching. The described practices for harvesting and induction of hatching for the production of juvenile cuttlefish may be endorsed by the operators at relatively low cost and throughout the year, with obvious economic benefits. PMID:24362778

Barile, Nadia B; Cappabianca, Sabatino; Antonetti, Luigi; Scopa, Mariaspina; Nerone, Eliana; Mascilongo, Giuseppina; Recchi, Sara; D'Aloise, Antonio

2013-01-01

340

A new haemocyanin in cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) eggs: sequence analysis and relevance during ontogeny  

PubMed Central

Background Haemocyanin is the respiratory protein of most of the Mollusca. In cephalopods and gastropods at least two distinct isoforms are differentially expressed. However, their physiological purpose is unknown. For the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, three isoforms are known so far, whereas for only two of them the complete mRNA sequences are available. In this study, we sequenced the complete mRNA of the third haemocyanin isoform and measured the relative expression of all three isoforms during embryogenesis to reveal a potential ontogenetic relevance. Results The cDNA of isoform 3 clearly correlates to the known Sepia officinalis haemocyanin subunits consisting of eight functional units and an internal duplicated functional unit d. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal the third isoform representing a potentially ancestral haemocyanin isoform, and the analyses of the expression of haemocyanin type 3 reveal that haemocyanin type 3 only can be observed within eggs and during early development. Isoforms 1 and 2 are absent at these stages. After hatching, isoform 3 is downregulated, and isoform 1 and 2 are upregulated. Conclusions Our study clearly shows an embryonic relevance of the third isoform, which will be further discussed in the light of the changes in the physiological function of haemocyanin during ontogeny. Taken together with the fact that it could also be the isoform closest related to the common ancestor of cuttlefish haemocyanin, the phylogeny of cuttlefish haemocyanin may be recapitulated during its ontogeny.

2014-01-01

341

Hepato and reno protective action of Calendula officinalis L. flower extract.  

PubMed

Flower extract of C. officinalis L. was evaluated for its protective effect against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. The activities of serum marker enzymes of liver injury like glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) which were increased by CCl4 injection was found to be significantly reduced by the pretreatment of the flower extract at 100 and 250 mg/kg body weight. The lipid peroxidation in liver, the marker of membrane damage and the total bilirubin content in serum were also found to be at significantly low level in the extract pretreated group, indicating its protective role. The kidney function markers like urea and creatinine were significantly increased in cisplatin treated animals. However, their levels were found to be lowered in the extract pretreated groups (100 and 250 mg/kg body weight). Moreover, cisplatin induced myelosuppression was ameliorated by the extract pretreatment. Treatment with the extract produced enhancement of antioxidant enzymes--superoxide dismutase and catalase and glutathione. Results suggest a protective role of the flower extract of C. officinalis against CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity and cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Extract has been found to contain several carotenoids of which lutein, zeaxanthin and lycopene predominates. Possible mechanism of action of the flower extract may be due to its antioxidant activity and reduction of oxygen radicals. PMID:19405380

Preethi, Korengath Chandran; Kuttan, Ramadasan

2009-03-01

342

Morph-ratio variation, population size and female reproductive success in distylous Pulmonaria officinalis (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

Theory predicts that morph ratios in heterostylous populations are governed by negative frequency-dependent selection typically resulting in equal morph ratios at equilibrium. Previous work on the distylous perennial herb Pulmonaria officinalis, however, showed asymmetric mating between floral morphs and a weak self-incompatibility system, with the long-styled morph (L-morph) producing significantly higher seed set following intramorph crosses and even selfing than the short-styled morph (S-morph), two aspects thought to affect female fecundity and morph-ratio variation. Here, we evaluated morph ratios and population size of all known P. officinalis populations in the northern part of Belgium. Morph ratios deviated significantly from 1:1 (range 0.09-1 L-morph frequency, mean = 0.58). Relative fecundity of the S-morph (i.e. mean seed set of the S-morph/mean seed set of the L-morph) was on average 0.73, was positively related to the frequency of the L-morph, and reached 1 (similar levels of female fecundity) at an average L-morph frequency of 0.66 in the population. As some small populations had the S-morph in majority, our results suggest that local morph ratios are influenced both by the relative fecundity of L- and S-morph individuals and by stochastic processes in small populations. PMID:18631213

Brys, R; Jacquemyn, H; Beeckman, T

2008-09-01

343

Prophenoloxidase system, lysozyme and protease inhibitor distribution in the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The immune system of cephalopods remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the specific activity of immune enzymes in epithelial barriers, circulatory and digestive systems of the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis. Three enzyme groups with putative functions in immunity were investigated: phenoloxidases (POs), lysozymes and protease inhibitors (PIs). Consistent with a role in immunity, highest PO activities were found in the integument as well as the respiratory and circulatory organs under zymogenic (proPO) and active form. Surprisingly, high PO activities were also found in the digestive gland and its appendages. Similarly, high lysozyme activities were detected in the integument and circulatory organs, but also in the posterior salivary glands, highlighting the implication of this antibacterial enzyme group in most tissues exposed to the environment but also within the circulatory system. Albeit highest in digestive organs, the ubiquitous detection of PI activity in assayed compartments suggests immune function(s) in a wide range of tissues. Our study reports proPO/PO, lysozyme and PI distributions in S. officinalis body compartments for the first time, and thus provides the fundamental basis for a better understanding of the humoral immune system in cephalopods as well as invertebrates. PMID:24813822

Le Pabic, Charles; Safi, Georges; Serpentini, Antoine; Lebel, Jean-Marc; Robin, Jean-Paul; Koueta, Noussithé

2014-01-01

344

Chemical composition and biological activities of Calamintha officinalis Moench essential oil.  

PubMed

Calamintha officinalis Moench essential oil is used in cooking as an aromatic herb and also to improve the flavor and fragrance of several pharmaceutical products. The essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation (5?mL/kg), was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection. Sixty-four components were identified, constituting 99.7% of the total oil. The major component was found to be carvone (38.7%), followed by neo-dihydrocarveol (9.9%), dihydrocarveol acetate (7.6%), dihydrocarveol (6.9%), 1,8 cineole (6.4%), cis-carvyl acetate (6.1%), and pulegone (4.1%). The essential oil showed antifungal and antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. In addition, it presented a very low toxicity both in vivo (50% lethal dose >100?mg/kg) and in vitro in the Artemia salina test (50% lethal concentration >500??L/mL). C. officinalis essential oil, in rodents, produces the typical effects in behavior of a nonselective central nervous system-depressant drug; it potentiates the hypnotic effects of sodium pentobarbital, decreasing the induction time and enhancing the sleeping time. Moreover, it produces a decrease in body temperature and a protection against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. PMID:21142949

Monforte, Maria Teresa; Tzakou, Olga; Nostro, Antonia; Zimbalatti, Vincenzo; Galati, Enza Maria

2011-03-01

345

Do plants mediate their anti-diabetic effects through anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions? an in vitro assay of 3 Indian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Both experimental and clinical studies suggest that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of both types of diabetes mellitus. This oxidative stress leads to ?-cell destruction by apoptosis. Hence exploring agents modulating oxidative stress is an effective strategy in the treatment of both Type I and Type II diabetes. Plants are a major source of anti-oxidants and exert protective effects against oxidative stress in biological systems. Phyllanthus emblica, Curcuma longa and Tinospora cordifolia are three such plants widely used in Ayurveda for their anti-hyperglycemic activity. Additionally their anti-oxidant properties have been scientifically validated in various experimental in vitro and in vivo models. Hence the present in vitro study was planned to assess whether the anti-hyperglycemic effects of the hydro-alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Curcuma longa (Cl) and aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) are mediated through their antioxidant and/or anti-apoptotic property in a streptozotocin induced stress model. Methods RINm5F cell line was used as a model of pancreatic ?-cells against stress induced by streptozotocin (2 mM). Non-toxic concentrations of the plant extracts were identified using MTT assay. Lipid peroxidation through MDA release, modulation of apoptosis and insulin release were the variables measured to assess streptozotocin induced damage and protection afforded by the plant extracts. Results All 3 plants extracts significantly inhibited MDA release from RIN cells indicating protective effect against STZ induced oxidative damage. They also exhibited a dose dependent anti-apoptotic effect as seen by a decrease in the sub G0 population in response to STZ. None of the plant extracts affected insulin secretion from the cells to a great extent. Conclusion The present study thus demonstrated that the protective effect of the selected medicinal plants against oxidative stress induced by STZ in vitro, which was exerted through their anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic actions.

2013-01-01

346

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice.  

PubMed

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3-1000 mg/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg/kg. In the formalin test, the extract (30-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant inhibition of both, the early (neurogenic pain) and the late (inflammatory pain), phases of formalin-induced licking. The extract (10-1000 mg/kg, p.o.) also caused significant and dose-dependent inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 198.5 mg/kg. Furthermore, the rosmarinic acid (0.3-3 mg/kg), given p.o. 1 h prior, produced dose-related inhibition of glutamate-induced pain, with ID50 value of 2.64 mg/kg. The antinociception caused by the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) in the glutamate test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of mice with atropine (1 mg/kg), mecamylamine (2 mg/kg) or l-arginine (40 mg/kg). In contrast, the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) antinociception was not affected by i.p. treatment with naloxone (1 mg/kg) or D-arginine (40 mg/kg). It was also not associated with non-specific effects, such as muscle relaxation or sedation. Collectively, the present results suggest that the extract produced dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical pain through mechanisms that involved cholinergic systems (i.e. through muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors) and the L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway. In addition, the rosmarinic acid contained in this plant appears to contribute for the antinociceptive property of the extract. Moreover, the antinociceptive action demonstrated in the present study supports, at least partly, the ethnomedical uses of this plant. PMID:19358864

Guginski, Giselle; Luiz, Ana Paula; Silva, Morgana Duarte; Massaro, Murilo; Martins, Daniel Fernandes; Chaves, Juliana; Mattos, Robson Willain; Silveira, Damaris; Ferreira, Vânia M M; Calixto, Joăo Batista; Santos, Adair R S

2009-07-01

347

Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.  

PubMed

The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 ?g/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

2013-11-01

348

The influence of relative plant density and floral morphological complexity on the behaviour of bumblebees  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assessed the combined effects of varying the relative density and the relative floral morphological complexity of plant\\u000a species on the behaviour of their bumblebee pollinators. Three species of bumblebee (Bombus pascuorum, B. terrestris and B. hortorum) were observed foraging on experimental arrays consisting of pair-wise combinations of four plant species: Borago officinalis, Phacelia tanacetifolia (both with simple flowers), Antirrhinum

Jane C. Stout; John A. Allen; Dave Goulson

1998-01-01

349

Screening for Antifungal Activities of Some Medicinal Plants used Traditionally in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinal plants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinal plants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi

Magda M. Aly; Samira O. Bafeel

2010-01-01

350

Pilot trial of Melissa officinalis L. leaf extract in the treatment of volunteers suffering from mild-to-moderate anxiety disorders and sleep disturbances  

Microsoft Academic Search

Botanicals are an alternative option to prescription drugs for the alleviation of symptoms due to anxiety disorders and insomnia.\\u000a Melissa officinalis L. has been shown as an anti-stress and anxiolytic agent. We previously reported moderate stress improvement in mice in which\\u000a Cyracos®, a standardized Melissa officinalis L. extract, was administrated. Cyracos® contains phytochemicals that inhibit gamma-aminobutyric acid catabolism. This was

Julien Cases; Alvin Ibarra; Nicolas Feuillčre; Marc Roller; Samir G. Sukkar

351

Evaluation of Calendula officinalis as an anti-plaque and anti-gingivitis agent  

PubMed Central

Background: Calendula officinalis (C. officinalis), commonly known as pot marigold, is a medicinal herb with excellent antimicrobial, wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity. Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of C. officinalis in reducing dental plaque and gingival inflammation. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty patients within the age group of 20-40 years were enrolled in this study with their informed consent. Patients having gingivitis (probing depth (PD) ?3 mm), with a complaint of bleeding gums were included in this study. Patients with periodontitis PD ? 4 mm, desquamative gingivitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG), smokers under antibiotic coverage, and any other history of systemic diseases or conditions, including pregnancy, were excluded from the study. The subjects were randomly assigned into two groups – test group (n = 120) and control group (n = 120). All the test group patients were advised to dilute 2 ml of tincture of calendula with 6 ml of distilled water and rinse their mouths once in the morning and once in the evening for six months. Similarly, the control group patients were advised to use 8 ml distilled water (placebo) as control mouthwash and rinse mouth twice daily for six months. Clinical parameters like the plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), and oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) were recorded at baseline (first visit), third month (second visit), and sixth month (third visit) by the same operator, to rule out variable results. During the second visit, after recording the clinical parameters, each patient was subjected to undergo a thorough scaling procedure. Patients were instructed to carry out regular routine oral hygiene maintenance without any reinforcement in it. Results: In the absence of scaling (that is, between the first and second visit), the test group showed a statistically significant reduction in the scores of PI, GI, SBI (except OHI-S) (P < 0.05), whereas, the control group showed no reduction in scores when the baseline scores were compared with the third month scores. Also, when scaling was performed during the third month (second visit), there was statistically significant reduction in the scores of all parameters, when the third month scores were compared with the sixth month scores in both groups (P < 0.05), but the test group showed a significantly greater reduction in the PI, GI, SBI, and OHI-S scores compared to those of the control group. Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that calendula mouthwash is effective in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adjunctive to scaling.

Khairnar, Mayur Sudhakar; Pawar, Babita; Marawar, Pramod Parashram; Mani, Ameet

2013-01-01

352

The comparison of in vivo antigenotoxic and antioxidative capacity of two propylene glycol extracts of Calendula officinalis (marigold) and vitamin E in young growing pigs.  

PubMed

The objective of the study was to evaluate the protective effect of Calendula officinalis propylene glycol extracts against oxidative DNA damage and lipid peroxidation induced by high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake in young growing pigs. Forty young growing pigs were assigned to five treatment groups: control; oil (linseed oil supplementation); C. officinalis 1 and 2 groups (linseed oil plus 3 ml/day of C. officinalis propylene glycol extracts); and vitamin E group (linseed oil plus 100 mg/kg of vitamin E). Lymphocyte DNA fragmentation and 24-h urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion were measured to determine DNA damage. Lipid peroxidation was studied by analysing plasma and urine malondialdehyde (MDA), and urine isoprostane concentrations (iPF2?-VI), total antioxidant status of plasma and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) assays. C. officinalis 1 (extract from petals) effectively protected DNA from oxidative damage. It indicated a numerical trend towards the reduction of plasma MDA and urinary iPF2?-VI excretion. Its effect was comparable with that of vitamin E. C. officinalis 2 (extract from flower tops) showed less antioxidant potential than the extract from petals. We can conclude that the amount of C. officinalis extracts proposed for internal use by traditional medicine protects the organism against DNA damage induced by high PUFA intake. PMID:18700847

Frankic, T; Salobir, K; Salobir, J

2009-12-01

353

Trends in aging and skin care: Ayurvedic concepts  

PubMed Central

The association between Ayurveda, anti-aging and cosmeceuticals is gaining importance in the beauty, health and wellness sector. Ayurvedic cosmeceuticals date back to the Indus Valley Civilization. Modern research trends mainly revolve around principles of anti-aging activity described in Ayurveda: Vayasthapana (age defying), Varnya (brighten skin-glow), Sandhaniya (cell regeneration), Vranaropana (healing), Tvachya (nurturing), Shothahara (anti-inflammatory), Tvachagnivardhani (strengthening skin metabolism) and Tvagrasayana (retarding aging). Many rasayana plants such as Emblica officinalis (Amla) and Centella asiatica (Gotukola) are extensively used.

Datta, Hema Sharma; Paramesh, Rangesh

2010-01-01

354

Linkage Arrangement of RFLP loci in progenies from crosses between doubled haploid Asparagus officinalis L. clones.  

PubMed

A preliminary genetic map of the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L. (2n = 20) has been constructed on the basis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and isozyme marker data. With DNA samples digested with either EcoRI or HindIII 61 out of 148 probes (41%) identified RFLPs in six families of doubled haploid lines obtained through anther culture. A higher level of polymorphism (65%) was observed when a single family was screened for RFLPs using six distinct restriction enzymes. Segregation analysis of the BC progenies (40-80 individuals) resulted in a 418-cM extended map comprising 43 markers: 39 RFLPs, three isozymes and one morphological (sex). These markers are clustered in 12 linkage groups and four of them exhibited significant deviations from the expected 1?1 ratio. One isozyme and three RFLP markers were assigned to the sex chromosome. PMID:24173793

Restivo, F M; Tassi, F; Biffi, R; Falavigna, A; Caporali, E; Carboni, A; Doldi, M L; Spada, A; Marziani, G P

1995-01-01

355

Subacute effect of cigarette smoke exposure in rats: protection by pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) extract.  

PubMed

This study was carried out to determine the preventive effect of Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) on rats exposed to cigarette smoke (CS). Rats were divided into three groups as control, CS and CS + pot marigold (PM). The rats in the CS and CS + PM groups were subjected to CS for 1 h twice a day for 23 days. PM (100 mg/kg body weight) was given to rats in the CS + PM group by gavage, 1 h before each administration period. While malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl contents and reduced glutathione level of the CS group increased, their levels diminished by PM administration. In addition, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase activities and ?-carotene, vitamins A and C levels decreased in the CS group compared to control, however activities of these enzymes and concentration of vitamins were elevated by PM supplementation. This investigation showed that administration of PM supplied relative protection against subacute CS-induced cell injury. PMID:21505008

Ozkol, Halil; Tülüce, Yasin; Koyuncu, Ismail

2012-02-01

356

A new collagen from the extracellular matrix of Sepia officinalis cartilage.  

PubMed

Guanidinium chloride treatment of Sepia officinalis cartilage solubilized a component that contained hydroxyproline. Electron-microscopy observation of rotary-shadowed preparations of this component revealed it to consist of rod-like units themselves consisting of filaments. Dialysis of an acetic acid solution against ATP afforded polymeric aggregates consisting of a succession of two or three thick sections showing transverse electron-opaque banding, separated by thinner sections without banding. Electrophoresis produced a main band of about 140 kDa sensitive to bacterial collagenase. After reduction with mercaptoethanol, electrophoresis afforded a 40-kDa band. Pepsin digestion resulted in additional electrophoretic bands. These data suggest the presence of a collagen in Sepia cartilage with characteristics unlike those of any known collagen. PMID:12397379

Rigo, Cristina; Bairati, Aurelio

2002-11-01

357

Collagen fibrils of an invertebrate (Sepia officinalis) are heterotypic: immunocytochemical demonstration.  

PubMed

Collagen fibrils from the dermis of Sepia officinalis were processed for immunoelectron microscopy to reveal reactions to antibodies against mammalian types I, III, and V, teleost type I and cephalopod type I-like collagens, by single and double immunogold localization. The fibrils were observed: (a) in suspensions of prepared fibrils, (b) in ultrathin sections of embedded fibril preparations, and (c) in ultrathin sections of dermal tissue. Some samples were subjected to acetic acid or urea dissociation. It was found that collagen fibrils from Sepia dermis are heterotypic in that they are composed of type I-like and type V collagens. Type I-like collagen epitopes were present mainly at the periphery of the fibrils; type V collagen epitopes were present throughout the fibrils. This is the first demonstration that collagen fibrils from an invertebrate are heterotypic, suggesting that heterotypy may be an intrinsic characteristic of the fibrils of fibrillar collagens, independent of evolutionary or taxonomic status. PMID:15193644

Bairati, A; Gioria, M

2004-08-01

358

Simultaneous quantification of verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis by ATR-IR and NIR spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Attenuated-total-reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (NIR) in hyphenation with multivariate analysis was utilized to quantify verbenalin and verbascoside in Verbena officinalis. A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method as a reference was established and validated. For both vibrational spectroscopic methods test-set and cross validation were performed. Different data-pre-treatments like SNV, 1st and 2nd derivative were applied to remove systematic errors and were evaluated. Quality parameters obtained for the test-set validation revealed that ATR-IR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.94, RPD=4.23; verbascoside: R(2)=0.93, RPD=3.63) has advantages over NIR (verbenalin: R(2)=0.91, RPD=3.75; verbascoside: R(2)=0.80, RPD=2.35) in the given application. PMID:23810849

Schönbichler, S A; Bittner, L K H; Pallua, J D; Popp, M; Abel, G; Bonn, G K; Huck, C W

2013-10-01

359

Scavenging and antioxidant activities of immunomodulating polysaccharides isolated from Salvia officinalis L.  

PubMed

Crude polysaccharides, isolated from the aerial parts of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) by sequential extraction with water (A), hot ammonium oxalate (B), dimethyl sulfoxide (C), 1M (D) and 4M (E) potassium hydroxide solutions, and six ion-exchange fractions of A were examined for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of liposome lipid by hydroxyl radicals and to reduced DPPH radical content. The highest inhibition of liposome lipid peroxidation was found with crude polysaccharides A, B and D, antioxidant activities reached approximately 37%. The purified fractions A1 and A2 inhibited the liposome peroxidation to approximately 35%. However, the radical scavenging abilities of the most active crude polysaccharides A, B and C on DPPH radicals were found in the range 80-90%, while the most active purified fractions A3-A6 in three or fourfold doses achieved 75-92%. The least effective tested polysaccharides succeeded 20% inhibition using both methods. PMID:19014965

Capek, P; Machová, E; Turjan, J

2009-01-01

360

Novel jasmonate amino acid conjugates in Asparagus officinalis during harvest-induced and natural foliar senescence.  

PubMed

Five jasmonates, including novel tryptophan conjugates of jasmonic acid and dihydrojasmonic acid, were identified in extracts from spears of Asparagus officinalis L. by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Spears were harvested and were held dry or with bases immersed in water. The concentrations of jasmonic acid, dihydrojasmonic acid, their tryptophan conjugates, cucurbic acid and methyl jasmonate, were measured by ELISA in spears in the 10 d following harvest. A transient increase that occurred in all spear tips immediately following harvest in the concentration of jasmonates can be attributed to a wounding response. A second increase in the concentration of jasmonates occurred from 7 d after harvest but only in dry-treated spear tips indicating that jasmonates may have accumulated in response to water stress. Jasmonate levels were also monitored during natural foliar senescence. Increased levels of jasmonates occurred after the onset of senescence, implicating them as a consequence rather than a cause of senescence. PMID:11982942

Gapper, Nigel E; Norris, Gill E; Clarke, Sean F; Lill, Ross E; Jameson, Paula E

2002-01-01

361

Fatty acid composition of lipids in pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) seed genotypes  

PubMed Central

Background Calendula officinalis L. (pot marigold) is an annual aromatic herb with yellow or golden-orange flowers, native to the Mediterranean climate areas. Their seeds contain significant amounts of oil (around 20%), of which about 60% is calendic acid. For these reasons, in Europe concentrated research efforts have been directed towards the development of pot marigold as an oilseed crop for industrial purposes. Results The oil content and fatty acid composition of major lipid fractions in seeds from eleven genotypes of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) were determined. The lipid content of seeds varied between 13.6 and 21.7 g oil/100 g seeds. The calendic and linoleic acids were the two dominant fatty acids in total lipid (51.4 to 57.6% and 28.5 to 31.9%) and triacylglycerol (45.7 to 54.7% and 22.6 to 29.2%) fractions. Polar lipids were also characterised by higher unsaturation ratios (with the PUFAs content between 60.4 and 66.4%), while saturates (consisted mainly of palmitic and very long-chain saturated fatty acids) were found in higher amounts in sterol esters (ranging between 49.3 and 55.7% of total fatty acids). Conclusions All the pot marigold seed oils investigated contain high levels of calendic acid (more than 50% of total fatty acids), making them favorable for industrial use. The compositional differences between the genotypes should be considered when breeding and exploiting the pot marigold seeds for nutraceutical and pharmacological purposes.

2013-01-01

362

Pharmacological and biological evaluation of extracts from Gratiola officinalis L. (Scrophulariaceae).  

PubMed

The crude extract of Gratiola officinalis and its n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were subjected to biological (Brine Shrimp Bioassay, Insecticidal and Phytotoxicity/Cytotoxic) and neuropharmacological (Head dip, Open field Forced swimming test, Sodium pentothal induced sleep) activities. Results obtained in this study indicated that at high concentration dose (1000?g/ml), all test samples showed 60-95% phytotoxicity. In crude extract, n-butanol and aqueous fractions produced more than 85% phytotoxicity. While low concentration (10?g/ml) dose showed 25-28% phytotoxicity in all test samples. The crude extract was devoid of any effect against the growth of Callosbruchus analis and Tribolium castaneum and caused 10 mortality of Rhyzopertha dominica. n-Hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions caused 50, 30, 40, 10 and 20% mortality respectively of C. analis where as chloroform, ethyl-acetate, aqueous and crude extract, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate fractions also caused low mortality (10%) of Tribolium castaneum and Rhyzopertha dominica respectively. In cytotoxic assay at 1000?g/ml concentration, n-butanol fraction produced 36.7% and the crude extract produced 13.3% mortality of brine shrimp, its aqueous fraction was inactive at all concentrations. The results of head dip, open field, mobility time and Pentothal Na induced sleep indicated that crude extract, n-butanol and ethylacetate fractions of G. officinalis had mild sedative effect. However aqueous fraction was found to produce a significant decrease in motor activities and potentiated the duration of sleep. PMID:22713957

Ahmad, Mansoor; Muhammad, Noor; Mehjabeen; Jahan, Noor; Ahmad, Manzoor; Habib, Salman

2012-07-01

363

Gamma-linolenic acid enrichment from Borago officinalis and Echium fastuosum seed oils and fatty acids by low temperature crystallization.  

PubMed

Solvent winterization of seed oil and free fatty acids (FFAs) was employed to obtain gamma-linolenic acid (GLA; 18:3omega6) concentrates from seed oils of two Boraginaceae species, Echium fastuosum and Borago officinalis. Different solutions of seed oils and FFAs from these two oils at 10%, 20% and 40% (w/w) were crystallized at 4 degrees C, -24 degrees C and -70 degrees C, respectively, using hexane, acetone, diethyl ether, isobutanol and ethanol as solvents. Best results were obtained for B. officinalis FFAs in hexane, reaching a maximum GLA concentration of 58.8% in the liquid fraction (LF). In E. fastuosum, the highest GLA concentration (39.9%) was also achieved with FFAs in hexane. PMID:16233632

López-Martínez, Juan Carlos; Campra-Madrid, Pablo; Guil-Guerrero, José Luis

2004-01-01

364

Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis  

PubMed Central

This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation.

2012-01-01

365

Mechanisms involved in the antinociception caused by ethanolic extract obtained from the leaves of Melissa officinalis (lemon balm) in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the antinociceptive effect of the ethanolic extract from Melissa officinalis L. and of the rosmarinic acid in chemical behavioral models of nociception and investigates some of the mechanisms underlying this effect. The extract (3–1000 mg\\/kg), given orally (p.o.) 1 h prior to testing, produced dose-dependent inhibition of acetic acid-induced visceral pain, with ID50 value of 241.9 mg\\/kg. In the

Giselle Guginski; Ana Paula Luiz; Morgana Duarte Silva; Murilo Massaro; Daniel Fernandes Martins; Juliana Chaves; Robson Willain Mattos; Damaris Silveira; Vânia M. M. Ferreira; Joăo Batista Calixto; Adair R. S. Santos

2009-01-01

366

“High in omega-3 fatty acids” bologna-type sausages stabilized with an aqueous-ethanol extract of Melissa officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new formulation of bologna-type sausage enriched in ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (8.75% linseed oil) was developed, using a lyophilized aqueous-ethanolic extract of Melissa officinalis. A comparison with the effectiveness of butylhydroxy anisole (BHA) synthetic antioxidant to decrease the oxidation of PUFAs was performed.The formulation increased the ?-3 PUFAs content, especially ?-linolenic acid, decreasing significantly the ?-6\\/?-3 ratio from

Izaskun Berasategi; Sheila Legarra; Mikel García-Íńiguez de Ciriano; Sheyla Rehecho; Maria Isabel Calvo; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Íńigo Navarro-Blasco; Diana Ansorena; Iciar Astiasarán

2011-01-01

367

Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus: effects of the aqueous extracts on the isolated hearts of rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.This research was developed to evaluate the actions of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Lippia alba, Melissa officinalis and Cymbopogon citratus upon contractile force (CF) and cardiac rate (CR).2.For the experiments in isolated heart, 21 male adult rats were used. The hearts were perfused according to Langendorff’s method. The records of CF and CR were obtained in control and

Ruth Gazola; Denise Machado; Campos Ruggiero; Glenan Singi; Mariângela Macedo Alexandre

2004-01-01

368

Inhibitory effects of Lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis, L.) extract on the formation of advanced glycation end products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal herb possessing functional compounds with unexplored anti-glycative action. The anti-glycative activity of Lemon balm extract was evaluated in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)\\/glucose system. The level of glycation, conformational alterations and protein binding to RAGE receptors were assessed by specific fluorescence, Congo red binding assay, circular dichroism, ligand and Western blotting. Ethanol fractions

Mehran Miroliaei; Sima Khazaei; Sorour Moshkelgosha; Mansoureh Shirvani

2011-01-01

369

Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Essential Oils from Melissa officinalis ( Labiatae Family) and Pellargonium ssp. ( Geraniaceae Family)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present work we report upon the development of a novel methodology based on electrospray (ESI) high capacity ion trap\\u000a (HCT) multistage mass spectrometry (MS\\/MS), for assessing the composition and structure of essential volatile oils. The method\\u000a was particularly applied to a native terpenoid mixture extracted from Melissa officinalis and different species of Pellargonium genus. Optimized ESI HCT MS

Claudia C. Toma; Ioan B. Pancan; Marius Chiri??; Florina M. Vata; Alina D. Zamfir

370

Comparison of rosmarinic acid content in commercial tinctures produced from fresh and dried lemon balm (Melissa officinalis)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. To measure the rosmarinic acid content of eight commercial tinctures derived from fresh (n= 5) and dried (n=3) Melissa officinalis herb. Methods. Rosmarinic acid and the internal standard (esculin) were purchased from Aldrich Chemical Co. The column used was a Luna C18, 5 ?m (150 x 4.6 mm I.D., Phenomenex) maintained at ambient room temperature. The HPLC system consisted

Alberto Sanchez-Medina; Christopher J. Etheridge; Geoffrey E. Hawkes; Peter J. Hylands; Barbara A. Pendry; Michael J. Hughes; Olivia Corcoran

371

Alterations in cytosine methylation and species-specific transcription induced by interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interspecific hybridization and polyploidization may involve programmed genetic and epigenetic changes. In this study, we\\u000a used the methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) method to survey cytosine methylation alterations that occurred\\u000a in F1 hybrid and BC1 progeny following interspecific hybridization between Oryza sativa and O. officinalis. Across all 316 parental methylated sites, 25 (7.9%) cytosine methylation alterations were detected in the F1

Huajun Jin; Wei Hu; Zhe Wei; Linglin Wan; Gang Li; Guangxuan Tan; Lili Zhu; Guangcun He

2008-01-01

372

Seed bank dynamics of two obligate seeders, Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis , in relation to time since fire  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many species in Mediterranean-type ecosystems regenerate after fire by seed germination from soil seed banks. Seed bank dynamics\\u000a of two of those obligate seeders, Cistus monspeliensis and Rosmarinus officinalis, were investigated in relation to stand age since fire in southwestern Portugal. Soil seed density, annual seed input, annual\\u000a seed losses through germination and seed persistence were compared between species at

Adelaide S. Clemente; Francisco C. Rego; Otília A. Correia

2007-01-01

373

Simultaneous determination of four bioactive compounds in Verbena officinalis L. by using high-performance liquid chromatography  

PubMed Central

Background: Verbena officinalis L., called mabiancao in Chinese, is derived from the aerial part of Herba Verbanae. It is a traditional Chinese medicine commonly used in China and northern Europe, which is widely used for clearing away heat and detoxicating, promoting blood circulation, and removing blood stasis. This paper describes a sensitive and specific assay for the determination of four bioactive compounds in V. officinalis L. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the four components were separated on an Agilent Zorbax Extend C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm × 5 ?m) and detected by a diode array detector. The mobile phase was composed of (a) aqueous phosphoric acid (0.1%, v/v) and (b) acetonitrile using a gradient elution. Analytes were performed at 30°C with a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min and UV detection at 203, 238, and 331 nm. Results: All calibration curves showed good linear regression (r2 ? 0.9999) within tested ranges. Overall intra- and interday variations were less than 1.84%, and the average recoveries were 97.32–102.81% for analytes. Discussion and Conclusion: The proposed method would be sensitive enough and reliable for comprehensive quality control for clinical use and modernization of V. officinalis L.

Liu, Zhen; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhou, Hanyu; Cao, Gang; Cong, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yun; Cai, Bao-Chang

2012-01-01

374

d-glucose as a modifying agent in gelatin/collagen matrix and reservoir nanoparticles for Calendula officinalis delivery.  

PubMed

Gelatin/Collagen-based matrix and reservoir nanoparticles require crosslinkers to stabilize the formed nanosuspensions, considering that physical instability is the main challenge of nanoparticulate systems. The use of crosslinkers improves the physical integrity of nanoformulations under the-host environment. Aldehyde-based fixatives, such as formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, have been widely applied to the crosslinking process of polymeric nanoparticles. However, their potential toxicity towards human beings has been demonstrated in many previous studies. In order to tackle this problem, d-glucose was used during nanoparticle formation to stabilize the gelatin/collagen-based matrix wall and reservoir wall for the deliveries of Calendula officinalis powder and oil, respectively. In addition, therapeutic selectivity between malignant and normal cells could be observed. The C. officinalis powder loaded nanoparticles significantly strengthened the anti-cancer effect towards human breast adenocarcinoma MCF7 cells and human hepatoma SKHep1 cells when compared with the free powder. On the contrary, the nanoparticles did not show significant cytotoxicity towards normal esophageal epithelial NE3 cells and human skin keratinocyte HaCaT cells. On the basis of these evidences, d-glucose modified gelatin/collagen matrix nanoparticles containing C. officinalis powder might be proposed as a safer alternative vehicle for anti-cancer treatments. PMID:24657927

Lam, P-L; Kok, S H-L; Bian, Z-X; Lam, K-H; Tang, J C-O; Lee, K K-H; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

2014-05-01

375

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

PubMed

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

376

Effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on partial inflammation of lacrimal gland in castrated rabbits with dry eye  

PubMed Central

AIM To assess the effects of extract of Buddleja officinalis on tear secretion volume, tear film stability, expressions of TGF-?1, IL-1?, TNF-? in lacrimal gland of castrated rabbits with dry eye. METHODS A total of 30 victory rabbits were divided averagely into normal group(A), model group(B), therapy group with low dose extract of Buddleja officinalis (C), therapy group with high dose extract of Buddleja officinalis (D) and therapy group with genistein (E). The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy on Group B, C, D, E. Group C, D, E were administered intragastrically with corresponding dose extract of Buddleja officinalis or genistein for 30 days. All rabbits were detected with SIT. TGF-?1, IL-1?, TNF-? were detected with immunohistochemistry and the ultrastructure of lacrimal gland was observed under transmission electron microscope. RESULTS The SIT value of group C, D, E were respectively 13.167±4.957, 14.667±5.279, 8.667±0.516, obviously higher than that of group B 5.667±2.338 (P<0.01). The positive expression of IL-1? in acinar cell and glandular tube cell of group C, D were 0.470±0.048, 0.510±0.088, obviously lower than that of group B 0.770±0.118 (P<0.01). The positive expression of TNF-? of group C, D were 0.498±0.156, 0.435±0.069, obviously lower than that of group B 0.769±0.095 too (P<0.01). The positive expression of TGF-?1 of group C, D were 0.406±0.171, 0.497±0.147, obviously higher than that of group B 0.222±0.113(P<0.01). Any result of group C, D was positive compared with that of group E (P <0.05). Ultrastructure of the lacrimal gland of group C, D, E was well preserved, especially in D group it was remarkable. CONCLUSION The extract of Buddleja officinalis can adjust lacrimal gland partial inflammation of dry eye.

Yao, Xiao-Lei; Peng, Qing-Hua; Peng, Jun; Tan, Han-Yu; Wu, Quan-Long; Wu, Da-Li; Chen, Mei; Li, Chuan-Ke; Li, Dian; Zhu, Hui-An

2010-01-01

377

In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis  

PubMed Central

The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260?nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Chovanova, Romana; Vaverkova, Stefania

2013-01-01

378

A new chromosome fluorescence banding technique combining DAPI staining with image analysis in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a new chromosome fluorescence banding technique was developed in plants. The technique combined 4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining with software analysis including three-dimensional imaging after deconvolution. Clear multiple and adjacent DAPI bands like G-bands were obtained by this technique in the tested species including Hordeum vulgare L., Oryza officinalis, Wall & Watt, Triticum aestivum L., Lilium brownii, Brown, and

Jing Yu Liu; Chao Wen She; Zhong Li Hu; Zhi Yong Xiong; Li Hua Liu; Yun Chun Song

2004-01-01

379

Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids in medicinal plants from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina).  

PubMed

Preliminary studies of flavonoids have been realised in five native species from Tafí del Valle (Tucumán, Argentina) used in popular medicine. Most of compounds detected were flavonoids mono and dihydroxylated in B ring. Screening for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms has been realised with Lippia turbinata, Satureja parvifolia, Sambucus peruviana, Verbena officinalis and Chenopodium graveolens. The total extracts of flavonoids of each plant were tested and four species studied showed antimicrobial activity. PMID:11025172

Hernández, N E; Tereschuk, M L; Abdala, L R

2000-11-01

380

Ambispora granatensis, a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, associated with Asparagus officinalis in Andalucia (Spain).  

PubMed

A new dimorphic fungal species in the arbuscular mycorrhiza-forming Glomeromycota, Ambispora granatensis, was isolated from an agricultural site in the province of Granada (Andalucía, Spain) growing in the rhizosphere of Asparagus officinalis. It was propagated in pot cultures with Trifolium pratense and Sorghum vulgare. The fungus also colonized Ri T-DNA transformed Daucus carota roots but did not form spores in these root organ cultures. The spores of the acaulosporoid morph are 90-150 ?m diam and hyaline to white to pale yellow. They have three walls and a papillae-like rough irregular surface on the outer surface of the outer wall. The irregular surface might become difficult to detect within a few hours in lactic acid-based mountings but are clearly visible in water. The structural central wall layer of the outer wall is only 0.8-1.5 ?m thick. The glomoid spores are formed singly or in small, loose spore clusters of 2-10 spores. They are hyaline to pale yellow, (25)40-70 ?m diam and have a bilayered spore wall without ornamentation. Nearly full length sequences of the 18S and the ITS regions of the ribosomal gene place the new fungus in a separate clade next to Ambispora fennica and Ambispora gerdemannii. The acaulosporoid spores of the new fungus can be distinguished easily from all other spores in genus Ambispora by the conspicuous thin outer wall. PMID:20952800

Palenzuela, Javier; Barea, José-Miguel; Ferrol, Nuria; Oehl, Fritz

2011-01-01

381

Essential oils produced by in vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).  

PubMed

In vitro shoots of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) were established under eight different hormonal supplementations and proliferated by subculture of nodal shoot segments. The respective essential oils, obtained by hydrodistillation, were composed of more than 75 compounds, 65 of which were identified. The 10 major compounds were, by order of retention time, alpha-pinene (4.1-5.4%), camphene (6-7.1%), beta-pinene (9.3-14.5%), limonene (2-2.3%), 1,8-cineole (3.6-5.6%), (-)-thujone (13.2-16.1%), (+)-isothujone (6.6-7.4%), camphor (19.8-24%), alpha-humulene (5.1-6.8%), and manool (4.2-7.7%). Notwithstanding the eight different hormonal supplementations tested, the percentage composition of the shoot essential oils were kept in a narrow range of variation. However, the type and concentration of growth regulators apparently influenced the accumulation of essential oils. The highest accumulation of essential oils and the highest shoot biomass growth were obtained with 2.0 mg/L kinetin and 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. PMID:12670167

Santos-Gomes, Paula C; Fernandes-Ferreira, Manuel

2003-04-01

382

Anti-proliferative effect of Melissa officinalis on human colon cancer cell line.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is consumed as a traditional herbal tea in the Mediterranean region. The cytotoxic effect of the 50% ethanolic and aqueous extract, determined by the MTT and NR assays, was evaluated in vitro on Human Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT-116), using Triton 10% as positive control. The 50% ethanolic extract showed significant differences after 72 h of treatment, reducing cell proliferation to values close to 40%, even the lowest dose tested (5 ?g/ml). In the MTT assay, the same extract caused the lowest cell viability with 13% at a concentration of 1,000 ?g/ml after 72 h of treatment, being a value lower than Triton 10%. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed evaluating the capacity of the extracts to scavenge ABTS and DPPH radicals, and IC(50) values were highly correlated with the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of an anti-proliferative compound, rosmarinic acid. Its structural elucidation was performed by HPLC/DAD/ESI/MS analysis. High dose of rosmarinic acid (1,000 ?g/ml) was clearly cytotoxic against HCT-116 cells, with a significant decrease in cell number since the earliest time point (24 h). PMID:21964875

Encalada, Manuel Alejandro; Hoyos, Kelly Melissa; Rehecho, Sheyla; Berasategi, Izaskun; de Ciriano, Mikel García-Íńiguez; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar; Navarro-Blasco, Ińigo; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Calvo, María Isabel

2011-11-01

383

Phenolic profiles of cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial samples of Melissa officinalis L. infusions.  

PubMed

Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is normally consumed as an infusion and presents therapeutic properties, such as sedative, carminative and antispasmodic, also being included in some pharmaceutical preparations. The phenolic profiles of different samples of lemon balm, prepared as infusions, were evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The profiles were compared in order to understand the differences between cultivated, in vitro cultured and commercial (bags and granulated) samples. All the samples showed a similar phenolic profile, presenting differences only in the quantities found of each compound. Rosmarinic acid was the most abundant compound, being higher in commercial samples, especially in tea bag sample (55.68mg/g of infusion) and lower in in vitro cultured sample (15.46mg/g). Moreover, dimers, trimers and tetramers of caffeic acid were identified and quantified for the first time in lemon balm. Only one flavonoid, luteolin-3'-O-glucuronide was found in all the samples, ranging from 8.43mg/g in commercial granulate sample to 1.22mg/g in in vitro cultured sample. Overall, cultivated and in vitro cultured samples presented the lowest amounts of phenolic compounds (59.59 and 30.21mg/g, respectively); otherwise, commercial samples showed the highest contents (109.24mg/g for tea bag and 101.03mg/g for granulate sample). The present study shows that infusion of lemon balm can be a source of phenolic compounds, known for their bioactive effects. PMID:23017385

Barros, Lillian; Dueńas, Montserrat; Dias, Maria Inęs; Sousa, Maria Joăo; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

2013-01-01

384

Biochemical evaluation of borage (Borago officinalis) rosette leaves through their essential oil and fatty acid composition.  

PubMed

Borago officinalis rosette leaves were sampled in the region of Amdoun (Tunisia) during different stages of their development. Essential oil contents varied from 0.01% to 0.13% respectively in young and adult leaves. Twenty three volatile compounds were identified. Hydrocarbons, mainly represented by nonadecane (29.8%), tetracosane (11.3%) and heptacosane (4.7%), constituted the major class in the young leaves (45.8%), followed by aldehydes (22.4%). The percentages of these two classes decreased to reach respectively 15% and 8.1% in adult leaves in favour of alcohols (57.9%) where cis-3-hexenol (29.6%) and hexanol (14.5%) were the main compounds. Total fatty acids amounts increased from 5.03 mg/g DW in young leaves to 32.23 mg/g DW in adult ones. The predominant fatty acids were alpha-linolenic (C18:3 n-3), stearidonic (C18:4 n-3), gamma-linolenic (C18:3 n-6), palmitic (C16: 0) and linoleic (C18:2 n-6) acids. PMID:17722661

Mhamdi, Baya; Aidi Wannes, Wissem; Marzouk, Brahim

2007-06-01

385

Biosynthesis of gamma-linolenic acid in developing seeds of borage (Borago officinalis L.).  

PubMed

delta 6-desaturation of [14C]linoleoyl-CoA or [14C]oleoyl-CoA leading to the synthesis of gamma-linolenic acid was studied in vitro with microsomal fractions from developing seeds of Borago officinalis. Time course of the reaction, effects of protein and precursor concentrations and nucleotide requirements were examined. These parameters allowed us to improve the in vitro delta 6-desaturation assay. We observed that the precursors were acylated mainly in phosphatidylcholine, diacylglycerol and triacylglycerol, and then desaturated. NADH was absolutely required when [14C]oleoyl-CoA was the precursor, but not when [14C]linoleoyl-CoA was the precursor although it stimulated the reaction. The in vitro delta 6-desaturase activity was found mainly in phosphatidylcholine, associated with enriched endoplasmic reticulum membranes (ER) from embryos. No activity was observed in ER from seed coat or seedling. During maturation of the seeds, delta 6-desaturase reached its highest activity 14 to 16 days after pollination. PMID:8394742

Galle, A M; Joseph, M; Demandre, C; Guerche, P; Dubacq, J P; Oursel, A; Mazliak, P; Pelletier, G; Kader, J C

1993-08-20

386

Dietary Supplementation of Calendula officinalis Counteracts the Oxidative Stress and Liver Damage Resulted from Aflatoxin  

PubMed Central

This study was conducted to evaluate the total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant properties, and the hepatorenoprotective potential of Calendula officinalis extract against aflatoxins (AFs-) induced liver damage. Six groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated for 6 weeks included the control; the group fed AFs-contaminated diet (2.5?mg/kg diet); the groups treated orally with Calendula extract at low (CA1) and high (CA2) doses (500 and 1000?mg/kg?b.w); the groups treated orally with CA1 and CA2 one week before and during AFs treatment for other five weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract contained higher phenolic compounds and posses higher 1,1-diphenyl 1-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than the aqueous extract. Animals fed AFs-contaminated diet showed significant disturbances in serum biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, and the histological and histochemical pictures of the liver accompanied by a significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in liver. Calendula extract succeeded to improve the biochemical parameters, inflammatory cytokines, decreased the oxidative stress, and improved the histological pictures in the liver of rats fed AFs-contaminated diet in a dose-dependent manner. It could be concluded that Calendula extract has potential hepatoprotective effects against AFs due to its antioxidant properties and radical scavenging activity.

Hamzawy, Mohamed A.; El-Denshary, Ezzeldein S. M.; Hassan, Nabila S.; Mannaa, Fathia A.; Abdel-Wahhab, Mosaad A.

2013-01-01

387

Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis  

PubMed Central

The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered ‘objects’ and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure–ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators.

Zylinski, S.; Osorio, D.; Shohet, A.J.

2008-01-01

388

Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Binding Activities and Spear Yield of Asparagus officinalis L.  

PubMed

The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5?~?8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P?

Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

2014-06-01

389

Perception of edges and visual texture in the camouflage of the common cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

The cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, provides a fascinating opportunity to investigate the mechanisms of camouflage as it rapidly changes its body patterns in response to the visual environment. We investigated how edge information determines camouflage responses through the use of spatially high-pass filtered 'objects' and of isolated edges. We then investigated how the body pattern responds to objects defined by texture (second-order information) compared with those defined by luminance. We found that (i) edge information alone is sufficient to elicit the body pattern known as Disruptive, which is the camouflage response given when a whole object is present, and furthermore, isolated edges cause the same response; and (ii) cuttlefish can distinguish and respond to objects of the same mean luminance as the background. These observations emphasize the importance of discrete objects (bounded by edges) in the cuttlefish's choice of camouflage, and more generally imply that figure-ground segregation by cuttlefish is similar to that in vertebrates, as might be predicted by their need to produce effective camouflage against vertebrate predators. PMID:18990667

Zylinski, S; Osorio, D; Shohet, A J

2009-02-27

390

Preliminary assessment of nutritional value of plant-based diets in relation to human nutrients.  

PubMed

In this research, we present preliminary nutritional data for traditional vegetables and fruits including their content of mineral elements (calcium, potassium, sodium, zinc, and iron) and antioxidant phenolic compounds levels. Eight vegetables and vegetables were studied. Plant foods Asparagus officinalis DC, Chlorophytum comosum Linn., Cordia myxa Roxb., Portulaca oleracia Linn. and Solanum indicum Linn. were collected in Behbehan, south Iran, and also Alocacia indica Sch., Eulophia ocherata Lindl. and Momordica dioica Roxb. were collected from the south of India. Nutrients were measured with food analytical standard methods. The results of this study provide evidence that these local traditional vegetables, which do not require formal cultivation, could be important contributors to improving the nutritional content of Pune and Behbehan people. Results indicate that 50% of the vegetables have significant energy values ranging from 281.4 to 303.9 kcal/100 g. From this study, it was determined that five vegetables, namely A. officinalis, C. comosum, E. ocherata, P. oleracia and S. indicum, provide mineral concentrations exceeding 2% of the plant dry weight and are much higher than typical mineral concentrations in conventional edible vegetables; they are thus recommended for future commercial cultivation. High levels of antioxidant compounds were noticed in P. oleracia and S. indicum. The three plants S. indicum, A. officinalis and P. oleracia are suitable for high-temperature food processes. PMID:19274594

Aberoumand, Ali

2009-01-01

391

Elevated CO2 levels affect the activity of nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase in the calcifying rhodophyte Corallina officinalis.  

PubMed

The concentration of CO(2) in global surface ocean waters is increasing due to rising atmospheric CO(2) emissions, resulting in lower pH and a lower saturation state of carbonate ions. Such changes in seawater chemistry are expected to impact calcification in calcifying marine organisms. However, other physiological processes related to calcification might also be affected, including enzyme activity. In a mesocosm experiment, macroalgal communities were exposed to three CO(2) concentrations (380, 665, and 1486 µatm) to determine how the activity of two enzymes related to inorganic carbon uptake and nutrient assimilation in Corallina officinalis, an abundant calcifying rhodophyte, will be affected by elevated CO(2) concentrations. The activity of external carbonic anhydrase, an important enzyme functioning in macroalgal carbon-concentrating mechanisms, was inversely related to CO(2) concentration after long-term exposure (12 weeks). Nitrate reductase, the enzyme responsible for reduction of nitrate to nitrite, was stimulated by CO(2) and was highest in algae grown at 665 µatm CO(2). Nitrate and phosphate uptake rates were inversely related to CO(2), while ammonium uptake was unaffected, and the percentage of inorganic carbon in the algal skeleton decreased with increasing CO(2). The results indicate that the processes of inorganic carbon and nutrient uptake and assimilation are affected by elevated CO(2) due to changes in enzyme activity, which change the energy balance and physiological status of C. officinalis, therefore affecting its competitive interactions with other macroalgae. The ecological implications of the physiological changes in C. officinalis in response to elevated CO(2) are discussed. PMID:23314813

Hofmann, Laurie C; Straub, Sandra; Bischof, Kai

2013-02-01

392

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

393

Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography with evaporative light-scattering detection for the analysis of triacylglycerols in Borago officinalis.  

PubMed

An optimized 2-D liquid chromatography (LC×LC) set-up, based on the different selectivities of a silver ion (Ag) and a non-aqueous reversed phase (NARP), employed in the first (D1) and the second dimension (D2), respectively, in combination with evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD), has been developed for the analysis of the triacylglycerol (TAG) fraction in a Borago officinalis oil. The 2-D set-up, thanks to the complementary separation selectivity provided by the two columns, allowed to distribute 78 TAGs throughout the 2-D LC retention plane otherwise unachievable by 1-D LC. PMID:21413146

Mondello, Luigi; Beccaria, Marco; Donato, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Dugo, Giovanni; Dugo, Paola

2011-03-01

394

Lead Content in Pot Marigold ( Calendula officinalis L.) Inflorescences and Leaves: Impact of Precipitations and Vicinity of Motorway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trace metal contamination is a major environmental and health problem virtually in all countries. The present study was aimed\\u000a to estimate the lead content of pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) inflorescences and leaves collected from a nonpolluted test field. The lead content in dry pot marigold inflorescences\\u000a was 9.34?±?0.79 µg\\/g, in dry leaves 11.57?±?0.47 µg\\/g, and in soil 0.649?±?0.012 µg\\/g. The distance of

Andres Meos; Tiiu Jüriado; Vallo Matto; Ain Raal

2011-01-01

395

[The in vitro action of plants on Vibrio cholerae].  

PubMed

Natural products of several plants, according to the geographic location, are used by Peruvian people in the popular treatment of diarrhea, with good success. When cholerae cases appeared in Peru, we were interested to know the "in vitro" effect against Vibrio cholerae 01, of these useful plants to treat diarrhea. The following plants were tested: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Punica granatum, Malus sativa, Cydonia oblonga, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Tea chinensis, Daucus carota, Persea gratissima, Psidium guayaba and Lippia dulcis. Decoction or infusion of the plants were used in the "in vitro" experiments. The following plants showed no "in vitro" effect against V. cholerae: Cichorium intybus, Althaea officinalis, Psorela glandulosa, Geranium maculatum, Chenopodium ambrosoides, Krameria triandria, Psidium guayaba, Lippia dulcis and Daucus carota. Decoction of Malus sativa and Cydenia oblonga showed bactericidal effect for their acidity and stone avocado (Persea gratissima) a late bactericidal effect. Tea infusión and the decoction of Punica granatum peel, showed the best bactericidal effect and we suggest to use them as to stop cholera spreading. PMID:8018898

Guevara, J M; Chumpitaz, J; Valencia, E

1994-01-01

396

Phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants.  

PubMed

To identify promising sources of antioxidants, some food and medicinal plants were studied for total phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. The leaves, bark and fruits of Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia muelleri, the leaves and fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, and the seeds of Syzygium cumini were found to have high total phenolic contents (72.0-167.2 mg/g) and high antioxidant activity (69.6-90.6%). Leaves of Eucalyptusglobulus were a rich source of rutin, Moringa oleifera for kaempferol, aerial parts of Centella asiatica for quercetin, fruits of T. bellerica and T. chebula for gallic acid, and bark of T. arjuna, leaves and fruits of T. bellerica and bark, leaves and fruits of T. muelleri for ellagic acid. PMID:16096138

Bajpai, Monika; Pande, Anurag; Tewari, S K; Prakash, Dhan

2005-06-01

397

GnRH in the brain and ovary of Sepia officinalis.  

PubMed

We have cloned from brain, ovary and eggs of the cephalopod Sepia officinalis a 269-bp PCR product, which shares 100% sequence identity with the open reading frame of GnRH isoform isolated from Octopus vulgaris. Similar to Octopus, this sequence encodes a peptide that is organized as a preprohormone from which, after enzymatic cleavage, a dodecapeptide is released. Apart from its length, this peptide shares all the common features of vertebrate GnRHs. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses followed by sequencing have confirmed that the same peptide transcript is also present in the ovary, as well as in eggs released in the mantle cavity. The use of an antibody made specifically against the oct-GnRH has revealed that the peptide is localized in the dorso-lateral basal and olfactory lobes, the two neuropeptidergic centers controlling the activity of the gonadotropic optic gland. Immunoreactive nerve endings are also present on the glandular cells of the optic glands. These results confirm the fact that, regardless of the evolutionary distances among animal phyla, GnRH is an ancient peptide present also in invertebrates, and also reinforce the notion that, despite the name "gonadotropin releasing-hormone" was attributed according to its role in vertebrates, probably this family of peptides always had a role in the broad context of animal reproduction. The divergence and spread of several different isoforms of this peptide among animals seem to be balanced, in both invertebrates and vertebrates, by the class-specificity of the GnRH isoform involved in reproductive processes. PMID:18692104

Di Cristo, Carlo; De Lisa, Emilia; Di Cosmo, Anna

2009-03-01

398

Promotion and computation of inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity of herbal cream by incorporating indigenous medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Herbal cream imparts a chief role in regulating melanin production of skin. The phytoconstituents present in herbal cream impact biological functions of skin and contribute nutrients required for the healthy skin. In the present study, it was envisaged to prepare three batches of herbal cream (HC1, HC2 and HC3) containing ethanol extracts of Emblica officinalis (fruits), Daucus carota (root), Mangifera indica (leaves), Mentha arvensis (leaves), Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Cucumis sativus (fruits) and investigated the prepared cream for inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity. The herbal cream was formulated by incorporating different ratio of extracts, by using cream base. Each formulation HC1, HC2 and HC3 were segregated into three different formulations (HC1.1, HC1.2, HC1.3, HC2.1, HC2.2, HC2.3, HC3.1, HC3.2 and HC3.3) by incorporating increasing ratio of extract in formulation. The HC3.2 cream produces highest tyrosinase inhibitory effect 65.23 +/- 0.07%, while the HC2.1 exhibited minimum tyrosinase inhibitory effect 26.19 +/- 0.08% compared to other prepared cream. Comparison of the inhibitory activity of the formulations demonstrated that the rank order was HC3.2 > HC3.3 > HC1.2 > HC1.3 > HC3.1 > HC1.1 > HC2.3 > HC2.2 > HC2.1. It has been observed from the result that the formulations of antityrosinase activity were not concentrate dependent. This finding suggests that decrease in antityrosinase activity of HC1 and HC3 might be considering that the incompatibility of the higher extract content with the base of cream. The HC3 produce the maximum inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity might be due to higher level of polyphenol and flavonoids present in extracts. PMID:24783796

Sahu, Ram Kumar; Roy, Amit; Dwivedi, Jaya; Jha, Arvind Kumar

2014-01-01

399

Total phenolic content and antioxidative properties of commercial tinctures obtained from some Lamiaceae plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant level of commercial tinctures from three Lamiaceae plants, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, and Melissa officinalis, have been determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, the 2.2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging technique and ABTS assay. Total phenolic content was expressed as GAE (gallic acid equivalent) and ranged from 0.24 to 3.99 mg/mL. Antioxidant activity in the ABTS assay, calculated as TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity), ranged from 23.5 to 35.6 micromol Trolox/mL, while in the DPPH method, the EC50 value ranged from 0.04 to 0.07 mL/assay. Radical scavenging activity was correlated with total phenolic content. Correlations between ABTS and F-C methods, DPPH and F-C methods and ABTS and DPPH methods were calculated. The obtained results can be useful as additional information about the antioxidant activity of galenical preparations. PMID:23413570

Kowalczyk, Adam; Biskup, Izabela; Fecka, Izabela

2012-12-01

400

[FT-IR spectroscopic analysis in monitoring of hydroxyl stretching vibrations in plant hydrogels].  

PubMed

In recent years, some bioactive hydrogels isolated from natural sources have attracted much attention in the field of biochemistry and pharmacology. This article attempts to review the current structural and conformational characterization of some importantly bioactive hydrogels isolated from following plant: Symphytum officinale, Thymus pulegioides, Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Tussilago farfara L., Hyssopus officinalis, Althaea officinalis L., Equisetum arvense L. Linum usitatissimum L. and Fucus vesiculosus L. Hydrogels are cross-linked three-dimensional polysaccharide macromolecular networks that contain a large fraction of water within their structure. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed a strong band at 3500-3100 cm(-1) attributed to hydroxyl (the intermolecular and the intramolecular hydrogen bonds) stretching vibrations changes. PMID:22332324

Pielesz, Anna; Binia?, Dorota; Wieczorek, Joanna

2011-01-01

401

Structural and floristic patterns in tropical swamp forests: A case study from the Pterocarpus officinalis (Jacq.) forest in Guadeloupe, French West Indies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the coastal floodplains of most Caribbean islands, the monodominant Pterocarpus officinalis Jacq. forest constitutes the typical vegetation of undisturbed freshwater to slightly brackish swamps. Key ecological determinants of floristic and structural variation were assessed in this forest where the dominant species contributes nearly 90% of the basal area. A field inventory was conducted in a 100-ha forest tract located

Jonathan Migeot; Daniel Imbert

2011-01-01

402

Effects of different rooting media and indole butyric acid on rooting of stem cuttings in sage (Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of different rooting media and IBA on rooting of sage stem cuttings. This research was conducted in the greenhouse of Uluda? University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops in 1999 and 2000. In this study, two sage species (Salvia officinalis L. and Salvia triloba L.) were grown at three

Oya Kaçar; Nedime Azkan; Nazan Çöplü

403

Combined application of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. to inhibit bacteria and autochthonous microflora associated with minimally processed vegetables  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis (RO) essential oils against bacteria associated to minimally processed vegetables using the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index, kill-time assay in vegetal broth and application in vegetable matrices. Moreover, it was determined chemical composition of the essential oils

Geíza Alves de Azeredo; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford; Pollyana Campos Nunes; Nelson Justino Gomes Neto; Maria Elieidy Gomes de Oliveira; Evandro Leite de Souza

2011-01-01

404

Antioxidant effect rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano ( Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration

E. Hernández-Hernández; E. Ponce-Alquicira; M. E. Jaramillo-Flores; I. Guerrero Legarreta

2009-01-01

405

Essential Oil of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis L.) from Jordan: Assessment of Safety in Mammalian Cells and Its Antifungal and Anti-Inflammatory Potential  

PubMed Central

Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) is a Mediterranean species, naturalized in many countries. In Jordan, it is used in traditional medicine as antiseptic, antiscabies, antisyphilitic, and anti-inflammatory, being frequently used against skin diseases. This study aimed the assessment of the antifungal and anti-inflammatory potential of its essential oils, and their cytotoxicity on macrophages and keratinocytes. The oils were investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the antifungal activity was evaluated against yeasts, dermatophyte and Aspergillus strains. Assessment of cell viability was made by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by measuring nitric oxide production using lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophages. The main compounds of S. officinalis oils were 1,8-cineole (39.5–50.3%) and camphor (8.8–25.0%). The oils revealed antifungal activity against dermatophyte strains and significantly inhibited NO production stimulated by LPS in macrophages, without affecting cell viability, in concentrations up to 0.64??L/mL. This is the first report addressing the in vitro anti-inflammatory potential of S. officinalis oil. These findings demonstrated that bioactive concentrations of S. officinalis oils do not affect mammalian macrophages and keratinocytes viability making them suitable to be incorporated in skin care formulations for cosmetic and pharmaceutical purposes.

Abu-Darwish, M. S.; Cabral, C.; Ferreira, I. V.; Goncalves, M. J.; Cavaleiro, C.; Cruz, M. T.; Al-bdour, T. H.; Salgueiro, L.

2013-01-01

406

Salvia officinalis L.: composition and antioxidant-related activities of a crude extract and selected sub-fractions.  

PubMed

The composition and antioxidant properties of a methanol: acetic acid (99:1, v/v) soluble crude extract isolated from S. officinalis L. leaves through maceration and selected fractions isolated thereof are presented in this study. The total phenol content was estimated as gallic acid equivalents, whilst qualitative-quantitative phenolic content was determined using high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection. Antioxidant evaluation consisted of ferric reductive capacity and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging determinations. The crude extract contained hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonoids and diterpenoids, whilst caffeic acid, carnosic acid, luteolin, luteolin-7-O-glucoside and rosmarinic acid were identified from their chromatographic and spectral characteristics and quantified from their respective calibration curves. The crude extract and sub-fractions demonstrated varying degrees of efficacy in the antioxidant-related assays used, except the n-hexane fraction, which was unable to reduce iron(III) at reasonable concentrations. Although the positive controls, ascorbic acid, BHA and BHT, were more potent than the S. officinalis samples, two fractions were significantly (p < 0.05) more potent iron(III) reducing agents than pycnogenol, a proanthocyanidin-rich commercial preparation. PMID:20923007

Ko?ar, Müberra; Dorman, H J Damien; Ba?er, K Hüsnü Can; Hiltunen, Raimo

2010-09-01

407

Influence of fibre coating in headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatographic analysis of aromatic and medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) is a solvent-free technique, which is well established in headspace analysis since it is sensitive, because of the concentration factor achieved by the fibres, and selective, because of different coating materials which can be used. The performance of eight commercially available SPME fibres was compared to evaluate the recoveries of some characteristic components with different polarities and structures present in the headspace of four aromatic and medicinal plants: rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and valerian (Valeriana officinalis L.). The relative concentration capacity of each fibre on the same components of each plant was also determined by comparing their abundance with that obtained by classical static-headspace GC. The partition coefficient, K1, between the headspace gaseous phase and SPME polymeric coating, and the relative concentration factors, of some of the characteristic components of the plant investigated dissolved in dibutyl phtalate, were also determined, under rigorously standardised analysis conditions. The results showed that the most effective fibres were those consisting of two components, i.e., a liquid phase (polydimethylsiloxane) and a porous solid (carboxen or divinylbenzene, or both). PMID:11045505

Bicchi, C; Drigo, S; Rubiolo, P

2000-09-15

408

Assessment of in vitro digestibility and fermentation parameters of alfalfa hay-based diet following direct incorporation of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis).  

PubMed

This study was completed to evaluate the effect of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum; FS) and asparagus root (Asparagus officinalis; AR) on in vitro nutrient digestibility and fermentation patterns. Different levels [0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% of dry matter (DM)] of the medicinal plants were included using alfalfa hay (AH) as a basal substrate at different incubation times (12, 18, 24 and 48 h). Total phenolic components of AH, FS and AR were 5.9, 10 and 8.3 g/kg DM, whereas total tannins were 0.4, 3.8 and 1.5 g/kg DM, respectively. Corresponding values for saponins were 10.4, 27.3 and 40.3 g/kg DM. Fenugreek seed increased (p<0.05) in vitro organic matter (OM) digestibility at different incubation times and decreased (p<0.05) crude protein (CP) digestibility at 18 and 24 h of incubation. Asparagus root also increased (p<0.05) in vitro OM digestibility and decreased (p<0.05) CP digestibility at different incubation times. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility was increased (p<0.05) by the addition of AR or FS at low levels, but decreased (p<0.05) noticeably by increasing level of two plants in the basal substrate. Ammonia-N concentration was markedly reduced (p<0.05) by the addition of AR at different incubation times, and this reduction was accompanied by the decrease in CP digestibility. True DM degradability and partitioning factor (ratio of substrate DM truly degraded to gas volume produced at different times of incubation) were increased, and total volatile fatty acid concentration and total gas production were decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FS (at 10% and 15% DM levels) or AR (at 5%, 10% and 15% DM levels) at different incubation times. Results suggest that FS and AR may have potential as feed additives to increase the efficiency of nutrients' utilization, particularly of nitrogen in ruminant diets. PMID:22741923

Naseri, V; Hozhabri, F; Kafilzadeh, F

2013-08-01

409

Delta 6- and delta 12-desaturase activities and phosphatidic acid formation in microsomal preparations from the developing cotyledons of common borage (Borago officinalis).  

PubMed

Microsomal membrane preparations from the maturing cotyledons of common borage (Borago officinalis) exhibit delta 12- and delta 6-desaturase activities, which resulted in the synthesis of linoleate and gamma-linolenate respectively. The desaturase enzymes utilized the complex lipid substrate phosphatidylcholine. The activity of these enzymes was sufficiently high to allow the monitoring of the mass changes in the endogenous oleate, linoleate and gamma-linolenate in the microsomal phosphatidylcholine in the presence of NADH (i.e. under desaturating conditions). The results illustrate that the delta 12-desaturase uses the oleate substrate at both the sn-1 and -2 positions of sn-phosphatidylcholine, whereas the delta 6-desaturase is almost totally restricted to the linoleate at position 2 of the complex lipid. Estimate of the acyl-substrate pool size at position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine for both desaturases indicated that some 50% of the oleate and linoleate was available to the enzymes. The microsomes (microsomal fractions) had a somewhat impaired Kennedy [(1961) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 20, 934-940] pathway for the formation of triacylglycerols when compared with other oil-rich plant species that have been studied [Stymne & Stobart (1987) The Biochemistry of Plants: a Comprehensive Treatise (Stumpf, P.K., ed.), vol. 10, chapter 8, pp. 175-214, Academic Press, New York]. In the presence of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate and acyl-CoA, large quantities of phosphatidic acid accumulated in the membranes. Acyl-selectivity studies on the glycerol-acylating enzymes showed that gamma-linolenate could be acylated to both the sn-1 and sn-2 positions of sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. However, stereochemical analysis of the acyl components of the sn-triacylglycerol obtained from mature seeds indicated that, whereas no gamma-linolenate was present at the sn-1 position, it accounted for over 50% of the fatty acids at position sn-3. The results indicate that the diacylglycerol acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.20) may show a strong selectivity for gamma-linolenoyl-CoA and hence result in the efficient removal of this fatty acid from the acyl-CoA pool in vivo, leaving negligible substrate for utilization by the sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (EC 2.3.1.15). PMID:3421914

Griffiths, G; Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

1988-06-15

410

Antimicrobial potential of some plant extracts against Candida species.  

PubMed

The increase in the resistance to antimicrobial drugs in use has attracted the attention of the scientific community, and medicinal plants have been extensively studied as alternative agents for the prevention of infections. The Candida genus yeast can become an opportunistic pathogen causing disease in immunosuppressive hosts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate dichloromethane and methanol extracts from Mentha piperita, Rosmarinus officinalis, Arrabidaea chica, Tabebuia avellanedae, Punica granatum and Syzygium cumini against Candida species through the analysis of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Results presented activity of these extracts against Candida species, especially the methanol extract. PMID:21180915

Höfling, J F; Anibal, P C; Obando-Pereda, G A; Peixoto, I A T; Furletti, V F; Foglio, M A; Gonçalves, R B

2010-11-01

411

Separation of coumarins from Archangelica officinalis in high-performance liquid chromatography and thin-layer chromatography systems.  

PubMed

Complex, multicomponent mixtures are difficult to separate in a single chromatographic run. Therefore, the possibility to separate twelve coumarins from Archangelica officinalis was studied by combining a HPLC and a TLC system. HPLC optimized by the use of DryLab for Windows software was performed on RP-18 column and TLC was performed on silica plates. Fractions from the RP column were evaporated, applied on silica plate and developed in non-aqueous solvent. Possibilities of complete separation of investigated coumarins were discussed in RP and NP systems. The result of their complete separation was presented by HPLC chromatograms, DryLab simulated chromatograms and a video scan of TLC plate. PMID:10950277

Hawryl, M A; Soczewinski, E; Dzido, T H

2000-07-21

412

Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.  

PubMed

A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

2009-08-01

413

Healthy reduced-fat Bologna sausages enriched in ALA and DHA and stabilized with Melissa officinalis extract.  

PubMed

Reduced-energy and reduced-fat Bologna products enriched with ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were formulated by replacing the pork back-fat by an oil-in-water emulsion containing a mixture of linseed-algae oil stabilized with a lyophilized Melissa officinalis extract. Healthier composition and lipid profile was obtained: 85 kcal/100 g, 3.6% fat, 0.6 g ALA and 0.44 g DHA per 100 g of product and ?-6/?-3 ratio of 0.4. Technological and sensory problems were not detected in the new formulations. Reformulation did not cause oxidation problems during 32 days of storage under refrigeration. The results suggest that it is possible to obtain reduced-fat Bologna-type sausages rich in ALA and DHA and stabilized with natural antioxidants, applying the appropriate technology without significant effects on the sensory quality, yielding interesting products from a nutritional point of view. PMID:24334039

Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Ińigo; Calvo, Maria Isabel; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

2014-03-01

414

Does kainic acid induce partial brain lesion in an invertebrate model: sepia officinalis? Comparison with electrolytic lesion.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the feasibility of excitotoxic lesions in the cuttlefish in the mapping of brain functions in Cephalopods. Adult animals were injected locally with a neurotoxin, kainic acid. The brain region receiving the neurotoxin was the vertical lobe, a key brain structure for learning and memory processes. Brain damage induced by these injections was evaluated using different histological stainings: hematoxilin-eosin, Fink-Heimer and DAPI. The results were compared with histological changes after electrolytic lesion of the vertical lobe. Neurodegeneration was revealed in and around the injection site: an intense area of proliferative cells, degenerating terminal axon ramifications and cell death. In comparison with electrolytic lesion, excitotoxic lesion displays important advantages, since fibres of passage are not destroyed by kainic acid injection, which induces only a restricted lesion and so is an appropriate method of investigating the role of the vertical lobe or other brain regions in a Cephalopod model, Sepia officinalis. PMID:18722358

Graindorge, Nicolas; Jozet-Alves, Christelle; Chichery, Raymond; Dickel, Ludovic; Bellanger, Cécile

2008-10-31

415

Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking.  

PubMed

The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase. PMID:23275691

Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

2012-01-01

416

Virtual screening of plant derived compounds for aldose reductase inhibition using molecular docking  

PubMed Central

The role of the aldose reductase in type 2 diabetes is widely described. Therefore, it is of interest to identify plant derived compounds to inhibit its activity. We studied the protein-ligand interaction of 267 compounds from different parts of seven plants (Allium sativum, Coriandrum sativum, Dacus carota, Murrayyakoneigii, Eucalyptus, Calendula officinalis and Lycopersicon esculentum) with aldose reductase as the target protein. Molecular docking and re-scoring of top ten compounds (using GOLD, AutoDock Vina, eHiTS, PatchDock and MEDock) followed by rank-sum technique identified compound allium38 with high binding affinity for aldose reductase.

Muppalaneni, Naresh Babu; Rao, Allam Appa

2012-01-01

417

Comparative screening of plant essential oils: phenylpropanoid moiety as basic core for antiplatelet activity.  

PubMed

Essential oils extracted from different plants (Anthemis nobilis L., Artemisia dracunculus L., Cannabis sativa L., Cupressus sempervirens L., Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf., Curcuma longa L., Foeniculum vulgare L., Hypericum perforatum L., Hyssopus officinalis L., Mentha spicata L., Monarda didyma L., Ocimum basilicum L., Ocotea quixos Kosterm., Origanum vulgare L., Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold, Pinus silvestris L., Piper crassinervium Kunth., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis</