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Sample records for plant emblica officinalis

  1. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  2. Diversity and Biological Activities of Endophytic Fungi of Emblica officinalis, an Ethnomedicinal Plant of India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Archana; Raghunatha, Prajwal

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of fungal endophytes inhabiting Emblica officinalis has been made keeping in view the medicinal importance of the selected host plant in Indian traditional practices. A total of four endophytic fungi belonging to Phylum Ascomycetes were isolated from different parts of the plant which were characterized morphologically and by using rDNA-internal transcribed spacer. The most frequently isolated endophyte was Phomopsis sp. The antioxidant activity by 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and reducing power assay, and total phenol were evaluated using ethanolic extract of endophytic fungi. DPPH activities in all the ethanolic extract increased with the increase in concentrations. Endophytes, Phomopsis sp. and Xylaria sp. showed highest antioxidant activity and also had the higher levels of phenolics. Antimicrobial activity of fungal extract were tested against four bacteria namely, Escherichia coli MTCC730, Enteroccocus faecalis MTCC2729, Salmonella enterica ser. paratyphi MTCC735 and Streptococcus pyogenes MTCC1925, and the fungus Candida albicans MTCC183. In general, the fungal extracts inhibited the growth of test organisms except E. coli. PMID:22783128

  3. Plant mediated green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles using Emblica officinalis fruit extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, P. S.; Kokila, T.; Geetha, D.

    2015-05-01

    A green straight forward method of synthesizing silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in an aqueous medium was designed using Emblica officinalis (EO) fruit extract as stabilizer and reducer. The formation of AgNPs depends on the effect of extract concentration and pH were studied. The AgNPs was synthesized using E.officinalis (fruit extract) and nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, the presence of biomolecules of E.officinalis capped in AgNPs was found by FT-IR analysis, shape and size were examined by SEM and XRD. The XRD analysis respects the Bragg's law and confirmed the crystalline nature of silver nanoparticles. From XRD the average size of AgNPs was found to be around 15 nm. AFM has proved to be very helpful in the determination and verification of various morphological features and parameters. EO fruit extract mediated AgNPs was synthesized and confirmed through kinetic behavior of nanoparticles. The shape of the bio-synthesized AgNPs was spherical. Potent biomolecules of E.officinalis such as polyphenols, glucose, and fructose was capped with AgNPs which reduces the toxicity. The synthesized AgNPs were tested for its antibacterial activity against the isolates by disc diffusion method. The obtained results confirmed that the E.officinalis fruit extract is a very good bioreductant for the synthesis of AgNPs. It was investigated that the synthesized AgNPs showed inhibition and had significant antibacterial against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial strains.

  4. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn), a wonder berry in the treatment and prevention of cancer.

    PubMed

    Baliga, Manjeshwar Shrinath; Dsouza, Jason Jerome

    2011-05-01

    Emblica officinalis Gaertn. or Phyllanthus emblica Linn, commonly known as Indian gooseberry or amla, is arguably the most important medicinal plant in the Indian traditional system of medicine, the Ayurveda. Various parts of the plant are used to treat a range of diseases, but the most important is the fruit. The fruit is used either alone or in combination with other plants to treat many ailments such as common cold and fever; as a diuretic, laxative, liver tonic, refrigerant, stomachic, restorative, alterative, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hair tonic; to prevent peptic ulcer and dyspepsia, and as a digestive. Preclinical studies have shown that amla possesses antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemia, antihypercholesterolemia, wound healing, antidiarrheal, antiatherosclerotic, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, and neuroprotective properties. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin, elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radiomodulatory, chemomodulatory, chemopreventive effects, free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic and immunomodulatory activities, properties that are efficacious in the treatment and prevention of cancer. This review for the first time summarizes the results related to these properties and also emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to establish its activity and utility as a cancer preventive and therapeutic drug in humans. PMID:21317655

  5. Modulatory role of Emblica officinalis against alcohol induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vaddi Damodara; Padmavathi, Pannuru; Paramahamsa, Maturu; Varadacharyulu, Nallanchakravarthula

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated the protective effect of Emblica officinalis against alcohol-induced biochemical and biophysical changes in rat erythrocyte membranes. Thirty-two male rats were divided into four groups (n=8 in each group): control (C), alcohol (A), alcohol plus Emblica fruit extract (A+EFE) and Emblica fruit extract (EFE) alone. Administration of twenty percent alcohol (5 g/kg body weight) to rats significantly increased cholesterol/phospholipid (C/P) ratio, lipid peroxidation and the activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases in erythrocyte membranes as well as augmented nitric oxide (NO) levels. However, membrane fluidity studies using the fluorescent probe DPH (1,6 diphenyl 1,3 hexatriene) reveals that alcohol administration significantly (p<0.05) increased membrane anisotropic values and altered membrane individual phospholipid content. Administration of EFE (250 mg/kg body weight) to alcoholic rats resulted in significant (p<0.05) reduction of NO levels, erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation, C/P ratio, activities of Na(+)/K(+) and Mg(2+) ATPases and fluorescent anisotropic values. Further, EFE administration to alcoholic rats beneficially modulated membrane properties as evidenced from the contents of total phospholipids as well individual phospholipid classes. The tannoid principles present in Emblica offers protection against alcohol induced adverse effects in rats. PMID:19454300

  6. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Patel, A. P.; Bhagwat, S. R.; Pawar, M. M.; Prajapati, K. B.; Chauhan, H. D.; Makwana, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens. Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder. Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird). Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens. PMID:27051210

  7. Antibacterial effects of biosynthesized MgO nanoparticles using ethanolic fruit extract of Emblica officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ramanujam, Kalimuthan; Sundrarajan, Mahalingam

    2014-12-01

    Magnesium oxides nanoparticles were successfully synthesized from Mg(NO3)(2)·6H2O through a simple greener route using fruit extract (Emblica officinalis). The synthesized samples were characterized by different techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The XRD pattern shows the face centered cubic structure with 27 nm of crystalline size of MgO nanoparticles was confirmed by the Debye-Scherrer's Formula. The spherical in shape of MgO nanoparticles is confirmed by SEM analysis. MgO nanoparticles treated cotton fabric produced stronger antibacterial activity. These types of treated fabrics are used in medical application. PMID:25463681

  8. Induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lines by Emblica officinalis polyphenols and its effect on chemical carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Rajeshkumar, N V; Pillai, M Radahakrishna; Kuttan, R

    2003-06-01

    Plant-derived phenolic compounds manifest many beneficial effects and can potentially inhibit several stages of carcinogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of Emblica officinalis (E. officinalis) polyphenol fraction (EOP) on the induction of apoptosis in mouse and human carcinoma cell lineses and its modulatory effect on N- nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) induced liver tumors in rats. The results indicate that EOP treatment could induce apoptosis in Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and CeHa cell lines At 200 microg/ml dose EOP induced membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation and intenucleosomal breaks as evident from the morphology and DNA ladder pattern obtained in gel electrophoresis. The results also suggested that EOP treatment could decrease the liver tumour development induced by NDEA. Animals administered (oral) with NDEA (0.02%, 2.5 ml/rat, 5 days a week, 20 weeks) developed visible liver tumours by the end of the 20th week and the liver weight raised to 5.2 +/- 1.1 g/ 100 g body weight. Only 11% of the animals treated with EOP (60 mg/kg, oral, 5 days a week for 20 weeks) developed visible liver tumours by this period and the liver weights were reduced to 3.2 +/- 0.7 g/ 100 g body weight. gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity was raised to 88.4 +/- 16.2 U/l in serum of NDEA treated group was reduced to 48.4 +/- 14.8 U/l by EOP treatment. Elevated levels of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), bilirubin, liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in the NDEA administered group were significantly reduced by EOP treatment. The EOP was found to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation in vitro. EOP also inhibited DNA topoisomerase I in Saccharomyces cervisiae mutant cell cultures and the activity of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatase. PMID:12866570

  9. Studies on bio-chemical profiling of Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis) for genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Pandey, G; Pandey, D; Tripathi, Mritynjay; Singh, Achal; Mishra, Maneesh

    2016-03-01

    Biochemical profiling of physiologically mature fruits of 51 diverse Indian gooseberry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) germplasm accessions was collected from Vindhyan hill region of Madhya Pradesh, with a view to select nutraceutically rich genotypes based on important biochemical traits. The mean ascorbic acid and total phenol (tannin) content amongst different accessions was recorded as 496.47 mg 100 g⁻¹ and 4.88% with highest value found in CISH A-12 (654.50 mg 100 g⁻¹) and CISH A-30 (7.18%), respectively. Apart from the above, wide range of variability in the composition of other important biochemical attributes viz., total soluble solids (8.60-17.70°Brix), acidity (1.61-2.94%), total sugar (4.15-9.17), reducing sugar (2.19-4.45%) and TSS/acid ratio (3.89-8.33) was also recorded. Highest significant and positive correlation was observed between total sugar and TSS (0.895) followed by reducing sugar and TSS (0.882). Significant positive correlation between ascorbic acid and tannins (0.551) was an indication to be associated with binding capacity of ascorbic acid over a longer period of storage. PMID:27097435

  10. Immunomodulatory role of Emblica officinalis in arsenic induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Arsenic is widely distributed in the environment and has been found to be associated with the various health related problems including skin lesions, cancer, cardiovascular and immunological disorders. The fruit extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) has been shown to have anti-oxidative and immunomodulatory properties. In view of increasing health risk of arsenic, the present study has been carried out to investigate the protective effect of amla against arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in thymocytes of mice. Methods Mice were exposed to arsenic (sodium arsenite 3 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o.) or simultaneously with arsenic and amla for 28 days. The antioxidant enzyme assays were carried out using spectrophotometer and generation of ROS, apoptotic parameters, change in cell cycle were carried out using flow cytometer following the standard protocols. Results Arsenic exposure to mice caused a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation, ROS production and decreased cell viability, levels of reduced glutathione, the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential in the thymus as compared to controls. Increased activity of caspase-3 linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis and annexin V/PI binding was also observed in mice exposed to arsenic as compared to controls. Co-treatment with arsenic and amla decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation, ROS production, activity of caspase-3, apoptosis and increased cell viability, levels of antioxidant enzymes, cytochrome c oxidase and mitochondrial membrane potential as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions The results of the present study exhibits that arsenic induced oxidative stress and apoptosis significantly protected by co-treatment with amla that could be due to its strong antioxidant potential. PMID:23889914

  11. Emblica officinalis exerts wound healing action through up-regulation of collagen and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2).

    PubMed

    Sumitra, Miriyala; Manikandan, Panchatcharam; Gayathri, Vinaya Subramani; Mahendran, Panchatcharam; Suguna, Lonchin

    2009-01-01

    During wound healing, the wound site is rich in oxidants, such as hydrogen peroxide, mostly contributed by neutrophils and macrophages. Ascorbic acid and tannins of low molecular weight, namely emblicanin A (2,3-di-O-galloyl-4,6-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-2-keto-glucono-delta-lactone) and emblicanin B (2,3,4,6-bis-(S)-hexahydroxydiphenoyl-2-keto-glucono-delta-lactone) present in Emblica officinalis (emblica), have been shown to exhibit a very strong antioxidant action. We proposed that addition of these antioxidants to the wound microenvironment would support the repair process. The present investigation was undertaken to determine the efficacy of emblica on dermal wound healing in vivo. Full-thickness excision wounds were made on the back of the rat and topical application of emblica accelerated wound contraction and closure. Emblica increased cellular proliferation and cross-linking of collagen at the wound site, as evidenced by an increase in the activity of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, along with an increase in DNA, type III collagen, acid-soluble collagen, aldehyde content, shrinkage temperature and tensile strength. Higher levels of tissue ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase support the fact that emblica application promotes antioxidant activity at the wound site. In summary, this study provides firm evidence to support that topical application of emblica represents a feasible and productive approach to support dermal wound healing. PMID:19152656

  12. Prevention of diabetes-induced myocardial dysfunction in rats using the juice of the Emblica officinalis fruit

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K

    2011-01-01

    Normalization of hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress is an important objective in preventing diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction. The present study investigated the effects of the fruit juice obtained from Emblica officinalis on myocardial dysfunction in diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ), and the rats were treated with E officinalis fruit juice for eight weeks. Injection of STZ produced loss of body weight, polydypsia, polyphagia, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia. It also produced hypertension, bradycardia, hypertrophy and myocardial functional alterations associated with an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels. Treatment with the fruit juice not only prevented STZ-induced loss of body weight, increases in water and food intake, increases in serum glucose levels and disturbed lipid profile, but also an increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase-MB levels, and increased myocardial hypertrophy and cardiomyopathy. There was an increase in the area under the curve (AUC) for glucose, and a decrease in AUCinsulin was observed in diabetic rats; treatment decreased AUCglucose but not AUCinsulin or hyperinsulinemia. There was a decrease in antioxidant enzyme levels (in superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione and catalase) in diabetic hearts, which could be improved by treatment with fruit juice. The present data suggest that fruit juice may be beneficial for the treatment of myocardial damage associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus. The activity of E officinalis fruit juice can be attributed to the concentration of polyphenol present. PMID:22065939

  13. Phytochemistry, pharmacology and medicinal properties of Phyllanthus emblica Linn.

    PubMed

    Gaire, Bhakta Prasad; Subedi, Lalita

    2014-12-01

    Phyllanthus emblica L. (syn. Emblica officinalis) is commonly known as Indian gooseberry. In Ayurveda, P. emblica has been extensively used, both as edible (tonic) plants and for its therapeutic potentials. P. emblica is highly nutritious and is reported as an important dietary source of vitamin C, minerals and amino acids. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes, especially the fruit, which has been used in Ayurveda as a potent Rasayana (rejuvenator). P. emblica contains phytochemicals including fixed oils, phosphatides, essential oils, tannins, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, fatty acids, glycosides, etc. Various pharmaceutical potential of P. emblica has been reported previously including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and antiulcerogenic activities either in combined formulation or P. emblica alone. The various other Ayurvedic potentials of P. emblica are yet to be proven scientifically in order to explore its broad spectrum of therapeutic effects. On this regards we, in this review, tried to explore the complete information of P. emblica including its pharmacognosy, phytochemistry and pharmacology. PMID:25491539

  14. Toxicological Evaluation of Emblica officinalis Fruit Extract and its Anti-inflammatory and Free Radical Scavenging Properties

    PubMed Central

    Middha, Sushil Kumar; Goyal, Arvind Kumar; Lokesh, Prakash; Yardi, Varsha; Mojamdar, Lavanya; Keni, Deepthi Sudhir; Babu, Dinesh; Usha, Talambedu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Emblica officinalis (Euphorbiaceae), popularly known as Indian gooseberry or “Amla” in India, is used in Ayurveda as “rejuvenating herb” since ancient times. Objective: This study was carried out to estimate toxicity, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidative activities of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis fruit (MEO) in an animal model. Materials and Methods: Antioxidative property of MEO was assessed by in vitro assays such as phosphomolybdenum assay (total antioxidant capacity), free radical scavenging assays 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2’-azino-bis and 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (DPPH and ABTS method) and lipid peroxidation assay (LPO). The anti-inflammatory property was evaluated by carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in rats by measuring rat paw volume at different time intervals and toxicological analysis using mice. Results and Discussion: High performance liquid chromatography studies revealed the presence of gallic acid (2.10%), mucic acid (4.90%), ellagic acid (2.10%), quercetin (28.00%), rutin (3.89%), and β-glucogallin (1.46%). MEO showed highest antioxidant activities by using DPPH (17.33–89.00%), ABTS (23.03–94.16%), nitric oxide scavenging activity (12.94–70.16%), LPO (56.54%), and phosphomolybdenum assay (142 ± 6.09 μg/ml). The LD50 was found to be approximately 1125 mg/kg (p.o). High dose of MEO showed significant reduction (72.71%) in the inflammation after 4 h of treatment, which was comparable to diclofenac (10 mg/kg) (61.57%) treated group. Significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) markers were also observed (57.25% and 35.41%, respectively) in serum of MEO treated animals as compared to control. Conclusion: Taken together, phenolic compounds of MEO may serve as a potential herbal drug for amelioration of acute inflammation due to their modulatory action on free radicals. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of Emblica

  15. Experimental study on effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis fruits on glucose homeostasis and metabolic parameters.

    PubMed

    Patel, Snehal S; Goyal, Ramesh K; Shah, Rajendra S; Tirgar, Pravin R; Jadav, Pinakin D

    2013-10-01

    Polyphenols from natural source are potential therapeutics that act alone or supplement anti-diabetic drugs in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of fruits of Emblica officinalis on type 1 diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin (STZ) (45 mg/kg i.v.). HE (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 4 weeks and at the end of treatment, blood samples were collected and analyzed for various biochemical parameters. STZ produced a diabetic state exhibiting all the cardinal symptoms such as loss of body weight, polydipsia, polyuria, glucosuria, polyphagia, hypoinsulinemia, and hyperglycemia associated with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Treatment with HE prevented cardinal symptoms and caused significant decrease in fasting serum glucose, AUCglucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and very LDL in diabetic rats. However, insulin, AUCinsulin, and serum high-density lipoprotein level were not significantly altered by treatment. Treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation and increased anti-oxidant parameters in the liver homogenates of diabetic rats. Polyphenol enriched fraction of HE significantly improved disarranged carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of chemically induced diabetes in rats. The mechanism of its anti-diabetic activity appears to be either improvement in peripheral glucose utilization, increased insulin sensitivity, or anti-oxidant property. PMID:24696584

  16. Studies on Emblica officinalis Derived Tannins for Their Immunostimulatory and Protective Activities against Coccidiosis in Industrial Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Kaleem, Qari Muhammad; Akhtar, Masood; Awais, Mian Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Zafar, Muddassar; Iqbal, Zafar; Muhammad, Faqir

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the effect of Emblica officinalis (EO) derived tannins on humoral immune responses and their protective efficacy against Eimeria infection in chickens. Tannins were extracted from EO and characterized by HPLC. EO derived tannins (EOT) and commercial tannins (CT) were orally administered in broiler chicks in graded doses for three consecutive days, that is, 5th-7th days of age. On day 14 after administration of tannins, humoral immune response was detected against sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) by haemagglutination assay. Protective efficacy of tannins was measured against coccidial infection, induced by Eimeria species. Results revealed higher geomean titers against SRBCs in chickens administered with EOT as compared to those administered with CT and control group. Mean oocysts per gram of droppings were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in EOT administered chickens as compared to control group. Lesion scoring also showed the lowest caecal and intestinal lesion score of mild to moderate intensity in chickens administered with EOT. Further, significantly higher (P < 0.05) daily body weight gains and antibody titers were detected in EOT administered chickens as compared to those of CT administered and control groups. EOT showed the immunostimulatory properties in broilers and their administration in chickens boost the protective immunity against coccidiosis. PMID:24578631

  17. Dietary chemoprevention of clastogenic effects of 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene by Emblica officinalis Gaertn. fruit extract.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, P.; Talukder, G.; Sharma, A.

    1997-01-01

    Dietary supplementation with extract of fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (a rich source of vitamin C) to mice in vivo significantly reduced the cytotoxic effects of a known carcinogen, 3,4-benzo(a)pyrene. Age-matched Swiss albino mice were fed by gavaging the fruit extract daily for 28 days. From day 9, one dose of the carcinogen was given on alternate days up to a total of eight doses. On day 29, all mice were transferred to normal diet. Control sets received the extract alone, the carcinogen alone and olive oil alone. All mice were sacrificed at 12 weeks and 14 weeks after the end of the experiment. Chromosome preparations were made from bone marrow after the usual colchicine-hypotonic-fixative-air drying-Giemsa staining schedule. Cytogenetic end points screened were the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and of damaged cells induced. The cytotoxic effects were significantly lower in the mice given the fruit extract with the carcinogen than in those given the carcinogen alone. PMID:9374371

  18. Comparative antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of herbal alternatives (Emblica officinalis, Psidium guajava), BioPure MTAD, and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite against Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and method The testing of the antimicrobial efficacy of selected medicaments against E. faecalis was done by the agar disk-diffusion method. Whatman paper discs of 6 mm diameter were prepared and soaked with the test solution. These discs were then placed onto the previously seeded agar Petri plates. Later, these plates were incubated for 48 h at 37 °C under the appropriate gaseous conditions in a CO2 incubator. A zone of inhibition was recorded in millimeter for each plate and the results were analyzed statistically. Result MTAD was found to be superior in its antibacterial abilities against E. faecalis compared with the other irrigants used. All the other tested irrigants showed significant zone of inhibition. Conclusions BioPure MTAD offers better antibacterial efficacy than NaOCl. E. officinalis and P. guajava are effective antibacterial agents against E. faecalis and can be used to reduce root canal microflora and root canal failures. PMID:26937369

  19. Effect of Subgingivally Delivered 10% Emblica officinalis Gel as an Adjunct to Scaling and Root Planing in the Treatment of Chronic Periodontitis - A Randomized Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Grover, Shilpa; Tewari, Shikha; Sharma, Rajinder K; Singh, Gajendra; Yadav, Aparna; Naula, Satish C

    2016-06-01

    Emblica officinalis fruit possesses varied medicinal properties including cytoprotective antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiresorptive and antiinflammatory activity. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of subgingival application of indigenously prepared E. officinalis (Amla) sustained-release gel adjunctive to scaling and root planing (SRP) on chronic periodontitis. Forty-six patients (528 sites) were randomly assigned to control group (23;264): SRP +placebo gel and test group (23;264): SRP + 10% E. officinalis gel application. Periodontal parameters: plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and modified sulcus bleeding index (mSBI) were assessed at baseline, 2 and 3-month post-therapy. Forty patients (470 sites) completed the trial. When test and control sites were compared, significantly more reduction in mean PPD, mSBI, number of sites with PPD = 5-6 mm, PPD ≥ 7 mm, CAL ≥ 6 mm and greater CAL gain were achieved in test sites at 2- and 3-month post-therapy (p < 0.05). Locally delivered 10% E. officinalis sustained-release gel used as an adjunct to SRP may be more effective in reducing inflammation and periodontal destruction in patients with chronic periodontitis when compared with SRP alone. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26914986

  20. Emblica officinalis Extract Induces Autophagy and Inhibits Human Ovarian Cancer Cell Proliferation, Angiogenesis, Growth of Mouse Xenograft Tumors

    PubMed Central

    De, Alok; De, Archana; Papasian, Chris; Hentges, Shane; Banerjee, Snigdha; Haque, Inamul; Banerjee, Sushanta K.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with ovarian cancer (OC) may be treated with surgery, chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, although none of these strategies are very effective. Several plant-based natural products/dietary supplements, including extracts from Emblicaofficinalis (Amla), have demonstrated potent anti-neoplastic properties. In this study we determined that Amla extract (AE) has anti-proliferative effects on OC cells under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. We also determined the anti-proliferative effects one of the components of AE, quercetin, on OC cells under in vitro conditions. AE did not induce apoptotic cell death, but did significantly increase the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. Quercetin also increased the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also significantly reduced the expression of several angiogenic genes, including hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) in OVCAR3 cells. AE acted synergistically with cisplatin to reduce cell proliferation and increase expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II under in vitro conditions. AE also had anti-proliferative effects and induced the expression of the autophagic proteins beclin1 and LC3B-II in mouse xenograft tumors. Additionally, AE reduced endothelial cell antigen – CD31 positive blood vessels and HIF-1α expression in mouse xenograft tumors. Together, these studies indicate that AE inhibits OC cell growth both in vitro and in vivo possibly via inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of autophagy in OC. Thus AE may prove useful as an alternative or adjunct therapeutic approach in helping to fight OC. PMID:24133573

  1. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

  2. Role of invasive Melilotus officinalis in two native plant communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Laura C.; Larson, Diane L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the impact of the exotic nitrogen-fixing legume Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. on native and exotic species cover in two Great Plains ecosystems in Badlands National Park, South Dakota. Melilotus is still widely planted and its effects on native ecosystems are not well studied. Melilotus could have direct effects on native plants, such as through competition or facilitation. Alternatively, Melilotus may have indirect effects on natives, e.g., by favoring exotic species which in turn have a negative effect on native species. This study examined these interactions across a 4-year period in two contrasting vegetation types: Badlands sparse vegetation and western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii) mixed-grass prairie. Structural equation models were used to analyze the pathways through which Melilotus, native species, and other exotic species interact over a series of 2-year time steps. Melilotus can affect native and exotic species both in the current year and in the years after its death (a lag effect). A lag effect is possible because the death of a Melilotus plant can leave an open, potentially nitrogen-enriched site on the landscape. The results showed that the relationship between Melilotus and native and exotic species varied depending on the habitat and the year. In Badlands sparse vegetation, there was a consistent, strong, and positive relationship between Melilotus cover and native and exotic species cover suggesting that Melilotus is acting as a nurse plant and facilitating the growth of other species. In contrast, in western wheatgrass prairie, Melilotus was acting as a weak competitor and had no consistent effect on other species. In both habitats, there was little evidence for a direct lag effect of Melilotus on other species. Together, these results suggest both facilitative and competitive roles for Melilotus, depending on the vegetation type it invades.

  3. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants.

    PubMed

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg · mL(-1) for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  4. Cancer Prevention and Health Benefices of Traditionally Consumed Borago officinalis Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Baena, María-Dolores; Tasset, Inmaculada; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Alonso-Moraga, Ángeles; de Haro-Bailón, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, healthy eating is increasing the demand of functional foods by societies as sources of bioactive products with healthy qualities. For this reason, we tested the safety of the consumption of Borago officinalis L. and its main phenolic components as well as the possibility of its use as a nutraceutical plant to help in cancer prevention. The in vivo Drosophila Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) and in vitro HL-60 human cell systems were performed, as well-recognized methods for testing genotoxicity/cytotoxicity of bioactive compounds and plant products. B. officinalis and the tested compounds possess antigenotoxic activity. Moreover, B. officinalis wild type cultivar exerts the most antigenotoxic values. Cytotoxic effect was probed for both cultivars with IC50 values of 0.49 and 0.28 mg·mL−1 for wild type and cultivated plants respectively, as well as their constituent rosmarinic acid and the assayed phenolic mixture (IC50 = 0.07 and 0.04 mM respectively). B. officinalis exerts DNA protection and anticarcinogenic effects as do its component rosmarinic acid and the mixture of the main phenolics presented in the plant. In conclusion, the results showed that B. officinalis may represent a high value plant for pleiotropic uses and support its consumption as a nutraceutical plant. PMID:26797631

  5. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  6. Distribution of flavone glycoside diosmin in Hyssopus officinalis plants: changes during growth.

    PubMed

    Marin, F R; Ortuño, A; Benavente-Garcia, O; Del Rio, J A

    1998-03-01

    A study of the flavonoid composition of Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) plants using high-performance liquid chromatography and NMR spectroscopy revealed the presence of diosmin as the major flavone. The maximum levels of this secondary compound are located in sepals and leaves, which represent 51 and 40.5%, respectively, of the total content of diosmin in whole plant. The presence of isoferulyl D-glucose ester in this plant material was also revealed. PMID:17253233

  7. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis and some other medicinal plants commonly used in South-East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Wah; Cheah, Emily LC; Saw, Constance LL; Weng, Wanyu; Heng, Paul WS

    2008-01-01

    Background Eight medicinal plants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinal plants. Methods Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma Imperatae (Baimaogen) were investigated for their potential antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Results Extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis had the strongest activities against M. Smegmatis, C. albicans, B. subtilis and S. aureus. Boiled extracts of Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis, Folium Murraya Koenigii, Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis and Herba Houttuyniae demonstrated greater antioxidant activities than other tested medicinal plants. Conclusion Among the eight tested medicinal plants, Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis showed the highest antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different methods of extraction yield different spectra of bioactivities. PMID:19038060

  8. Antioxidant evaluation for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis edible wild plants in Palestine.

    PubMed

    Jaradat, Nidal Amin; Damiri, Basma; Abualhasan, Murad N

    2016-01-01

    Natural plants products are one of the famous and commonly utilized remedies used in fighting diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate antioxidant activity of plants commonly used in Palestine (Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis). Free radical scavenging activity method was evaluated by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate. The result show that the overall antioxidant activity of Rumex cyprius was the highest among the plants, followed by Urtica urens, and Borago officinalis; respectively. The (IC(50)) values of the methanolic extracts were 29.70±0.60μg/ml, 5.07±0.49μg/ml, 39.92± 0.52 μg/ml for Urtica urens, Rumex cyprius and Borago officinalis respectively. The results of this study revealed that these edible plants have high antioxidant activity and therefore they can provide natural sources of antioxidants and can be useful in preventing various diseases including cancer. These exhibited properties propose that such plants extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries and further characterization of Rumex cyprius constituents is needed. PMID:27005499

  9. In Vitro Screening for Anti-Cholinesterase and Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants Used for Cognitive Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Maya; Subramanian, Sarada

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is still considered as the main therapeutic strategy against Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Many plant derived phytochemicals have shown AChE inhibitory activity in addition to the currently approved drugs for AD. In the present study, methanolic extracts of 20 plants used in Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine for improving cognitive function were screened for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by Ellman’s microplate colorimetric method. Out of 20 extracts, Emblica officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Punica granatum and Raulfia Serpentina showed IC50 values <100 µg/ml for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. Antioxidant activities of these plants were assessed by DPPH scavenging assay. Among the extracts used, antioxidant activity was highest for Terminalia chebula and Emblica officinalis with IC50 values <10 µg/ml. Considering the complex multifactorial etiology of AD, these plant extracts will be safer and better candidates for the future disease modifying therapies against this devastating disease. PMID:24466247

  10. Antibacterial activity of Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Khan, Dawood Ali; Hassan, Fouzia; Ullah, Hanif; Karim, Sabiha; Baseer, Abdul; Abid, Mobasher Ali; Ubaidi, Muhammad; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2013-01-01

    Present study deals with the demonstration of the antibacterial activity of very common medicinal plants of Pakistani origin i.e., Phyllantus emblica, Coriandrum sativum, Culinaris medic, Lawsonia alba and Cucumis sativus. The extracts were prepared in crude form by the use of hydro-alcoholic solution and were screened for antibacterial activity against various bacterial species by disk diffusion method. Assay was performed using clinical isolates of B. cereus, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Crude extract of Phyllantus emblica fruit exhibited strong activity against standard cultures of all studied bacteria. Lawsonia alba showed good activity against standard cultures of all the used microorganisms. Coriandrum sativum was effective only against Bacillus cereus, while Cucumis sativus and Culinaris medic showed poor activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa only. Hence, Phyllantus emblica exhibited strong antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria it means that Phyllantus emblica extract contains some compounds which have broad spectrum of bactericidal activity. PMID:24147363

  11. Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 μg/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 μg/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells. PMID:23711140

  12. Chemical characterization and bioactive properties of two aromatic plants: Calendula officinalis L. (flowers) and Mentha cervina L. (leaves).

    PubMed

    Miguel, María; Barros, Lillian; Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Garcia, Pablo A; Castro, MaÁngeles; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-05-18

    The chemical composition and bioactive properties of two plants (Calendula officinalis L. and Mentha cervina L.) were studied. Their nutritional value revealed a high content of carbohydrates and low fat levels, and very similar energy values. However, they presented different profiles in phenolic compounds and fatty acids; C. officinalis presented mainly glycosylated flavonols and saturated fatty acids, while M. cervina presented mainly caffeoyl derivatives and polyunsaturated fatty acids. M. cervina showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds while C. officinalis presented higher amounts of sugars, organic acids and tocopherols. The highest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities were obtained for the hydromethanolic extract of M. cervina, which presented the lowest values of EC50 and exhibited cytotoxicity against the four tumor cell lines tested. Infusions showed no cytotoxicity for the tumor cell lines, and none of the extracts showed toxicity against non-tumor cells. This study contributes to expand the knowledge on both natural sources and therefore their use. PMID:27110832

  13. Enzymes of phenylpropanoid metabolism in the important medicinal plant Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2010-08-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant. Amongst the biologically active ingredients are a number of phenolic compounds, the most prominent of which is rosmarinic acid. To obtain better knowledge of the biosynthesis of these phenolic compounds, two enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and 4-coumarate:coenzyme A-ligase (4CL), were investigated in suspension cultures of lemon balm. MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 cDNAs were cloned and heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli and the enzymes characterised. Expression analysis of both genes showed a correlation with the enzyme activities and rosmarinic acid content during a cultivation period of the suspension culture. Southern-blot analysis suggested the presence of most probably two gene copies in the M. officinalis genome of both PAL and 4CL. The genomic DNA sequences of MoPAL1 and Mo4CL1 were amplified and sequenced. MoPAL1 contains one phase 2 intron of 836 bp at a conserved site, whilst Mo4CL1 was devoid of introns. PMID:20563822

  14. Changes in antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, total phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Jahantigh, Omolbanin; Najafi, Farzaneh; Badi, Hassanali Naghdi; Khavari-Nejad, Ramazan Ali; Sanjarian, Forough

    2016-06-01

    The relationships between salt stress and antioxidant enzymes activities, proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents in Hyssopus officinalis L. plants in growth stage were investigated. The plants were subjected to five levels of saline irrigation water, 0.37 (tap water as control) with 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dSm(-1) of saline water. After two months the uniform plants were harvested for experimental analysis. Antioxidant enzymes activities and proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents of the plants were examinated. Enhanced activities of peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase were determined by increasing salinity that plays an important protective role in the ROS-scavenging process. Proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents increased significantly with increasing salinity. These results suggest that salinity tolerance of Hyssopus officinalis plants might be closely related with the increased capacity of antioxidative system to scavenge reactive oxygen species and with the accumulation of osmoprotectant proline, phenol and anthocyanine contents under salinity conditions. PMID:27165530

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of drimenol synthase from valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis).

    PubMed

    Kwon, Moonhyuk; Cochrane, Stephen A; Vederas, John C; Ro, Dae-Kyun

    2014-12-20

    Drimenol, a sesquiterpene alcohol, and its derivatives display diverse bio-activities in nature. However, a drimenol synthase gene has yet to be identified. We identified a new sesquiterpene synthase cDNA (VoTPS3) in valerian plant (Valeriana officinalis). Purification and NMR analyses of the VoTPS3-produced terpene, and characterization of the VoTPS3 enzyme confirmed that VoTPS3 synthesizes (-)-drimenol. In feeding assays, possible reaction intermediates, farnesol and drimenyl diphosphate, could not be converted to drimenol, suggesting that the intermediate remains tightly bound to VoTPS3 during catalysis. A mechanistic consideration of (-)-drimenol synthesis suggests that drimenol synthase is likely to use a protonation-initiated cyclization, which is rare for sesquiterpene synthases. VoTPS3 can be used to produce (-)-drimenol, from which useful drimane-type terpenes can be synthesized. PMID:25447532

  16. Biocontrol and Plant Growth Promotion Characterization of Bacillus Species Isolated from Calendula officinalis Rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Ait Kaki, Asma; Kacem Chaouche, Noreddine; Dehimat, Laid; Milet, Asma; Youcef-Ali, Mounia; Ongena, Marc; Thonart, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    The phenotypic and genotypic diversity of the plant growth promoting Bacillus genus have been widely investigated in the rhizosphere of various agricultural crops. However, to our knowledge this is the first report on the Bacillus species isolated from the rhizosphere of Calendula officinalis. 15 % of the isolated bacteria were screened for their important antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum, Botrytis cinerea, Aspergillus niger, Cladosporium cucumerinium and Alternaria alternata. The bacteria identification based on 16S r-RNA and gyrase-A genes analysis, revealed strains closely related to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, B. velezensis, B. subtilis sub sp spizezenii and Paenibacillus polymyxa species. The electro-spray mass spectrometry coupled to liquid chromatography (ESI-LC MS) analysis showed that most of the Bacillus isolates produced the three lipopeptides families. However, the P. polymyxa (18SRTS) didn't produce any type of lipopeptides. All the tested Bacillus isolates produced cellulase but the protease activity was observed only in the B. amyloliquefaciens species (9SRTS). The Salkowsky colorimetric test showed that the screened bacteria synthesized 6-52 μg/ml of indole 3 acetic acid. These bacteria produced siderophores with more than 10 mm wide orange zones on chromazurol S. The greenhouse experiment using a naturally infested soil with Sclerotonia sclerotiorum showed that the B. amyloliquefaciens (9SRTS) had no significant (P > 0.05) effect on the pre-germination of the chickpea seeds. However, it increased the size of the chickpea plants and reduced the stem rot disease (P < 0.05).These results suggested that the Bacillus strains isolated in this work may be further used as bioinoculants to improve the production of C. officinalis and other crop systems. PMID:24426149

  17. Thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside the first glycosylated plant pyrrolizidine alkaloid from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Martina; Joppe, Holger; Schmaus, Gerhard

    2002-06-01

    The glycosylated pyrrolizidine alkaloid, thesinine-4'-O-beta-D-glucoside, has been isolated from the aqueous methanol extract of dried, defatted seeds of Borago officinalis (Boraginaceae). The structure was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analysis. PMID:12031432

  18. Plant regeneration after long-term callus culture in clones of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Pontaroli, A C; Camadro, E L

    2005-12-01

    Callus growth and plant regeneration from long-term callus cultures were studied in two elite clones of Asparagus officinalis cv. Argenteuil, to establish a suitable protocol for a prospective in vitro selection program. Callus initiation and growth was evaluated on MS medium with 3% sucrose, 0.9% agar, 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, and three levels of 2,4-D. The highest callus relative growth was obtained on medium with 1.5 mg x l(-1) 2,4-D and 1 mg x l(-1) kinetin. Shoot primordia (SP) induction from > 18-months-old calluses was evaluated on several media; the highest percentage of SP induction (89%) and average number of SP per callus (8.6) were obtained with clone "265" on MS medium with 5 mg x l(-1) 2iP, 1 mg x l(-1) IAA, 3% sucrose and 0.9% agar. The highest percentage of root induction (100%) was achieved with clone '265' on MS medium with 0.1 mg x l(-1) kinetin, 0.1 mg x l(-1) NAA, 1.32 mg x l(-1) ancymidol, 7% glucose and 0.8% agar. Important medium x genotype interactions were detected, pointing to the need of adjusting this and other in vitro protocols for specific asparagus genotypes. PMID:16524253

  19. DNA isolation protocol for the medicinal plant lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Ghaffariyan, S; Mohammadi, S A; Aharizad, S

    2012-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) is a medicinal plant that is widely used as a sedative or calmant, spasmolytic and antibacterial agent and sleep aid. This has led to a high demand for lemon balm products, resulting in the extinction of this species in some of its natural habitats. Molecular techniques have increasingly been used in plant diversity conservation and isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA is an important pre-requisite. Lemon balm contains high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides, which pose a major challenge for the isolation of high-quality DNA. We compared different genomic DNA extraction protocols, including traditional phenol-chloroform DNA extraction protocols and two commercial kits for DNA purification for their ability to produce good-quality DNA from fresh leaves of five lemon balm genotypes. Quality and quantity of the DNA samples were determined using 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis and a spectrophotometer. The DNA purity was further confirmed by PCR amplification using barley retrotransposon LTR base primers. The spectral quality of DNA as measured by the A(260)/A(280) ratio ranged from 1.46 to 2.37. The Fermentase genomic DNA purification kit and the CTAB extraction protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate to overcome the high levels of polyphenols and polysaccharides yielded high-quality DNA with a mean A(260)/A(280) ratio of 1.87. The quantity of DNA and its PCR purity were similar with all the protocols, but considering the time and cost required for extraction of DNA from a large number of samples, the CTAB protocol using PVP and ammonium acetate is suitable for lemon balm. PMID:22614273

  20. Does Melissa Officinalis Cause Withdrawal or Dependence?

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Kadir; Akgönül, Mehmet; Demirdaş, Arif; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Melissa officinalis is a medical and aromatic plant that is used for its hypnotic, sedative, and spasmolytic effects. This report presents a case study of30-year-old patient who was admitted to an emergency department with restlessness, tremor, distractibility, and sweating following a discontinuation of Melissa officinalis consumption. Case report: In this case, withdrawal symptoms may be related to the dependence effect caused by long-term use of Melissa officinalis. Although Melissa officinalis, a plant, is preferred by many patients as an alternative to pharmaceutical drugs, patients should be made aware that it may have a risk of dependency and can lead to withdrawal symptoms. PMID:25870482

  1. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) as a potential therapeutic plant in metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Faezeh Vahdati; Shirani, Kobra; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of complex coexisting cardiometabolic risk factors such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, inflammation, abdominal obesity, coagulopathies, and hypertension that raise the risk of diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Recently, there has been an increasing interest in the use of herbs and natural compounds in prevention and treatment of diseases and a large number of published articles have focused on this issue. Rosmarinus officinalis L. or rosemary (Lamiaceae) is a rich source of phenolic phytochemicals having significant anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, hypotensive, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-thrombotic, hepatoprotective, and hypocholesterolemic effects. The purpose of this review is to highlight the interesting pharmacological effects of rosemary, and its active compounds, and the related mechanisms in the management of metabolic syndrome that are documented in in vitro and in vivo studies. PMID:27178264

  2. Cytotoxicity of aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Labiatae) in plant test system.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, G H S; Dantas, E B S; Sousa, F R C; Peron, A P

    2014-11-01

    This study investigated the cytotoxic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) aqueous extract on the cell cycle of Allium cepa. To this end, crude aqueous leaf extracts at four concentrations, 0.02, 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 mg/mL, were tested on A. cepa meristematic root cells, at exposure times of 24 and 48 h. Slides were prepared by the crushing technique, and cells analyzed throughout the cell cycle, totaling 5,000 for each control group and concentration. The four concentrations tested, including the lowest and considered ideal for use, at all exposure times, showed a significant antiproliferative effect on the cell cycle of this test system and presented a high number of cells in prophase. Our results evidenced the cytotoxicity of rosemary extracts, under the studied conditions. PMID:25627599

  3. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

  4. The effect of Morinda officinalis How, a Chinese traditional medicinal plant, on the DRL 72-s schedule in rats and the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Qi; Yuan, Li; Yang, Ming; Luo, Zhi-Pu; Zhao, Yi-Min

    2002-05-01

    The present study observed the antidepressant-like action of the medicinal plant Morinda officinalis in the differential reinforcement of low rate 72-s (DRL 72-s) schedule, a behavioral screen selective and sensitive to antidepressant drugs, and the forced swimming test, a well-known animal model of depression. In the DRL 72-s schedule in rats, the plant extract (25-50 mg/kg), similar to clinically effective antidepressant drug desipramine (5-10 mg/kg), significantly reduced response rate and efficiency ratio while at the same time increasing reinforcement rate. In the forced swimming test in mice, the plant extract (50 mg/kg), like the effect of desipramine (20 mg/kg), also elicited a significant reduction in the duration of immobility. A tendency to this phenomenon could be seen at the dose of 100 mg/kg. Meanwhile, the plant extract, in the effective doses for the forced swimming test, had no effects on spontaneous motor activity in mice. These findings provide further support for the conclusion that M. officinalis extract possesses the antidepressant effect. PMID:11900767

  5. Phenotypic and biochemical profile changes in calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) plants treated with two chemical mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    El-Nashar, Y I; Asrar, A A

    2016-01-01

    Chemical mutagenesis is an efficient tool used in mutation-breeding programs to improve the vital characters of the floricultural crops. This study aimed to estimate the effects of different concentrations of two chemical mutagens; sodium azide (SA) and diethyl sulfate (DES). The vegetative growth and flowering characteristics in two generations (M1 and M2) of calendula plants were investigated. Seeds were treated with five different concentrations of SA and DES (at the same rates) of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, and 5000 ppm, in addition to a control treatment of 0 ppm. Results showed that lower concentrations of SA mutagen had significant effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements in plants of both generations. Calendula plants tended to flower earlier under low mutagen concentrations (1000 ppm), whereas higher concentrations delayed flowering significantly. Positive results on seed germination, plant height, number of branches, plant fresh weight, and leaf area were observed in the M2-generation at lower concentrations of SA (1000 ppm), as well as at 4000 ppm DES on number of leaves and inflorescences. The highest total soluble protein was detected at the concentrations of 1000 ppm SA and 2000 ppm DES. DES showed higher average of acid phosphatase activity than SA. Results indicated that lower concentrations of SA and DES mutagens had positive effects on seed germination percentage, plant height, leaf area, plant fresh weight, flowering date, inflorescence diameter, and gas-exchange measurements. Thus, lower mutagen concentrations could be recommended for better floral and physio-chemical performance. PMID:27173326

  6. Microsatellite markers for the invasive plant species white sweetclover (Melilotus alba) and yellow sweetclover (Melilotus officinalis)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe specific primers and conditions to amplify eight tetranucleotide, one trinucleotide, and one dinucleotide microsatellite DNA loci isolated from an enriched genomic library of Melilotus alba, an invasive plant species throughout North America. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 2...

  7. [Experimental studies on growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Wei, X; Pang, F; He, M; Hu, T

    1992-10-01

    By using the techniques of growing seedlings in bowshaped shed covered with plastic sheeting plus treatment with plant growth regulator, vegetative and generative propagation tests have been made of Morinda officinalis. Scientific evidences have thus been provided for growing seedlings of Morinda officinalis. PMID:1294174

  8. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  9. Genetic Diversity and Demographic History of Wild and Cultivated/Naturalised Plant Populations: Evidence from Dalmatian Sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Rešetnik, Ivana; Baričevič, Dea; Batîr Rusu, Diana; Carović-Stanko, Klaudija; Chatzopoulou, Paschalina; Dajić-Stevanović, Zora; Gonceariuc, Maria; Grdiša, Martina; Greguraš, Danijela; Ibraliu, Alban; Jug-Dujaković, Marija; Krasniqi, Elez; Liber, Zlatko; Murtić, Senad; Pećanac, Dragana; Radosavljević, Ivan; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Stešević, Danijela; Šoštarić, Ivan; Šatović, Zlatko

    2016-01-01

    Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is a well-known aromatic and medicinal Mediterranean plant that is native in coastal regions of the western Balkan and southern Apennine Peninsulas and is commonly cultivated worldwide. It is widely used in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Knowledge of its genetic diversity and spatiotemporal patterns is important for plant breeding programmes and conservation. We used eight microsatellite markers to investigate evolutionary history of indigenous populations as well as genetic diversity and structure within and among indigenous and cultivated/naturalised populations distributed across the Balkan Peninsula. The results showed a clear separation between the indigenous and cultivated/naturalised groups, with the cultivated material originating from one restricted geographical area. Most of the genetic diversity in both groups was attributable to differences among individuals within populations, although spatial genetic analysis of indigenous populations indicated the existence of isolation by distance. Geographical structuring of indigenous populations was found using clustering analysis, with three sub-clusters of indigenous populations. The highest level of gene diversity and the greatest number of private alleles were found in the central part of the eastern Adriatic coast, while decreases in gene diversity and number of private alleles were evident towards the northwestern Adriatic coast and southern and eastern regions of the Balkan Peninsula. The results of Ecological Niche Modelling during Last Glacial Maximum and Approximate Bayesian Computation suggested two plausible evolutionary trajectories: 1) the species survived in the glacial refugium in southern Adriatic coastal region with subsequent colonization events towards northern, eastern and southern Balkan Peninsula; 2) species survived in several refugia exhibiting concurrent divergence into three genetic groups. The insight into genetic

  10. Radioprotective Potential of Plants and Herbs against the Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    PubMed Central

    C. Jagetia, Ganesh

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. There is a need to protect humans against such effects of ionizing radiation. Attempts to protect against the deleterious effects of ionizing radiations by pharmacological intervention were made as early as 1949 and efforts are continued to search radioprotectors, which may be of great help for human application. This review mainly dwells on the radioprotective potential of plant and herbal extracts. The results obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that several botanicals such as Gingko biloba, Centella asiatica, Hippophae rhamnoides, Ocimum sanctum, Panax ginseng, Podophyllum hexandrum, Amaranthus paniculatus, Emblica officinalis, Phyllanthus amarus, Piper longum, Tinospora cordifoila, Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Syzygium cumini, Zingiber officinale, Ageratum conyzoides, Aegle marmelos and Aphanamixis polystachya protect against radiation-induced lethality, lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. The fractionation-guided evaluation may help to develop new radioprotectors of desired activities. PMID:18188408

  11. Effect of blanching on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla (Emblica officinalis) shreds.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Sharma, Alka; Kumar, Pradeep; Vishwakarma, R K; Patil, R T

    2014-07-01

    The effect of hot water blanching treatment on thin layer drying kinetics of aonla shreds was studied at drying air temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C with the air velocity of 1.2 m/s. The drying time decreased with the increase in air temperature and blanching. The drying process was observed in falling rate. Drying after blanching reduced the vitamin C content of aonla shreds by 69.36% whereas it decreased by 27.78% in unblanched shreds. Eight commonly used mathematical models were evaluated to predict the drying behavior of aonla shreds. The Midilli model described the drying behaviour of unblanched aonla shreds at all temperatures better than other models whereas two-term model described the drying kinetics of blanched aonla shreds satisfactorily. The effective diffusivities of the unblanched and blanched aonla shreds were determined using Fick's law of diffusion. The activation energy was found to be 47.21 kJ/mol for unblanched and 43.98 kJ/mol for blanched aonla shreds. PMID:24966422

  12. Amla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) extracts reduce oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Rao, T P; Sakaguchi, N; Juneja, L R; Wada, E; Yokozawa, T

    2005-01-01

    The antioxidant properties of amla extracts and their effects on the oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetes were examined in rats. Amla in the form of either the commercial enzymatic extract SunAmla (Taiyo Kagaku Co. Ltd., Yokkaichi, Japan) (20 or 40 mg/kg of body weight/day) or a polyphenol-rich fraction of ethyl acetate extract (10 or 20 mg/kg of body weight/day) was given orally for 20 days to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Amla extracts showed strong free radical scavenging activity. Amla also showed strong inhibition of the production of advanced glycosylated end products. The oral administration of amla extracts to the diabetic rats slightly improved body weight gain and also significantly alleviated various oxidative stress indices of the serum of the diabetic rats. The elevated serum levels of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which is a glycosylated protein that is an indicator of oxidative stress, were significantly reduced dose-dependently in the diabetic rats fed amla. Similarly, the serum level of creatinine, yet another oxidative stress parameter, was also reduced. Furthermore, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances levels were significantly reduced with amla, indicating a reduction in lipid peroxidation. In addition, the decreased albumin levels in the diabetic rats were significantly improved with amla. Amla also significantly improved the serum adiponectin levels. These results form the scientific basis supporting the efficacy of amla for relieving the oxidative stress and improving glucose metabolism in diabetes. PMID:16176148

  13. Efficacy of E. officinalis on the Cariogenic Properties of Streptococcus mutans: A Novel and Alternative Approach to Suppress Quorum-Sensing Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Sadaf; Singh, Kunal; Verma, Praveen K.; Khan, Asad U.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on evaluating the potential of Emblica officinalis against cariogenic properties of Streptococcus mutans, a causative microorganism for caries. The effect of crude extract and ethanolic fraction from Emblica officinalis fruit was analysed against S. mutans. The sub-MIC concentrations of crude and ethanolic fraction of E. officinalis were evaluated for its cariogenic properties such as acid production, biofilm formation, cell-surface hydrophobicity, glucan production, sucrose-dependent and independent adherence. Its effect on biofilm architecture was also investigated with the help of confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moreover, expression of genes involved in biofilm formation was also studied by quantitative RT- PCR. This study showed 50% reduction in adherence at concentrations 156 µg/ and 312.5 µg/ml of crude extract and ethanolic fraction respectively. However, the biofilm was reduced to 50% in the presence of crude extract (39.04 µg/ml) and ethanolic fraction (78.08 µg/ml). Furthermore, effective reduction was observed in the glucan synthesis and cell surface hydrophobicity. The qRT-PCR revealed significant suppression of the genes involved in its virulence. Confocal and scanning electron microscopy clearly depicted the obliteration of biofilm structure with reference to control. Hence, this study reveals the potential of E. officinalis fruit extracts as an alternative and complementary medicine for dental caries by inhibiting the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans. PMID:22792279

  14. Bioefficacy of essential oils of medicinal plants against housefly, Musca domestica L.

    PubMed

    Morey, Rashmi A; Khandagle, Abhay J

    2012-10-01

    The housefly Musca domestica L. is recognized as a public health pest causing a serious threat to human and livestock by vectoring many infectious diseases. Chemical control method commonly used against this pest, though effective, has some major disadvantages, such as development of insect resistance and bioaccumulation. Pest management strategies for populations of houseflies are needed. Presently, bioinsecticides, especially those derived from plant origin, have been increasingly evaluated in controlling insects of medical importance. In order to search for effective and ecofriendly control agents, the essential oils of Mentha piperita, Zingiber officinalis, Emblica officinalis, and Cinnamomum verum were evaluated for their larvicidal, attractant/repellent, and oviposition attractant/deterrent activity against M. domestica. The highest larvicidal activity, i.e., C(50) = 104 ppm was shown by M. piperita. This oil also exhibited 96.8% repellency at the concentration of 1%. The highest oviposition deterrence activity of 98.1% was also exhibited by M. piperita oil at the concentration of 1%. Among the remaining plants, the essential oil of Z. officinalis exhibited significant bioactivities against M. domestica with larvicidal activity, i.e., lethal concentration (LC)(50) = 137 ppm, repellency of 84.9 and 98.1% oviposition deterrence both at 1% concentration. The other two plant oils, viz., C. verum and E. officinalis, showed relatively moderate bioefficacy with larvicidal activity, i.e., LC(50) = 159 and 259 ppm, repellency of 77.9 and 63.0% while oviposition deterrence of 60.0 and 42.6%, respectively. The result revealed that the essential oils of M. piperita have control potential against M. domestica and should be further explored as a component of integrated vector management program. PMID:22777704

  15. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

  16. Assessment of antioxidative, chelating, and DNA-protective effects of selected essential oil components (eugenol, carvacrol, thymol, borneol, eucalyptol) of plants and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil.

    PubMed

    Horvathova, Eva; Navarova, Jana; Galova, Eliska; Sevcovicova, Andrea; Chodakova, Lenka; Snahnicanova, Zuzana; Melusova, Martina; Kozics, Katarina; Slamenova, Darina

    2014-07-16

    Selected components of plant essential oils and intact Rosmarinus officinalis oil (RO) were investigated for their antioxidant, iron-chelating, and DNA-protective effects. Antioxidant activities were assessed using four different techniques. DNA-protective effects on human hepatoma HepG2 cells and plasmid DNA were evaluated with the help of the comet assay and the DNA topology test, respectively. It was observed that whereas eugenol, carvacrol, and thymol showed high antioxidative effectiveness in all assays used, RO manifested only antiradical effect and borneol and eucalyptol did not express antioxidant activity at all. DNA-protective ability against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced DNA lesions was manifested by two antioxidants (carvacrol and thymol) and two compounds that do not show antioxidant effects (RO and borneol). Borneol was able to preserve not only DNA of HepG2 cells but also plasmid DNA against Fe(2+)-induced damage. This paper evaluates the results in the light of experiences of other scientists. PMID:24955655

  17. Photocatalytic degradation of nitrophenol using biologically active Phyllanthus emblica seed extract.

    PubMed

    Dinesh, Murugesan; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Selvaraj, Chinnadurai Immanuel

    2016-08-01

    The present study deals about the vicinity of phytochemicals present in the Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) seed extract. The bio-active compounds present in the methanolic seed extract have been identified using Gas Chromatography Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS)·The antioxidant activity of P. emblica seed extract was evaluated using assistance of DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay. The determination of total phenol and flavonoid substance were contemplated. Further blood clot lysis activity was also done to check the percentage of clot lysis in methanolic seed extract. The result proved that seed extract has potential application. The GCMS results of P. emblica suggest that Octyl-β-d-Glucopyranoside is present in major quantity. The work has been designed towards the degradation of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol using P. emblica methanolic seed extract. The progress of nitrophenol degradation has been observed in UV-visible spectroscopy. At 5min duration, the 4-nitrophenol has been degraded up to 82.42%. This may be due to the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, carbohydrate and phenols in the P. emblica seed extract. The seed extract showed good scavenging activity which resulted in IC50 value of 85.92μg/mL. The total phenol and flavonoid content present in the extract were 48.242 and 12.72mg/mL. Also the seed extract showed good lysis when compared to the standard streptokinase. PMID:27288657

  18. Inhibiton of photodynamic haemolysis by Gratiola officinalis L. extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Natalie; Pravdin, Alexander; Terentyuk, George; Navolokin, Nikita; Kurchatova, Maria; Polukonova, Natalia

    2015-03-01

    On the model of photodynamic haemolysis, the membranoprotective properties of a plant origin antioxidant, Gratiola officinalis L. extract, have been studied based on its ability to inhibit photodamage of sensitized erythrocyte membranes. The effect of different concentrations of the antioxidant on the photodynamic hemolysis has been studied; and the influence of incubation time on the membranoprotective properties of Gratiola officinalis L. extract has also been revealed.

  19. Development of a nanoemulsion of Phyllanthus emblica L. branch extract.

    PubMed

    Chaiittianan, Rungsiri; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2014-12-01

    For potential topical administration, we formulated a nanoemulsion containing phenolic constituents of Phyllanthus emblica branch extract. The nanoemulsion has high entrapment efficiency, small particle size, is stable, and can release its main chemical components. Branches of P. emblica were extracted with 50% ethanol (EPE) with 5.4% yield. HPLC analysis indicated several phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, vanillic acid, epigallocatechin (EGC), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and ellagic acid. These were selected as chemical markers of EPE in the nanoemulsion development. The nanoemulsion was prepared by microemulsion techniques with hot high pressure homogenization. A ternary phase diagram was constructed to obtain the optimized nanoemulsion. The obtained transparent EPE nanoemulsion is composed of isopropyl myristate (0.6% w/w), Brij® 78 (0.35% w/w), and 0.15% (w/w) EPE. The optimized EPE nanoemulsion had a median particle size of 191.63 ± 4.07 nm with a narrow particle size distribution, a zeta potential of -10.19 ± 0.54 mV, high entrapment efficiency at 67.99 ± 0.87% and good stability at 4 °C after 90 d of storage. The release of active ingredients from the EPE nanoemulsion was slower than that of the EPE aqueous formulation. The loading ratios of the five phenolic compounds were high, with relative order of EGC > EGCG > vanillic acid > gallic acid > ellagic acid, resulting in slow release profiles of EGC and EGCG in the EPE nanoemulsion. In conclusion, the obtained EPE nanoemulsion has good characteristics for future clinical trials. PMID:24053418

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    PubMed Central

    White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  1. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Koeberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activities against plant pathogenic fungi, bacteria and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9 Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  2. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain Co1-6, a Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F; Jansson, Janet K; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties. PMID:26272562

  4. Final report on the safety assessment of Calendula officinalis extract and Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    2001-01-01

    Calendula Officinalis Extract is an extract of the flowers of Calendula officinalis, the common marigold, whereas Calendula Officinalis is described as plant material derived from the flowers of C. officinalis. Techniques for preparing Calendula Officinalis Extract include gentle disintegration in soybean oil. Propylene glycol and butylene glycol extractions were also reported. Components of these ingredients are variously reported to include sugars, carotenoids, phenolic acids, sterols, saponins, flavonoids, resins, sterins, quinones, mucilages, vitamins, polyprenylquinones, and essential oils. Calendula Officinalis Extract is reported to be used in almost 200 cosmetic formulations, over a wide range of product categories. There are no reported uses of Calendula Officinalis. Acute toxicity studies in rats and mice indicate that the extract is relatively nontoxic. Animal tests showed at most minimal skin irritation, and no sensitization or phototoxicity. Minimal ocular irritation was seen with one formulation and no irritation with others. Six saponins isolated from C. officinalis flowers were not mutagenic in an Ames test, and a tea derived from C. officinalis was not genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. No carcinogenicity or reproductive and developmental toxicity data were available. Clinical testing of cosmetic formulations containing the extract elicited little irritation or sensitization. Absent any basis for concluding that data on one member of a botanical ingredient group can be extrapolated to another in a group, or to the same ingredient extracted differently, these data were not considered sufficient to assess the safety of these ingredients. Additional data needs include current concentration of use data; function in cosmetics; ultraviolet (UV) absorption data; if absorption occurs in the UVA or UVB range, photosensitization data are needed; gross pathology and histopathology in skin and other major organ systems associated with repeated dermal

  5. Antiangiogenic-Like Properties of Fermented Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Chérif; Arcile, Guillaume; Cariel, Léon; Lenoir, Christine; Bignon, Jérome; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2015-09-01

    The three ayurvedic medicinal plants, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, and Bacopa monnieri, were extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex(®) technology. The extracts were mixed to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. The mixture of extracts was incubated with resting cells of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. The fermentation promoted the fluidization of the starting dense mixture, while HPLC monitoring evidenced the disappearance of glucogallin from E. officinalis extract and the concomitant increase in gallic acid content. Topical exposure of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to the nonfermented extract led to the extensive necrosis and destruction of the treated membrane. However, the fermented extract was shown to be free of any toxicity. Furthermore, compared with the untreated CAM, the fermented sample reduced CAM vascularization, suggesting its antiangiogenic potency. The innocuity of the fermented extract was demonstrated using the in vivo LD50 test, the morphological examination of internal organs of treated rats, as well as the evaluation of blood biomarkers of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). The fermented extract was developed as a nutraceutical antiangiogenic treatment of age-related macular degeneration and commercialized in an oral form named Ethnodyne-Visio™. PMID:25608021

  6. Comparison of some antioxidant properties of plant extracts from Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, Eleutherococcus senticosus and Stevia rebaudiana.

    PubMed

    Vaško, Ladislav; Vašková, Janka; Fejerčáková, Andrea; Mojžišová, Gabriela; Poráčová, Janka

    2014-08-01

    Phenolic compounds from plants are known for their antioxidant properties and have been proposed as therapeutic agents to counteract oxidative stress. However, under normal circumstances, the body only receives a very small amount of these substances in the diet. We have investigated the effect of extracts from known and frequently used plants as part of diet, food seasoning, medicinal tea, and sweetener at different concentrations on the ability to scavenge free radicals, to affect antioxidant enzymes, and finally in the survival of cancer cell lines. We found extract concentrations of about 100 μg.ml(-1) more indicative in the assessment of all parameters investigated. Ginseng possessed a very good ability to scavenge superoxide and hydroxyl radicals, while stevia also manifested significant effects against hydroxyl radicals. Both extracts also showed NO decomposition ability. The antioxidant defense system against the excessive production of radicals in mitochondria was sufficient. In contrast, the range of operating concentrations for sage and oregano mainly presented no significant effects against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Taken together with the significantly reduced activity of glutathione peroxidase, this led to the depletion of glutathione. The demonstrated modulation of redox state capability was sufficient to affect the viability of all tested cancer cell lines, but especially A-549, CEM and HeLa by oregano extract. Results support the promising role of the tested extracts as a source of compounds for further in vivo studies with the ability to powerfully interfere with or modify the redox state of cells according to the type of disease, which is expected to be associated with oxidative stress. PMID:24737278

  7. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg), Tc (100 mg/kg), Pe (300 mg/kg), 1 formulation (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg) and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg) daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further. PMID:26834422

  8. Expression of Cry1Ac in transgenic tobacco plants under the control of a wound-inducible promoter (AoPR1) isolated from Asparagus officinalis to control Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Gulbitti-Onarici, Selma; Zaidi, Mohsin Abbas; Taga, Ibrahim; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Altosaar, Illimar

    2009-07-01

    Expression of cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) was evaluated under the control of a wound-inducible AoPR1 promoter from Asparagus officinalis in transgenic tobacco plants. The leaves of transgenic plants were mechanically wounded to evaluate the activity of the AoPR1 promoter in driving the expression of Cry1Ac protein at the wound site. Our results indicate that mechanical wounding of transgenic plants was effective in inducing the expression of Cry1Ac protein. As a result of this induction, the accumulated levels of Cry1Ac protein increased during 6-72 h post-wounding period. The leaves of transgenic tobacco plants were evaluated for resistance against Heliothis virescens and Manduca sexta in insect bioassays in two different ways. The detached tobacco leaves were either fed directly to the insect larvae or they were first mechanically wounded followed by a 72 h post-wounding feeding period. Complete protection of mechanically wounded leaves of transgenic plants was observed within 24 h of the bioassay. The leaves of transgenic plants fed directly (without pre-wounding) to the larvae achieved the same level of protection between 24 and 72 h of the bioassay. PMID:19353306

  9. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and β aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications. PMID:25829572

  10. [Damage-loss relationships and integrated control of 3rd instar larvae of Actias selene nigpoana Felder in planting area of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc].

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Wang, C; Zhang, Q; Cheng, X

    1997-08-01

    In the present paper, the damage-loss model of Actias selene ningpoana to Cornus officinalis was tested and the results indicated that the yield loss rates obeyed the equation Y = 100 - EXP(4.6042 - 0.0315X). The economic threshold of the 2hd and 3rd instar larvae of A. selene nigpoana was then determined as 22 and 8 insects per tree respecitively. Suggestions for integrated control have been made based on the research of activities of A. selene ningpoana in the forest. PMID:11038910

  11. Seed germination of Calendula officinalis 'Carola' in response to temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis 'Carola') is a potential agronomic oilseed crop with application in the paint, coating, and cosmetic industry. Calendula has historically been used for herbal medicinal purposes and an ornamental plant. With the discovery that calendula seeds contain high concentrati...

  12. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

    2011-02-01

    Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%. PMID:23572715

  13. Efficacy of crude extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) in arsenic-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in splenocytes of mice

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manish Kumar; Yadav, Suraj Singh; Yadav, Rajesh Singh; Singh, Uma Shanker; Shukla, Yogeshwar; Pant, Kamlesh Kumar; Khattri, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Arsenic, an environmental contaminant naturally occurred in groundwater and has been found to be associated with immune-related health problems in humans. Objective: In view of increasing risk of arsenic exposure due to occupational and non-occupational settings, the present study has been focused to investigate the protective efficacy of amla against arsenic-induced spleenomegaly in mice. Results: Arsenic exposures (3 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice caused an increase production of ROS (76%), lipid peroxidation (84%) and decrease in the levels of superoxide dismutase (53%) and catalase (54%) in spleen as compared to controls. Arsenic exposure to mice also caused a significant increase in caspases-3 activity (2.8 fold) and decreases cell viability (44%), mitochondrial membrane potential (47%) linked with apoptosis assessed by the cell cycle analysis (subG1-28.72%) and annexin V/PI binding in spleen as compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla (500 mg/kg body weight p.o for 30 days) in mice decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation (33%), ROS production (24%), activity of caspase-3 (1.4 fold), apoptosis (subG1 12.72%) and increased cell viability (63%), levels superoxide dismutase (80%), catalase (77%) and mitochondrial membrane potential (66%) as compared to mice treated with arsenic alone. Conclusions: Results of the present study indicate that the effect of arsenic is mainly due to the depletion of glutathione in liver associated with enhanced oxidative stress that has been found to be protected following simultaneous treatment of arsenic and amla. PMID:24748729

  14. Antimicrobial biosynthetic potential and genetic diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Gohain, Anwesha; Gogoi, Animesh; Debnath, Rajal; Yadav, Archana; Singh, Bhim P; Gupta, Vijai K; Sharma, Rajeev; Saikia, Ratul

    2015-10-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes are one of the primary groups that share symbiotic relationships with medicinal plants and are key reservoir of biologically active compounds. In this study, six selective medicinal plants were targeted for the first time for endophytic actinomycetes isolation from Gibbon Wild Life Sanctuary, Assam, India, during winter and summer and 76 isolates were obtained. The isolates were found to be prevalent in roots followed by stem and leaves. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed 16 genera, including rare genera, Verrucosispora, Isoptericola and Kytococcus, which have never been previously reported as endophytic. The genus Streptomyces (66%) was dominant in both seasons. Shannon's diversity index showed that Azadirachta indica (1.49), Rauwolfia serpentina (1.43) and Emblica officinalis (1.24) were relatively good habitat for endophytic actinomycetes. Antimicrobial strains showed prevalence of polyketide synthase (PKS) type-II (85%) followed by PKS type-I (14%) encoded in the genomes. Expression studies showed 12-fold upregulation of PKSII gene in seventh day of incubation for Streptomyces antibioticus (EAAG90). Our results emphasize that the actinomycetes assemblages within plant tissue exhibited biosynthetic systems encoding for important biologically active compounds. PMID:26347302

  15. Evaluation of Cellular Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Five Main Phyllanthus Emblica L. Cultivars in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y.; Sun, H. Y.; Yu, X. Y.; Liu, D.; Wan, H. X.

    2015-01-01

    The cell-based antioxidant activity assay as more biological relevant assay was considered to be more accurate to predict antioxidant activity in vivo than chemical activity assays. In the present study, the five main Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars in China were subjected for cellular antioxidant activity based on HepG2 cells as well as antiproliferative activity. Total phenolics, total flavonoids and oxygen radical absorbance capacity were also measured. The results showed that Qingyougan, Binggan and Boligan (832±100, 774±52 and 704±28 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had higher cellular antioxidant activity than Tianyougan and Yougan (553±50 and 457±24 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) in phosphate buffered saline wash protocol whereas, Boligan (3735±217 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the highest cellular antioxidant activity and Tianyougan (2025±171 μmol of quercetin equivalents/100 g) had the lowest cellular antioxidant activity in no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol. The highest and lowest antiproliferative activities were observed in Binggan and Tianyougan (median effective dose: 6.95±0.11 and 14.03±0.10 mg/ml), respectively. The significant correlation was only observed between total flavonoids and cellular antioxidant activity from no phosphate buffered saline wash protocol (R2 =0.908, P<0.05), and total flavonoids and antiproliferative activity (R2 =0.887, P<0.05), suggesting the major contribution of flavonoids to the bioactivities of emblica. Overall, the data obtained revealed that different Phyllanthus emblica L. cultivars had strong cellular antioxidant and antiproliferative activities, thus should be recommended to increase consumption for health. PMID:26180272

  16. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  17. Protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury: the role of PI3-kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3β/β-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Thirunavukkarasu, Mahesh; Selvaraju, Vaithinathan; Tapias, Leonidas; Sanchez, Juan A; Palesty, J Alexander; Maulik, Nilanjana

    2015-12-01

    Clinical studies of Phyllanthus emblica (P. emblica) have shown that it increases production of nitric oxide, glutathione, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL); decreases low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP); and significantly inhibits platelet aggregation. The following study was designed to examine the effect of P. emblica treatment on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and identify the molecular targets and its underlying mechanism(s). Experimental animals were divided into four groups: control sham (CS), P. emblica sham (PS), control I/R (CIR), and P. emblica I/R (PIR). Rats in the P. emblica groups were gavaged with aqueous P. emblica solution (100 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After 30 days of gavaging, the I/R group underwent I/R surgery (45-min ischemia) followed by 4 or 30 days of reperfusion. Rats in the sham group underwent surgery without ligation. Left ventricular tissue samples, 4 and 30 days after I/R, were used for Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Western blot analysis showed upregulation of phosphorylated Akt and GSK3-β and increased nuclear translocation of β-catenin in the PIR group versus CIR. PIR rats also indicated reduced 3-nitrotyrosine and Caspase-3 expression. Increased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS) and upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 were found in the PIR group. Echocardiography showed increased ejection fraction and fractional shortening and decreased left ventricular internal diameter in experimental subjects compared to controls. There was decreased fibrosis in P. emblica-treated rats compared to controls. The results of this study indicate that P. emblica is capable of upregulating the PI3K/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin cardioprotective pathway, thereby preserving cardiac tissue during ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26342597

  18. Complete genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium of Calendula officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Köberl, Martina; White, Richard A.; Erschen, Sabine; Spanberger, Nora; El-Arabi, Tarek F.; Jansson, Janet K.; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-08-13

    The genome sequence of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain Co1-6, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) with broad-spectrum antagonistic activity against plant-pathogenic fungi, bacteria, and nematodes, consists of a single 3.9-Mb circular chromosome. The genome reveals genes putatively responsible for its promising biocontrol and PGP properties.

  19. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    DOEpatents

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce; Wise, Mitchell Lynn; Katahira, Eva Joy; Savage, Thomas Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  20. Antioxidant effect and study of bioactive components of Valeriana sisymbriifolia and Nardostachys jatamansii in comparison to Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Dugaheh, Mehdi Ansari; Meisami, Faramarz; Torabian, Zahra; Sharififar, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    The roots of Nardostachys jatamansi have been used as a substitute for valerian in Iranian traditions. Moreover, six species from Valeriana genus such as V. sisymbriifolia grow in Iran which has not been studied yet. We aimed to study of antioxidant effect of Valeriana officinalis, Nardostachys jatamansi and Valeriana sisymbriifolia and comparing their content of valerenic acid and valepotriate. Antioxidant effect was evaluated using diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) inhibition and beta carotene-bleaching assays. Identification of valepotriates was achieved using chemical and TLC method. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of valerenic acid was performed using TLC and spectrophotometry methods. Among the tested samples, V. Officinalis showed the highest DPPH inhibition effect with IC(50) value of 38mg/mL. All of the tested plants potentially inhibited beta-carotene oxidation. The calibration curve of authentic valerenic acid was linear in the range of 2-51 mg L(-1). The most and least amount of valepotraites was detectable in V. officinalis and V. sisymbriifolia respectively. Total valerenic acid in different plant species ranged from 0.02% in V. sisymbriifolia to 0.07% (w/w) in V. Officinalis. Our results indicated that all three tested plants contain different amount of valepotriates and valerenic acid. The highest percentage of valepotriates and valerenic acid was detectable in V. officinalis. Overall can conclude that N. jatamansii and V. sisymbriifolia would be a good candidate for substitutation of V. officinalis with noticeable antioxidant effect. PMID:23261727

  1. Effect of Calendula officinalis cream on achilles tendon healing.

    PubMed

    Aro, A A; Perez, M O; Vieira, C P; Esquisatto, M A M; Rodrigues, R A F; Gomes, L; Pimentel, E R

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, the scientific community has undertaken research on plant extracts, searching for compounds with pharmacological activities that can be used in diverse fields of medicine. Calendula officinalis L. is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and wound healing properties when used to treat skin burns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of C. officinalis on the initial phase of Achilles tendon healing. Wistar rats were separated in three groups: Calendula (Cal)-rats with a transected tendon were treated with topical applications of C. officinalis cream and then euthanized 7 days after injury; Control (C)-rats were treated with only vehicle after transection; and Normal (N)-rats without tenotomy. Higher concentrations of hydroxyproline (an indicator of total collagen) and non-collagenous proteins were observed in the Cal group in relation to the C group. Zymography showed no difference in the amount of the isoforms of metalloproteinase-2 and of metalloproteinase-9, between C and Cal groups. Polarization microscopy images analysis showed that the Cal group presented a slightly higher birefringence compared with the C group. In sections of tendons stained with toluidine blue, the transected groups presented higher metachromasy as compared with the N group. Immunocytochemistry analysis for chondroitin-6-sulfate showed no difference between the C and Cal groups. In conclusion, the topical application of C. officinalis after tendon transection increases the concentrations of collagen and non-collagenous proteins, as well as the collagen organization in the initial phase of healing. PMID:25266273

  2. Ethanol extract of Sanguisorba officinalis L. inhibits biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an ica-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaolin; Shang, Fei; Meng, Yajing; Li, Long; Cui, Yunmei; Zhang, Ming; Qi, Kezong; Xue, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an important nosocomial pathogen that shows resistance to many antibiotics and is usually associated with serious infections. Having the ability for biofilm formation increases resistance to antibiotics. Sanguisorba officinalis L. is a perennial plant that is distributed in the northern districts of China and has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, the effect of S. officinalis on MRSA strain SA3 isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis was evaluated by testing the growth and biofilm formation ability of MRSA cultured with or without ethanol extracts of S. officinalis. The results showed that the ethanol extract of S. officinalis strongly inhibited the biofilm formation of MRSA. With a confocal laser scanning microscope system, we observed that the biofilm structure of the test group with the addition of S. officinalis appeared looser and had less biomass compared with the control group without S. officinalis. Furthermore, we found that the transcript levels of the icaADBC operon remarkably decreased upon addition of the ethanol extract of S. officinalis, indicating that S. officinalis inhibits biofilm formation of MRSA in an ica-dependent manner. PMID:26454299

  3. [Rosa Gallica var. Officinalis.].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toneko

    2005-01-01

    I planted a "pharmacist's rose" in my garden about five years ago. It is a red rose of the Lancaster of "Red War" variety. The red rose that Tsunenaga Hasekura brought to "Entsu-ji" in Matshima is drawn on the door. Additionally, the crest used by the Imperial Household engraved by the balustrade. It turns out that it is the same as the one drawn on the ceiling as the "Rose War" monument. That is, the "pharmacist's rose" is a red rose of the Lancaster variety, and is expressed by the picture of an "Entsu-ji" rose. PMID:16217909

  4. Drought-tolerant rice germplasm developed from an Oryza officinalis transformation-competent artificial chromosome clone.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Zhang, H H; Chen, Z X; Shahid, M Q; Fu, X L; Liu, X D

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis has proven to be a natural gene reservoir for the improvement of domesticated rice as it carries many desirable traits; however, the transfer of elite genes to cultivated rice by conventional hybridization has been a challenge for rice breeders. In this study, the conserved sequence of plant stress-related NAC transcription factors was selected as a probe to screen the O. officinalis genomic transformation-competent artificial chromosome library by Southern blot; 11 positive transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones were subsequently detected. By Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, an indica rice variety, Huajingxian 74 (HJX74), was transformed with a TAC clone harboring a NAC gene-positive genomic fragment from O. officinalis. Molecular analysis revealed that the O. officinalis genomic fragment was integrated into the genome of HJX74. The transgenic lines exhibited high tolerance to drought stress. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of stress-related transformation-competent artificial chromosome clones, coupled with a transgenic validation approach, is an effective method of transferring agronomically important genes from O. officinalis to cultivated rice. PMID:26535682

  5. Novel neuroprotective effects of the aqueous extracts from Verbena officinalis Linn.

    PubMed

    Lai, Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2006-05-01

    Verbena officinialis Linn. (Verbenaceae) is a perennial plant which has been used as herbal medicine or health supplement in both Western and Eastern countries for centuries. It has been used to treat acute dysentery, enteritis, amenorrhea and depression. In view of its wide array of biological effects, we hypothesized that V. officinalis can exert cytoprotective effects on cells of the central nervous system. Pre-treatment of aqueous extracts of V. officinalis significantly attenuated the toxicity of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide and reducing agent dithiothreitol in primary cultures of cortical neurons. As extracellular accumulation of Abeta peptide is an important cytotoxic factor involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we have further explored its neuroprotective effect against Abeta. Treatment of V. officinalis attenuated Abeta-triggered DEVD- and VDVAD-cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of both interferon-inducing protein kinase (PKR) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was attenuated in Abeta-treated neurons. Taken together, we have proved our hypothesis by showing the novel neuroprotective effects of V. officinalis. As V. officinalis has long been used for many years to be a folk medicine, our study may provide a lead for its potential to be a neuroprotective agent against neuronal loss in AD. PMID:16406021

  6. Matrix solid-phase dispersion for the liquid chromatographic determination of phenolic acids in Melissa officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ziaková, Alica; Brandsteterová, Eva; Blahová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was used for sample preparation of plant material (Melissa officinalis, Lemon Balm) prior to liquid chromatography of rosmarinic, caffeic and protocatechuic acids, phenolic compounds present in this herb. Different MSPD sorbents and various elution agents were tested and the optimal extraction conditions determined with the aim to obtain extraction recoveries greater than 90% for all analytes. PMID:12568390

  7. Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

    2012-01-01

    The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC(50) value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC(50) value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC(50) values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective

  8. Evaluation of 15 Local Plant Species as Larvicidal Agents Against an Indian Strain of Dengue Fever Mosquito, Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sarita; Wahab, Naim; Mishra, Monika; Warikoo, Radhika

    2012-01-01

    The adverse effects of chemical insecticides-based intervention measures for the control of mosquito vectors have received wide public apprehension because of several problems like insecticide resistance, resurgence of pest species, environmental pollution, toxic hazards to humans, and non-target organisms. These problems have necessitated the need to explore and develop alternative strategies using eco-friendly, environmentally safe, bio-degradable plant products which are non-toxic to non-target organisms too. In view of this, 15 plant species were collected from local areas in New Delhi, India. Different parts of these plants were separated, dried, mechanically grinded, and sieved to get fine powder. The 200 g of each part was soaked in 1000 mL of different solvents separately and the crude extracts, thus formed, were concentrated using a vacuum evaporator at 45°C under low pressure. Each extract was screened to explore its potential as a mosquito larvicidal agent against early fourth instars of dengue vector, Aedes aegypti using WHO protocol. The preliminary screening showed that only 10 plants possessed larvicidal potential as they could result in 100% mortality at 1000 ppm. Further evaluation of the potential larvicidal extracts established the hexane leaf extract of Lantana camara to be most effective extract exhibiting a significant LC50 value of 30.71 ppm while the Phyllanthus emblica fruit extract was found to be least effective with an LC50 value of 298.93 ppm. The extracts made from different parts of other five plants; Achyranthes aspera, Zingiber officinalis, Ricinus communis, Trachyspermum ammi, and Cassia occidentalis also possessed significant larvicidal potential with LC50 values ranging from 55.0 to 74.67 ppm. Other three extracts showed moderate toxicity against A. aegypti larvae. Further investigations would be needed to isolate and identify the primary component responsible for the larvicidal efficiency of the effective plants

  9. Cloning and characterisation of rosmarinic acid synthase from Melissa officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Corinna; Petersen, Maike

    2011-05-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.; Lamiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant mainly due to two groups of compounds, the essential oil and the phenylpropanoid derivatives. The prominent phenolic compound is rosmarinic acid (RA), an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. RA shows a number of interesting biological activities. Rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS; 4-coumaroyl-CoA:hydroxyphenyllactic acid hydroxycinnamoyltransferase) catalyses the ester formation. Cell cultures of M. officinalis have been established in order to characterise the formation of RA in an important diploid medicinal plant. RAS activity as well as the expression of the RAS gene are closely correlated with the accumulation of RA in suspension cultures of M. officinalis. The RAS cDNA and gene (MoRAS) were isolated. The RAS gene was shown to be intron-free. MoRAS belongs to the BAHD superfamily of acyltransferases. Southern-blot analysis suggests the presence of only one RAS gene copy in the M. officinalis genome. The enzyme was characterised with respect to enzyme properties, substrate preferences and kinetic data in crude plant extracts and as heterologously synthesised protein from Escherichia coli. PMID:21354582

  10. Rosmarinus officinalis L. as cause of contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Miroddi, M; Calapai, G; Isola, S; Minciullo, P L; Gangemi, S

    2014-01-01

    Because of the widespread use of botanicals, it has become crucial for health professionals to improve their knowledge about safety problems. Several herbal medicines contain chemicals with allergenic properties responsible for contact dermatitis. Among these, one is Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), a plant used since ancient times in folk medicine; at the present time it is used worldwide as a spice and flavouring agent, as a preservative and for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The present article aims to revise and summarise scientific literature reporting cases of contact dermatitis caused by the use of R. officinalis as a raw material or as herbal preparations. Published case reports were researched on the following databases and search engines: PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Scopus. The used keywords were: R. officinalis and rosemary each alone or combined with the words allergy, contact dermatitis, allergic contact dermatitis, sensitisation and occupational dermatitis. The published case reports show that both rosemary extracts and raw material can be responsible for allergic contact dermatitis. Two cases related to contact dermatitis caused by cross-reactivity between rosemary and thyme were also commented. The diterpene carnosol, a chemical constituent of this plant, has been imputed as a common cause for this reaction. The incidence of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary is not common, but it could be more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence. It seems plausible that cases of contact dermatitis caused by rosemary are more frequent with respect to the supposed occurrence, because they could be misdiagnosed. For this reason, this possibility should be carefully considered in dermatitis differential diagnosis. PMID:23827646

  11. Evaluation of antigout activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sarvaiya, Vaidehi N.; Sadariya, Kamlesh A.; Pancha, Prakash G.; Thaker, Aswin M.; Patel, Aashish C.; Prajapati, Ankit S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate antigout activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica fruits following its 28 days repeated oral administration on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 male Sprague-Dawely rats dividing them in seven groups having six rats in each group. Groups I, II, and III served as vehicle control group, gout control group, and standard treatment control group, respectively. Rats of all the groups except vehicle control group were administered potassium oxonate at 250 mg/kg (IP), throughout the study period (28 days) for induction of gout. Groups IV and V received aqueous extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and Groups VI and VII received alcoholic extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). At the end of study, all the rats were subjected to blood collection; blood and serum sample were analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. After collection of blood samples on the 29th day, all the rats were sacrificed and subjected to post mortem examination to determine the presence or absence of gross and histopathological lesions in kidney tissues. Results: At the end of study, rats of gout control group showed increase in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme level along with alterations in kidney tissues as compared to vehicle control group. Gouty rats treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and standard treatment allopurinol at 5 mg/kg body weight showed reduction in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, BUN, and XO enzyme level along with significant improvements in histological structure of kidney as compared to rats of gout control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica fruits for 28 days has shown protection against

  12. Genome-wide identification and validation of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shufen; Zhang, Guojun; Li, Xu; Wang, Lianjun; Yuan, Jinhong; Deng, Chuanliang; Gao, Wujun

    2016-06-01

    Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis), an important vegetable cultivated worldwide, can also serve as a model dioecious plant species in the study of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. However, limited DNA marker resources have been developed and used for this species. To expand these resources, we examined the DNA sequences for simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 163,406 scaffolds representing approximately 400 Mbp of the A. officinalis genome. A total of 87,576 SSRs were identified in 59,565 scaffolds. The most abundant SSR repeats were trinucleotide and tetranucleotide, accounting for 29.2 and 29.1% of the total SSRs, respectively, followed by di-, penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octanucleotides. The AG motif was most common among dinucleotides and was also the most frequent motif in the entire A. officinalis genome, representing 14.7% of all SSRs. A total of 41,917 SSR primers pairs were designed to amplify SSRs. Twenty-two genomic SSR markers were tested in 39 asparagus accessions belonging to ten cultivars and one accession of Asparagus setaceus for determination of genetic diversity. The intra-species polymorphism information content (PIC) values of the 22 genomic SSR markers were intermediate, with an average of 0.41. The genetic diversity between the ten A. officinalis cultivars was low, and the UPGMA dendrogram was largely unrelated to cultivars. It is here suggested that the sex of individuals is an important factor influencing the clustering results. The information reported here provides new information about the organization of the microsatellites in A. officinalis genome and lays a foundation for further genetic studies and breeding applications of A. officinalis and related species. PMID:26987412

  13. Melissa officinalis oil affects infectivity of enveloped herpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Schnitzler, P; Schuhmacher, A; Astani, A; Reichling, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    Extracts and essential oils of medicinal plants are increasingly of interest as novel drugs of antimicrobial and antiviral agents, since herpes simplex virus (HSV) might develop resistance to commonly used antiviral agents. Melissa officinalis essential oil was phytochemically examined by GC-MS analysis, its main constituents were identified as monoterpenaldehydes citral a, citral b and citronellal. The antiviral effect of lemon balm oil, the essential oil of Melissa officinalis, on herpes simplex virus was examined. The inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was tested in vitro on monkey kidney cells using a plaque reduction assay. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of balm oil for herpes simplex virus plaque formation was determined at high dilutions of 0.0004% and 0.00008% for HSV-1 and HSV-2, respectively. At noncytotoxic concentrations of the oil,plaque formation was significantly reduced by 98.8% for HSV-1 and 97.2% for HSV-2, higher concentrations of lemon balm oil abolished viral infectivity nearly completely. In order to determine the mode of antiviral action of this essential oil, time-on-addition assays were performed. Both herpesviruses were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with balm oil prior to infection of cells. These results indicate that Melissa oil affected the virus before adsorption, but not after penetration into the host cell, thus lemon balm oil is capable of exerting a direct antiviral effect on herpesviruses. Considering the lipophilic nature of lemon balm essential oil, which enables it to penetrate the skin, and a high selectivity index, Melissa officinalis oil might be suitable for topical treatment of herpetic infections. PMID:18693101

  14. Anti-viral and cytotoxic norbisabolane sesquiterpenoid glycosides from Phyllanthus emblica and their absolute configurations.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun-Jiang; Yu, Shan; Xin, Ying; Cheng, Rong-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Tao; Wang, Dong; Yang, Chong-Ren; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ying-Jun

    2015-09-01

    In an effort to identify anti-viral and cytotoxic compounds from Phyllanthus spp., 14 highly oxygenated norbisabolane sesquiterpenoids, phyllaemblicins H1-H14, were isolated from the roots of Phyllanthus emblica Linn, along with phyllaemblicins B and C and glochicoccinoside D. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and chemical methods. Determination of absolute configurations of these compounds was facilitated by theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra using time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) for the aglycone components, and pre-column derivative/chiral HPLC analysis for the monosaccharides. The known glochicoccinoside D displayed potent activity against influenza A virus strain H3N2 and hand, foot and mouth virus EV71, with IC50 values of 4.5±0.6 and 2.6±0.7 μg/ml, respectively. Phyllaemblicin H1 showed moderate cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines A-549 and SMMC-7721, with IC50 values of 4.7±0.7 and 9.9±1.3 μM, respectively. PMID:26074492

  15. Phyllanthus emblica L. Enhances Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Wound Healing and Sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Chularojmontri, Linda; Suwatronnakorn, Maneewan; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is the hallmark of impaired wound healing and increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants from natural sources decrease oxidative stress and protect against cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we examined the antioxidant constituents and capacity of Phyllanthus emblica L. (PE) fruit in freeze-dried power form. The pharmacological properties of PE were investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the aspects of endothelial cell proliferation, nitric oxide (NO) production, wound healing, cell migration, in vitro angiogenesis, and VEGF gene expression. The ASC content of PE was 1.574% + 0.046% (w/w) as determined by HPLC and the total phenolic content was 36.1% ± 0.7% gallic acid equivalent when measured by Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The FRAP assay revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity at 3,643 + 192.5 µmole/mg. PE at 0.1 to 10 µg/mL did not significantly influence endothelial cell proliferation, but at higher concentrations PE decreased cell survival to 62%. PE significantly promoted NO production, endothelial wound closure, endothelial sprouting, and VEGF mRNA expression. Therefore, PE is a candidate for antioxidant supplement that promotes endothelial function and restores wound healing competency. PMID:23606890

  16. Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat.

    PubMed

    Heidari-Vala, Hamed; Ebrahimi Hariry, Reza; Sadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ghaffari Novin, Marefat; Heidari, Mahnaz

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis has been used in traditional medicine extensively. This study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (in three groups) received 50 or 100 mg/Kg b.w of Rosmarinus officinalis extract (made from the plant's leaves, flower and stem) (treatment groups) and 10 mL/Kg b.w normal saline (control group) respectively, on a daily bases by gavage route for 60 days. Then, spermatological properties, histometric parameters and sperm dynamics, testis and body weight, testicular cell population and serum testosterone level were analyzed by an acceptable method. Results showed that the mean serum testosterone level was decreased significantly in both treatment groups (50 and 100 mg/Kg b.w) during the experiment time, compared with control group (p < 0.05). However, Rosmarinus officinalis did not change the total count, motility and viability of sperm. In addition, Rosmarinus officinalis at both doses did not change body and testes weight and their ratio. Furthermore, Rosmarinus officinalis increased the number of Spermatogonia at both doses, Spermatocyte at doses of 50 mg/Kg b.w, Leydig cell and Spermatid at dose of 100 mg/Kg b.w significantly (p < 0.05). Rosmarinus officinalis did not significantly affect the number of Spermatozoid and Sertoli cells. In conclusion, it seems that Rosmarinus officinalis may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which can contribute the spermatogenesis process in rat. Rosmarinus officinalis may have antiandrogenic effect potentially indicating the possibility of developing herbal male contraceptive. PMID:24250620

  17. In Vivo Potential Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Melissa officinalis L. Essential Oil

    PubMed Central

    Bounihi, Amina; Hajjaj, Ghizlane; Cherrah, Yahia; Zellou, Amina

    2013-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) had been reported in traditional Moroccan medicine to exhibit calming, antispasmodic, and strengthening heart effects. Therefore, this study is aimed at determining the anti-inflammatory activities of M. officinalis L. leaves. The effect of the essential oil of the leaves of this plant was investigated for anti-inflammatory properties by using carrageenan and experimental trauma-induced hind paw edema in rats. The essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). Anti-inflammatory properties of oral administration of essential oil at the doses of 200, 400 mg/kg p.o., respectively, showed significant reduction and inhibition of edema with 61.76% and 70.58%, respectively, (P < 0.001) induced by carrageenan at 6 h when compared with control and standard drug (Indomethacin). On experimental trauma, M. officinalis L. essential oil showed pronounced reduction and inhibition of edema induced by carrageenan at 6 h at 200 and 400 mg/kg with 91.66% and 94.44%, respectively (P < 0.001). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain. PMID:24381585

  18. PI3K-mediated proliferation of fibroblasts by Calendula officinalis tincture: implication in wound healing.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Manikarna; Dasgupta, Uma; Singh, Namrata; Bhattacharyya, Debasish; Karmakar, Parimal

    2015-04-01

    Calendula officinalis, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a flowering plant and has been used for its antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, anticancer and wound healing activity. The mode of action of C. officinalis tincture on wound healing is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of C. officinalis tincture (CDOT) on cell viability and wound closure. C. officinalis tincture stimulated both proliferation and migration of fibroblasts in a statistically significant manner in a PI3K-dependent pathway. The increase in phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr 397) and Akt (Ser 473) was detected after treatment of CDOT. Inhibition of the PI3K pathway by wortmannin and LY294002 decreased both cell proliferation and cell migration. HPLC-ESI MS revealed the presence of flavonol glycosides as the major compounds of CDOT. Altogether, our results showed that CDOT potentiated wound healing by stimulating proliferation and migration of fibroblast in a PI3K-dependent pathway, and the identified compounds are likely to be responsible for wound healing activity. PMID:25641010

  19. The effects of extraction method on recovery rutin from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Frederico Severino; da Conceição, Edemilson Cardoso; Bandeira, Elane Sousa; Silva, José Otávio Carréra; Costa, Roseane Maria Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Background: Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) is a Mediterranean specie, but in Europe and America it is cultivated for ornamental or medicinal purposes. This species is widely used for presenting activities, antiinflammatory antibacterial and antioxidant. However the therapeutic action is linked to the amount of assets of the extracted raw material. The extraction method of bioactive compounds is an important step in the manufacturing of herbal medicines, because secondary metabolites with therapeutic potential are usually found in small quantities in plant materials. Objective: Due the medical and commercial importance of C. officinalis, this study aimed to evaluate the impact of the extraction method on the quality of herbal extract and optimize the extraction of rutin from C. officinalis. Materials and Methods: The extraction of rutin was performed by ultrasound and shaker and the optimized conditions were determined by response surface methodology. Results: The results of ultrasound extraction assisted (UEA) and maceration dynamic (MD) showed that rutin yield ranged from 0.218 to 2.28% (w/w) when extract by ultrasound and 0.1-1.44% by MD. The optimal extraction condition for rutin (2.48% to UEA or 1.46% to MD) from C. officinalis by UEA or MD were a 19-22 min extraction, ethanol: water ratio of 35-40% and 0.05-0.056 mg/mL to raw material: solvent ratio. Conclusion: The UEA is more efficient to extraction rutin. PMID:25298676

  20. Larvicidal activity of essential extract of Rosmarinus officinalis against Culex quinquefasciatus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Liu, Xiang-Yi; Yang, Bin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fu-Qiang; Feng, Zi-Liang; Wang, Chen-Zhu; Fan, Quan-Shui

    2013-03-01

    Constituents in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) have been shown to have larvicidal activity against invertebrates. In order to explore the properties of crude extract of rosemary further, we studied the chemical composition and its activity against dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. The major components of R. officinalis were found to be eucalyptol and camphor, with relative percentages of 10.93% and 5.51%, respectively. Minor constituents included limonene, (+)-4-carene, isoborneol, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexene, and pinene. The median lethal concentration (LC50) values of the essential oil of R. officinalis against DDT-susceptible, DDT-resistant, and field strains of larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus were 30.6, 26.4, and 38.3 mg/liter, respectively. The single median lethal dose (LD50) in Kunming mice was 4752 mg/kg. Essential oils from R. officinalis may, therefore, provide an effective natural plant product for use in mosquito prevention and control. PMID:23687854

  1. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Romaiana Picada; Fachinetto, Roselei; de Souza Prestes, Alessandro; Puntel, Robson Luiz; Santos da Silva, Gloria Narjara; Heinzmann, Berta Maria; Boschetti, Ticiane Krapf; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Morel, Ademir Farias; Morsch, Vera Maria; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira

    2009-05-01

    Considering the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases, and the growing evidence of the presence of compounds with antioxidant properties in the plant extracts, the aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant capacity of three plants used in Brazil to treat neurological disorders: Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. The antioxidant effect of phenolic compounds commonly found in plant extracts, namely, quercetin, gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin was also examined for comparative purposes. Cerebral lipid peroxidation (assessed by TBARS) was induced by iron sulfate (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (5 microM) or 3-nitropropionic acid (2 mM). Free radical scavenger properties and the chemical composition of plant extracts were assessed by 1'-1' Diphenyl-2' picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), respectively. M. officinalis aqueous extract caused the highest decrease in TBARS production induced by all tested pro-oxidants. In the DPPH assay, M. officinalis presented also the best antioxidant effect, but, in this case, the antioxidant potencies were similar for the aqueous, methanolic and ethanolic extracts. Among the purified compounds, quercetin had the highest antioxidant activity followed by gallic acid, quercitrin and rutin. In this work, we have demonstrated that the plant extracts could protect against oxidative damage induced by various pro-oxidant agents that induce lipid peroxidation by different process. Thus, plant extracts could inhibit the generation of early chemical reactive species that subsequently initiate lipid peroxidation or, alternatively, they could block a common final pathway in the process of polyunsaturated fatty acids peroxidation. Our study indicates that M. officinalis could be considered an effective agent in the prevention of various neurological diseases associated with oxidative stress. PMID:18853256

  2. Antiscalant properties of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheap-Charpentier, Hélène; Gelus, Dominique; Pécoul, Nathalie; Perrot, Hubert; Lédion, Jean; Horner, Olivier; Sadoun, Jonathan; Cachet, Xavier; Litaudon, Marc; Roussi, Fanny

    2016-06-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate in water has important implications in industry. Chemical antiscalant is usually used to control scale depositions. Plant extracts have been recently used as new green antiscalant agents, as they can be easily prepared and are environmentally friendly. In this study, stock aqueous solutions of Spergularia rubra and Parietaria officinalis, two plants used in traditional medicine to treat or prevent urolithiasis, were obtained by infusion. The antiscaling properties of these extracts towards CaCO3 formation were tested by using chronoamperometry and Fast Controlled Precipitation methods. The aqueous solution of S. rubra was further fractionated to isolate compounds of lower polarity. Their efficiency towards CaCO3 precipitation was characterized by Fast Controlled Precipitation method. The inhibiting efficiency of this fractionated solution was greater than that of the stock aqueous solution.

  3. Antioxidant effect of Phyllanthus emblica extract prevents contrast-induced acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) occurs after the administration of intravenous iodinated contrast agents. Oxidative stress has been proposed as one of the most important mechanisms in the pathogenesis of CI-AKI. The objective of this study was to investigate the antioxidant effect of the extract from Phyllanthus emblica (PE) in preventing CI-AKI. Methods Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected into eight groups, were given water (control) or PE extract (125 or 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) for 5 days before the induction of CI-AKI. Renal function and oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity were determined in plasma and renal tissue. Kidney sections were performed for histopathological examination. Results In the contrast media (CM) group, increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were demonstrated which correlated with severity of tubular necrosis, peritubular capillary congestion and interstitial edema. Moreover, an increase in MDA and a decrease in TAC SOD and CAT activity in CM group were significantly changed when compared with the control (P < 0.05). In contrast, CI-AKI-induced rats administrated with PE extract 250 and 500 mg/kg/day significantly preserved renal function and attenuated the severity of pathological damage (P < 0.05) as well as significantly lower MDA and higher TAC, SOD and CAT than the CM group (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study demonstrated the protective role of PE extract against CI-AKI. PMID:24755233

  4. PROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA LEAF EXTRACT ON SODIUM ARSENITE-MEDIATED ADVERSE EFFECTS IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    SAYED, SADIA; AHSAN, NAZMUL; KATO, MASASHI; OHGAMI, NOBUTAKA; RASHID, ABDUR; AKHAND, ANWARUL AZIM

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Groundwater contamination of arsenic is the major cause of a serious health hazard in Bangladesh. No specific treatment is yet available to manage the large number of individuals exposed to arsenic. In this study, we evaluated the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica (Indian gooseberry or Amla) leaf extract (PLE) on arsenic-mediated toxicity in experimental mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into three different groups (n=6/group). ‘Control’ mice received arsenic free water together with normal feed. Mice in the remaining two groups designated ‘SA’ and ‘SA+PLE’ were exposed to sodium arsenite (SA, 10 µg/g body weight/day) through drinking water in addition to receiving normal feed and PLE-supplemented feed, respectively. The weight gain of SA-exposed mice was decreased compared with the controls; however, this decrease in body weight gain was prevented when the feed was supplemented with PLE. A secondary effect of arsenic was enlargement of the liver, kidney and spleen of SA-group mice. Deposition of arsenic in those organs was demonstrated by ICP-MS. When PLE was supplemented in the feed the enlargement of the organs was minimized; however, the deposition of arsenic was not significantly reduced. These results indicated that PLE may not block arsenic deposition in tissue directly but rather may play a protective role to reduce arsenic-induced toxicity. Therefore, co-administration of PLE in arsenic-exposed animals might have a future therapeutic application for protecting against arsenic-mediated toxicity. PMID:25797979

  5. [Chemical constituents of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Li, S; Ouyang, Q; Tan, X; Shi, S; Yao, Z

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports the identification of four compounds isolated from the cortex of Morinda officinalis growing in Guangdong Province. These compounds are beta-sitosterol (I), 2-methyl-anthraquinone(II), rubiadin-1-methyl ether(III) and 24-ethylcholesterol(VI). Compounds II and VI are isolated from Morinda Genus for the first time. PMID:1804172

  6. Two new secoiridoid glycosides from Verbena officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wei; Xin, Fei; Sha, Yi; Fang, Jin; Li, Yu-Shan

    2010-08-01

    Two new secoiridoid glycosides, verbenoside A (1) and verbenoside B (2), have been isolated from the ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidences, especially 1D, 2D NMR, and MS experiments. PMID:20706899

  7. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    PubMed Central

    Petrolini, Fernanda Villas Boas; Lucarini, Rodrigo; de Souza, Maria Gorete Mendes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes

    2013-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections. PMID:24516424

  8. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  9. De Novo Transcriptome Sequencing of Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt to Identify Disease-Resistance Genes

    PubMed Central

    He, Bin; Gu, Yinghong; Tao, Xiang; Cheng, Xiaojie; Wei, Changhe; Fu, Jian; Cheng, Zaiquan; Zhang, Yizheng

    2015-01-01

    Oryza officinalis Wall ex Watt is one of the most important wild relatives of cultivated rice and exhibits high resistance to many diseases. It has been used as a source of genes for introgression into cultivated rice. However, there are limited genomic resources and little genetic information publicly reported for this species. To better understand the pathways and factors involved in disease resistance and accelerating the process of rice breeding, we carried out a de novo transcriptome sequencing of O. officinalis. In this research, 137,229 contigs were obtained ranging from 200 to 19,214 bp with an N50 of 2331 bp through de novo assembly of leaves, stems and roots in O. officinalis using an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Based on sequence similarity searches against a non-redundant protein database, a total of 88,249 contigs were annotated with gene descriptions and 75,589 transcripts were further assigned to GO terms. Candidate genes for plant–pathogen interaction and plant hormones regulation pathways involved in disease-resistance were identified. Further analyses of gene expression profiles showed that the majority of genes related to disease resistance were all expressed in the three tissues. In addition, there are two kinds of rice bacterial blight-resistant genes in O. officinalis, including two Xa1 genes and three Xa26 genes. All 2 Xa1 genes showed the highest expression level in stem, whereas one of Xa26 was expressed dominantly in leaf and other 2 Xa26 genes displayed low expression level in all three tissues. This transcriptomic database provides an opportunity for identifying the genes involved in disease-resistance and will provide a basis for studying functional genomics of O. officinalis and genetic improvement of cultivated rice in the future. PMID:26690414

  10. [Effects of primary processing on quality of cortex Magnolia officinalis].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengxian; Zhang, Chunxia; Chen, Chengyu; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin; Liao, Chaolin; You, Jinwen

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the changes of volatile oil and non-volatile ingredients in Cortex Magnolia Officinalis before and after primary processing were determined by an HPLC and a GC-MS method. The method is based on quantitative determination of three index ingredients, beta-eudesmol, honokiol and magnolol, and on qualitative fingerprinting analysis using HPLC and GC. Big differences were observed between processed and unprocessed samples according to their chromatographic fingerprinting data calculated by statistic software. Compared with unprocessed samples, the contents of honokiol and magnolol in processed samples increased, whereas the contents of beta-eudesmol and magnoloside A in processed samples decreased. Magnoloside A was isolated from this plant for the first time. PMID:20939279

  11. Evaluation of the effectiveness of Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae) in the alleviation of carbon tetrachloride-induced acute hepatotoxicity in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sotelo-Félix, J I; Martinez-Fong, D; Muriel, P; Santillán, R L; Castillo, D; Yahuaca, P

    2002-07-01

    The effect of oral administration of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury was investigated. Rats were daily treated with the plant extract at a dose of 200 mg/kg corresponding to 6.04 mg/kg of carnosol as determined by reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The treatment was initiated 1 h after CCl(4) administration and Rosmarinus officinalis fully prevented CCl(4) effect on hepatic lipid peroxidation after 24 h of CCl(4) administration. The increase in bilirubin level and alanine aminotransferase activity in plasma induced by CCl(4) was completely normalized by Rosmarinus officinalis. The treatment also produced a significant recovery of CCl(4)-induced decrease in liver glycogen content. CCl(4) did not modify the activity of liver cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) compared with that of control groups. However, Rosmarinus officinalis increased liver cytosolic GST activity and produced an additional increment in plasma GST activity in rats treated with CCl(4). Histological evaluation showed that Rosmarinus officinalis partially prevented CCl(4)-induced inflammation, necrosis and vacuolation. Rosmarinus officinalis might exert a dual effect on CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury, acting as an antioxidant and improving GST-dependent detoxification systems. PMID:12065145

  12. Quality control of herbs: determination of amino acids in Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Muhammad Nasimullah; Stecher, Guenther; Bonn, Guenther Karl

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of raw materials and final products need reliable methods for the standardization of natural product drugs. Legal guideline also emphasizes on the qualitative and quantitative analyses of the plant constituents in an herbal product. In this study, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analyzer was used for the determination of amino acids in plant extracts. Samples for this study were standards and aqueous extracts from Althaea officinalis, Matricaria chamomilla and Taraxacum officinale. Different amino acids in the extracts were detected through TLC. An automatic amino acid analyzer was used for the quantification of amino acids in the plant extracts under study. PMID:24811801

  13. Melissa officinalis L. decoctions as functional beverages: a bioactive approach and chemical characterization.

    PubMed

    Carocho, Márcio; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Ćirić, Ana; Soković, Marina; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Morales, Patricia; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-07-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a member of the Lamiaceae family with a long story of human consumption. It has been consumed for decades, directly in food and as a decoction or an infusion for its medicinal purposes. In this manuscript, a detailed chemical characterization of the decoction of this plant is described, encompassing antimicrobial, antioxidant and antitumor activities. Rosmarinic acid and lithospermic acid A were the most abundant phenolic compounds. Quinic acid, fructose, glucose and γ-tocopherol were the most abundant within their groups of molecules. M. officinalis decoctions were active against a wide range of microorganisms, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium, and Penicillium funiculosum being the most sensitive bacteria and fungi, respectively. The growth inhibition of different human tumor cell lines (mainly MCF-7 and HepG2) was also observed, as also high free radical scavenging activity and reducing power. This manuscript highlights some beneficial effects of these functional beverages. PMID:26075899

  14. A new triterpenoid from Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Shu, Ji-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Qun; Chou, Gui-Xin

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the chemical constituents of Verbena officinalis L., five triterpenoid constituents were isolated and elucidated as 3α,19,23-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid, namely, 4-epi-barbinervic acid (1), 2α,3β-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (2), 3α,24-dihydroxyurs-12-en- 28-oic acid (3), 3α,24-dihydroxy-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (4), ursolic acid (5), using spectroscopic methods and comparing with published data. Compounds 2 and 4 were obtained from V. officinalis for the first time, and compound 1 is a new triterpenoid compound, which exhibits significantly higher antitumor activity against human hepatoma cell line Bel 7402 in vitro than the blank control. PMID:23061751

  15. Two new acetylenic compounds from Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Mei; Cai, Jin-Long; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Ai, Hong-Lian; Mao, Zi-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Two new acetylenic compounds, asparoffins A (1) and B (2), together with two known compounds, nyasol (3) and 3″-methoxynyasol (4), were isolated from stems of Asparagus officinalis. The structures of two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analyses (UV, IR, MS, 1D, and 2D NMR). All compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against three human cancer cell lines. PMID:26558641

  16. Metabolism of monoterpanes: metabolic fate of (+)-camphor in sage (Salvia officinalis). [Salvia officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.; El-Bialy, H.; Dehal, S.S.

    1987-07-01

    The bicyclic monoterpene ketone (+)-camphor undergoes lactonization to 1,2-campholide in mature sage (Salvia officinalis L.) leaves followed by conversion to the ..beta..-D-glucoside-6-O-glucose ester of the corresponding hydroxy acid (1-carboxymethyl-3-hydroxy-2,2,3-trimethyl cyclopentane). Analysis of the disposition of (+)-(G-/sup 3/H)camphor applied to midstem leaves of intact flowering plants allowed the kinetics of synthesis of the bis-glucose derivative and its transport from leaf to root to be determined, and gave strong indication that the transport derivative was subsequently metabolized in the root. Root extracts were shown to possess ..beta..-glucosidase and acyl glucose esterase activities, and studies with (+)-1,2(U-/sup 14/C)campholide as substrate, using excised root segments, revealed that the terpenoid was converted to lipid materials. Localization studies confirmed the radiolabeled lipids to reside in the membranous fractions of root extracts, and analysis of this material indicated the presence of labeled phytosterols and labeled fatty acids (C/sub 14/ to C/sub 20/) of acyl lipids. Although it was not possible to detail the metabolic steps between 1,2-campholide and the acyl lipids and phytosterols derived therefrom because of the lack of readily detectable intermediates, it seemed likely that the monoterpene lactone was degraded to acetyl CoA which was reincorporated into root membrane components via standard acyl lipid and isoprenoid biosynthetic pathways. Monoterpene catabolism thus appears to represent a salvage mechanism for recycling mobile carbon from senescing oil glands on the leaves to the roots.

  17. Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad O.; Raut, Sanket B.; Marathe, Padmaja A.; Rege, Nirmala N.

    2014-01-01

    Background: There has been a steady rise in number of patients suffering from dementia including dementia associated with Alzheimer's disease. Effective treatment of Alzheimer's disease dementia is an unmet medical need. Objective: To evaluate effects of formulation containing combination of Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) and Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with and without Ocimum sanctum (Os) on learning and memory performance of normal and memory impaired rats in complex maze and compare with effects of Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica alone. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats; either sex (100–150 g) were divided in seven groups Control, Piracetam, Rivastigmine, Tc, Pe, Formulation 1 (Tc + Pe), and Formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Os). The study was divided in four parts: In part 1 memory enhancement was tested in normal rats. In part 2, 3, and 4 the effects of drugs were tested in Scopolamine-, Diazepam-, and Cyclosporine-induced amnesia. Hebb–Williams maze was used to test for learning and memory. Time required to trace food and number of errors in maze were noted. Results: In normal rats, all test drugs showed significant reduction in time required to trace the food and number of errors after 24 h compared with vehicle control. Formulations 1 and 2 reduced the time required to trace food and number of errors and the results were comparable with positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Formulations 1 and 2 reversed amnesia produced by Scopolamine, Diazepam, and Cyclosporine when compared with vehicle control and showed comparable results with those of positive control groups and comparators Tc and Pe. Conclusion: Formulations 1 and 2 demonstrated nootropic activity and both the formulations showed comparable nootropic activity with that of Tc and Pe alone. PMID:25624694

  18. Egg attachment of the asparagus beetle Crioceris asparagi to the crystalline waxy surface of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Dagmar; Gorb, Stanislav

    2010-03-22

    Plant surfaces covered with crystalline epicuticular waxes are known to be anti-adhesive, hardly wettable and preventing insect attachment. But there are insects that are capable of gluing their eggs to these surfaces by means of proteinaceous secretions. In this study, we analysed the bonding region between the eggs of Crioceris asparagi and the plant surface of Asparagus officinalis using light and cryo-scanning electron microscopy. The wettability of the plant surface by egg secretion was compared with that by Aqua Millipore water, aqueous sugar solution and chicken egg white. Furthermore, the force required to remove C. asparagi eggs from the plant surface was measured, in order to evaluate the egg's bonding strength. Mean pull-off force was 14.7 mN, which is about 8650 times higher than the egg weight. Egg glue was observed spreading over the wax crystal arrays on the plant cladophyll and wetting them. Similar wetting behaviour on the A. officinalis surface was observed for chicken egg white. Our results support the hypothesis that the mechanism of insect egg adhesion on micro- and nanostructured hydrophobic plant surfaces is related to the proteinaceous nature of adhesive secretions of insect eggs. The secretion wets superhydrophobic surfaces and after solidifying builds up a composite, consisting of the solidified glue and wax crystals, at the interface between the egg and plant cuticle. PMID:19923132

  19. [Salvia officinalis l. I. Botanic characteristics, composition, use and cultivation].

    PubMed

    Daniela, T

    1993-06-01

    Salvia officinalis L. is an essential oil containing plant, which does not wildly grow in the territories of the Czech and Slovak Republics but it can be successfully cultivated. It is a perennial half-shrub, from which non-flowering herbaceous sprouts or leaves are collected for pharmaceutical purposes. After drying at a temperature not exceeding 35 degrees C they are the plant drugs Herba salviae or Folium salviae. In PhBs, Herba salviae is official. The drug contains mainly ethereal oil (1-2%), diterpenes, triterpenes and tannin. The pharmacopoeial criterion of quality is the content of essential oil, which is produced in an increased amount in the plant in warm summer months. Herba salviae and the extracts prepared from it are used as an antiseptic agent, an antiphlogistic agent, in the inflammations of the oral cavity and gingivitis and also as a stomachic and an antihydrotic agent. Its utilization in cosmetics and food industry is also of importance. PMID:8402963

  20. Cloning, prokaryotic expression and functional analysis of squalene synthase (SQS) in Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Zha, Liangping; Liu, Shuang; Su, Ping; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2016-04-01

    Magnolia officinalis Rehder et Wilson is a traditional Chinese herbal medicine that is used to treat various diseases such as neurosis, anxiety, and stroke. The main secondary metabolites in magnolia bark are phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Squalene synthase plays a significant role in catalyzing two farnesyl diphosphate molecules to form squalene, the first precursor of triterpenoid, phytosterol, and cholesterol biosynthesis. In this study, a full-length cDNA of squalene synthase was cloned from M. officinalis and designated MoSQS (GenBank accession no. KT223496). The gene contains a 1240-bp open reading frame and it encodes a protein with 409 amino acids. Bioinformatic and phylogenetic analysis clearly suggested that MoSQS shared high similarity with squalene synthases among other plants. Prokaryotic expression showed that a transmembrane domain-deleted (385-409 aa) MoSQS mutant (MoSQSΔTM) could be expressed in its soluble form in Escherichia coli Transetta (DE3). GC-MS analysis showed that squalene was detected in an in vitro reaction mixture. These results indicated that MoSQSΔTM was functional, thereby establishing an important foundation for the study of triterpenoid biosynthesis in M. officinalis. PMID:26696600

  1. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Ângela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-01-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as “erva-cidreira” or “melissa”, it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  2. Sedative and Hypnotic Activities of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Lavandula officinalis from Morocco.

    PubMed

    Alnamer, Rachad; Alaoui, Katim; Bouidida, El Houcine; Benjouad, Abdelaziz; Cherrah, Yahia

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the sedative and hypnotic activities of the methanolic and aqueous extract of Lavandula officinalis L. on central nervous system (CNS). In this study, the effect of the methanolic and aqueous extracts of this plant was investigated in a battery of behavioural models in mice. Stems and flowers of Lavandula officinalis L. have several therapeutic applications in folk medicine in curing or managing a wide range of diseases, including insomnia. The methanolic extract produced significant sedative effect at the doses of 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg (by oral route), compared to reference substance diazepam (DZP), and an hypnotic effect at the doses of 800 and 1000 mg/kg while the treatment of mice with the aqueous extract at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg via oral pathway significantly reduced in both the reestablishment time and number of head dips during the traction and hole-board tests. In conclusion, these results suggest that the methanolic and aqueous extracts of Lavandula officinalis possess potent sedative and hypnotic activities, which supported its therapeutic use for insomnia. PMID:22162677

  3. Evaluation of the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of Melissa officinalis in mice.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Natália Cassettari; Corrêa-Angeloni, Maria Júlia Frydberg; Leffa, Daniela Dimer; Moreira, Jeverson; Nicolau, Vanessa; de Aguiar Amaral, Patrícia; Rossatto, Angela Erna; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2011-04-01

    Melissa officinalis (L.) (Lamiaceae), a plant known as the lemon balm, is native to the east Mediterranean region and west Asia. Also found in tropical countries, such as Brazil, where it is popularly known as "erva-cidreira" or "melissa", it is widely used in aqueous- or alcoholic-extract form in the treatment of various disorders. The aim was to investigate in vivo its antigenotoxicity and antimutagenicity, as well as its genotoxic/mutagenic potential through comet and micronucleus assaying. CF-1 male mice were treated with ethanolic (Mo-EE) (250 or 500 mg/kg) or aqueous (Mo-AE) (100 mg/kg) solutions of an M. officinalis extract for 2 weeks, prior to treatment with saline or Methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) doses by intraperitoneal injection. Irrespective of the doses, no genotoxic or mutagenic effects were observed in blood and bone-marrow samples. Although Mo-EE exerted an antigenotoxic effect on the blood cells of mice treated with the alkylating agent (MMS) in all the doses, this was not so with Mo-AE. Micronucleus testing revealed the protector effect of Mo-EE, but only when administered at the highest dose. The implication that an ethanolic extract of M. officinalis has antigenotoxic/antimutagenic properties is an indication of its medicinal relevance. PMID:21734832

  4. Neuroprotective properties of Melissa officinalis after hypoxic-ischemic injury both in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain ischemia initiates several metabolic events leading to neuronal death. These events mediate large amount of damage that arises after some neurodegenerative disorders as well as transient brain ischemia. Melissa officinalis is considered as a helpful herbal plant in the prevention of various neurological diseases like Alzheimer that is related with oxidative stress. Methods We examined the effect of Melissa officinalis on hypoxia induced neuronal death in a cortical neuronal culture system as in vitro model and transient hippocampal ischemia as in vivo model. Transient hippocampal ischemia was induced in male rats by tow vessel-occlusion for 20 min. After reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels inflammation, oxidative stress status, and caspase-3 activity in hippocampus were measured. Results Cytotoxicity assays showed a significant protection of a 10 μg/ml dose of Melissa against hypoxia in cultured neurons which was confirmed by a conventional staining (P<0.05). Melissa treatment decrease caspase3 activity (P<0.05) and TUNEL-positive cells significantly (P<0.01). Melissa oil has also inhibited malon dialdehyde level and attenuated decrease of Antioxidant Capacity in the hippocampus. Pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and HIF-1α mRNA levels were highly increased after ischemia and treatment with Melissa significantly suppressed HIF-1α gene expression (P<0.05). Discussion Results showed that Melissa officinalis could be considered as a protective agent in various neurological diseases associated with ischemic brain injury. PMID:23351182

  5. Antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Shaktikumar C.; Patidar, Arjun O.; Malviya, K. G.; Shivhare-Malviya, K. K.

    2011-01-01

    Several methods exist for the treatment of cancer in modern medicine. These include chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery; most cancer chemotherapeutants severely affect the host normal cells. Hence the use of natural products now has been contemplated of exceptional value in the control of cancer. Plant-derived natural products such as flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, etc., have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including cytotoxic and cancer chemopreventive effects. Looking into this, the antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of Scindapsus officinalis (Roxb.) Schott fruits has been attempted to investigate its antitumor activity. The collection and authentication of the plant material mainly fruits and their various extractions was done. Identification of plant's active constituents by preliminary phytochemical screening was carried out. An in-vitro cytotoxic assay using the brine shrimp lethality assay with brine shrimp eggs (Artemia salina) at a dose of 1–10 μg/ml with the fruit extract was performed by the method described by Mayer et al. Cell viability using the Trypan blue dye exclusion test at a dose of 20, 40, 80, 120, and 160 μg/ml dissolved in DMSO (final concentration 0.1%), and cytotoxicity using the MTT assay where viable cells convert MTT into a formazan salt were performed. All pharmacological screening for acute toxicity and anti tumour studies using EAC 1 × 106 cells/mouse treated Swiss albino mice at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg/day orally was carried out. Biochemical and antioxidants predictions from various parameters like hematological, RBC, WBC count, PVC, total protein, Tissue Lipid Peroxidation, SOD, CATALASE, GPx, GST levels and anti tumour activity of Scindapsus officinalis were observed. The data was statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Dunnett's and Tukey's multiple comparison test. The antitumor effect of the extract is evident from the increase in mean

  6. Two new iridoids from Verbena officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Shu, Jicheng; Chou, Guixin; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-01-01

    Two new iridoids, 3-(5-(methoxycarbonyl)-2-oxo-2H-pyran-3-yl)butanoic acid, named verbeofflin I (1), and 7-hydroxydehydrohastatoside (2), were isolated from the aerial part of Verbena officinalis L, along with three known iridoids, verbenalin (3), 3,4-dihydroverbenalin (4), hastatoside (5) by means of various column chromatography steps. The structures of these compounds were elucidated through analysis of their spectroscopic data obtained using 1D and 2D NMR and MS techniques. Verbeofflin I (1) is the new class of secoiridoid in the family Verbenaceae. PMID:25045888

  7. Simultaneous determination and characterization of tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruits of various species of Terminalia and Phyllantus emblica using a UHPLC-UV-MS method: application to triphala.

    PubMed

    Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Wang, Mei; Shen, Yun-Heng; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-01-01

    Terminalia species are a rich source of tannins. Many preparations of these species are used in traditional medicine and have many different ethnobotanical applications. A simple UHPLC method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of such hydrolysable tannins and triterpene saponins from the fruit rinds of different species of Terminalia (T. chebula, T. arjuna, T. bellirica) and Phyllantus emblica. A separation by LC was achieved using a reversed-phase column and a water/acetonitrile mobile phase, both containing formic acid, using a gradient system and a temperature of 40°C. Eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid, gallic acid methyl ester, corilagin, chebulagic acid, 1,2,3,6-tetra-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose, ellagic acid, chebulinic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucose) and six triterpene saponins (arjunglucoside-I, arjunglucoside-III, chebuloside II, bellericoside, arjunetin, and arjunglucoside-II) could be separated within 20 minutes. The wavelength used for detection with the diode array detector was 254 and 275 nm for tannins and 205 nm for triterpene saponins. The method was validated for linearity, repeatability, limits of detection, and limits of quantification. The developed method is economical, fast, and especially suitable for quality control analysis of tannins and triterpene saponins in various plant samples and commercial products of Terminalia. PMID:23299756

  8. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on Rooting and Morphological Features of Melissa officinalis L. Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  9. Effects of IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3 on rooting and morphological features of Melissa officinalis L. stem cuttings.

    PubMed

    Sevik, Hakan; Guney, Kerim

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the potential of producing Melissa officinalis L. using stem cuttings. Four different hormones (IAA, IBA, NAA, and GA3) were applied to the cuttings, with and without buds, in two doses (1000 mg/L and 5000 mg/L), and after 60 days, 10 morphological characteristics of newly generated plants were detected, and a statistical analysis was carried out. The results of the study show that the cuttings with at least one bud must be used in order to produce M. officinalis using stem cuttings. Even though the auxin group hormones (IAA, IBA, and NAA) do not have an apparent effect on rooting percentage, these hormones were detected to affect the morphological characteristics of the newly generated plants, especially root generation. GA3 application has a considerable effect on stem height. PMID:23818834

  10. Evaluation of chemical enhancement on phytoremediation effect of Cd-contaminated soils with Calendula officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianv; Zhou, Qixing; Wang, Song

    2010-07-01

    The popular ornamental plant Calendula officinalis L was studied for its potential application in the phytoremediation of cadmium (Cd)-contaminated soils. Enhancements to the Cd accumulation by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenegluatarotriacetic acid (EGTA) to the soil were investigated. Under these chemically enhanced treatments, EDTA was observed to be toxic to the plants leading to retarded growth. However, the application of SDS and/or EGTA was shown to result in significantly increased plant biomass (p < 0.05). Most of the chemical treatments resulted in increases to the shoot and root Cd concentrations, with the root Cd concentration being consistently higher than that shoot Cd concentration. Almost all of the investigated chemical treatments containing SDS or and EGTA were shown to lead to an increase in the total Cd content in the plants (p < 0.05). The application of EGTA alone led to an observed total Cd increase of up to 217%. This investigation revealed considerable efficiency of chemical enhancement and correspondingly increased potential of Calendula officinalis L. for applications of phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated sites. PMID:21166291

  11. Comparison of membrane-protective activity of antioxidants quercetine and Gratiola Officinalis L. extract under conditions of photodynamic haemolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, N. V.; Bykova, E. V.; Pravdin, A. B.; Navolokin, N. A.; Polukonova, N. V.; Bucharskaya, A. B.; Mudrak, D. A.; Prilepskii, A. Y.

    2016-04-01

    In the present work the effectiveness of antioxidants quercetine (a pure chemical) and Gratiola officinalis extract, which is obtained by a new method of extraction from plant material, is investigated on the model of photodynamic haemolysis that is a rather convenient method to monitor the rate of cell membranes oxidative destruction. The effect of these antioxidants on the rate of photodynamic haemolysis is considered as a measure of membranoprotective efficiency.

  12. In vitro amoebicidal activity of borage (Borago officinalis) extract on Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Leos-Rivas, Catalina; Verde-Star, M Julia; Torres, Lidia Osuna; Oranday-Cardenas, Azucena; Rivas-Morales, Catalina; Barron-Gonzalez, M Porfiria; Morales-Vallarta, Mario R; Cruz-Vega, Delia E

    2011-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is a plant with nutritional value that is also used in traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal disease. This study investigated the amoebicidal activity of a methanol extract of borage. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of the extract for Entamoeba histolytica was 33 μg/mL. The 50% lethal dose of the extract for brine shrimp was greater than 1,000 μg/mL. The IC₅₀ of the extract for Vero cells was 203.9 μg/mL. These results support the use of borage to prevent diseases associated with E. histolytica infection. PMID:21476887

  13. Steroids from the roots of Asparagus officinalis and their cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xue-Feng; Lin, Yu-Ying; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2008-06-01

    One new (Sarsasapogenin O) and seven known steroids were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including various 2D-NMR techniques, hydrolysis, and by comparison of spectral data of known compounds. These compounds together with nine steroids which were previously isolated from this plant, were tested for cytotoxic activity. Among them, eight compounds displayed significant cytotoxicities against human A2780, HO-8910, Eca-109, MGC-803, CNE, LTEP-a-2, KB and mouse L1210 tumor cells. PMID:18713412

  14. Polyploid evolution in Oryza officinalis complex of the genus Oryza

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baosheng; Ding, Zhuoya; Liu, Wei; Pan, Jin; Li, Changbao; Ge, Song; Zhang, Daming

    2009-01-01

    Background Polyploidization is a prominent process in plant evolution, whereas the mechanism and tempo-spatial process remained poorly understood. Oryza officinalis complex, a polyploid complex in the genus Oryza, could exemplify the issues not only for it covering a variety of ploidy levels, but also for the pantropical geographic pattern of its polyploids in Asia, Africa, Australia and Americas, in which a pivotal genome, the C-genome, witnessed all the polyploidization process. Results Tracing the C-genome evolutionary history in Oryza officinalis complex, this study revealed the genomic relationships, polyploid forming and diverging times, and diploidization process, based on phylogeny, molecular-clock analyses and fluorescent in situ hybridization using genome-specific probes. Results showed that C-genome split with B-genome at ca. 4.8 Mya, followed by a series of speciation of C-genome diploids (ca. 1.8-0.9 Mya), which then partook in successive polyploidization events, forming CCDD tetraploids in ca. 0.9 Mya, and stepwise forming BBCC tetraploids between ca. 0.3-0.6 Mya. Inter-genomic translocations between B- and C-genomes were identified in BBCC tetraploid, O. punctata. Distinct FISH (fluorescent in situ hybridization) patterns among three CCDD species were visualized by C-genome-specific probes. B-genome was modified before forming the BBCC tetraploid, O. malampuzhaensis. Conclusion C-genome, shared by all polyploid species in the complex, had experienced different evolutionary history particularly after polyploidization, e.g., inter-genomic exchange in BBCC and genomic invasion in CCDD tetraploids. It diverged from B-genome at 4.8 Mya, then participated in the tetraploid formation spanning from 0.9 to 0.3 Mya, and spread into tropics of the disjunct continents by transcontinentally long-distance dispersal, instead of vicariance, as proposed by this study, given that the continental splitting was much earlier than the C-genome species radiation. We also

  15. Solid lipid nanoparticles for delivery of Calendula officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Arana, Lide; Salado, Clarisa; Vega, Sandra; Aizpurua-Olaizola, Oier; de la Arada, Igor; Suarez, Tatiana; Usobiaga, Aresatz; Arrondo, José Luis R; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M; Alkorta, Itziar

    2015-11-01

    Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) composed of long-chain fatty acids (palmitic acid, stearic acid or arachidic acid), Epikuron 200 (purified phosphatidylcholine), and bile salts (cholate, taurocholate or taurodeoxycholate) have been prepared by dilution of a microemulsion. A total of five different systems were prepared, and characterized by photon correlation spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and infrared spectroscopy. The SLN formulation showing optimal properties (lowest size and polydispersity index and highest zeta potential) was obtained with stearic acid and taurodeoxycholate as cosurfactant. This formulation was loaded with Calendula officinalis extract, a natural compound used on ophthalmic formulations given its anti-inflammatory, emollient, and wound repairing activity. Calendula-loaded SLN preparations were characterized in order to determine loading capacity and entrapment efficiency. In vitro cytotoxicity and wound healing efficacy of Calendula-loaded SLN compared to that of a free plant extract were evaluated on a conjunctival epithelium cell line WKD. Our results suggest that this SLN formulation is a safe and solvent-free Calendula extract delivery system which could provide a controlled therapeutic alternative for reducing disease-related symptoms and improving epithelium repair in ocular surface. PMID:26231862

  16. Rosmarinus Officinalis Leaves as a Natural Source of Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  17. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina). PMID:25391044

  18. How do background ozone concentrations affect the biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid in Melissa officinalis?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne S; Pellegrini, Elisa; Della Batola, Michele; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo; Petersen, Maike

    2014-03-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis; Lamiaceae) plants were exposed to background ozone (O3) dosages (80ppb for 5h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 peaks. Immediately at the end of fumigation the plants appeared visually symptomless, but necrotic lesions were observed later. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid (RA) comprises eight enzymes, among them phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT) and rosmarinic acid synthase (RAS). The transcript levels of these genes have been investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. There was a quick up-regulation of all genes at 3h of O3 exposure, but at 24h from beginning of exposure (FBE) only RAS and PAL were up-regulated. The specific activity of RAS was closely correlated with a decrease of RA concentration in lemon balm leaves. The specific activity of PAL increased at 12h FBE to 163% in comparison to control levels. This work provides insight into the effect of O3 stress on the formation of the main phenolic ingredient of the pharmaceutically important plant M. officinalis. PMID:24484956

  19. Analysis of transposable elements in the genome of Asparagus officinalis from high coverage sequence data.

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Fen; Gao, Wu-Jun; Zhao, Xin-Peng; Dong, Tian-Yu; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2014-01-01

    Asparagus officinalis is an economically and nutritionally important vegetable crop that is widely cultivated and is used as a model dioecious species to study plant sex determination and sex chromosome evolution. To improve our understanding of its genome composition, especially with respect to transposable elements (TEs), which make up the majority of the genome, we performed Illumina HiSeq2000 sequencing of both male and female asparagus genomes followed by bioinformatics analysis. We generated 17 Gb of sequence (12×coverage) and assembled them into 163,406 scaffolds with a total cumulated length of 400 Mbp, which represent about 30% of asparagus genome. Overall, TEs masked about 53% of the A. officinalis assembly. Majority of the identified TEs belonged to LTR retrotransposons, which constitute about 28% of genomic DNA, with Ty1/copia elements being more diverse and accumulated to higher copy numbers than Ty3/gypsy. Compared with LTR retrotransposons, non-LTR retrotransposons and DNA transposons were relatively rare. In addition, comparison of the abundance of the TE groups between male and female genomes showed that the overall TE composition was highly similar, with only slight differences in the abundance of several TE groups, which is consistent with the relatively recent origin of asparagus sex chromosomes. This study greatly improves our knowledge of the repetitive sequence construction of asparagus, which facilitates the identification of TEs responsible for the early evolution of plant sex chromosomes and is helpful for further studies on this dioecious plant. PMID:24810432

  20. Iboga-Type Alkaloids from Ervatamia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ben-Qin; Wang, Wen-Jing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Yang, Ting-Ting; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2014-08-22

    Seven new iboga-type alkaloids, ervaoffines A-D (1-4), (7S)-3-oxoibogaine hydroxyindolenine (5), ibogaine-5,6-dione (6), and 19-epi-5-oxovoacristine (7), and 10 known alkaloids were isolated from Ervatamia officinalis. The absolute configurations of 1-7 were determined through X-ray diffraction and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) analyses. Ervaoffines A and B represent the first iboga-type pseudoindoxyl alkaloids in which the C-2 spiro carbon configuration is opposite to that of other members of this class, such as iboluteine (8). The relationship between the absolute configuration of the spiro carbons and the Cotton effect in the ECD spectrum is established for the first time for iboga-type pseudoindoxyl and oxindole alkaloids. Additionally, a plausible biogenetic pathway for these alkaloids is proposed. PMID:25093992

  1. [Comparative study on kidney tonifying and yang supporting effects of different processed products of Morinda officinalis].

    PubMed

    Cui, N; Shi, Ji; Jia, Tian-Zhu

    2013-11-01

    To compare the pharmacological effects for tonifying kidney and supporting Yang of different processed products of Morinda officinalis. The oral administration of adenine was performed to establish the kidney-Yang deficiency mice model. Four different processed products, namely M. officinalis, morinda pulp, salt-steamed M. officinalis and licorice-processed M. officinalis, were administered, with Guifu Dihuang pills as the control drug, and mice signs, weight, testicular coefficient, seminal vesicle coefficient, serum testosterone, serum cortisol and serum creatinine as evaluation indexes. The results showed that all of the four processed products of M. officinalis could improve the symptoms of the kidney-Yang deficient mice. Among them, salt-steamed M. officinalis had the most significant effect, which was followed by licorice-processed M. officinalis, morinda pulp and M. officinalis. PMID:24558872

  2. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides. PMID:21707233

  3. The Hypoglycemic and Synergistic Effect of Loganin, Morroniside, and Ursolic Acid Isolated from the Fruits of Cornus officinalis.

    PubMed

    He, Kai; Song, Shanghua; Zou, Zongyao; Feng, Min; Wang, Dezhen; Wang, Yanzhi; Li, Xuegang; Ye, Xiaoli

    2016-02-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided separation of ethanol extracts from the fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc (CO) led to the isolation of loganin, morroniside, and ursolic acid. The antidiabetic capacity of CO extracts and related compounds was further investigated in diabetes mellitus mice. The results suggested that both CO extracts and pure compounds could ameliorate diabetes-associated damages and complications. Oral administration of loganin and morroniside decreased fasting blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus mice. Ursolic acid exhibited the highest reactive oxygen species scavenging activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Notably, we noticed an interesting synergistic effect between loganin and ursolic acid. Given these favorable hypoglycemic properties, C. officinalis, a food and medicinal plant in China, may be used as a valuable food supplement for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26619955

  4. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction of Carnosic Acid and Rosmarinic Acid Using Ionic Liquid Solution from Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Zu, Ge; Zhang, Rongrui; Yang, Lei; Ma, Chunhui; Zu, Yuangang; Wang, Wenjie; Zhao, Chunjian

    2012-01-01

    Ionic liquid based, ultrasound-assisted extraction was successfully applied to the extraction of phenolcarboxylic acids, carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, from Rosmarinus officinalis. Eight ionic liquids, with different cations and anions, were investigated in this work and [C8mim]Br was selected as the optimal solvent. Ultrasound extraction parameters, including soaking time, solid–liquid ratio, ultrasound power and time, and the number of extraction cycles, were discussed by single factor experiments and the main influence factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The proposed approach was demonstrated as having higher efficiency, shorter extraction time and as a new alternative for the extraction of carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid from R. officinalis compared with traditional reference extraction methods. Ionic liquids are considered to be green solvents, in the ultrasound-assisted extraction of key chemicals from medicinal plants, and show great potential. PMID:23109836

  5. Anthraquinone compounds from Morinda officinalis inhibit osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bao, Leilei; Qin, Luping; Liu, Lei; Wu, Yanbin; Han, Ting; Xue, Liming; Zhang, Qiaoyan

    2011-11-15

    The root of Morinda officinalis has been claimed to have a protective effect against bone loss in sciatic neurectomized and ovariectomized osteoporotic rats, and this protective effect is supposed to be attributed to anthraquinone compounds in the plant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three anthraquinones isolated from M. officinalis, including 1, 3, 8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (1), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy-anthraquinone (2) and rubiadin (3) on bone resorption activity in vitro and the mechanism on osteoclasts derived from rat bone marrow cells. Compound 1, 2 and 3 decreased the formation of bone resorption pits, the number of multinucleated osteoclasts, and the activity of tartrate resistant acid phosphates (TRAP) and cathepsin K in the coculture system of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells in the presence of 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamine D(3) and dexamethasone. They also enhanced the apoptosis of osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. In addition, Compound 1, 2 and 3 improved the ratio of mRNA and protein expression of OPG and RANKL in osteoblasts, interfered with the JNK and NF-κB signal pathway, and reduced the expression of calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase/II (CA II) in osteoclasts induced from bone marrow cells with M-CSF and RANKL. These findings indicate that the anthraquinone compounds from M. officinalis are potential inhibitors of bone resorption, and may also serve as evidence to explain the mechanism of the inhibitory effects of some other reported anthraquinones on bone loss. PMID:21945525

  6. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of Hyssopus officinalis L. from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fathiazad, Fatemeh; Mazandarani, Masoumeh; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Hyssopus officinalis (L) (Hyssop, Family: Lamiaceae), one of the endemic Iranian perennial herb with a long history of medicinal use, was studied to detect some biologically active chemical constituents of the plant. Methods: The flavonoids of the hydromethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis (L.) were studied by VLC and crystalisation of the major compound in subsequent fractions. Furthermore, the composition of its essential oil, total phenolic content and antioxidant activities were studied by GC-MS, Folin–Ciocalteau and DPPH reagents respectively. Results: Apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide was isolated as the major flavonoid. All structural elucidation was performed by spectral means. A total of 20 compounds representing 99.97% of the oil have been identified. Myrtenylacetate, Camphor, Germacrene, Spathulenol were the main compounds The total phenol content of the n-butanol and ethylacetate extracts were determined spectrophotometrically according to the Folin–Ciocalteau procedure to be 246 mgGAE g-1 and 51 mgGAE g-1 in the aerial parts of Hyssopus officinalis . The antioxidant activities of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronide, ethylacetate and n-butanol extracts were also determined by DPPH radical scavenging assay with IC50 values of 116×10-3, 103×10-3, 25×10-3 mg mL-1 respectively. The purified flavonoid showed weak radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 116×10-3mg mL-1). N-butanol extract, because of the highest content of total phenolic compounds (246 mgGAE100-1g) had the best antioxidant activity (IC50 = 25mg mL-1). Conclusion: On the whole, the findings of the study revealed that Hyssop possesses valuable antioxidant properties for culinary and possible medicinal use. PMID:24312758

  7. DNA-based identification of Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Lukas, Brigitte; Ruzicka, Joana; Novak, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: For the economically important species Calendula officinalis, a fast identification assay based on high-resolution melting curve analysis was designed. This assay was developed to distinguish C. officinalis from other species of the genus and other Asteraceae genera, and to detect C. officinalis as an adulterant of saffron samples. Methods and Results: For this study, five markers (ITS, rbcL, 5′ trnK-matK, psbA-trnH, trnL-trnF) of 10 Calendula species were sequenced and analyzed for species-specific mutations. With the application of two developed primer pairs located in the trnK 5′ intron and trnL-trnF, C. officinalis could be distinguished from other species of the genus and all outgroup samples tested. Adulterations of Calendula DNA in saffron could be detected down to 0.01%. Conclusions: With the developed assay, C. officinalis can be reliably identified and admixtures of this species as adulterant of saffron can be revealed at low levels. PMID:26649268

  8. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies. PMID:20809417

  9. High performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Calendula officinalis-advantages and limitations.

    PubMed

    Loescher, Christine M; Morton, David W; Razic, Slavica; Agatonovic-Kustrin, Snezana

    2014-09-01

    Chromatography techniques such as HPTLC and HPLC are commonly used to produce a chemical fingerprint of a plant to allow identification and quantify the main constituents within the plant. The aims of this study were to compare HPTLC and HPLC, for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major constituents of Calendula officinalis and to investigate the effect of different extraction techniques on the C. officinalis extract composition from different parts of the plant. The results found HPTLC to be effective for qualitative analysis, however, HPLC was found to be more accurate for quantitative analysis. A combination of the two methods may be useful in a quality control setting as it would allow rapid qualitative analysis of herbal material while maintaining accurate quantification of extract composition. PMID:24880991

  10. Assessment of Eyebright (Euphrasia Officinalis L.) Extract Activity in Relation to Human Corneal Cells Using In Vitro Tests

    PubMed Central

    Paduch, Roman; Woźniak, Anna; Niedziela, Piotr; Rejdak, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Background: Euphrasia officinalis L. is an herb traditionally used in folk medicine, mainly in the treatment of eye disorders. Aims: The present study analyzed the activity of three extracts of E. officinalis L. (ethanol, ethyl acetate and heptane) on cultured human corneal epithelial cells (10.014 pRSV-T). Study Design: In vitro study. Methods: Toxicity, free radical scavenging activity and the immunomodulatory effects of the extracts were tested using the thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) or Neutral Red, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ELISA tests, respectively. Moreover, nitric oxide levels and cytoskeleton architecture were analyzed after corneal cell incubation with the plant extracts. Results: We show that the biological effect depended on both the concentration and the extraction solvent used. Heptane extracts, distinct from those in ethanol and ethyl acetate, were toxic to 10.014 pRSV-T cells at low concentrations (25 μg/mL) and did not demonstrate free radical scavenging effects. All tested extracts decreased pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and also anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression by human corneal cells when the extracts were added to the cell culture medium for 24 h. Conclusion: In conclusion, we show that the promising effects of the application of E. officinalis L. preparations as a supplementary therapy for eye disorders are associated with the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, not the heptane extract. PMID:25207164

  11. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75-36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  12. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson.

    PubMed

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  13. Metabolite profiling of sucrose effect on the metabolism of Melissa officinalis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooah; Shin, Min Hye; Hossain, Md Aktar; Yun, Eun Ju; Lee, Hojoung; Kim, Kyoung Heon

    2011-04-01

    The effect of sugar on plant metabolism, which is known to be similar to hormone-like signaling, was metabolomically studied using Melissa officinalis (lemon balm). The metabolite profiles of M. officinalis treated with sucrose were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 64 metabolites from various chemical classes including alcohols, amines, amino acids, fatty acids, inorganic acids, organic acids, phosphates, and sugars were identified by GC-MS. Three groups treated with different sucrose concentrations were clearly separated by PCA of their metabolite profiles, indicating changes in the levels of many metabolites depending on the sucrose concentration. Metabolite profiling revealed that treatment with a higher sucrose level caused an increase in the levels of metabolites such as sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar phosphates, which are related to the glycolytic pathway of M. officinalis. Furthermore, proline and succinic acid, which are associated with the proline-linked pentose phosphate pathway, the shikimic acid pathway, and the biosynthesis of phenylpropanoids, also increased with increasing sucrose concentration. Therefore, these metabolic changes induced by sucrose ultimately led to the increased production of flavonoids such as caffeic acid via the biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids. This study demonstrated that the abundance changes in some primary and secondary metabolites were somewhat interlocked with each other in response to sucrose. PMID:21301821

  14. SUR1 Receptor Interaction with Hesperidin and Linarin Predicts Possible Mechanisms of Action of Valeriana officinalis in Parkinson

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gesivaldo; Giraldez-Alvarez, Lisandro Diego; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Capani, Francisco; Galembeck, Eduardo; Neto, Aristóteles Gôes; Barreto, George E.; Andrade, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. A theoretical approach of our previous experiments reporting the cytoprotective effects of the Valeriana officinalis compounds extract for PD is suggested. In addiction to considering the PD as a result of mitochondrial metabolic imbalance and oxidative stress, such as in our previous in vitro model of rotenone, in the present manuscript we added a genomic approach to evaluate the possible underlying mechanisms of the effect of the plant extract. Microarray of substantia nigra (SN) genome obtained from Allen Brain Institute was analyzed using gene set enrichment analysis to build a network of hub genes implicated in PD. Proteins transcribed from hub genes and their ligands selected by search ensemble approach algorithm were subjected to molecular docking studies, as well as 20 ns Molecular Dynamics (MD) using a Molecular Mechanic Poison/Boltzman Surface Area (MMPBSA) protocol. Our results bring a new approach to Valeriana officinalis extract, and suggest that hesperidin, and probably linarin are able to relieve effects of oxidative stress during ATP depletion due to its ability to binding SUR1. In addition, the key role of valerenic acid and apigenin is possibly related to prevent cortical hyperexcitation by inducing neuronal cells from SN to release GABA on brain stem. Thus, under hyperexcitability, oxidative stress, asphyxia and/or ATP depletion, Valeriana officinalis may trigger different mechanisms to provide neuronal cell protection. PMID:27199743

  15. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Essential Oil of Thymus schimperi, Matricaria chamomilla, Eucalyptus globulus, and Rosmarinus officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Awol; Yitayew, Berhanu; Tesema, Alemnesh; Taddese, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of four plant essential oils (T. schimperi, E. globulus, R. officinalis, and M. Chamomilla) were evaluated against bacteria and fungi. The studies were carried out using agar diffusion method for screening the most effective essential oils and agar dilution to determine minimum inhibitory concentration of the essential oils. Results of this study revealed that essential oils of T. schimperi, E. globulus, and R. officinalis were active against bacteria and some fungi. The antimicrobial effect of M. chamomilla was found to be weaker and did not show any antimicrobial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of T. schimperi were <15.75 mg/mL for most of the bacteria and fungi used in this study. The minimum inhibitory concentration values of the other essential oils were in the range of 15.75–36.33 mg/mL against tested bacteria. This study highlighted the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of E. globulus, M. chamomilla, T. Schimperi, and R. officinalis. The results indicated that T. schimperi have shown strong antimicrobial activity which could be potential candidates for preparation of antimicrobial drug preparation. PMID:26880928

  16. Steroidal saponins from roots of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuefeng; Kong, Lingyi

    2006-02-01

    Sarsasapogenin M (1) and sarsasapogenin N (2), two new oligospirostanosides with a unique aglycone moiety, (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta, 17alpha-diol, along with seven known compounds (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-[beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4), (25S)-5beta-spirostan-3beta-ol-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1,4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (5), (25S)26-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-5beta-furost-20 (22)-ene-3beta,26-diol-3-O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl-(1,2)-beta-d-glucopyranoside (6), yamogenin (7), beta-sitosterol (8), and sitosterol-beta-d-glucoside (9) were isolated from the roots of Asparagus officinalis L. Their structures were determined by spectral analysis, including extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:16280142

  17. A rapid and highly specific method to evaluate the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Borago officinalis seed oil.

    PubMed

    Vacillotto, Giulio; Favretto, Donata; Seraglia, Roberta; Pagiotti, Rita; Traldi, Pietro; Mattoli, Luisa

    2013-10-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are complex molecules, present in plants as free bases and N-oxides. They are known for their hepatotoxicity, and consequently there is a health risk associated with the use of medicinal herbs that contain PAs. Unfortunately, there is no international regulation of PAs in foods, unlike those for herbs and medicines: in particular, for herbal preparation or herbal extracts, the total PA content must not exceed 1 µg/kg or 1 µg/l, respectively. Borago officinalis seed oil is a source of γ-linolenic acid, and its use is increased in both pharmaceutical and health food industries. Even if studies based on gas chromatography and TLC methods showed that PAs are not co-extracted with oil, the development of a rapid and sensitive method able to evaluate the presence of PAs in commercially available products is surely of interest. The presence of PAs in a commercially available Borago officinalis seed oil was tested either in the oil sample diluted with tetrahydrofuran/methanol (MeOH)/H2 O (85/10/5 v:v:v) or after extraction with MeOH/H2 O (50/50 v:v) solution The samples were analysed by electrospray ionization in positive ion mode and in high mass resolution (60,000) conditions. In both cases to evaluate the effectiveness of the method, spiking experiments were performed adding known amount of two PA standards to the borage seed oil. A limit of detection in the order of 200 ppt was determined for these two compounds, strongly analogous to Borago officinalis seed oil PAs. Consequently, if present, PAs level in Borago officinalis seed oil must lower than 200 ppt. PMID:24130010

  18. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    zare shahneh, fatemeh; Valiyari, Samira; Baradaran, Behzad; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Bandehagh, Ali; Azadmehr, Abass; Hajiaghaee, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji) and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937), Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A) and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p<0.01), with ascending order of IC50 values in 24: KG-1A (214.377 μg/ml), U937 (229.312 μg/ml) and Raji (239.692 μg/ml) when compared with a chemotherapeutic anticancer drug, paclitaxel (Toxol), confirming the tumour-selective cytotoxicity. The crude extract however did not exert any significant cytotoxic effect on normal cell line HUVEC (IC50>800 Ag/ml). Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway. PMID:24312812

  19. How sensitive is Melissa officinalis to realistic ozone concentrations?

    PubMed

    Döring, Anne Sarah; Pellegrini, Elisa; Campanella, Alessandra; Trivellini, Alice; Gennai, Clizia; Petersen, Maike; Nali, Cristina; Lorenzini, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis, L.; Lamiaceae) was exposed to realistic ozone (O3) dosages (80 ppb for 5 h), because high background levels of O3 are considered to be as harmful as episodic O3 regimes. Temporal alterations of different ecophysiological, biochemical and structural parameters were investigated in order to test if this species can be considered as an O3-bioindicator regarding changes in background concentrations. At the end of ozone exposure, the plants did not exhibit any visible foliar symptoms, as only at microscopic level a small number of dead cells were found. Photosynthetic processes, however, were significantly affected. During and after the treatment, ozone induced a reduction in CO2 fixation capacity (up to 52% after 12 h from the beginning of the treatment) due to mesophyllic limitations. Intercellular CO2 concentration significantly increased in comparison to controls (+90% at the end of the post-fumigation period). Furthermore impairment of carboxylation efficiency (-71% at the end of the post-fumigation period compared to controls in filtered air) and membrane damage in terms of integrity (as demonstrated by a significant rise in solute leakage) were observed. A regulatory adjustment of photosynthetic processes was highlighted during the post-fumigation period by the higher values of qNP and (1-q(P)) and therefore suggests a tendency to reduce the light energy used in photochemistry at the expense of the capacity to dissipate the excess as excitation energy. In addition, the chlorophyll a/b ratio and the de-epoxidation index increased, showing a rearrangement of the pigment composition of the photosynthetic apparatus and a marked activation of photoprotective mechanisms. PMID:24321873

  20. A Comparative Study on Essential Oil Intraspecific and Seasonal Variations: Melissa romana Mill. and Melissa officinalis L. from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Usai, Marianna; Atzei, Aldo Domenico; Marchetti, Mauro

    2016-08-01

    Two species of Melissa are currently present in Sardinia: Melissa officinalis L. and Melissa romana Mill. Our research can only count on a few supported evidences (as reported in Flora Italiana and Moris) and some notes on new stations in Sardinia that give us some information about morphology, distribution, bioecological, and ethnobotanical characteristics of both species. In this paper, we present the results of the research about morphological aspects of M. romana vs. M. officinalis, and their essential oils in different stations at different phenological periods. Moreover, we compared the essential oil of M. romana with the one obtained from M. officinalis growing in the few naturalized stations still present in Sardinia. The most evident morphological differences between the two entities are the long-stalked capitate glandular trichomes, shorts and inclined capitate trichomes, and peltate hairs. The chemical composition of essential oil presents several significant differences between the species. In fact, oils show that in none of the phenological stages, M. romana recalls in its composition M. officinalis. Major distinctions are also evident between dry and fresh plants, and among essential oils distilled in different seasons. PMID:27449960

  1. Genotypic Variation in a Breeding Population of Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Luo, Kai; Jahufer, M Z Z; Wu, Fan; Di, Hongyan; Zhang, Daiyu; Meng, Xuanchen; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Yellow sweet clover is a widely spread legume species that has potential to be used as a forage crop in Western China. However, limited information is available on the genetic variation for herbage yield, key morphological traits, and coumarin content. In this study, 40 half sib (HS) families of M. officinalis were evaluated for genotypic variation and phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the traits: LS (leaf to stem ratio), SV (spring vigor), LA (leaf area), PH (plant height), DW (herbage dry weight), SD (stem diameter), SN (stem number), Cou (coumarin content), SY (seed yield), across two locations, Yuzhong and Linze, in Western China. There was significant (P < 0.05) genotypic variation among the HS families for all traits. There was also significant (P < 0.05) genotype-by-environment interaction for the traits DW, PH, SD, SN, and SV. The estimates of HS family mean repeatability across two locations ranged from 0.32 for SN to 0.89 for LA. Pattern analysis generated four HS family groups where group 3 consisted of families with above average expression for DW and below average expression for Cou. The breeding population developed by polycrossing the selected HS families within group 3 will provide a significant breeding pool for M. officinalis cultivar development in China. PMID:27462321

  2. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  3. Production of Sterilizing Agents from Calendula officinalis Extracts Optimized by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Goktas, Fatih Mehmet; Sahin, Bilgesu; Yigitarslan, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce hand sterilizing liquid and wet wipes with the extracts of Calendula officinalis. Since this plant has well known antimicrobial activity due to its phytochemical constituents, the increase in the extraction yield was chosen as the principle part of the production process. To achieve the maximum yield, parameters of solid-to-liquid ratio, extraction temperature, and time were studied. The optimum conditions were determined by response surface methodology as 41°C, 7 h, and 3.3 g/200 mL for temperature, time, and solid-to-liquid ratio, respectively. The yield achieved at those conditions was found to be 90 percent. The highest amounts of flavonoids were detected at optimum, whereas the highest triterpene and saponin constituents were determined at different design points. The microbial efficiencies of extracts were determined by the inhibition of the growth of selected microorganisms. Different dilution rates and interaction times were used as parameters of inhibition. Not any of the constituent but symbiotic relation in-between reached the highest inhibition of 90 percent. The pH values of the extracts were 5.1 to 5.4. As a result, the extraction of Calendula officinalis at the optimum conditions can be used effectively in the production of wet wipes and hand sterilizing liquid. PMID:26064122

  4. Genotypic Variation in a Breeding Population of Yellow Sweet Clover (Melilotus officinalis)

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Kai; Jahufer, M. Z. Z.; Wu, Fan; Di, Hongyan; Zhang, Daiyu; Meng, Xuanchen; Zhang, Jiyu; Wang, Yanrong

    2016-01-01

    Yellow sweet clover is a widely spread legume species that has potential to be used as a forage crop in Western China. However, limited information is available on the genetic variation for herbage yield, key morphological traits, and coumarin content. In this study, 40 half sib (HS) families of M. officinalis were evaluated for genotypic variation and phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the traits: LS (leaf to stem ratio), SV (spring vigor), LA (leaf area), PH (plant height), DW (herbage dry weight), SD (stem diameter), SN (stem number), Cou (coumarin content), SY (seed yield), across two locations, Yuzhong and Linze, in Western China. There was significant (P < 0.05) genotypic variation among the HS families for all traits. There was also significant (P < 0.05) genotype-by-environment interaction for the traits DW, PH, SD, SN, and SV. The estimates of HS family mean repeatability across two locations ranged from 0.32 for SN to 0.89 for LA. Pattern analysis generated four HS family groups where group 3 consisted of families with above average expression for DW and below average expression for Cou. The breeding population developed by polycrossing the selected HS families within group 3 will provide a significant breeding pool for M. officinalis cultivar development in China. PMID:27462321

  5. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of polysaccharides from Asparagus officinalis using response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingsheng; Kennedy, John F; Wang, Xiaodong; Yuan, Xiaofan; Zhao, Bing; Peng, Youshun; Huang, Yunxiang

    2011-08-01

    Polysaccharides were extracted from Asparagus officinalis. A novel ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technology was applied for the polysaccharide extraction. Three-factor-three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize ultrasonic power, extraction time and the liquid-solid ratio to obtain a high polysaccharide yield. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: ultrasonic power was 600 W, extraction time was 46 min, the liquid-solid ratio was 35 mL/g. Under these conditions, the experimental yield of polysaccharides was 3.134%, which was agreed closely to the predicted value. The average molecular weight of A. officinalis polysaccharide was about 6.18×10(4) Da. The polysaccharides were composed of glucose, fucose, arabinose, galactose and rhamnose in a ratio of 2.18:1.86:1.50:0.98:1.53. Compared with hot water extraction (HWE), UCE showed time-saving, higher yield and no influence on the structure of asparagus polysaccharides. The results indicated that ultrasonic circulating extraction technology could be an effective and advisable technique for the large scale production of plant polysaccharides. PMID:21549748

  6. Antioxidant, Antimicrobial Activity and Total Phenolic Content within the Aerial Parts of Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Sengul, Memnune; Ercisli, Sezai; Yildiz, Hilal; Gungor, Neva; Kavaz, Arzu; Çetin, Bülent

    2011-01-01

    Three native Turkish medicinal and aromatic plants (Artemisia absinthum, Artemisia santonicum and Saponaria officinalis) were investigated to analyze their antioxidant activity, total phenolic content and antimicrobial activity. Their total antioxidant activity was determined by using a β-carotene bleaching assay and their antimicrobial activity was determined by utilizing an agar disc diffusion assay. Methanol extracts of the three species analyzed showed high antioxidant activity and among them Artemisia absinthum possessed the highest quantity (71.78%). The total phenolic content (Folin-Ciocalteu assay) was shown to be between 6.57 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Saponaria officinalis) and 8.86 μgGAE/mg dry weight basis (Artemisia absinthum). There was a positive correlation (R = 0.819) between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity measured in the plant samples. The aqueous and methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the species showed antibacterial activities against a number of microorganisms. The methanol extracts were found to inhibit the growth of microorganisms more than the aqueous extracts. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of the plants tested contain compounds with antimicrobial properties. These exhibited properties propose that such plant extracts can possibly be used as natural preservatives in the food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24363680

  7. Potential of extracts from Saponaria officinalis and Calendula officinalis to modulate in vitro rumen fermentation with respect to their content in saponins.

    PubMed

    Budan, Alexandre; Bellenot, Denis; Freuze, Ingrid; Gillmann, Louisa; Chicoteau, Pierre; Richomme, Pascal; Guilet, David

    2014-01-01

    Saponins have the potential to favorably modulate rumen fermentation, but there is generally a lack of the chemical structures associated with the described effects. The activity of extracts from Calendula officinalis and Saponaria officinalis in the rumen was evaluated in vitro. The S. officinalis root extract, reduced CH₄ production by 8.5% and increased total VFA concentration by 25.2%. C. officinalis and S. officinalis root extracts and the S. officinalis aerial part extract decreased the acetate to propionate ratio from 8.6 to 17.4%, according to the extract. An HPLC-ELSD analysis indicated that the saponin content ranged from 43.6 to 57.6 mg/g of dry matter (DM) in the C. officinalis extracts and from 224.0 to 693.8 mg/g of DM in the S. officinalis extracts, expressed as the hederacoside C equivalent. Identification of the saponin compounds present in the extracts by HPLC-MS(n) suggested that the saponin profile modulated the biological activities, showing the importance of determining the structure of saponins when evaluating extracts. PMID:25036683

  8. [Cloning and analyzing of the female-specific marker in the dioecious species Asparagus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Lu, Long Dou; Li, Rui Li; Gao, Wu Jun; Deng, Chuan Liang; Wang, Lian Jun

    2006-06-01

    Sex-linked molecular markers are being obtained, which would be essential to be used in the screening of different sex of dioecious plants at the seedling stage. Furthermore, it is important in cloning the gene related to the sex. In this study the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was employed with the objective to find markers linked to sex determination in Asparagus. A total of 100 primers were tested with the same PCR cycling procedure. A female-associated fragment with a length of about 867bp was generated with S12 primer. The fragment was cloned and sequenced, showing it is abundant in AT and contains 2 shorter open reading frames. In order to convert the RAPD marker into SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) marker, 24bp specific primers were constructed and used for PCR amplifying. The female-linked dominant SCAR marker was obtained, which would be efficient to identify the different sex of Asparagus officinalis L. PMID:16944605

  9. Effect of extraction method on the yield of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm.

    PubMed

    Waksmundzka-Hajnos, M; Petruczynik, A; Dragan, A; Wianowska, D; Dawidowicz, A L

    2004-01-01

    Optimal conditions for the extraction and analysis of furanocoumarins from fruits of Archangelica officinalis Hoffm. have been determined. The following extraction methods were used: exhaustive extraction in a Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonication at 25 and 60 degrees C, microwave-assisted solvent extraction in open and closed systems, and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE). In most cases the yields of furanocoumarins were highest using the ASE method. The effects of extracting solvent, temperature and time of extraction using this method were investigated. The highest yield of furanocoumarins by ASE was obtained with methanol at 100-130 degrees C for 10 min. The extraction yields of furanocoumarins from plant material by ultrasonication at 60 degrees C and microwave-assisted solvent extraction in an open system were comparable to the extraction yields obtained in the time- and solvent-consuming exhaustive process involving the Soxhlet apparatus. PMID:15508836

  10. Planting depth for oilseed calendula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) is not only a popular ornamental plant in temperate climates, but also a potential oilseed crop. Its seed oil has high levels of calendic acid, which makes it a highly valued drying oil with important industrial applications. Much basic agronomic information on c...

  11. [Antidepressant active constituents in the roots of Morinda officinalis How].

    PubMed

    Cui, C; Yang, M; Yao, Z; Cao, B; Luo, Z; Xu, Y; Chen, Y

    1995-01-01

    Five compounds having antidepressant activities have been isolated from the roots of Morinda officinalis, a Chinese traditional Yang-tonic drug. These compounds were identified as succinic acid (1), nystose (2), 1F-fructofuranosylnystose (3), inulin-type hexasaccharide (4) and heptasaccharide (5) by chemical and spectroscopic methods. All of the compounds are isolated from the species of genus Morinda for the first time. PMID:7626209

  12. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves.

    PubMed

    Casanova, E; García-Mina, J M; Calvo, M I

    2008-09-01

    The scavenging activity against DPPH (1,1-diphenil-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical and the antifungal effect against chloroform, ethyl acetate and 50% methanolic extracts of Verbena officinalis leaves were investigated. The activity of different fractions of 50% methanolic extract and some isolated compounds were also investigated. The results suggest that 50% methanolic extract and caffeoyl derivatives could potentially be considered as excellent and readily available sources of natural antifungal and antioxidant compounds. PMID:18498054

  13. Copper phytoremediation potential of Calandula officinalis L. and the role of antioxidant enzymes in metal tolerance.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Sunayana; Das, Suchismita

    2016-04-01

    Cu phytoremediation potential of an ornamental plant, Calandula officinalis, was explored in terms of growth responses, photosynthetic activities and antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GPX. The results showed that this plant had high Cu tolerance of up to 400 mg/kg, which is far above the phytotoxic range for non hyperaccumulators. It grew normally in soils at all the doses (150-400 mg/kg) without showing external signs of phytotoxicity. At 150 mg/kg, flowering was augmented; root and shoot biomass, root lengths and leaf soluble protein contents remained same as that of the control. However, chlorophyll and carotenoid pigment contents declined significantly along with significant elevations in lipid peroxidation, at all the doses. Elevations of antioxidant enzymes reflected stress as well as probable mitigation of reactive oxygen species due to Cu stress. Except for the highest conc. (400 mg/kg), leaf accumulation of Cu was higher than root accumulations. The Cu accumulation peaked at 300 mg/kg Cu in soil, with leaf and root accumulations to be respectively, 4675 and 3995 µg/g dry wt., far more than the minimum of 1000 µg/g dry wt. for a Cu hyperaccumulator. The plant root at all the doses tolerated Cu, with the tolerance index ranging from 94-62.7. The soil to plant metal uptake capacity, indicated by extraction coefficient and the root to shoot translocation, indicated by translocation factor, at all the doses of Cu were >1, pointed towards efficient phytoremediation potential. PMID:26773830

  14. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers. PMID:26687343

  15. Valeriana officinalis attenuates the rotenone-induced toxicity in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Sudati, Jéssie Haigert; Vieira, Francielli Araújo; Pavin, Sandra Sartoretto; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; Seeger, Rodrigo Lopes; Golombieski, Ronaldo; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Soares, Félix Antunes; Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Barbosa, Nilda Vargas

    2013-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential protective effects of Valeriana officinalis (V. officinalis) against the toxicity induced by rotenone in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Adult wild-type flies were concomitantly exposed to rotenone (500 μM) and V. officinalis aqueous extract (10mg/mL) in the food during 7 days. Rotenone-fed flies had a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay (i.e. climbing capability) and open-field test (i.e. mobility time) as well as a higher incidence of mortality when compared to control group. V. officinalis treatment offered protection against these detrimental effects of rotenone. In contrast, the decreased number of crossings observed in the flies exposed to rotenone was not modified by V. officinalis. Rotenone toxicity was also associated with a marked decrease on the total-thiol content in the homogenates and cell viability of flies, which were reduced by V. officinalis treatment. Indeed, rotenone exposure caused a significant increase in the mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and also in the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene. The expression of SOD and CAT mRNAs was normalized by V. officinalis treatment. Our results suggest that V. officinalis extract was effective in reducing the toxicity induced by rotenone in D. melanogaster as well as confirm the utility of this model to investigate potential therapeutic strategies on movement disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). PMID:23639798

  16. Pharmacogenomic Characterization of Cytotoxic Compounds from Salvia officinalis in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-24

    Salvia officinalis is used as a dietary supplement with diverse medicinal activity (e.g. antidiabetic and antiatherosclerotic effects). The plant also exerts profound cytotoxicity toward cancer cells. Here, we investigated possible modes of action to explain its activity toward drug-resistant tumor cells. Log10IC50 values of two constituents of S. officinalis (ursolic acid, pomolic acid) were correlated to the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, BCRP/ABCG2) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or mutations in RAS oncogenes and the tumor suppressor gene TP53 of the NCI panel of cell lines. Gene expression profiles predicting sensitivity and resistance of tumor cells to these compounds were determined by microarray-based mRNA expressions, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses. Furthermore, the binding of both plant acids to key molecules of the NF-κB pathway (NF-κB, I-κB, NEMO) was analyzed by molecular docking. Neither expression nor mutation of ABC transporters, oncogenes, or tumor suppressor genes correlated with log10IC50 values for ursolic acid or pomolic acid. In microarray analyses, many genes involved in signal transduction processes correlated with cellular responsiveness to these compounds. Molecular docking indicated that the two plant acids strongly bound to target proteins of the NF-κB pathway with even lower free binding energies than the known NF-κB inhibitor MG-132. They interacted more strongly with DNA-bound NF-κB than free NF-κB, pointing to inhibition of DNA binding by these compounds. In conclusion, the lack of cross-resistance to classical drug resistance mechanisms (ABC-transporters, oncogenes, tumor suppressors) may indicate a promising role of the both plant acids for cancer chemotherapy. Genes involved in signal transduction may contribute to the sensitivity or resistance of tumor cells to ursolic and pomolic acids. Ursolic and pomolic acid may target different

  17. Kinetin applications alleviate salt stress and improve the antioxidant composition of leaf extracts in Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tounekti, Taïeb; Hernández, Iker; Müller, Maren; Khemira, Habib; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2011-10-01

    A pot experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions with common sage (Salvia officinalis L.) to investigate the interactive effects of salt stress and kinetin on growth attributes and the abundance of pigments, ions, phenolic diterpenes and α-tocopherol in leaf extracts of this species. The plants were subjected to the following four treatments: (i) control (nutrient solution), (ii) control + 10 μM kinetin, (iii) salt stress (nutrient solution + 100 mM NaCl), and (iv) salt stress + 10 μM kinetin. Kinetin was applied as a foliar fertilizer. Salt stress reduced water contents, photosynthetic activity and pigment contents of sage leaves. In addition, it increased Na(+) contents, and reduced those of Ca(2+) and K(+) in leaves. Salt stress reduced carnosic acid and 12-O-methyl carnosic acid contents in leaves, while it did not affect carnosol and α-tocopherol contents. Foliar applications of kinetin seemed to counterbalance or alleviate the stress symptoms induced by salinity, improving ion and pigment contents, while leaf phenolic diterpene (mainly carnosol) and α-tocopherol contents also increased in both control and NaCl-treated plants; still this effect was much more obvious in salt-treated plants. A similar effect was also obtained when plants were sprayed with KNO(3) or Ca(NO(3))(2), thus suggesting that kinetin effects were at least partly due to an improvement of ion homeostasis. Kinetin applications resulted in increased transcript levels of the isoprenoid and tocopherol biosynthetic genes, DXPRI and VTE2 and VTE4 in control plants, but not in NaCl-treated plants. We conclude that kinetin can alleviate the negative impact of salt on sage plants cultivated under arid environments with salinity problems. PMID:21856165

  18. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  19. Comparative analysis of gene expression by microarray analysis of male and female flowers of Asparagus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Wu-Jun; Li, Shu-Fen; Zhang, Guo-Jun; Wang, Ning-Na; Deng, Chuan-Liang; Lu, Long-Dou

    2013-01-01

    To identify rapidly a number of genes probably involved in sex determination and differentiation of the dioecious plant Asparagus officinalis, gene expression profiles in early flower development for male and female plants were investigated by microarray assay with 8,665 probes. In total, 638 male-biased and 543 female-biased genes were identified. These genes with biased-expression for male and female were involved in a variety of processes associated with molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes, suggesting that a complex mechanism underlies the sex development of asparagus. Among the differentially expressed genes involved in the reproductive process, a number of genes associated with floral development were identified. Reverse transcription-PCR was performed for validation, and the results were largely consistent with those obtained by microarray analysis. The findings of this study might contribute to understanding of the molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation in dioecious asparagus and provide a foundation for further studies of this plant. PMID:23748756

  20. The Therapeutic Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Diterpenes for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is one of the most economically important species of the family Lamiaceae. Native to the Mediterranean region, the plant is now widely distributed all over the world mainly due to its culinary, medicinal, and commercial uses including in the fragrance and food industries. Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are the abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for most of the antioxidant and many pharmacological activities of the plant. Rosemary diterpenes have also been shown in recent years to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of agents both in vitro and in vivo. The therapeutic potential of these compounds for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is reviewed in this communication by giving special attention to the chemistry of the compounds along with the various pharmacological targets of the disease. The multifunctional nature of the compounds from the general antioxidant-mediated neuronal protection to other specific mechanisms including brain inflammation and amyloid beta (Aβ) formation, polymerisation, and pathologies is discussed. PMID:26941822

  1. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of the Althaea officinalis L. leaf extract and its wound healing potency in the rat model of excision wound creation

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Dadgar, Zeynab; Noori-Zadeh, Ali; Mesbah-Namin, Seyed Alireza; Pakzad, Iraj; Davodian, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the biochemical, cellular, and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Plants and their extracts known as phytomedicine have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. Materials and Methods: Due to the undesirable side effects, in the control and treatment of the wound infections, it is recommended to use natural materials such as phytochemicals instead of chemically synthesized drugs. Thus, the aim of this research was to study the anti-microbial and wound healing potential of Althaea officinalis L. hydroalchoholic extract in comparison with ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and penicillin antibiotics on clinical strains as well as pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes under in vitro conditions using micro broth dilution and disc diffusion methods. Moreover, MIC and MBC of its hydroalchoholic extract was also evaluated. Results: The results showed that although Althaea officinalis L. extract was not effective on gram-negative bacteria but it was efficacious on gram-positive bacteria. The extract was also tested in the form of topical administration on excision wound model in rats. In the extract-treated wounds, the wound healing percent was significantly increased in comparison with controls. Conclusions: Based on this research, herbal extract of officinalis L. can be a great candidate for the treatment of gram-positive infections and merits further studies. PMID:25949951

  2. Comparison of Neuroprotective Effects of Melissa officinalis Total Extract and Its Acidic and Non-Acidic Fractions against A β-Induced Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Soodi, Maliheh; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Soleimani, Masoud; Sahraei, Ehsan

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that was characterized with deposit of beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregate in senile plaque. Oxidative damage to neurons and loss of cholinergic neurons in forebrain region are observed in this disease. Melissa officinalis is a medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family, used traditionally in the treatment of cognitive disorders. It has cholinomimetic and potent antioxidant activity. In the present study, we investigated the possible neuroprotective effects of total ethanolic extract, acidic and nonacidic fraction of Melissa officinalis on Aβ-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in PC12 cells and also measured their in-vitro anticholinesterase activity. PC12 cells were incubated with the extract and fractions prior to the incubation with Aβ and cell toxicity was assessed by MTT assay. In addition, productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), Malondialdehyde (MDA) as a biomarker of lipid peroxidation and glutathione peroxidase activity were measured. Pretreatment of cells with total extract and acidic fraction (not non-acidic fraction) had protective effect against Aβ-induced oxidative changes and cell death. In concentrations in which both total extracts of an acidic fraction showed neuroprotective effects, inhibition of cholinesterase activity was not significant. Then, the protective effects of Melissa officinalis total extract and acidic fraction were not attributed to their anticholinesterase activity. Acidic fraction showed more potent protective effect compared to the total extract, leading to the fact that polyphenolic compounds and terpenoic acids are the most effective components in the total extract concentrated in this fraction. PMID:24250617

  3. Effect of Time of Harvesting on Yield and Quality of Melissa Officinalis L. in Doon Valley, India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S.; Haider, S. Z.; Chauhan, N. K.; Lohani, H.; Sah, S.; Yadav, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment on the effect of time of harvesting on yield and quality of Melissa officinalis L. was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, Uttarakhand in order to assess the performance of four harvesting times (H1-120 days, H2-140 days, H3-160 days and H4-180 days after planting). The fresh and dry herbage and oil yield of the aerial parts showed greater response in H3 i.e. harvesting at 160 days after planting, followed by H2 harvesting time. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC-MS analysis. Geranial (24.53 %) and neral (18.80 %) were the major constituents found in the essential oil followed by trans-caryophyllene (7.70 %). PMID:25425760

  4. Phyllanthus emblica Fruit Extract Activates Spindle Assembly Checkpoint, Prevents Mitotic Aberrations and Genomic Instability in Human Colon Epithelial NCM460 Cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xihan; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    The fruit of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) has been widely consumed as a functional food and folk medicine in Southeast Asia due to its remarkable nutritional and pharmacological effects. Previous research showed PE delays mitotic progress and increases genomic instability (GIN) in human colorectal cancer cells. This study aimed to investigate the similar effects of PE by the biomarkers related to spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), mitotic aberrations and GIN in human NCM460 normal colon epithelial cells. Cells were treated with PE and harvested differently according to the biomarkers observed. Frequencies of micronuclei (MN), nucleoplasmic bridge (NPB) and nuclear bud (NB) in cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay were used as indicators of GIN. Mitotic aberrations were assessed by the biomarkers of chromosome misalignment, multipolar division, chromosome lagging and chromatin bridge. SAC activity was determined by anaphase-to- metaphase ratio (AMR) and the expression of core SAC gene budding uninhibited by benzimidazoles related 1 (BubR1). Compared with the control, PE-treated cells showed (1) decreased incidences of MN, NPB and NB (p < 0.01); (2) decreased frequencies of all mitotic aberration biomarkers (p < 0.01); and (3) decreased AMR (p < 0.01) and increased BubR1 expression (p < 0.001). The results revealed PE has the potential to protect human normal colon epithelial cells from mitotic and genomic damages partially by enhancing the function of SAC. PMID:27598149

  5. Indole Alkaloids from the Leaves of Nauclea officinalis.

    PubMed

    Fan, Long; Liao, Cheng-Hui; Kang, Qiang-Rong; Zheng, Kai; Jiang, Ying-Chun; He, Zhen-Dan

    2016-01-01

    Three new indole alkaloids, named naucleamide G (1), and nauclealomide B and C (5 and 6), were isolated from the n-BuOH-soluble fraction of an EtOH extract of the leaves of Nauclea officinalis, together with three known alkaloids, paratunamide C (2), paratunamide D (3) and paratunamide A (4). The structures with absolute configurations of the new compounds were identified on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, HRESIMS, acid hydrolysis and quantum chemical circular dichroism (CD) calculation. According to the structures of isolated indole alkaloids, their plausible biosynthetic pathway was deduced. PMID:27455233

  6. Isolation of alpha-glusosidase inhibitors from hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Hideyuki; Miyazaki, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Chikako; Amano, Midori; Yoshihara, Teruhiko; Mizutani, Junya

    2004-01-01

    alpha-Glucosidase inhibitory activity was found in aqueous methanol extracts of dried hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) leaves. Active principles against alpha-glucosidase, prepared from rat small intestine acetone powders, were isolated and characterized. The structures of these isolated compounds were determined to be (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol-9-O-(6'-O-cinnamoyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside and (7S, 8S)-syringoylglycerol 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by analysis of physical and spectroscopic data (FDMS, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, and HMBC experiments) together with chemical syntheses. PMID:14697274

  7. The Effects of Age on the Yield and Composition of the Essential Oils of Calendula officinalis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoh, O. O.; Sadimenko, A. A.; Afolayan, A. J.

    The variations in the yield and composition of the essential oils from Calendula officinalis L. (Asteraceae) cultivated in Alice, Eastern Cape of South Africa are reported. Essential oils of this plant were obtained by hydrodistillation using the Clevenger apparatus and analysis was performed by GC-MS. The yield in essential oil showed a maximum at the full flowering stage (0.97%) and a minimum during the pre-flowering stage (0.13%). The compositions also showed different patterns at different phases of the vegetative cycle. Sesquiterpenes (α-cadinene, α-cadinol, T-muurolol and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) and monoterpenes (limonene, 1, 8-cineole and trans-β-ocimene) showed the highest correlations with the age of the plant. Aiming the use of essential oil as a food ingredient, the most interesting stage is the post-flowering period, the essential oil at this time being rich in α-cadinene, α-cadinol, t-muurolol, limonene, 1,8-cineole, with P-cymene present at lower levels. α-cadinene is an important flavouring agent in baked foods, candy and chewing gum and also used as a fragrance in cosmetics and detergents. T-muurolol and α-cadinol are important antimicrobial agents.

  8. The chemical composition, botanical characteristic and biological activities of Borago officinalis: a review.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-09-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis) is an annual herb which is cultivated for medicinal and culinary uses, although it is commercially cultivated for borage seed oil. Borage seed oil is the plant rich in the gamma-linolenic acid (26%-38%) which is used as dietary or food supplement. Other than seed oil it contains a lot of fatty acids such as linoleic acid (35%-38%), oleic acid (16%-20%), palmitic acid (10%-11%), stearic acid (3.5%-4.5%), eicosenoic acid (3.5%-5.5%) and erucic acid (1.5%-3.5%). It is used for the treatment of various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes, heart diseases, arthritis and eczema. In this study different aspects of borage such as plant characteristics, production, applications in traditional medicine, clinical considerations, its effects on patients' blood and urine biochemistry, and also the effect of the its products on liver and kidney performance tests are presented using published articles in scientific sites. PMID:25312125

  9. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature's desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  10. Proteomic Characterisation of the Salt Gland-Enriched Tissues of the Mangrove Tree Species Avicennia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Wee-Kee; Lim, Teck-Kwang; Loh, Chiang-Shiong; Kumar, Prakash; Lin, Qingsong

    2015-01-01

    Plant salt glands are nature’s desalination devices that harbour potentially useful information pertaining to salt and water transport during secretion. As part of the program toward deciphering secretion mechanisms in salt glands, we used shotgun proteomics to compare the protein profiles of salt gland-enriched (isolated epidermal peels) and salt gland-deprived (mesophyll) tissues of the mangrove species Avicennia officinalis. The purpose of the work is to identify proteins that are present in the salt gland-enriched tissues. An average of 2189 and 977 proteins were identified from the epidermal peel and mesophyll tissues, respectively. Among these, 2188 proteins were identified in salt gland-enriched tissues and a total of 1032 selected proteins were categorized by Gene Ontology (GO) analysis. This paper reports for the first time the proteomic analysis of salt gland-enriched tissues of a mangrove tree species. Candidate proteins that may play a role in the desalination process of the mangrove salt glands and their potential localization were identified. Information obtained from this study paves the way for future proteomic research aiming at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying secretion in plant salt glands. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000771. PMID:26193361

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphism isolated from a novel EST dataset in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.).

    PubMed

    Mercati, Francesco; Riccardi, Paolo; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Abenavoli, Maria Rosa; Falavigna, Agostino; Sunseri, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) are abundant and evenly distributed co-dominant molecular markers in plant genomes. SSRs are valuable for marker assisted breeding and positional cloning of genes associated traits of interest. Although several high throughput platforms have been developed to identify SNP and SSR markers for analysis of segregant plant populations, breeding in garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) has been limited by a low content of such markers. In this study massively parallel GS-FLX pyro-sequencing technology (454 Life Sciences) has been used to sequence and compare transcriptome from two genotypes: a rust tolerant male (1770) and a susceptible female (G190). A total of 122,963 and 99,368 sequence reads, with an average length of 245.7bp, have been recovered from accessions 1770 and 190 respectively. A computational pipeline has been used to predict and visually inspect putative SNPs and SSR sequences. Analysis of Gene Ontology (GO) slim annotation assignments for all assembled uniscripts indicated that the 24,403 assemblies represent genes from a broad array of functions. Further, over 1800 putative SNPs and 1000 SSRs were detected. One hundred forty-four SNPs together with 60 selected SSRs were validated and used to develop a preliminary genetic map by using a large BC(1) population, derived from 1770 and G190. The abundance of SNPs and SSRs provides a foundation for the development of saturated genetic maps and their utilization in assisted asparagus breeding programs. PMID:23415335

  12. Sex-biased gene expression in dioecious garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Harkess, Alex; Mercati, Francesco; Shan, Hong-Yan; Sunseri, Francesco; Falavigna, Agostino; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes have evolved independently in phylogenetically diverse flowering plant lineages. The genes governing sex determination in dioecious species remain unknown, but theory predicts that the linkage of genes influencing male and female function will spur the origin and early evolution of sex chromosomes. For example, in an XY system, the origin of an active Y may be spurred by the linkage of female suppressing and male promoting genes. Garden asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) serves as a model for plant sex chromosome evolution, given that it has recently evolved an XX/XY sex chromosome system. In order to elucidate the molecular basis of gender differences and sex determination, we used RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify differentially expressed genes between female (XX), male (XY) and supermale (YY) individuals. We identified 570 differentially expressed genes, and showed that significantly more genes exhibited male-biased than female-biased expression in garden asparagus. In the context of anther development, we identified genes involved in pollen microspore and tapetum development that were specifically expressed in males and supermales. Comparative analysis of genes in the Arabidopsis thaliana, Zea mays and Oryza sativa anther development pathways shows that anther sterility in females probably occurs through interruption of tapetum development before microspore meiosis. PMID:25817071

  13. [Determination of polysaccharide from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis how and its trace elements analysis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yu-Ming; Liu, Li-E; Zhang, Hong-Quan

    2005-12-01

    Polysaccharide was extracted from morinda officinalis how by back-flowing with 80% ethanol for 1 h, and the method of improved phenol-sulfuric acid spectroscopy was adopted to determine the content of morinda officinalis how polysaccharide. As for its trace elements, the atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to detect the content of Zn, Fe and Cu, which were compared with its fake; and cold atomic fluorometry was applied to determine the trace mercury. The results were satisfactory, which can give reference about the effective components of morinda officinalis how, and will help to exploit it. PMID:16544510

  14. Promotion of hair growth by Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Noguchi, Kazuma; Kondo, Masato; Onishi, Mariko; Watanabe, Naoko; Okamura, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2013-02-01

    Topical administration of Rosmarinus officinalis leaf extract (RO-ext, 2 mg/day/mouse) improved hair regrowth in C57BL/6NCrSlc mice that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. In addition, RO-ext promoted hair growth in C3H/He mice that had their dorsal areas shaved. To investigate the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-ext, we focused on inhibition of testosterone 5α-reductase, which is well recognized as one of the most effective strategies for the treatment of androgenic alopecia. RO-ext showed inhibitory activity of 82.4% and 94.6% at 200 and 500 µg/mL, respectively. As an active constituent of 5α-reductase inhibition, 12-methoxycarnosic acid was identified with activity-guided fractionation. In addition, the extract of R. officinalis and 12-methoxycarnosic acid inhibited androgen-dependent proliferation of LNCaP cells as 64.5% and 66.7% at 5 µg/mL and 5 μM, respectively. These results suggest that they inhibit the binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Consequently, RO-ext is a promising crude drug for hair growth. PMID:22517595

  15. Sexual Dimorphism of Staminate- and Pistillate-Phase Flowers of Saponaria officinalis (Bouncing Bet) Affects Pollinator Behavior and Seed Set

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sandra L.; Dudle, Dana A.; Nawrocki, Jenna R.; Freestone, Leah M.; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B.; Britton, Michael M.

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  16. Sexual dimorphism of staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of Saponaria officinalis (bouncing bet) affects pollinator behavior and seed set.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sandra L; Dudle, Dana A; Nawrocki, Jenna R; Freestone, Leah M; Konieczny, Peter; Tobin, Michael B; Britton, Michael M

    2014-01-01

    The sequential separation of male and female function in flowers of dichogamous species allows for the evolution of differing morphologies that maximize fitness through seed siring and seed set. We examined staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of protandrous Saponaria officinalis for dimorphism in floral traits and their effects on pollinator attraction and seed set. Pistillate-phase flowers have larger petals, greater mass, and are pinker in color, but due to a shape change, pistillate-phase flowers have smaller corolla diameters than staminate-phase flowers. There was no difference in nectar volume or sugar content one day after anthesis, and minimal evidence for UV nectar guide patterns in staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers. When presented with choice arrays, pollinators discriminated against pistillate-phase flowers based on their pink color. Finally, in an experimental garden, in 2012 there was a negative correlation between seed set of an open-pollinated, emasculated flower and pinkness (as measured by reflectance spectrometry) of a pistillate-phase flower on the same plant in plots covered with shade cloth. In 2013, clones of genotypes chosen from the 2012 plants that produced pinker flowers had lower seed set than those from genotypes with paler flowers. Lower seed set of pink genotypes was found in open-pollinated and hand-pollinated flowers, indicating the lower seed set might be due to other differences between pink and pale genotypes in addition to pollinator discrimination against pink flowers. In conclusion, staminate- and pistillate-phase flowers of S. officinalis are dimorphic in shape and color. Pollinators discriminate among flowers based on these differences, and individuals whose pistillate-phase flowers are most different in color from their staminate-phase flowers make fewer seeds. We suggest morphological studies of the two sex phases in dichogamous, hermaphroditic species can contribute to understanding the evolution of sexual

  17. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile. PMID:23017402

  18. Antiviral activity of the volatile oils of Melissa officinalis L. against Herpes simplex virus type-2.

    PubMed

    Allahverdiyev, A; Duran, N; Ozguven, M; Koltas, S

    2004-11-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) has been used in a variety of practical applications in medical science. Our objective in the current study was to determine the effects of the volatile oil components of M. officinalis on Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication in HEp-2 cells. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 100, 150 and 200 microg/ml) of volatile oils were examined. Experiments were carried out using HEp-2 cells. M. officinalis volatile oil was found to be non-toxic to HEp-2 cells up to a concentration of 100 micro/ml. It was, however, found to be slightly toxic at a concentration over of 100 microg/ml. The antiviral activity of non-toxic concentrations against HSV-2 was tested. The replication of HSV-2 was inhibited, indicating that the M. officinalis L. extract contains an anti-HSV-2 substance. PMID:15636181

  19. [Relation between root structure and accumulation of anthraquinones of Morinda officinalis].

    PubMed

    Yao, Hui; Wu, Hong; Feng, Cheng Hao; Zhao, Sheng; Liang, She Jian

    2004-04-01

    The histological structures of the roots of Morinda officinalis How of different ages were observed, the distribution and accumulation of anthraquinones in the root were studied with the help of paraffin section, fluorescent microscope and ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results indicated that the mature structures of the roots of M. officinalis were similar to those of common perennial herbs, and that the anthraquinones in the root of M. officinalis distributed in parenchymatous cells and the content of anthraquinones in the root gradually increased in number with age. Based on above mentioned investigation, we came to the conclusion that the root of M. officinalis should be collected after four years of growing and the top grade root should have well developed phloem and thin xylem. PMID:15259981

  20. [Determination of antioxidation of the extract from Chinese medicine Morinda officinalis How by flow injection chemiluminescence and spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yong-Jun; Shi, Jie; Qu, Ling-Bo; Li, Fei-Fei; Li, Xiao-Jing; Wu, Yi-Ming

    2006-09-01

    Flow injection chemiluminescence analysis was used to determine the antioxidation activity of extract from Morinda officinalis How. The determination was based on the inhibition effect of Morinda officinalis How extraction in the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol - H2O2-CuSO4 system, and vitamin C was used as positive control. It was showed that Morinda officinalis How original liquid has obvious anti-radical activity. Spectroscopy was applied to determine the inhibition ratio of Morinda officinalis How extraction for the superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals in the special system. It was shown that the extraction from Morinda officinalis How could obviously scavenge superoxide anion and hydroxy radicals. It is suggested that the Chinese Medicine Morinda Officinalis How is a potential antioxidation activity medicine. PMID:17112048

  1. Cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to the sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene by an enzyme system from sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Croteau, R.; Gundy, A.

    1984-09-01

    A soluble enzyme preparation obtained from sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves was shown to catalyze the divalent metal-ion dependent cyclization of trans, trans-farnesyl pyrophosphate to the macrocyclic sesquiterpene olefins humulene and caryophyllene. The identities of the biosynthetic products were confirmed by radiochromatographic analysis and by preparation of crystalline derivatives, and the specificity of labeling in the cyclization reaction was established by chemical degradation of the olefins derived enzymatically from (1-3H2)farnesyl pyrophosphate. These results constitute the first report on the cyclization of farnesyl pyrophosphate to humulene and caryophyllene, two of the most common sesquiterpenes in nature, and the first description of a soluble sesquiterpene cyclase to be isolated from leaves of a higher plant.

  2. Protective action of ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. in gastric ulcer prevention induced by ethanol in rats.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Guilherme Pires; de Carvalho, Nelson Rodrigues; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; Dobrachinski, Fernando; Portella, Rafael de Lima; da Silva, Michele Hinerasky; Lugokenski, Thiago Henrique; Dias, Glaecir Roseni Mundstock; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Villetti, Marcos Antonio; Antunes Soares, Félix Alexandre; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2013-05-01

    The pathology of a gastric ulcer is complex and multifactorial. Gastric ulcers affect many people around the world and its development is a result of the imbalance between aggressive and protective factors in the gastric mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the ethanolic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (eeRo); this plant, more commonly known as rosemary, has attracted the interest of the scientific community due to its numerous pharmacological properties and their potential therapeutic applications. Here, we tested the preventive effects of eeRo against gastric ulcer induced by 70% ethanol in male Wistar rats. In addition, we aimed to clarify the mechanism involved in the preventive action of the eeRo in gastric ulcers. Based on the analysis of markers of oxidative damage and enzymatic antioxidant defense systems, the measurement of nitrite and nitrate levels and the assessment of the inflammatory response, the eeRo exhibited significant antioxidant, vasodilator and antiinflammatory properties. PMID:23279841

  3. Preliminary study on mercury uptake by Rosmarinus officinalis L. (Rosemary) in a mining area (Mt. Amiata, Italy)

    SciTech Connect

    Barghigiani, C.; Ristori, T.

    1995-04-01

    Among the different plants analyzed to assess environmental mercury contamination of mining areas, lichens are those most studied, followed by brooms together with pine, which was also used in other areas, and spruce. Other species, both naturally occurring and cultivated, have also been studied. This work reports on the results of mercury uptake and accumulation in rosemary in relation to metal concentrations in both air and soil. R. officinalis is a widespread endemic Mediterranean evergreen shrub, which in Italy grows naturally and is also cultivated as a culinary herb. This research was carried out in Tuscany (Italy), in the Mt. Amiata area, which is characterized by the presence of cinnabar (HgS) deposits and has been used for mercury extraction and smelting from Etruscan times until 1980, and in the country near the town of Pisa, 140 km away from Mt. Amiata. 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Identification of Verbena officinalis based on ITS sequence analysis and RAPD-derived molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Ruzicka, Joana; Lukas, Brigitte; Merza, Lina; Göhler, Irina; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Novak, Johannes

    2009-09-01

    Verbenae herba is a widely used drug and consists of the aerial parts of Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae). Until now, the identification has been performed based on morphological and phytochemical analyses, which are not reliable enough to distinguish Verbena officinalis from other relevant species of the genus Verbena. Hence, impurities and adulterants, negatively influencing the therapeutic effect of the drug, may remain undetected. In an attempt to generate an accurate authentication method we used two different DNA-based approaches: comparison of ITS sequences and molecular markers (RAPD). Both approaches generally enabled discrimination of V. officinalis from the rest of the genus despite the intraspecific variation existing within V. officinalis. The application of the two independent methods, supporting each other, increases the security of identification. For better reproducibility and faster analysis, however, a SCAR marker and primers for HRM were derived from the RAPD results. The SCAR marker could distinguish V. officinalis from all other verbena species except its closest relative V. hastata, while discrimination of V. officinalis even from V. hastata was unproblematic with HRM. PMID:19350481

  5. Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kültür, Sükran

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

  6. Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66 ± 4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04 ± 0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.002). According to cell cycle analysis, more than 70% of the cells accumulated in the sub-G1 phase when cultured in the presence of the dichloromethane fraction. This fraction up-regulated Fas and Bax mRNA expression as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio according to cell type, showing its effect on the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The expression of apoptosis-related genes did not significantly change following treatment with the n-hexane fraction. These data indicated that the dichloromethane fraction of M. officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells. PMID:23432355

  7. Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils of two valerianaceous species from China: Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jihua; Zhao, Jianglin; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Ligang; Liu, Zhilong; Wang, Jingguo; Han, Jianguo; Yu, Zhu; Yang, Fuyu

    2010-09-01

    In order to investigate essential oils with biological activity from local wild plants, two valerianaceous species, Nardostachys chinensis and Valeriana officinalis, were screened for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. The essential oils were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of the two plants by hydro-distillation, and were analyzed for their chemical composition by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Calarene (25.31%), aristolone (13.35%), α-selinene (7.32%) and β-maaliene (6.70%) were the major compounds of the 23 identified components which accounted for 92.76% of the total oil of N. chinensis. Patchoulol (16.75%), α-pinene (14.81%), and β-humulene (8.19%) were the major compounds among the 20 identified components, which accounted for 88.11% of the total oil of V. officinalis. Both oils were rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as well as their oxygenated derivatives. Essential oils were shown to have broad spectrum antibacterial activity with MIC values that ranged from 62.5 μg/mL to 400 μg/mL, and IC(50) values from 36.93 μg/mL to 374.72 μg/mL. The oils were also shown to have moderate antifungal activity to Candida albicans growth as well as inhibition of spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae. Two essential oils were assessed by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging, β-carotene bleaching and ferrozine-ferrous ions assays, respectively, to show moderate antioxidant activity. Results suggest that the isolated essential oils could be used for future development of antimicrobial and antioxidant agents. PMID:20877232

  8. Enriching the drinking water of rats with extracts of Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris increases their resistance to oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Horváthová, Eva; Srančíková, Annamária; Regendová-Sedláčková, Eva; Melušová, Martina; Meluš, Vladimír; Netriová, Jana; Krajčovičová, Zdenka; Slameňová, Darina; Pastorek, Michal; Kozics, Katarína

    2016-01-01

    Nature is an attractive source of therapeutic compounds. In comparison to the artificial drugs, natural compounds cause less adverse side effects and are suitable for current molecularly oriented approaches to drug development and their mutual combining. Medicinal plants represent one of the most available remedy against various diseases. Proper examples are Salvia officinalis L. and Thymus vulgaris L. which are known aromatic medicinal plants. They are very popular and frequently used in many countries. The molecular mechanism of their biological activity has not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to ascertain if liver cells of experimental animals drinking extracts of sage or thyme will manifest increased resistance against oxidative stress. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into seven groups. They drank sage or thyme extracts for 2 weeks. At the end of the drinking period, blood samples were collected for determination of liver biochemical parameters and hepatocytes were isolated to analyze (i) oxidatively generated DNA damage (conventional and modified comet assay), (ii) activities of antioxidant enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] and (iii) content of glutathione. Intake of sage and thyme had no effect either on the basal level of DNA damage or on the activity of SOD in rat hepatocytes and did not change the biochemical parameters of blood plasma. Simultaneously, the activity of GPx was significantly increased and the level of DNA damage induced by oxidants was decreased. Moreover, sage extract was able to start up the antioxidant protection expressed by increased content of glutathione. Our results indicate that the consumption of S.officinalis and T.vulgaris extracts positively affects resistency of rat liver cells against oxidative stress and may have hepatoprotective potential. PMID:26297740

  9. Different drying technologies and alternation of mycobiots in the raw material of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Raila, Algirdas; Lugauskas, Albinas; Kemzūraite, Aurelija; Zvicevicius, Egidijus; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Railiene, Marija

    2009-01-01

    Contamination of medicinal plant mass with mycobiots is one of the negative factors deteriorating the quality of raw material. In order to evaluate the impact of the yield processing technologies upon the changes of mycobiots in raw material, the mycobiotic conditions of herb hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) raw material were evaluated under various regimes of active ventilation and optimization of the drying parameters. The impact of ventilation intensity and temperature of drying agent upon the changes and abundance of mycobiota species in medicinal raw material was determined. Irrespective of the temperature of the airflow, the strongest suppressive effect upon the mycobiotic contamination in Hyssopi herba was produced by the 5,000 m3 x (t x h)(-1) airflow. Analysis of the isolated fungi revealed the prevalence of Penicillium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Mucor, Rhizopus species in the raw material. In separate samples Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Aureobasidium pullulans, Chrysosporium merdarium, Cladorrhinum foecundissimum, Ulocladium consortiale, Trichoderma hamatum, T. harzianum, Gilmaniella humicola, Talaromyces flavus, Rhizomucor pusillus, Hansfordia ovalispora, Verticicladium trifi dum, Trichosporiella cerebriformis micromycetes were also rather abundant. Detection of the above-mentioned micromycetes in herb hyssop samples differed, and partially depended upon the medium used for their isolation. PMID:19630202

  10. [Comparison with the pharmacological actions of Morinda officinalis, Damnacanthus officinarum and Schisandra propinqua].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Z S; Wu, H; Su, Z W

    1991-07-01

    There are three kinds of plants, Morinda officinalis (1), Damnacanthus officinarum (2), and Schisandra propinqua (3) whose roots have been used since the ancient time. In this paper, some of their pharmacological actions that are related to tonifying and invigorating Yang were examined and compared. The body weight, the thymus weight, the amount of leukocyte in the blood, and the continuing swimming times of the young mice could be increased with the oral administration of the water extractions of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05-0.001). The Rt of M-receptor in the brains of the hypothyroidism mice were decreased after administration of the water extracts of (1) and (2) (P less than 0.05). (1) could also increased the amount of leukocyte in the blood of leukocytopenia mice caused by radiation of gamma-ray (P less than 0.01). (3) has not shown the obvious effects (P greater than 0.05). The results indicate that (1) and (2) have the ability of anti-fatigue, improving the immunological action of the young mice, and reducing the excitability of the para-sympathetic nervous system of the hypothyroidism mice through decreasing the Rt of M-receptor in their brains. All of them did not show acute toxicity, inducing mutation, and sexual hormone like actions. PMID:1914038

  11. Evaluation of nutritional composition and antioxidant activity of Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis).

    PubMed

    Adel Pilerood, Shirin; Prakash, Jamuna

    2014-05-01

    The nutritional composition and antioxidant activity (in aqueose and solvent extracts) of two medicinal plants of Iranian origin Borage (Echium amoenum) and Valerian (Valerian officinalis) used as tea were determined. Samples were analyzed for antioxidant components viz. polyphenols, vitamin C, β carotene, flavonoids, anthocyanins and tannins. Antioxidant assays such as free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and total antioxidant activity were carried out for ethanol, methanol, acetone, 80% methanol and 80% ethanolic extracts. In borage highest and least activity was observed in water and acetone extract respectively in all assays. In Valerian, 80% methanolic extract showed highest activity in reducing power and free radical scavenging activity assay. Total polyphenols in borage and valerian were 1,220 and 500 mg in ethanolic extracts and 25 and 130 mg in acetonic extracts respectively. Total carotenoids and vitamin C contents were 31.6 and 133.69 mg and 51.2 and 44.87 mg for borage and valerian respectively. Highest amount of tannins were extracted in 80% methanolic extract. It can be concluded that borage and valerian exhibited antioxidant activity in all extracts. The antioxidant activity could be attributed to their polyphenol and tannin and flavonoids contents. In all assays borage showed higher activity than valerian. PMID:24803690

  12. Functional identification of a delta8-sphingolipid desaturase from Borago officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sperling, P; Libisch, B; Zähringer, U; Napier, J A; Heinz, E

    2001-04-15

    The similarities between delta12- and delta5-fatty acyl desaturase sequences were used to construct degenerate primers for PCR experiments with cDNA transcribed from mRNA of developing borage seeds. Screening of a borage seed cDNA library with an amplified DNA fragment resulted in the isolation of a full-length cDNA corresponding to a deduced open-reading frame of 446 amino acids. The protein showed high similarity to plant delta8-sphingolipid desaturases as well as to the delta6-fatty acyl desaturase from Borago officinalis. The sequence is characterized by the presence of a N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain. Expression of this open-reading frame in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in the formation of delta8-trans/cis-phytosphingenines not present in wild-type cells, as shown by HPLC analysis of sphingoid bases as their dinitrophenyl derivatives. GLC-MS analysis of the methylated di-O-trimethylsilyl ether derivatives confirmed the presence of delta8-stereoisomers of C18- and C20-phytosphingenine. Furthermore, Northern blotting showed that the gene encoding a stereo-unselective delta8-sphingolipid desaturase is primarily expressed in young borage leaves. PMID:11368168

  13. Compositions of the seed oil of the Borago officinalis from Iran.

    PubMed

    Morteza, Elham; Akbari, Gholam-Ali; Moaveni, Payam; Alahdadi, Iraj; Bihamta, Mohammad-Reza; Hasanloo, Tahereh; Joorabloo, Ali

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the composition of borage (Borago officinalis L.) seed oil, this research was performed under the field conditions at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones, Iran during the 2012 planting year. The oil yield of borage was 31.46% and 33.7% at Shahriyar and Garmsar zone, respectively, and nine and eight fatty acids were identified in the seed oil of borage at Shahriyar and Garmsar, respectively - palmitic, linoleic, stearic and γ-linolenic acids were dominant in the seed oil of borage from both zones. Unsaturated fatty acid content was more than the saturated fatty acids in both zones. The ratio of linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in the borage cultivated at Shahriyar and Garmsar zones was 2.13 and 2.29. The fatty acid profile of Garmsar borage, oleic and oleic/linoleic acid ratio, increased. Locations with different ecological conditions resulted in changes in both seed oil content and fatty acid profile of borage. PMID:25360856

  14. Phenylethanoid glycosides and phenolic glycosides from stem bark of Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhenzhen; Yan, Renyi; Yang, Bin

    2016-07-01

    An investigation of the hydrophilic constituents of the stem bark of Magnolia officinalis was performed and which led to isolation and identification of twenty-one previously unreported glycosides. These included eleven phenylethanoid glycosides, magnolosides F-P, and ten phenolic glycosides, magnolosides Q-Z, along with eight known compounds. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses and chemical hydrolysis methods, as well as by comparison with literature data. Most of the phenylethanoid glycosides contained an allopyranose moiety, which is rare in the plant kingdom. Magnolosides I and K as well as 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) ethanol 1-O-[4-O-caffeoyl-2-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-6-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-β-d-glucopyranoside showed more potent α-glucosidase inhibitory effects (IC50 values of 0.13, 0.27, and 0.29mM, respectively) than the positive control, acarbose (IC50 value of 1.09mM) in vitro. Magnolosides H, E and D also showed moderate cytotoxicity against MGC-803 and HepG2 cells with IC50 values of 13.59-17.16μM and 29.53-32.46μM, respectively. PMID:27086163

  15. Determination of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis' calli.

    PubMed

    Yesil-Celiktas, Ozlem; Nartop, Pinar; Gurel, Aynur; Bedir, Erdal; Vardar-Sukan, Fazilet

    2007-11-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis is widely found in the lands of Aegean and Mediterranean regions of Turkey. Stem explants of very young shoots were cultured in both woody plant medium (WPM) and Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with 7g/L agar, 30g/L sucrose, and 1 and 3mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) for callus initiation. Induced calli were subcultured 4 times with intervals of 7-10 days. MS medium supplemented with 1mg/L NAA proved to be the best medium for the production of callus (65.0%) among the samples tested. The lyophilized calli were subjected to solvent extraction. Active constituents of 8 calli extracts were analyzed by HPLC, and rosmarinic acid (RA) was determined to be the primary compound. Calli cultivated in WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA and extracted at 50 degrees C, yielded the highest amount of RA (34.4mg/g dry weight). Moreover, antioxidant activity of calli extracts was determined using a number of in vitro assays, including total phenol assay, DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA), and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC). On the basis of the current findings, we conclude that WPM supplemented with 1mg/L NAA yields higher phenolic content as well as higher antioxidant activity. PMID:17913287

  16. Inhibitory activity of Melissa officinalis L. extract on Herpes simplex virus type 2 replication.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, G; Battinelli, L; Pompeo, C; Serrilli, A M; Rossi, R; Sauzullo, I; Mengoni, F; Vullo, V

    2008-01-01

    Melissa officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) (lemon balm) is used in folk medicine for nervous complaints, lower abdominal disorders and, more recently, for treating Herpes simplex lesions. In this work the antiviral activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm leaves against the Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) was assessed by the cytopathic effect inhibition assay on Vero cells (ATCC CCL-81), in comparison with acyclovir. The cytotoxicity of the extract on Vero cells was previously tested by evaluating the cellular death and was confirmed by the Trypan blue test. Lemon balm showed to reduce the cytopathic effect of HSV-2 on Vero cells, in the range of non-toxic concentrations of 0.025-1 mg mL(-1) (with reference to the starting crude herbal material). The maximum inhibiting effect (60%) was obtained with 0.5 mg mL(-1). The viral binding assay showed that the extract does not prevent the entry of HSV-2 in the cells, thus suggesting a mechanism of action subsequent to the penetration of the virus in the cell. The extract was also chemically characterised by NMR and HPLC analysis; it showed to contain cinnamic acid-like compounds, mainly rosmarinic acid (4.1% w/w). Our experiments support the use of lemon balm for treating Herpes simplex lesions and encourage clinical trials on this medicinal plant. PMID:19023806

  17. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. )

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  18. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol), Myrtus communis (Myrtle), Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests

    PubMed Central

    Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Salehnia, Ali; Khamisabadi, Kiumars

    2014-01-01

    Background Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study. Methods: Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis) were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33%) as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls. Results: In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42) and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001). In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001). The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups. Conclusion: Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils. PMID:25629066

  19. Negative Chronotropic and Antidysrhythmic Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Lemon Balm (Melissa Officinalis L.) on CaCl2-Induced Arrhythmias in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhondali, Zahra; Dianat*, Mahin; Radan, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: In many cases, myocardial infarction leads to arrhythmia. Since antioxidant agents have an important protective role in heart disease, these compounds in medicinal plants are used in traditional medicine. Lemon balm extract, compared to other plants of the lamiaceae family, has been proven to have significant amounts of antioxidant compounds. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of the hydroalcoholic extract of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) on CaCl2-induced arrhythmias in rats. Methods: This research is an experimental study; male adult Sprague Dawley rats that weighed 200-250 g were divided randomly into three groups, i.e., 1) control (normal saline, 1 ml/kg/day), 2) extract (100 mg/kg), and 3) extract (200 mg/kg). The normal saline and the extracts were gavaged for 14 consecutive days. After anesthesia, lead II electrocardiograms were recorded for calculating the rats’ heart rates (HRs). Arrhythmia was induced by intravenous injection of CaCl2 solution (140 mg/kg), and the percentages of incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT), ventricular fibrillation (VF), and ventricular premature beats (VPB) were recorded. The results were analyzed by using Fisher’s exact test and one-way ANOVA. P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant level. Results: Heart rates and percentages of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF were reduced significantly in extract groups (with the highest activity at 200 mg/kg) in comparison with the control group. Conclusion: Melissa officinalis was considered to be an antiarrhythmic agent because it reduced the percentage of incidence of VPB, VT, and VF in the groups that received it. The results indicated that Melissa officinalis had a protective effect on the heart. PMID:26052407

  20. Effects of carbon dioxide, water supply, and seasonality on terpene content and emission by Rosmarinus officinalis

    SciTech Connect

    Penuelas, J.; Llusia, J.

    1997-04-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis L. plants were grown under carbon dioxide concentrations of 350 and 700 {mu}mol (atmospheric CO{sub 2} and elevated CO{sub 2}) and under two levels of irrigation (high water and low water) from October 1, 1994 to May 31, 1996. Elevated CO{sub 2} led on increasingly larger monthly growth rates than the atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments. The increase was 9.5% in spring 1995, 23% in summer 1995, and 53% in spring 1996 in the high-water treatments, whereas in low-water treatments the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} was constrained until the second year spring, when there was a 47% increase. The terpene concentrations was slightly larger in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatments than in atmospheric CO{sub 2} treatments and reached a maximum 37% difference in spring 1996. There was no significant effect of water treatment, likely as a result of a mild low water treatment for a Mediterranean plant. Terpene concentrations increased throughout the period of study, indicating possible age effects. The most abundant terpenes were {alpha}-pinene, cineole, camphor, borneol, and verbenone, which represented about 75% of the total. No significant differences were found in the terpene composition of the plants in the different treatments or seasons. The emission of volatile terpenes was much larger in spring (about 75 {mu}g/dry wt/hr) than in autumn (about 10 {mu}g/dry wt/hr), partly because of higher temperature and partly because of seasonal effect, but no significant differences was found because of CO{sub 2} or water treatment. The main terpene emitted was {alpha}-pinene, which represented about 50% of the total. There was no clear correlation between content and emission, either quantitatively or qualitatively. More volatile terpenes were proportionally more important in the total emission than in total content and in autumn than in spring.

  1. New terpenoid glycosides obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Qu, Lu; Li, Xiaoxia; Li, Jian; Han, Lifeng; Wang, Tao

    2014-12-01

    Five new terpenoid glycosides, named as officinoterpenosides A₁ (1), A₂ (2), B (3), C (4), and D (5), together with 11 known ones, (1S,4S,5S)-5-exo-hydrocamphor 5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6), isorosmanol (7), rosmanol (8), 7-methoxyrosmanol (9), epirosmanol (10), ursolic acid (11), micromeric acid (12), oleanolic acid (13), niga-ichigoside F₁ (14), glucosyl tormentate (15), and asteryunnanoside B (16), were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods (UV, IR, HRESI-TOF-MS, 1D and 2D NMR). Among the new ones, 1 and 2, 3 and 4 are diterpenoid and triterpenoid glycosides, respectively; and 5 is a normonoterpenoid. For the known ones, 6 was isolated from the Rosmarinus genus first, and 15, 16 were obtained from this species for the first time. PMID:25200369

  2. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    PubMed

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  3. Camouflage during movement in the European cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis).

    PubMed

    Josef, Noam; Berenshtein, Igal; Fiorito, Graziano; Sykes, António V; Shashar, Nadav

    2015-11-01

    A moving object is considered conspicuous because of the movement itself. When moving from one background to another, even dynamic camouflage experts such as cephalopods should sacrifice their extraordinary camouflage. Therefore, minimizing detection at this stage is crucial and highly beneficial. In this study, we describe a background-matching mechanism during movement, which aids the cuttlefish to downplay its presence throughout movement. In situ behavioural experiments using video and image analysis, revealed a delayed, sigmoidal, colour-changing mechanism during movement of Sepia officinalis across uniform black and grey backgrounds. This is a first important step in understanding dynamic camouflage during movement, and this new behavioural mechanism may be incorporated and applied to any dynamic camouflaging animal or man-made system on the move. PMID:26385328

  4. Officinalioside, a new lignan glucoside from Borago officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Samy, Mamdouh Nabil; Hamed, Ashraf Nageeb El-Sayed; Sugimoto, Sachiko; Otsuka, Hideaki; Kamel, Mohamed Salah; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A new lignan glucoside, officinalioside (1), was isolated from n-BuOH fraction of the aerial parts of Borago officinalis L., together with four known compounds: actinidioionoside (2), roseoside (3), crotalionoside C (4) and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-galactopyranoside (5). The structure of the new compound was established by means of spectroscopic and chemical analyses. Compounds 1 and 2 showed a moderate DPPH radical scavenging activity (IC50: 52.6 ± 1.70 and 41.3 ± 0.25 μM, respectively) comparable with that of the standard trolox (16.6 ± 2.2 μM) without any significant cytotoxicity towards human cell line A549 (IC50 > 100 μM). PMID:26382913

  5. Optical and thermal characterization of natural (Sepia officinalis) melanin.

    PubMed

    Vitkin, I A; Woolsey, J; Wilson, B C; Anderson, R R

    1994-04-01

    The optical properties and the thermal diffusivity of natural cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) melanin have been measured. The optical absorption and scattering properties of melanin particles were determined at 580 nm and 633 nm, using photometric and photothermal techniques. For the photometric studies, the absorption and the transport scattering coefficients were determined from the measurements of diffuse reflectance and transmittance. The scattering anisotropy was obtained from an additional measurement of the total attenuation coefficient and independently obtained by goniometry. For photothermal studies, pulsed photothermal radiometry was used to deduce the absorption and transport scattering coefficients via a model based on optical diffusion theory. Pulsed photothermal radiometry was also used to provide the thermal diffusivity of solid melanin pressed pellets. PMID:8022888

  6. Sterols and triterpenes in cell culture of Hyssopus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Skrzypek, Zuzanna; Wysokińska, Halina

    2003-01-01

    Cell suspension cultures from hypocotyl-derived callus of Hyssopus officinalis were found to produce two sterols i. e. beta-sitosterol (1) and stigmasterol (2), as well as several known pentacyclic triterpenes with an oleanene and ursene skeleton. The triterpenes were identified as oleanolic acid (3), ursolic acid (4), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (5), 2alpha,3beta-dihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (7), and 2alpha,3beta,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid (8). Compounds 5-8 were isolated as their acetates (6, 8) or bromolactone acetates (5, 7). PMID:12872919

  7. Antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol isolated from Magnolia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ho, K Y; Tsai, C C; Chen, C P; Huang, J S; Lin, C C

    2001-03-01

    The antimicrobial activity of honokiol and magnolol, the main constituents of Magnolia officinalis was investigated. The antimicrobial activity was assayed by the agar dilution method using brain heart infusion medium and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined for each compound using a twofold serial dilution assay. The results showed that honokiol and magnolol have a marked antimicrobial effect (MIC = 25 microg/mL) against Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus subtilis, but did not show antimicrobial activity (MIC > or = 100 microg/mL) for Shigella flexneii, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Our results indicate that honokiol and magnolol, although less potent than tetracycline, show a significant antimicrobial activity for periodontal pathogens. Hence we suggest that honokiol and magnolol might have the potential to be an adjunct in the treatment of periodontitis. PMID:11268114

  8. New Insights into Sepsis Therapy Using Sepia Officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M.; Fahmy, Sohair R.; Sayed, Amany A.; Abd El-Latif, Asmaa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sepsis remains a major problem for both scientists and clinicians. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) is considered the gold standard for animal models of sepsis. The undesirable side effects of certain antibiotics have forced scientists to discover new, natural, and safe antimicrobial agents, such as cephalopods, which are known to display significant antimicrobial activity. Objectives: The present investigation aims to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo antibacterial and antiseptic efficacy of Sepia officinalis body tissue (SOBT) extract and S. officinalis polysaccharide (SOP) from its cuttlebone. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight rats were divided into 4 groups, and starting 2 hours after CLP, treatments were given for 2 days as follows: sham control rats treated orally with distilled water, septic rats treated orally distilled water, septic rats treated orally methanolic extract of SOBT (500 mg/kg b.wt) suspended in distilled water, and septic rats treated orally SOP extract (200 mg /kg b.wt) dissolved in distilled water. On the third day, half of the rats in each group were euthanized for blood collection. The other half were kept alive and used for the survival study. Results: The present study revealed that the SOBT and SOP extracts showed in vitro bactericidal activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Furthermore, administration of SOBT and SOP increased the rats’ survival rates by 66.7% and 83.33%, respectively, as compared to the untreated CLP-septic rats. Treatment of the CLP-septic rats with SOBT and SOP significantly alleviated alterations in procalcitonin levels and in some hematological parameters induced by CLP. Conclusions: SOBT and SOP had profound antiseptic efficacy. PMID:27099690

  9. Phytochemical Variations and Enhanced Efficiency of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Ingredients in Salvia officinalis as Inoculated with Different Rhizobacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanpour, Mansour; Hatami, Mehrnaz; Kariman, Khalil; Abbaszadeh Dahaji, Payman

    2016-03-01

    Plants produce a variety of secondary metabolites to improve their performance upon exposure to pathogens, pests, herbivores, or environmental stresses. Secondary metabolism in plants is, therefore, highly regulated by presence of biotic or abiotic elicitors in the environment. The present research was undertaken to characterize plant growth-promoting attributes of four plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) including two Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf Ap1, Pf Ap18) and two P. putida (Pp Ap9, Pp Ap14) strains, and to determine their role (individually or in consortium) on growth of Salvia officialis, and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as essential oils (EOs), total phenolics, and flavonoids. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of the extracts and EOs obtained from the inoculated plants were also investigated. The PGPR inoculum was applied to soil, cuttings, and foliage. Results indicated that different PGPR strains varied in their efficiency for production of auxin, siderophore, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, and phosphate solubilization. All individually inoculated plants had significantly higher shoot and root biomass, leaf P content, EOs yield, total phenolics, and flavonoids content compared to uninoculated control plants. The major constituents of EOs, cis-thujene, camphor, and 1,8-cineol, increased following inoculation with reference PGPRs. Although the extract from all inoculated plants had improved antioxidant activity, it was remarkable for the Pf Ap18 strain, which had the lowest IC50 value across treatments. Antibacterial assay of various EOs and their major constituents against pathogenic bacteria showed that the highest activity was observed against Staphylococcus aureus using EOs of Pp Ap14 source. Based on our findings, we suggest that individual inoculation with effective PGPR strains can substantially improve plant growth and secondary metabolism in S. officinalis plants. PMID:26916832

  10. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi On Yield and Phytoremediation Performance of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L.) Under Heavy Metals Stress.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, Leila; Mohammadi, Siavash; Delshad, Mojtaba; Moteshare Zadeh, Babak

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the effect of mycorrhizal fungi (inoculated and non-inoculated) and heavy metals stress [0, Pb (150 and 300 mg/kg) and Cd (40 and 80 mg/kg)] on pot marigold (Calendula officinalis L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on a randomized complete block design with 4 replications in Research Greenhouse of Department of Horticultural Sciences, University of Tehran, Iran, during 2012-2013. Plant height, herbal and flower fresh and dry weight, root fresh and dry weight and root volume, colonization percentage, total petal extract, total petal flavonoids, root and shoot P and K uptakes, and Pb and Cd accumulations in root and shoot were measured. Results indicated that with increasing soil Pb and Cd concentration, growth and yield of pot marigold was reduced significantly; Cd had greater negative impacts than Pb. However, mycorrhizal fungi alleviated these impacts by improving plant growth and yield. Pot marigold concentrated high amounts of Pb and especially Cd in its roots and shoots; mycorrhizal plants had a greater accumulation of these metals, so that those under 80 mg/kg Cd soil(-1) accumulated 833.3 and 1585.8 mg Cd in their shoots and roots, respectively. In conclusion, mycorrhizal fungi can improve not only growth and yield of pot marigold in heavy metal stressed condition, but also phytoremediation performance by increasing heavy metals accumulation in the plant organs. PMID:26237494

  11. Application of the threshold of toxicological concern approach for the safety evaluation of calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) petals and extracts used in cosmetic and personal care products.

    PubMed

    Re, T A; Mooney, D; Antignac, E; Dufour, E; Bark, I; Srinivasan, V; Nohynek, G

    2009-06-01

    Calendula flower (Calendula officinalis) (CF) has been used in herbal medicine because of its anti-inflammatory activity. CF and C. officinalis extracts (CFE) are used as skin conditioning agents in cosmetics. Although data on dermal irritation and sensitization of CF and CFE's are available, the risk of subchronic systemic toxicity following dermal application has not been evaluated. The threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) is a pragmatic, risk assessment based approach that has gained regulatory acceptance for food and has been recently adapted to address cosmetic ingredient safety. The purpose of this paper is to determine if the safe use of CF and CFE can be established based upon the TTC class for each of its known constituents. For each constituent, the concentration in the plant, the molecular weight, and the estimated skin penetration potential were used to calculate a maximal daily systemic exposure which was then compared to its corresponding TTC class value. Since the composition of plant extracts are variable, back calculation was used to determine the maximum acceptable concentration of a given constituent in an extract of CF. This paper demonstrates the utility and practical application of the TTC concept when used as a tool in the safety evaluation of botanical extracts. PMID:19249334

  12. Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. PMID:23770780

  13. Skin photoprotective and antiageing effects of a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Vincenzo; Michelotti, Angela; Cestone, Enza; Caturla, Nuria; Castillo, Julián; Benavente-García, Obdulio; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Micol, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenols have been found to be effective in preventing ultraviolet radiation (UVR)-induced skin alterations. A dietary approach based of these compounds could be a safe and effective method to provide a continuous adjunctive photoprotection measure. In a previous study, a combination of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) extracts has exhibited potential photoprotective effects both in skin cell model and in a human pilot trial. Objective We investigated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure (redness and lipoperoxides) and in improving skin wrinkledness and elasticity. Design A randomised, parallel group study was carried out on 90 subjects. Furthermore, a pilot, randomised, crossover study was carried out on five subjects. Female subjects having skin phototype from I to III and showing mild to moderate chrono- or photoageing clinical signs were enrolled in both studies. Skin redness (a* value of CIELab colour space) after UVB exposure to 1 minimal erythemal dose (MED) was assessed in the pilot study, while MED, lipoperoxides (malondialdehyde) skin content, wrinkle depth (image analysis), and skin elasticity (suction and elongation method) were measured in the main study. Results Treated subjects showed a decrease of the UVB- and UVA-induced skin alterations (decreased skin redness and lipoperoxides) and an improvement of skin wrinkledness and elasticity. No differences were found between the 100 and 250 mg extracts doses, indicating a plateau effect starting from 100 mg extracts dose. Some of the positive effects were noted as short as 2 weeks of product consumption. Conclusions The long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun™ can be considered to be a complementary nutrition strategy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The putative mechanism for these effects is most likely to take place through the

  14. An attempt of postharvest orange fruit rot control using essential oils from Mediterranean plants.

    PubMed

    Camele, Ippolito; De Feo, Vincenzo; Altieri, Luciana; Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Luigi Rana, Gian

    2010-12-01

    Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested at different doses against four fungi known as causal agents of post-harvest orange fruit rot: Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium italicum, Phytophthora citrophthora, and Rhizopus stolonifer. Essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis, and Thymus vulgaris (Family Lamiaceae), Verbena officinalis (Family Verbenaceae), and Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, and Carum carvi (Family Apiaceae). Because preliminary in vitro experiments showed that only the oils from V. officinalis, T. vulgaris, and O. vulgare exhibited some fungistatic activity against the above-named fungi, these three essential oils were used in successive in vivo tests carried out to protect healthy "Washington navel" orange fruits from artificial infection by the same micromycetes. The essential oil of T. vulgaris, at a 2,000 ppm dose, controlled fruit rot by B. cinerea, P. citrophthora, and R. stolonifer but was ineffective against P. italicum. Essential oils of V. officinalis and O. vulgare inhibited infection by the first two fungi and only by P. citrophthora, respectively. This finding represents an important result, with the goal of using the essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their positive effect on their safety and shelf life. PMID:20874226

  15. Antioxidant, anti-collagenase and anti-elastase activities of Phyllanthus emblica, Manilkara zapota and silymarin: an in vitro comparative study for anti-aging applications.

    PubMed

    Pientaweeratch, Sirinya; Panapisal, Vipaporn; Tansirikongkol, Anyarporn

    2016-09-01

    Context Phyllanthus emblica L. (Euphorbiaceae) (amla), Manilkara zapota L.P. Royen (Sapotaceae) (sapota) and silymarin are reported to contain antioxidant effects. However, information on other biological activities relating to the anti-aging properties is limited. Objective To compare in vitro antioxidants, anti-collagenase (MMP-1 and MMP-2) and anti-elastase properties as well as the phenolic and flavonoid contents of amla, sapota and silymarin as potential anti-aging ingredients. Materials and methods The ethanol amla and sapota fruit extracts were prepared by three cycles of maceration with 24 h duration each. The total phenolic (TPC) and flavonoid (TFC) contents were determined. The antioxidant capacity was evaluated by DPPH and ABTS assays. The effects of MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase inhibitions were determined by using the EnzChek® assay kits (Molecular-Probes, Eugene, OR). Results Amla exhibited the highest in TPC (362.43 ± 11.2 mg GAE/g) while silymarin showed the highest in TFC (21.04 ± 0.67 mg QE/g). Results of antioxidant activity by DPPH and ABTS methods showed that amla possessed the most potent capacity with IC50 values of 1.70 ± 0.07 and 4.45 ± 0.10 μg/mL, respectively. Highest inhibitions against MMP-1, MMP-2 and elastase were detected for sapota with IC50 values of 89.61 ± 0.96, 86.47 ± 3.04 and 35.73 ± 0.61 μg/mL, respectively. Discussion and conclusion Test extracts offered anti-aging properties in different mechanisms. Amla showed the highest phenolic content and antioxidant property with moderate anti-collagenase. Silymarin exhibited measurable flavonoid content with anti-elastase effect. Sapota showed the highest collagenase and elastase inhibitions with moderate antioxidant effect. Thus, extracts might be added as a mixture to gain the overall anti-aging effects. PMID:26912420

  16. Antidermatophytic activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia.

    PubMed

    Endo, E H; Costa, G M; Nakamura, T U; Nakamura, C V; Dias Filho, B P

    2015-12-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis and Tetradenia riparia are used in folk medicine for the treatment of disease, including infectious diseases and skin disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts from R. officinalis and T. riparia against strains of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes and Microsporum gypseum. Hydroalcoholic extracts prepared with dried leaves from R. officinalis, Psidium guajava and T. riparia were assayed against dermatophyte species by the microdilution technique and by microscopy. R. officinalis and T. riparia were the most active against dermatophytes, as determined from the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), and were investigated further. Fluorescence microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate inhibition of hyphal growth by the two extracts, and showed a strong inhibition and an irregular growth pattern. Both extracts showed good action against dermatophytes, inhibiting fungal growth and causing alterations in their hyphae. Therefore, R. officinalis and T. riparia are potential sources of new compounds for the development of antifungal drugs. PMID:26603099

  17. Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

  18. Antiosteoporotic activity of anthraquinones from Morinda officinalis on osteoblasts and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Bin; Zheng, Cheng-Jian; Qin, Lu-Ping; Sun, Lian-Na; Han, Ting; Jiao, Lei; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Wu, Jin-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the successful isolation of antiosteoporotic components, i.e. physicion (1), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (2), 2-hydroxy-1-methoxy- anthraquinone (3), 1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone (4), 1,3,8-trihydroxy-2-methoxy- anthraquinone (5), 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxyanthraquinone (6), 2-methoxyanthraquinone (7) and scopoletin (8) from an ethanolic extract of the roots of Morinda officinalis. Compounds 4-8 are isolated for the first time from M. officinalis. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 promoted osteoblast proliferation, while compounds 4, 5 increased osteoblast ALP activity. All of the isolated compounds inhibited osteoclast TRAP activity and bone resorption, and the inhibitory effects on osteoclastic bone resorption of compounds 1 and 5 were stronger than that of other compounds. Taken together, antiosteoporotic activity of M. officinalis and its anthraquinones suggest therapeutic potential against osteoporosis. PMID:19169204

  19. Study on in-vivo anti-tumor activity of Verbena officinalis extract.

    PubMed

    Kou, Wei-Zheng; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing-Hui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Zhi-Fen; Xu, Su-Ling; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the anti-tumor effects of Verbena officinalis extract on H22 tumor-bearing mice and its effect on immune function. Mice model of H22 solid tumor was established, the mice were divided into five groups and administered the extract, later, tumors were removed and inhibition rates were calculated; spleens were removed and spleen indices were calculated, and the sheep red blood cell-delayed-type hypersensitivity (SRBC-DTH) and the serum hemolysin level were determined. The Verbena officinalis extract had anti-tumor effect, with the inhibition rate reaching 38.78%, it also increased the spleen index to a certain extent, in addition, the changes in DTA and HA were not obvious compared with the model group. The Verbena officinalis extract had in vivo anti-tumor effect, while causing no damage on the immune function. PMID:24146482

  20. Amelioration of myocardial ischemic reperfusion injury with Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Diptarka; Mukherjee, Subhendu; Falchi, Mario; Bertelli, Aldo; Das, Dipak K

    2010-12-01

    Calendula officinalis of family Asteraceae, also known as marigold, has been widely used from time immemorial in Indian and Arabic cultures as an anti-inflammatory agent to treat minor skin wound and infections, burns, bee stings, sunburn and cancer. At a relatively high dose, calendula can lower blood pressure and cholesterol. Since inflammatory responses are behind many cardiac diseases, we sought to evaluate if calendula could be cardioprotective against ischemic heart disease Two groups of hearts were used: the treated rat hearts were perfused with calendula solution at 50 mM in KHB buffer (in mM: sodium chloride 118, potassium chloride 4.7, calcium chloride 1.7, sodium bicarbonate 25, potassium biphosphate 0.36, magnesium sulfate 1.2, and glucose 10) for 15 min prior to subjecting the heart to ischemia, while the control group was perfused with the buffer only. Calendula achieved cardioprotection by stimulating left ventricular developed pressure and aortic flow as well as by reducing myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Cardioprotection appears to be achieved by changing ischemia reperfusion-mediated death signal into a survival signal by modulating antioxidant and anti-inflammatory pathways as evidenced by the activation of Akt and Bcl2 and depression of TNFα. The results further strengthen the concept of using natural products in degeneration diseases like ischemic heart disease. PMID:20874690

  1. Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes–induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes–stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes–induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes–induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes–induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  2. Flavonoid pattern of sage (Salvia officinalis L.) unifloral honey.

    PubMed

    Kenjerić, Daniela; Mandić, Milena L; Primorac, Ljiljana; Čačić, Frane

    2008-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to determine the flavonoids in monofloral sage (Salvia officinalis L.) honey which is characteristic and specific for the area of Croatian coast and islands. For that purpose 38 sage honey samples from two production seasons were analysed. After specific pollen content determination, and analyses of selected physicochemical parameters which confirmed that samples are in compliance with national and international regulations and can be regarded as unifloral sage honeys, flavonoid fraction was isolated and analysed using RP-HPLC/DAD method. The HPLC analysis showed that all examined sage honey samples contain quercetin (3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone), luteolin (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), kaempferol (3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) and galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), as well as p-coumaric (trans-4-hydroxycinnamic acid) and caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid). Total amount of identified flavonoids varied from 109.4μg/100g of honey to 589.9μg/100g of honey, with the average of 288.5μg/100g of honey. All analysed honey samples showed common and specific flavonoid profile which could be the basis for differentiating sage from other monofloral honeys. PMID:26050182

  3. Biological Activities of Oleanolic Acid Derivatives from Calendula officinalis Seeds.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed; Ashour, Ahmed; Mira, Amira; Kishikawa, Asuka; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Zhu, Qinchang; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2016-05-01

    Phytochemical examination of butanol fraction of Calendula officinalis seeds led to the isolation of two compounds identified as 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS1) and oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl (1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosiduronic acid (CS2). Biological evaluation was carried out for these two compounds such as melanin biosynthesis inhibitory, hyaluronic acid production activities, anti obesity using lipase inhibition and adipocyte differentiation as well as evaluation of the protective effect against hydrogen peroxide induced neurotoxicity in neuro-2A cells. The results showed that, compound CS2 has a melanin biosynthesis stimulatory activity; however, compound CS1 has a potent stimulatory effect for the production of hyaluronic acid on normal human dermal fibroblast from adult (NHDF-Ad). Both compounds did not show any inhibitory effect on both lipase and adipocyte differentiation. Compound CS2 could protect neuro-2A cells and increased cell viability against H2 O2 . These activities (melanin biosynthesis stimulatory and protective effect against H2 O2 of CS2 and hyaluronic acid productive activities of these triterpene derivatives) have been reported for the first time. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26887328

  4. Rosmarinus officinalis extract suppresses Propionibacterium acnes-induced inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsien; Chuang, Lu-Te; Lien, Tsung-Jung; Liing, Yau-Rong; Chen, Wei-Yu; Tsai, Po-Jung

    2013-04-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a key pathogen involved in the progression of acne inflammation. The development of a new agent possessing antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity against P. acnes is therefore of interest. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that ethanolic rosemary extract (ERE) significantly suppressed the secretion and mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α in P. acnes-stimulated monocytic THP-1 cells. In an in vivo mouse model, concomitant intradermal injection of ERE attenuated the P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. Since ERE suppressed the P. acnes-induced nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and mRNA expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, the suppressive effect of ERE might be due, at least partially, to diminished NF-κB activation and TLR2-mediated signaling pathways. Furthermore, three major constituents of ERE, carnosol, carnosic acid, and rosmarinic acid, exerted different immumodulatory activities in vitro. In brief, rosmarinic acid significantly suppressed IL-8 production, while the other two compounds inhibited IL-1β production. Further study is needed to explore the role of bioactive compounds of rosemary in mitigation of P. acnes-induced inflammation. PMID:23514231

  5. Evaluation of Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm) Effects on Heart Electrical System

    PubMed Central

    Joukar, Siyavash; Asadipour, Haleh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Melissa officinalis, an herbal drug, is well known and frequently applied in traditional and modern medicine. Yet, there is inadequate information regarding its effects on electrical properties of the heart. The present study attempted to elucidate the effects of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract on electrocardiogram (ECG) in rat. Objectives: ECG is an easy, fast and valuable tool to evaluate the safety of used materials and drugs on heart electrical and conductivity properties. Many drugs with no cardiovascular indication or any overt cardiovascular effects of therapeutic dosing become cardiotoxic when overdosed (16). On the other hand, there are numerous substances and drugs that can cause ECG changes, even in patients without a history of cardiac disease. Therefore, this study was conducted to elucidate safety and outcome of one-week administration of M. officinalis aqueous extract on blood pressure and ECG parameters of rats. Materials and Methods: Four animal groups received tap water (control group), aqueous extracts of Melissa officinalis 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 200 (M200) mg/kg/day, respectively and orally for a week. ECG and blood pressure were recorded on the eighth day of experiment. Results: Consumption of Melissa officinalis extract associated with prolonged QRS interval (P < 0.05 for M50 and M100 groups and P < 0.01 for M200 group versus the control group, respectively), prolonged QTc and JT intervals (P < 0.01 for different M groups versus the control group) and prolonged TpTe interval (P < 0.001 when M groups compared with the control group) of ECG. However, different doses of the extract had no significant effect on RR interval, PR interval, amplitudes of ECG waves, heart rate and blood pressure. Conclusions: For the first time, this study revealed that consumption of Melissa officinalis extract is associated with significant ECG alterations in rat. Future studies are necessary to determine potential clinical outcomes. PMID:26396973

  6. [Investigation of variation of the production of biological and chemical compounds of Hyssopus officinalis L].

    PubMed

    Varga, E; Hajdú, Z; Veres, K; Máthé, I; Németh, E; Pluhár, Z; Bernáth, J

    1998-05-01

    Hyssopus officinalis L. (Lamiaceae family) has been cultivated in Central Europe for a long time. This essential oil containing species serves not only as spice but in many countries including Hungary, it is used as a folk medicine against certain respiratory diseases. Despite this fact, little is known about the variation of its productivity under Central European climatic conditions. The cultivated populations of hyssop can be characterised by a significant heterogenity. In the course of its breeding the uniformity of flower colour (e.g. blue form), and increase in the oil content are the main achievable purposes. The purpose of this work was to investigate both the variability of strains of different crigin and the time-dependent variations of its production parameters. The optimum of phytomass was obtained at the beginning of July. The essential oil content as well as compounds of the non volatile fractions were also investigated. The non volatile fractions for rosmarinic, caffeic acids were analysed mainly by TLC and densitometry. Both compounds were present in all samples and they are suitable for the characterisation of the plant. The essential oils were gained with Water Steam Distillation (WSD) and Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) with CO2. The oils were analysed by GC, GC-MS techniques. In the essential oil composition of the populations studied significant heterogenity could be observed. In the case of applying SFE extraction the oil composition is more uniform, similarly to the obtained by WSD adding hexane. The heterogenity can be experienced in the offsprings, too. If only the main four components (beta-pinene, limonene, pinocamphone, isopinocamphone) are regarded, among the offsprings clear and mixed lines alike can be found. Results of these experiments justify the necessity and usefulness of selection which is going on. PMID:9703705

  7. Carotenoid isomerase is key determinant of petal color of Calendula officinalis.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Sanae; Ohmiya, Akemi

    2012-01-01

    Orange petals of calendula (Calendula officinalis) accumulate red carotenoids with the cis-configuration at the C-5 or C-5' position (5-cis-carotenoids). We speculated that the orange-flowered calendula is a carotenoid isomerase (crtiso) loss-of-function mutant that impairs the cis-to-trans conversion of 5-cis-carotenoids. We compared the sequences and enzyme activities of CRTISO from orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas. Four types of CRTISO were expressed in calendula petals. The deduced amino acid sequence of one of these genes (CoCRTISO1) was different between orange- and yellow-flowered calendulas, whereas the sequences of the other three CRTISOs were identical between these plants. Analysis of the enzymatic activities of the CoCRTISO homologs showed that CoCRTISO1-Y, which was expressed in yellow petals, converted carotenoids from the cis-to-trans-configuration, whereas both CoCRTISO1-ORa and 1-ORb, which were expressed in orange petals, showed no activity with any of the cis-carotenoids we tested. Moreover, the CoCRTISO1 genotypes of the F2 progeny obtained by crossing orange and yellow lines linked closely to petal color. These data indicate that CoCRTISO1 is a key regulator of the accumulation of 5-cis-carotenoids in calendula petals. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the deletion of Cys-His-His at positions 462-464 in CoCRTISO1-ORa and a Gly-to-Glu amino acid substitution at position 450 in CoCRTISO1-ORb abolished enzyme activity completely, indicating that these amino acid residues are important for the enzymatic activity of CRTISO. PMID:22069331

  8. Relaxant effect of essential oil of Melissa officinalis and citral on rat ileum contractions.

    PubMed

    Sadraei, H; Ghannadi, A; Malekshahi, K

    2003-07-01

    The relaxant effect of the essential oil of Melissa officinalis and its main component, citral, on rat isolated ileum contractions was evaluated. M. officinalis essential oil (MOEO) inhibited the response to KCl (80 mM), ACh (320 nM) and 5-HT (1.28 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner with a IC(50) of approximately 20 ng/ml. Citral also had a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on contraction of rat ileum with IC(50)s comparable to that of MOEO. PMID:12837359

  9. The influence of standardized Valeriana officinalis extract on the CYP3A1 gene expression by nuclear receptors in in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Anna; Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M; Karasiewicz, Monika; Bartkowiak-Wieczorek, Joanna; Majchrzycki, Marian; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309

  10. The Influence of Standardized Valeriana officinalis Extract on the CYP3A1 Gene Expression by Nuclear Receptors in In Vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Mrozikiewicz, Przemyslaw M.; Karasiewicz, Monika; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L.; Ozarowski, Marcin; Grzeskowiak, Edmund

    2014-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis is one of the most popular medicinal plants commonly used as a sedative and sleep aid. It is suggested that its pharmacologically active compounds derived from the root may modulate the CYP3A4 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor (PXR) or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and lead to pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of valerian on the expression level of CYP3A1 (homologue to human CYP3A4) as well as nuclear receptors PXR, CAR, RXR, GR, and HNF-4α. Male Wistar rats were given standardized valerian extract (300 mg/kg/day, p.o.) for 3 and 10 days. The expression in liver tissue was analyzed by using real-time PCR. Our result showed a decrease of CYP3A1 expression level by 35% (P = 0.248) and 37% (P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, Valeriana exhibited statistically significant reduction in RXR (approximately 28%) only after 3-day treatment. We also demonstrated a decrease in the amount HNF-4α by 22% (P = 0.005) and 32% (P = 0.012), respectively. In case of CAR, the increase of expression level by 46% (P = 0.023) was noted. These findings suggest that Valeriana officinalis extract can decrease the CYP3A4 expression and therefore may lead to interactions with synthetic drugs metabolized by this enzyme. PMID:25302309