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Sample records for plant extracts psidium

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different plant extracts of Psidium cattleianum Sabine.

    PubMed

    Scur, M C; Pinto, F G S; Pandini, J A; Costa, W F; Leite, C W; Temponi, L G

    2016-02-01

    The goals of the study were to determinethe antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oil and plant extracts aqueous and ethanolic of Psidium cattleianum Sabine; the chemical composition of the essential oil of P. cattleianum; and the phytochemical screening of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the same plant. Regarding the antimicrobial activity, the ethanolic extract exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity with respect to bacteria K. pneumoniae and S. epidermidis, whereas, regarding other microorganisms, it showed activity considered weak. The aqueous extract and the essential oil showed activity considered weak, although they inhibited the growth of microorganisms. About the antioxidant potential, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited a scavenging index exceeding 90%, while the essential oil didn´t show significant antioxidant activity. Regarding the phytochemical composition, the largest class of volatile compounds identified in the essential oil of P. cattleianum included the following terpenic hydrocarbons: α-copaene (22%); eucalyptol (15%), δ-cadinene (9.63%) and α-selinene (6.5%). The phytochemical screening of extracts showed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and triterpenoids for aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The extracts and essential oils inhibit the growth of microrganisms and plant extracts showed significant antioxidant activity. Also, the phytochemical characterization of the essential oil showed the presence of compounds interest commercial, as well as extracts showed the presence of important classes and compounds with biological activities. PMID:26871744

  2. Preliminary Phytochemical and Antibacterial Evaluation of Crude Aqueous Extract of Psidium guajava Leaf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.

    The leaves of Psidium guajava is used in folk medicine as an antidiarrhoic in Nigeria and many other countries of the world. It is also employed for the treatment of vertigo and regulation of menstrual periods. World health organization encourages and indicated that studies on medicinal plants should include both identification of chemical constituents and determination of the biological activities of such plants. In this preliminary study, phytochemical and antibacterial properties of crude aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaf were evaluated. The extract was subjected to qualitative chemical screening for identification of various classes of active chemical constituents while disc diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial properties of the extract against some gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The extract showed the presence of tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The extract inhibited the growth of Salmonella typhi and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but has no effect on the growth of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus fecalis organisms. The study revealed some antibacterial properties of the extract that justify the use of the plant in folk medicine. However, further studies need to be carried out to identify the potentials of the plant to be considered as a natural source of antibacterial agent.

  3. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  4. Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruits.

    PubMed

    Amutha Gnana Arasi, Michael Antony Samy; Gopal Rao, Manchineela; Bagyalakshmi, Janardanan

    2016-10-01

    This study deals with the optimization of microwave assisted extraction of polysaccharide from Psidium guajava L. fruit using Response surface methodology. To evaluate the effect of three independent variables, Water to plant material ratio, microwave power used for extraction and Irradiation time, central composite design has been employed. The yield is considered as dependent variable. The design model estimated the optimum yield of 6.81677% at 200W microwave power level, 3:1 water to plant material ratio and 20min of irradiation time. Three factors three levels Central composite design coupled with RSM was used to model the extraction process. ANOVA was performed to find the significance of the model. The polysaccharide extracted using microwave assisted extraction process was analyzed using FTIR Spectroscopy. PMID:27180292

  5. Spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) leaf aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Chiwororo, Witness D H; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-02-01

    Globally, primary dysmenorrhoea is one of the most frequent gynaecological disorders in young women. It is associated with increased uterine tone, and exaggerated contractility of uterine smooth muscles. In many rural African communities, a number of medicinal plants, including Psidium guajava Linn. (family: Myrtaceae), are used traditionally for the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. The present study was, therefore, undertaken to examine the spasmolytic effect of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract (PGE) on isolated, spontaneously-contracting and oestrogen-dominated, quiescent uterine horns of healthy, young adult, female Wistar rats. Graded, escalated concentrations of PGE (0.5-4.0 mg/ml) produced concentration-dependent and significant inhibitions of the amplitude of spontaneous phasic contractions of the isolated rat uterine horn preparations. In a concentration-related manner, PGE also significantly inhibited or abolished contractions produced by acetylcholine (ACh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml), oxytocin (0.5-4.0 microU), bradykinin (2.5-10 ng/ml), carbachol (CCh, 0.5-8.0 microg/ml) or potassium chloride (K+, 10-80 mM) in quiescent uterine horn preparations isolated from the oestrogen-dominated rats. The spasmolytic effect of PGE observed in the present study lends pharmacological support to the traditional use of ;guava' leaves in the management, control and/or treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea in some rural African communities. PMID:19377271

  6. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2016-08-01

    Among the various inorganic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the field of antimicrobial research. For safe and biocompatible use of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial research, the different biogenic routes are developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles that do not use toxic chemicals. Among those, to synthesize silver nanoparticles, the use of plant part extract becomes an emerging field because plant part acts as reducing as well as capping agent. For large-scale production of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using plant part, the synthesis route should be very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly based on easy availability and non-toxic nature of plant, stability and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles. In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties, and it is easily available in all seasons and everywhere. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis and TEM analysis. The average particle size is 40 nm in the range of 10-90 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show that green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using guava ( Psidium guajava) leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  7. Biogenic synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract and its antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Debadin; Chatterjee, Someswar

    2015-09-01

    Among the various inorganic nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles have received substantial attention in the field of antimicrobial research. For safe and biocompatible use of silver nanoparticles in antimicrobial research, the different biogenic routes are developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles that do not use toxic chemicals. Among those, to synthesize silver nanoparticles, the use of plant part extract becomes an emerging field because plant part acts as reducing as well as capping agent. For large-scale production of antibacterial silver nanoparticles using plant part, the synthesis route should be very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly based on easy availability and non-toxic nature of plant, stability and antibacterial potential of biosynthesized nanoparticles. In the present study, we report a very simple, rapid, cost-effective and environment friendly route for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract as reducing as well as capping agent. This plant has been opted for the present study for its known medicinal properties, and it is easily available in all seasons and everywhere. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles are characterized by UV-Vis and TEM analysis. The average particle size is 40 nm in the range of 10-90 nm. The antibacterial activity of these nanoparticles against Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 has been measured by disc diffusion method, agar cup assay and serial dilution turbidity measurement assay. The results show that green synthesized silver nanoparticles, using guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extract, have a potential to inhibit the growth of bacteria.

  8. Psidium guajava leaf extract prevents intestinal colonization of Citrobacter rodentium in the mouse model.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Pooja; Birdi, Tannaz

    2015-01-01

    Diarrheal diseases are the second highest cause of mortality of children under 5 years worldwide. There is a continuous search for developing a cost-effective treatment for diarrhea as the present ones are facing challenges. Medicinal plants can be explored further as an alternative treatment for diarrhea. Psidium guajava leaves have been used as an antidiarrheal globally. Citrobacter rodentium, a common mouse pathogen, is known to mimic the pathogenecity of enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. It can thus present an effective model to study infectious diarrhea. In the present study, the P. guajava leaf extract was tested for its efficacy in treating infectious diarrhea using a C. rodentium mouse model. The mice in the test group (treated with P. guajava leaf extract) showed quicker clearance of infection as compared with the control group. The bacterial load in the fecal sample of the mice in the test group was high on Day 4 as compared with that in the control group, suggesting a flush out of the bacteria. In the test group, 6/7 (85.71%) mice showed clearance of infection by Day 19. The control group continued to show infection till Day 29. P. guajava leaf extract thus has the potential for use in the treatment of infectious diarrhea. PMID:25878465

  9. Analyzing clonal fidelity of micropropagated Psidium guajava L. plants using simple sequence repeat markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micropropagation of Psidium guajava L. (guava) is a viable alternative to currently adopted techniques for large-scale plant propagation of commercial cultivars. Assessment of clonal fidelity in micropropagated plants is the first step towards ensuring genetic uniformity in mass production of planti...

  10. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations.

    PubMed

    Mahaseth, R K; Kumar, S; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10(-7) M) and ketanserin (10(-6) M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems. PMID:26664068

  11. Pharmacodynamic Study of Interaction of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Psidium Guajava Linn. (Myrtaceae) with Receptor Systems Using Isolated Tissue Preparations

    PubMed Central

    Mahaseth, R. K.; Kumar, S.; Dutta, Shagun; Sehgal, Ratika; Rajora, Preety; Mathur, Rajani

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigates the interaction of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava with muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor system using isolated rat ileum, gastric fundus and trachea, respectively. The concentration-dependent contractile response of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava was parallel and rightward of standard agonists, ACh and 5-HT indicating agonistic activity on muscarinic and serotonergic receptor systems. The inhibition of aqueous leaf extract of Psidium guajava mediated contractions in presence of atropine (10-7 M) and ketanserin (10-6 M) confirmed the activity. Relaxant effect of PG (0.2 mg/ml) on carbachol induced pre-contracted rat tracheal chain indicated its agonistic action on adrenergic receptor system. Inhibition (P<0.05) of the action in the presence of propranolol (1 ng/ml) confirmed the activity. It may be concluded that PG possesses agonistic action on muscarinic, serotonergic and adrenergic receptor systems. PMID:26664068

  12. Psidium guajava and Piper betle Leaf Extracts Prolong Vase Life of Cut Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Lgu, K. S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of leaf extracts of Psidium guajava and Piper betle on prolonging vase life of cut carnation flowers was studied. “Carola” and “Pallas Orange” carnation flowers, at bud stage, were pulsed 24 hours with a floral preservative. Then, flowers were placed in a vase solution containing sprite and a “germicide” (leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle, 8-HQC, or a copper coin). Flowers treated with 8-HQC, copper coin, and leaf extracts had longer vase life, larger flower diameter, and higher rate of water uptake compared to control (tap water). The leaf extracts of P. guajava and P. betle showed highest antibacterial and antifungal activities compared to the other treatments. Both showed similar effects on flower quality as the synthetic germicide, 8-HQC. Therefore, these extracts are likely natural germicides to prolong vase life of cut flowers. PMID:22619568

  13. Antimicrobial Compounds from Leaf Extracts of Jatropha curcas, Psidium guajava, and Andrographis paniculata

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. M.; Ahmad, S. H.; Mohamed, M. T. M.; Ab Rahman, M. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted to discover antimicrobial compounds in methanolic leaf extracts of Jatropha curcas and Andrographis paniculata and ethanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava and the effectiveness against microbes on flower preservative solution of cut Mokara Red orchid flowers was evaluated. The leaves were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of nine, 66, and 29 compounds were identified in J. curcas, P. guajava, and A. paniculata leaf extracts, with five (88.18%), four (34.66%), and three (50.47%) having unique antimicrobial compounds, respectively. The experimental design on vase life was conducted using a completely randomized design with 10 replications. The flower vase life was about 6 days in the solution containing the P. guajava and A. paniculata leaf extracts at 15mg/L. Moreover, solution with leaf extracts of A. paniculata had the lowest bacterial count compared to P. guajava and J. curcas. Thus, these leaf extracts revealed the presence of relevant antimicrobial compounds. The leaf extracts have the potential as a cut flower solution to minimize microbial populations and extend flower vase life. However, the activities of specific antimicrobial compounds and double or triple combination leaf extracts to enhance the effectiveness to extend the vase life need to be tested. PMID:25250382

  14. Guava extract (Psidium guajava) alters the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99m*

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.R.C.; Almeida, M.C.; Bernardo, R.M.; Bernardo, L.C.; Brito, L.C.; Garcia, E.A.C.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2006-01-01

    Psidium guajava (guava) leaf is a phytotherapic used in folk medicine to treat gastrointestinal and respiratory disturbances and is used as anti-inflammatory medicine. In nuclear medicine, blood constituents (BC) are labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) and used to image procedures. However, data have demonstrated that synthetic or natural drugs could modify the labelling of BC with 99mTc. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of aqueous extract of guava leaves on the labelling of BC with 99mTc. Blood samples of Wistar rats were incubated with different concentrations of guava extract and labelled with 99mTc after the percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in BC was determined. The results suggest that aqueous guava extract could present antioxidant action and/or alters the membrane structures involved in ion transport into cells, thus decreasing the radiolabelling of BC with 99mTc. The data showed significant (P<0.05) alteration of ATI in BC from blood incubated with guava extract. PMID:16691636

  15. Protoplast isolation and plant regeneration of guava (Psidium guajava L.) using experiments in mixture-amount design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A protocol was established for plant regeneration from leaf protoplasts of guava (Psidium guajava L.) using mixture-amount (concentration) experiments. A protoplast yield of 3.7 × 106 (viability > 90 percent) was obtained when 1 g leaf strips were digested in a solution of approximately 0.75 M osmot...

  16. Optimization of ultrasonic-assisted extraction of antioxidant compounds from Guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves using response surface methodology

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fansheng; Yu, Shujuan; Feng, Zeng; Wu, Xinlan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To optimization of extraction of antioxidant compounds from guava (Psidium guajava L.) leaves and showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. Materials and Methods: The bioactive polysaccharide compounds of guava leaves (P. guajava L.) were obtained using ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Extraction was carried out according to Box-Behnken central composite design, and independent variables were temperature (20–60°C), time (20–40 min) and power (200–350 W). The extraction process was optimized by using response surface methodology for the highest crude extraction yield of bioactive polysaccharide compounds. Results: The optimal conditions were identified as 55°C, 30 min, and 240 W. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl and hydroxyl free radical scavenging were conducted. Conclusion: The results of quantification showed that the guava leaves are the potential source of antioxidant compounds. PMID:26246720

  17. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GUAVA (PSIDIUM GUAJAVA L.) AND NEEM (AZADIRACHTA INDICA A. JUSS.)EXTRACTS AGAINST FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS AND SPOILAGE BACTERIA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to investigate the antibacterial properties of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against a number of common food borne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Screening for antibacterial activity was determined by disc diffusion assay against 21...

  18. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. R. V.; Azzolini, A. E. C. S.; Martinez, M. L. L.; Souza, C. R. F.; Lucisano-Valim, Y. M.; Oliveira, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  19. The antimosquito properties of extracts from flowering plants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chalannavar, R K; Hurinanthan, V; Singh, A; Venugopala, K N; Gleiser, R M; Baijnath, H; Odhav, B

    2013-12-01

    Extracts of selected flowering plants, which are considered eco-friendly, are used for the treatment of numerous ailments and vector control worldwide. This has resulted in approximately 25 per cent of currently used drugs being derived from herbal sources. The aqueous and methanolic extracts of twelve plant species, Psidium guajava (pink fruit), Psidium guajava (white fruit), Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum, Psidium guineense and Psidium X durbanensis, Achyranthes aspera, Alternanthera sessilis, Guilleminea densa, Capparis tomentosa, Leonotis leonurus, Dichrostachys cinerea and Carpobrotus dimidiatus, were tested for insecticidal activity, including larvicidal, adulticidal and repellent activities against the adult female mosquito, Anopheles arabiensis. The extracts of P. guajava (white fruit), C. tomentosa, L. leonurus,D. cinerea, and C. dimidiatus exerted a pronounced inhibitory effect on adult insects, while those of P. guajava (pink fruit), P. X durbanensis, P. cattleianum var. cattleianum, P. guineense, A. aspera, A. sessilis, and G. densa were ineffective and failed to satisfy the criteria set by the World Health Organization. In the tests for repellency against An. arabiensis, all the tested aqueous and methanolic plant extracts except those of A. sessilis repelled 80-100% of mosquitoes. The most effective mosquito repellents were the methanol and aqueous extracts of P. guajava (pink fruit), P. X durbanensis, P. cattleianum var. cattleianum, P. guineense, G. densa,L. leonurus and D. cinerea, which are potential sources of cost effective mosquito repellents to be utilized in malarial endemic areas. PMID:24522123

  20. Antimicrobial Activities of Leaf Extracts of Guava (Psidium guajava L.) on Two Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Bipul; Rogers, Kimberly; McLaughlin, Fredrick; Yadav, Anand

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To determine the antimicrobial potential of guava (Psidium guajava) leaf extracts against two gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis) and two gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) which are some of foodborne and spoilage bacteria. The guava leaves were extracted in four different solvents of increasing polarities (hexane, methanol, ethanol, and water). The efficacy of these extracts was tested against those bacteria through a well-diffusion method employing 50 μL leaf-extract solution per well. According to the findings of the antibacterial assay, the methanol and ethanol extracts of the guava leaves showed inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria, whereas the gram-negative bacteria were resistant to all the solvent extracts. The methanol extract had an antibacterial activity with mean zones of inhibition of 8.27 and 12.3 mm, and the ethanol extract had a mean zone of inhibition of 6.11 and 11.0 mm against B. cereus and S. aureus, respectively. On the basis of the present finding, guava leaf-extract might be a good candidate in the search for a natural antimicrobial agent. This study provides scientific understanding to further determine the antimicrobial values and investigate other pharmacological properties. PMID:24223039

  1. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Jain, Richa; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh; Shekar, Suma

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this in vitro study was to assess antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, Psidium guajava extracts, and their combination on Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus. Materials and Methods: The branches of four plants were collected, identified, and authenticated by a taxonomist. The plants were rinsed in water, healthy leaves were separated and shade dried over a period of 3-4 weeks. Soxhlet apparatus using ethanol was employed for extraction procedure. The combinations of plant extracts were prepared by mixing equal quantities of 10% solutions of each of these extracts. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done using agar well-diffusion method under anaerobic conditions. The mean diameter of inhibition zone was computed and compared between different categories using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test. A qualitative assay was carried out to identify the various phytochemical constituents in the plants. The data was assessed by SPSS version 20. The statistical significance was fixed at 0.05. Results: All the plants extracts and their combinations inhibited S. mutans and L. acidophilus. However, the quadruple combination of A. nilotica + M. koenigii (L.) Sprengel + Eucalyptus hybrid + P. guajava produced the maximum inhibition zone (23.5 ± 2.2 mm) against S. mutans. Although, 0.2% chlorhexidine produced the highest inhibition zone against L. acidophilus (18.8 ± 1.2 mm), A. nilotica extract produced maximum inhibition among the various plant extracts and their combinations (14.1 ± 1.8 mm). Conclusion: All the individual plant extracts and their combinations were effective against S. mutans and L. acidophilus. These could be tried as herbal alternates to chlorhexidine. However, these in vitro results have to be further evaluated for any toxicity of the

  2. Antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava L.) and Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) extracts against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria.

    PubMed

    Mahfuzul Hoque, M D; Bari, M L; Inatsu, Y; Juneja, Vijay K; Kawamoto, S

    2007-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of guava (Psidium guajava) and neem (Azadirachta indica) extracts against 21 strains of foodborne pathogens were determined--Listeria monocytogenes (five strains), Staphylococcus aureus (four strains), Escherichia coli O157:H7 (six strains), Salmonella Enteritidis (four strains), Vibrio parahaemolyticus, and Bacillus cereus, and five food spoilage bacteria: Pseudomonas aeroginosa, P. putida, Alcaligenes faecalis, and Aeromonas hydrophila (two strains). Guava and neem extracts showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria compared to Gram-negative bacteria except for V. parahaemolyticus, P. aeroginosa, and A. hydrophila. None of the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Enteritidis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethanol extracts of guava showed the highest inhibition for L. monocytogenes JCM 7676 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2151 (0.1 mg/mL), S. aureus JCM 2179 (0.1 mg/mL), and V. parahaemolyticus IFO 12711 (0.1 mg/mL) and the lowest inhibition for Alcaligenes faecalis IFO 12669, Aeromonas hydrophila NFRI 8282 (4.0 mg/mL), and A. hydrophila NFRI 8283 (4.0 mg/mL). The MIC of chloroform extracts of neem showed similar inhibition for L. monocytogenes ATCC 43256 (4.0 mg/mL) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 49594 (5.0 mg/mL). However, ethanol extracts of neem showed higher inhibition for S. aureus JCM 2151 (4.5 mg/mL) and S. aureus IFO 13276 (4.5 mg/mL) and the lower inhibition for other microorganisms (6.5 mg/mL). No significant effects of temperature and pH were found on guava and neem extracts against cocktails of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. The results of the present study suggest that guava and neem extracts possess compounds containing antibacterial properties that can potentially be useful to control foodborne pathogens and spoilage organisms. PMID:18041957

  3. Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78) infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.; Tijjani, M. B.; Gambo, H. I.; Gulani, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was desingned to examine the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracted Psidium guajava leaves on chicks experimentally-infected with diarrheagenic strain of Escherichia coli O78. Methods: A total of 60 ISA brown male chicks were randomly divided into 6 Groups of ten chicks each in separate cages. Group A was not infected and not treated. Groups B, C and D were infected and treated with extracts at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 10 days. Group E was infected and treated with oxytetracycline while Group F was infected, but left untreated. Chicks from all groups were closely monitored for clinical signs, body weight change and fecal bacterial shedding load during the course of the experiment. Results: Diarrhea, vents pasted with feces, drop in feed intake accompanied by slow weight gain and decreased activity was observed in infected untreated groups. Groups treated with graded doses of the extract experienced a dose-dependent decreased in severity of the clinical signs shown compared to the infected untreated group. Bacterial shedding load was found to be lower in groups treated with the extract and oxytetracycline than those without intervention. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of leaf extract of Psidium guajava effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of other clinical signs caused by experimental E. coli infections in chicks. PMID:27047097

  4. Psidium guajava L. and Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC.: Chemical composition and anti - Candida effect in association with fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria Flaviana B; Sales, Débora L; Carneiro, Joara Nalyda P; Machado, Antonio Júdson T; Dos Santos, Antonia Thassya L; de Freitas, Maria Audilene; Martins, Gioconda Morais de A Bezerra; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; de Matos, Yedda Maria L S; Tintino, Saulo R; Souza, Djair S L; Menezes, Irwin R A; Ribeiro-Filho, Jaime; Costa, José G M; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-06-01

    The therapeutic combinations have been increasingly used against fungal resistance. Natural products have been evaluated in combination with pharmaceutical drugs in the search for new components able to work together in order to neutralize the multiple resistance mechanisms found in yeasts from the genus Candida. The aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts from Psidium brownianum Mart ex DC. and Psidium guajava L. species were evaluated for their potential to change the effect of commercial pharmaceutical drugs against Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis strains. The tests were performed according to the broth microdilution method. Plate readings were carried out by spectrophotometry, and the data generated the cell viability curve and IC50 of the extracts against the yeasts. A chemical analysis of all the extracts was performed for detection and characterization of the secondary metabolites. The total phenols were quantified in gallic acid eq/g of extract (GAE/g) and the phenolic composition of the extracts was determined by HPLC. Fluconazole and all extracts presented high Minimum Inhibitories Concentrations (MICs). However, when associated with the extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations (MIC/16), fluconazole had its effect potentiated. A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of fluconazole with Psidium brownianum extracts against all Candida strains. However, for Psidium guajava extracts the synergistic effect was produced mainly against the Candida albicans LM77 and Candida tropicalis INCQS 400042 strains. The IC50 values of fluconazole ranged from 19.22 to 68.1 μg/mL when it was used alone, but from 2.2 to 45.4 μg/mL in the presence of the extracts. The qualitative chemical characterization demonstrated the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins among the secondary metabolites. The concentration of total phenols ranged from 49.25 to 80.77 GAE/g in the P. brownianum extracts and from 68.06 to 82.18 GAE/g in the P. guajava extracts

  5. Phenolic-rich extract from the Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) pulp with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Potential for COPD therapy.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wu, Shi-Biao; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J; Reynertson, Kurt A; Foronjy, Robert F; D Armiento, Jeanine M; Kennelly, Edward J

    2013-11-15

    The potential therapeutic effects of Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) extracts for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined. The ethyl acetate fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, as compared to the hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions, as well as the crude extract. This fraction was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity response relationship against interleukin-8 (IL-8) and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression before and after treatment with cigarette smoke. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, showing the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100μg/mL, and nine compounds (1-9) were found. Phenolic compounds 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-β-d-glucopyranose (2), ellagic acid (3), myricetin (4), quercitrin (7), and quercetin (9) were identified using standard compounds or literature reports from related species. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 8 were tentatively identified as 1,5-dimethyl citrate (1), sinapic aldehyde 4-O-β-d-glucopyranose (5), 3,3',4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-d-glucopyranoside (6), and 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol (8), All nine compounds are reported for the first time in Costa Rican guava. PMID:23790863

  6. Phenolic-rich extract from the Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) pulp with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Potential for COPD therapy

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gema; Dastmalchi, Keyvan; Wu, Shi-Biao; Whalen, Kathleen; Dabo, Abdoulaye J.; Reynertson, Kurt A.; Foronjy, Robert F.; D’Armiento, Jeanine M.; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2016-01-01

    The potential therapeutic effects of Costa Rican guava (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) extracts for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were examined. The ethyl acetate fraction displayed the highest antioxidant activity, as compared to the hexane, chloroform, and n-butanol fractions, as well as the crude extract. This fraction was evaluated for its anti-inflammatory activity response relationship against interleukin-8 (IL-8) and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression before and after treatment with cigarette smoke. The ethyl acetate fraction exhibited inhibitory activity against IL-8 production and MMP-1 expression, showing the most potent inhibitory activities in both assays at 100 μg/mL, and nine compounds (1–9) were found. Phenolic compounds 1-O-trans-cinnamoyl-β-D-glucopyranose (2), ellagic acid (3), myricetin (4), quercitrin (7), and quercetin (9) were identified using standard compounds or literature reports from related species. Compounds 1, 5, 6, and 8 were tentatively identified as 1,5-dimethyl citrate (1), sinapic aldehyde 4-O-β-D-glucopyranose (5), 3,3′,4-tri-O-methylellagic acid-4′-O-D-glucopyranoside (6), and 1,3-O-diferuloylglycerol (8), All nine compounds are reported for the first time in Costa Rican guava. PMID:23790863

  7. [Model of intraluminal perfusion of the guinea pig ileum in vitro in the study of the antidiarrheal properties of the guava (Psidium guajava)].

    PubMed

    Lozoya, X; Becerril, G; Martínez, M

    1990-01-01

    An experimental in vitro model was developed for the study of plant extracts reported by traditional medicines in the treatment of diarrhea. The guinea-pig isolated ileum is perfused with the plant extract using an intraluminal approach. The peristaltic reflex is induced by electrical stimulation while the plant extract is perfused. The spasmolytic effects of Psidium guajava leaf methanol, hexane and water extracts were demonstrated suggesting the existence of two different types of active components. The results obtained allow to propose this in vitro method as a useful model to reproduce some of the characteristics of the oral way of administration of plant extracts. PMID:2103704

  8. Psidium guajava Linn. leaf extract affects hepatic glucose transporter-2 to attenuate early onset of insulin resistance consequent to high fructose intake: An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, R.; Dutta, Shagun; Velpandian, T.; Mathur, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is amalgam of pathologies like altered glucos metabolism, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and associated with type-II diabetes and cardiometabolic diseases. One of the reasons leading to its increased and early incidence is understood to be a high intake of processed fructose containing foods and beverages by individuals, especially, during critical developmental years. Objective: To investigate the preventive potential of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves (PG) against metabolic pathologies, vis-à-vis, IR, dyslipidemia, hyperleptinemia and hypertension, due to excess fructose intake initiated during developmental years. Materials and Methods: Post-weaning (4 weeks old) male rats were provided fructose (15%) as drinking solution, ad libitum, for 8 weeks and assessed for food and water/fructose intake, body weight, fasting blood sugar, mean arterial pressure, lipid biochemistry, endocrinal (insulin, leptin), histopathological (fatty liver) and immunohistochemical (hepatic glucose transporter [GLUT2]) parameters. Parallel treatment groups were administered PG in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg/d, po × 8 weeks and assessed for same parameters. Using extensive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry protocols, PG was analyzed for the presence of phytoconstituents like Myrecetin, Luteolin, Kaempferol and Guavanoic acid and validated to contain Quercetin up to 9.9%w/w. Results: High fructose intake raised circulating levels of insulin and leptin and hepatic GLUT2 expression to promote IR, dyslipidemia, and hypertension that were favorably re-set with PG. Although PG is known for its beneficial role in diabetes mellitus, for the first time we report its potential in the management of lifelong pathologies arising from high fructose intake initiated during developmental years. PMID:25829790

  9. SSR markers: a tool for species identification in Psidium (Myrtaceae).

    PubMed

    Tuler, A C; Carrijo, T T; Nóia, L R; Ferreira, A; Peixoto, A L; da Silva Ferreira, M F

    2015-11-01

    Molecular DNA markers are used for detection of polymorphisms in individuals. As they are independent of developmental stage of the plant and environmental influences, they can be useful tools in taxonomy. The alleles of simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers (or microsatellites) are traditionally used to identify taxonomic units. This application demands the laborious and costly delimitation of exclusive alleles in order to avoid homoplasy. Here, we propose a method for identification of species based on the amplification profile of groups of SSR markers obtained by a transferability study. The approach considers that the SSR are conserved among related species. In this context, using Psidium as a model, 141 SSR markers developed for Psidium guajava were transferred to 13 indigenous species of Psidium from the Atlantic Rainforest. Transferability of the markers was high and 28 SSR were conserved in all species. Four SSR groups were defined and they can help in the identification of all 13 Psidium species studied. A group of 31 SSR was genotyped, with one to six alleles each. The H0 varied from 0.0 to 0.46, and PIC from 0.0 to 0.74. Cluster analysis revealed shared alleles among species. The high percentage of SSR transferability found in Psidium evidences the narrow phylogenetic relationship existing among these species since transferability occurs by the preservation of the microsatellites and anchoring regions. The proposed method was useful for distinguishing the species of Psidium, being useful in taxonomic studies. PMID:26476530

  10. Study to find the best extraction solvent for use with guava leaves (Psidium guajava L.) for high antioxidant efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jongkwon; Lee, Soojung; Elam, Marcus L; Johnson, Sarah A; Kang, Jonghoon; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2014-01-01

    The effects of guava leaves extracted using solvents of water, ethanol, methanol, and different concentrations of hydroethanolic solvents on phenolic compounds and flavonoids, and antioxidant properties have been investigated. The antioxidant capability was assessed based on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical and 2,2′-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical-scavenging abilities, reducing power, and nitric oxide-and nitrate-scavenging activities. The results demonstrated that the antioxidant ability of guava leaf extracts has a strong relationship with phenolic compound content rather than flavonoid content. Phenolic compound content of water extracted guava leaves was higher compared to pure ethanol and methanol extracts. However, phenolic compound content extracted using hydroethanolic solvent was higher than water, whereas 50% hydroethanolic was observed to be the most effective solvent showing high antioxidant ability. PMID:24804076

  11. Prevention of Bacterial Biofilms Formation on Urinary Catheter by Selected Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Adesina, T D; Nwinyi, O C; Olugbuyiro, J A O

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum leaf extracts in preventing Escherichia coli biofilm formation. The plants extractions were done with methanol under cold extraction. The various concentrations 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) were used to coat 63 catheters under mild heat from water bath. Biofilm formation on the catheter was induced using cultures of E. coli. Biofilm formation was evaluated using aerobic plate count and turbidity at 600 nm. From the obtained results, Psidium guajava, Mangifera indica and Ocimum gratissimum delayed the onset of biofilm formation for a week. Ocimum gratissimum coated catheter had the highest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1) with bacterial count ranging from 2.2 x 10(5)-7.0 x 10(4) and 5.7 x 10(5)-3.7 x10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. The Psidium guajava coated catheter had the lowest inhibitory effect at 5.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg mL(-1), with bacterial count ranging between 4.3 x 10(5)-1.9 x 10(3) and 7.7 x 10(5)-3.8 x 10(5) for 120 and 128 h, respectively. Despite the antimicrobial activities, the differences in the activity of these plant extracts were statistically not significant (p < 0.05). PMID:26364356

  12. In vitro activity of Amazon plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    de Castilho, Adriana Lígia; da Silva, Juliana Paola Correa; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Varella, Antonio Drauzio; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies analyzing 2,200 plant extracts indicated anti-enterococcal activity in 25 extracts obtained from Brazilian forests’ plants. In the present study, these extracts were subjected to microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and disk diffusion assay (DDA) using planktonic Enterococcus faecalis ATCC® 29212™ and were submitted to phytochemical analysis in TLC and HPLC. Three extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba (MIC < 40 μg/mL), Diclinanona calycina (MIC ≤ 40 μg/mL) and Moronobea coccinea (40 < MIC < 80 μg/mL; MBC = 80 μg/mL) showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA and four extracts obtained from I. alba (14.04 ± 0.55 mm diameter) S. globulifera (14.43 ± 0.33 mm and 12.18 ± 0.28 mm diameter) and Connarus ruber var. ruber (13.13 ± 0.18 mm diameter) were active in DDA. Residues H2O obtained from Psidium densicomum (mean of 16.78 mm diameter) and from Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum (mean of 15.97 mm diameter) have shown an improved antibacterial activity after fractionation if compared to that obtained from the respective crude extracts. Antioxidant activity was observed in some residues of the active extracts. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds are likely to be found in active extracts. Three molecules were isolated from S. globulifera and were identified by 13C NMR lupeol, α-amyrin and 3β-hydroxyglutin-5-ene. The present chemical and biological findings suggest that these extracts are a potential source of new anti-Enterococcus compounds to be introduced in endodontic therapy. PMID:25477906

  13. Antimicrobial efficacy of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers: An in vitro comparison between hot and cold extraction process

    PubMed Central

    Shekar, Chandra; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thakur, Rupesh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The potential drawbacks of the existing antiplaque agents call for innovative strategies that are safe, effective, and easily available. Objective: The objective was to assess and compare antimicrobial efficacy of four plant extracts derived using hot and cold extraction methods against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguis, and Streptococcus salivarius. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Acacia nilotica, P. guajava, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Murraya konigii L. Sprengel were collected from the surrounding areas, identified and authenticated by a taxonomist. The leaves were washed, shade-dried, and hand crushed to obtain coarse powder. This was subsequently ground into a fine powder and extracted using ethanol by cold infusion and hot extraction process. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done on American Type Culture Collection strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius using agar well diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and negative controls. The mean inhibition zone using 10% concentration of these extracts was compared using independent sample t-test and one-way analysis of variance. Results: All the four plant extracts inhibited the growth of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius irrespective of the method of extraction. The extracts of A. nilotica, P. guajava, and E. hybrid derived from both the methods of extraction exhibited a significantly higher inhibition zone against S. mutans in comparison with Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel and chlorhexidine. The cold extracts of A. nilotica and E. hybrid exhibited higher zone of inhibition against S. sanguis while the hot extracts of M. koenigii L. Sprengel exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. mutans. Conclusion: All the four plant extracts derived using either hot or cold extraction were effective against these bacteria and have the potential to be used as antiplaque agents. PMID:26015668

  14. Application of ionic liquids in the microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Du, Fu-You; Xiao, Xiao-Hua; Luo, Xue-Jun; Li, Gong-Ke

    2009-05-15

    Ionic liquids (ILs) solutions as solvents were successfully applied in the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants. ILs, its concentration and MAE conditions were investigated in order to extract polyphenolic compounds effectively from Psidium guajava Linn. (P. guajava) leaves and Smilax china (S. china) tubers. The results obtained indicated that the anions and cations of ILs had influences on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds as well as the ILs with electron-rich aromatic pi-system enhanced extraction ability. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction yields of the polyphenolic compounds were in the range of 79.5-93.8% with one-step extraction, and meanwhile the recoveries were in the range of 85.2-103% with relative standard deviations (R.S.D.s) lower than 5.6%. Compared to conventional extraction procedures, the results suggested that the proposed method was effective and alternative for the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plants. In addition, the extraction mechanisms and the structures of samples before and after extraction were also investigated. ILs solutions as green solvents in the MAE of polyphenolic compounds from medicinal plant samples showed a great promising prospect. PMID:19269490

  15. Metabolomic fingerprinting of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Mattoli, L; Cangi, F; Maidecchi, A; Ghiara, C; Ragazzi, E; Tubaro, M; Stella, L; Tisato, F; Traldi, P

    2006-12-01

    The standardization and quality control of plant extracts is an important topic, in particular, when such extracts are used for medicinal purposes. Consequently, the development of fast and effective analytical methods for metabolomic fingerprinting of plant extracts is of high interest. In this investigation, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and (1)H NMR techniques were employed with further statistical analyses of the acquired data. The results showed that negative ion mode ESI-MS is particularly effective for characterization of plant extracts. Different samples of the same species appear well-clustered and separated from the other species. To verify the effectiveness of the method, two other batches of extracts from a species, in which the principal components were already identified (Cynara scolymus), were analyzed, and the components that were verified by the principal component analysis (PCA) were found to be within the region identified as characteristic of Cynara Scolymus extracts. The data from extracts of the other species were well separated from those pertaining to the species previously characterized. Only the case of a species that was strictly correlated from a botanical point of view, with extracts that were previously analyzed, showed overlapping. PMID:17051519

  16. Plant tissue extraction for metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Ute; Dias, Daniel Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Plants are not only important producers of foods and energy storages (e.g., sugars, carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) in the form of grains, fruits, and vegetables, they also provide many valuable products to human existence including wood, fibers, oils, resins, pigments, antioxidants, and sources of medicine. Most importantly in light of this book, plants have been a source of therapeutic and health promoting compounds throughout history. This chapter describes several essential considerations for the extraction process when aiming to study plant metabolism or to characterize the chemical composition of plant originated samples using metabolomics technologies. PMID:23963900

  17. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Punica granatum mesocarp, Nelumbo nucifera Leaf, Psidium guajava Leaf and Coffea Canephora Extract on Common Oral Pathogens: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Viral V.; Rao, Ashwini; Shenoy, Ramya; B.H, Mithun Pai

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Alternative therapies are increasingly being explored as extensive use of synthetic chemicals has led to the emergence of substantial side effects. Phytomedicine has been well practiced as traditional medicine in various cultures for treatment of oral diseases. It has gained importance of late as an alternative to the conventional therapy. Various plant and fruit extracts have been monitored recently to assess their potential against the common oral pathogens. Aim of this study was to assess in-vitro efficacy of pomegranate peel, lotus leaf, guava leaf and coffee extracts on oral microorganisms. Materials and Methods: Concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were prepared for each, followed by efficacy testing using disc diffusion method against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Candida albicans. Results: All the four extracts were found to be effective against S.mutans and S.mitis, with maximum efficacy against S.mutans and S.mitis displayed by pomegranate and lotus. Antifungal efficacy was demonstrated by coffee and pomegranate. Guava, lotus and coffee were effective against P.intermedia, while only coffee was found to be effective against P. gingivalis. All the results were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interpretation & Conclusion: Pomegranate, guava, lotus and coffee displayed significant anticariogenic effect while coffee was found to be most effective against periodontal pathogens as well as Candida albicans. Results revealed that natural products may be used as economical and suitable adjuvant to synthetic medicines and compounds and their judicious use might not only help to inhibit the side effects of synthetic chemicals but also prove to be cost effective in developing economies. PMID:25177642

  18. Synergism between plant extract and antimicrobial drugs used on Staphylococcus aureus diseases.

    PubMed

    Betoni, Joyce Elaine Cristina; Mantovani, Rebeca Passarelli; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Di Stasi, Luiz Claudio; Fernandes Junior, Ary

    2006-06-01

    Searches for substances with antimicrobial activity are frequent, and medicinal plants have been considered interesting by some researchers since they are frequently used in popular medicine as remedies for many infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to verify the synergism between 13 antimicrobial drugs and 8 plant extracts--"guaco" (Mikania glomerata), guava (Psidium guajava), clove (Syzygium aromaticum), garlic (Allium sativum), lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), ginger (Zingiber officinale), "carqueja" (Baccharis trimera), and mint (Mentha piperita)--against Staphylococcus aureus strains, and for this purpose, the disk method was the antimicrobial susceptibility test performed. Petri dishes were prepared with or without dilution of plant extracts at sub-inhibitory concentrations in Mueller-Hinton Agar (MHA), and the inhibitory zones were recorded in millimeters. In vitro anti-Staphylococcus aureus activities of the extracts were confirmed, and synergism was verified for all the extracts; clove, guava, and lemongrass presented the highest synergism rate with antimicrobial drugs, while ginger and garlic showed limited synergistic capacity. PMID:16951808

  19. [Spectroscopic characteristics of novel Psidium meroterpenoids isolated from guava leaves].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Wen; Zhu, Xiao-ai; Liu, Xiao-juan; Yie, Shu-min; Zhao, Litchao; Su, Lei; Cao, Yong

    2015-07-01

    Recently, novel Psidium meroterpenoids were reported in the guava leaves. According to careful analysis of the spectral data of literatures, the spectroscopic characteristics and biosynthetic pathway of Psidium meroterpenoids were summarized in this paper. The results showed that Psidium meroterpenoids had distinct spectroscopic features and reasonable biosynthetic routines, however the number order of carbon atoms was not consistent in the reported literatures. It was concluded that Psidium meroterpenoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of Psidium guajava Linn. PMID:26666047

  20. In vitro antimalarial activity of extracts of some plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Misael; Valerio, Idalia; Sánchez, Ronald; Mora, Víctor; Bagnarello, Vanessa; Martínez, Laura; Gonzalez, Antonieta; Vanegas, Juan Carlos; Apestegui, Alvaro

    2012-06-01

    Treatment with the usual antimalarial drugs, have induced parasite resistance, reinforcing the need to finding natural antimalarial components that would be found on plants from the forest. Therefore, we decided to look for these components in Costa Rican plants from a protected forest area. Fresh and dry extracts of roots, bark, leaves, flowers and fruits of 25 plants from a biological reserve in Costa Rica, Reserva Biol6gica Alberto Manuel Brenes (REBAMB), were studied in vitro for the presence of substances with antimalarial activity. By studying the inhibition of P berghei schizogony, we assessed the antimalarial activity of several plant extracts: Aphelandra aurantiaca, A. tridentata (Acanthaceae); Xanthosoma undipes (Araceae); Iriartea deltoidea (Arecaceae); Neurolaena lobata (Asteraceae); Senna papillosa, Pterocarpus hayessi, Lonchocarpus pentaphyllus (Fabaceae); Nectandra membranacea, Persea povedae, Cinamomum chavarrianum (Lauraceae); Hampea appendiculata (Malvaceae); Ruagea glabra, Guarea glabra (Meliaceae); Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae); Bocconia frutescens (Papaveraceae); Piper friedrichsthalii (Piperaceae); Clematis dioica (Ranunculaceae); Prunus annularis (Rosaceae); Siparuna thecaphora (Siparunaceae); Solanum arboreum, Witheringia solanacea (Solanaceae); Ticodendrum incognitum (Ticodendraceae); Heliocarpus appendiculatus (Tiliaceae) and Myriocarpa longipes (Urticaceae). We used different parts of the plants as well as fresh and dried extracts for testing IC50. The solid content of the extracts ranged from 1-71.9 microg/mL. The fresh extracts showed stronger activity than the dry ones. Since the plants showing the strongest antimalarial activity are very common in Central America, and some similar genera of these plants have shown positives results in South America, we considered important to present these findings for discussion. On the other hand, this is the first systematic study of this kind ever realized in a circumscribed and protected area of

  1. In vitro antibacterial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Escherichia coli strains from human clinical specimens and interactions with antimicrobial drugs.

    PubMed

    Ushimaru, P I; Barbosa, L N; Fernandes, A A H; Di Stasi, L C; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    The biological properties of medicinal plants have been documented worldwide for many centuries. We aimed to evaluate interactions between crude extracts from Psidium guajava, Zingiber officinale, Cymbopogon citratus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, Mikania glomerata and Allium sativum samples and antimicrobial drugs against Escherichia coli strains. The susceptibility test performed was disc diffusion, and crude extracts were diluted (%v/v) into Müller-Hinton agar (MHA) at one quarter of the minimal inhibitory concentration for 90% (MIC(90%)) of E. coli strains found previously. Synergistic interactions were observed between C. citratus and polymyxin, and A. sativum extracts and gentamicin. The crude A. sativum extract was the only one that did not show any antagonism with the antimicrobial drugs. The results thus showed the potential use of these medicinal plants against E. coli strains, although antagonism with antimicrobial drugs is a negative aspect in the combined therapy of infectious diseases caused by E. coli. PMID:22011190

  2. Cytotoxic, Virucidal, and Antiviral Activity of South American Plant and Algae Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Faral-Tello, Paula; Mirazo, Santiago; Dutra, Carmelo; Pérez, Andrés; Geis-Asteggiante, Lucía; Frabasile, Sandra; Koncke, Elina; Davyt, Danilo; Cavallaro, Lucía; Heinzen, Horacio; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection has a prevalence of 70% in the human population. Treatment is based on acyclovir, valacyclovir, and foscarnet, three drugs that share the same mechanism of action and of which resistant strains have been isolated from patients. In this aspect, innovative drug therapies are required. Natural products offer unlimited opportunities for the discovery of antiviral compounds. In this study, 28 extracts corresponding to 24 plant species and 4 alga species were assayed in vitro to detect antiviral activity against HSV-1. Six of the methanolic extracts inactivated viral particles by direct interaction and 14 presented antiviral activity when incubated with cells already infected. Most interesting antiviral activity values obtained are those of Limonium brasiliense, Psidium guajava, and Phyllanthus niruri, which inhibit HSV-1 replication in vitro with 50% effective concentration (EC50) values of 185, 118, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. For these extracts toxicity values were calculated and therefore selectivity indexes (SI) obtained. Further characterization of the bioactive components of antiviral plants will pave the way for the discovery of new compounds against HSV-1. PMID:22619617

  3. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753).

    PubMed

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium. PMID:27186342

  4. Refinement of the karyological aspects of Psidium guineense (Swartz, 1788): a comparison with Psidium guajava (Linnaeus, 1753)

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Anelise Machado; Tuler, Amélia Carlos; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto; Carrijo, Tatiana Tavares; Ferreira, Marcia Flores da Silva; Clarindo, Wellington Ronildo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Euploidy plays an important role in the evolution and diversification of Psidium Linnaeus, 1753. However, few data about the nuclear DNA content, chromosome characterization (morphometry and class) and molecular markers have been reported for this genus. In this context, the present study aims to shed light on the genome of Psidium guineense Swartz, 1788, comparing it with Psidium guajava Linnaeus, 1753. Using flow cytometry, the nuclear 2C value of Psidium guineense was 2C = 1.85 picograms (pg), and the karyotype showed 2n = 4x = 44 chromosomes. Thus, Psidium guineense has four chromosome sets, in accordance with the basic chromosome number of Psidium (x = 11). In addition, karyomorphometric analysis revealed morphologically identical chromosome groups in the karyotype of Psidium guineense. The high transferability of microsatellites (98.6%) further corroborates with phylogenetic relationship between Psidium guajava and Psidium guineense. Based on the data regarding nuclear genome size, karyotype morphometry and molecular markers of Psidium guineense and Psidium guajava (2C = 0.95 pg, 2n = 2x = 22 chromosomes), Psidium guineense is a tetraploid species. These data reveal the role of euploidy in the diversification of the genus Psidium. PMID:27186342

  5. Optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of pectinase enzyme from guava (Psidium guajava) peel: Enzyme recovery, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability.

    PubMed

    Amid, Mehrnoush; Murshid, Fara Syazana; Manap, Mohd Yazid; Islam Sarker, Zaidul

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions on the yield, specific activity, temperature, and storage stability of the pectinase enzyme from guava peel. The ultrasound variables studied were sonication time (10-30 min), ultrasound temperature (30-50 °C), pH (2.0-8.0), and solvent-to-sample ratio (2:1 mL/g to 6:1 mL/g). The main goal was to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction conditions to maximize the recovery of pectinase from guava peel with the most desirable enzyme-specific activity and stability. Under the optimum conditions, a high yield (96.2%), good specific activity (18.2 U/mg), temperature stability (88.3%), and storage stability (90.3%) of the extracted enzyme were achieved. The optimal conditions were 20 min sonication time, 40 °C temperature, at pH 5.0, using a 4:1 mL/g solvent-to-sample ratio. The study demonstrated that optimization of ultrasound-assisted process conditions for the enzyme extraction could improve the enzymatic characteristics and yield of the enzyme. PMID:25844554

  6. In vitro investigation of Brazilian Cerrado plant extract activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei gambiense.

    PubMed

    Charneau, Sébastien; de Mesquita, Mariana Laundry; Bastos, Izabela Marques Dourado; Santana, Jaime Martins; de Paula, José Elias; Grellier, Philippe; Espindola, Laila Salmen

    2016-06-01

    The threatened Brazilian Cerrado biome is an important biodiversity hotspot but still few explored that constitutes a potential reservoir of molecules to treat infectious diseases. We selected eight Cerrado plant species for screening against the erythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum, human intracellular stages of Trypanosoma cruzi and bloodstream forms of T. brucei gambiense, and for their cytotoxicity upon the rat L6-myoblast cell line. Bioassays were performed with 37 hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts prepared from different plant organs. Activities against parasites were observed for 24 extracts: 9 with anti-P. falciparum, 4 with anti-T. cruzi and 11 with anti-T. brucei gambiense activities. High anti-protozoal activity (IC50 values < 10 μg/mL) without obvious cytotoxicity to L6 cells was observed for eight extracts from plants: Connarus suberosus, Blepharocalyx salicifolius, Psidium laruotteanum and Myrsine guianensis. Overall, studies of plant extracts will contribute to increase the biodiversity knowledge essential for Cerrado conservation and sustainable development. PMID:26222897

  7. Genetic characterization of guava (psidium guajava l.) Germplasm in the United States using microsatellite markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity of thirty five Psidium guajava accessions maintained at the USDA, National Plants Germplasm System, Hilo, HI, was characterized using 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Diversity analysis detected a total of 178 alleles ranging from four to 16. The observed mean heterozygosit...

  8. New trends in dentistry: plant extracts against Enterococcus faecalis. The efficacy compared to chlorhexidine.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Adriana Lígia de; Saraceni, Cintia Helena Coury; Díaz, Ingrit Elida Collantes; Paciencia, Mateus Luís Barradas; Suffredini, Ivana Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is an important pathogen associated with endodontic diseases, and its elimination and control are of paramount importance, as it represents one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of endodontic disease. Twenty-five plant extracts obtained from Brazilian forests were found to be effective against planktonic E. faecalis and were subjected to two traditional antibacterial assays, the microdilution broth assay (MDBA) and the disk diffusion assay (DDA), using chlorhexidine (CHX) as a control. Seven out of 25 extracts showed significant antibacterial activity and were tested in a biofilm assay, and three of these extracts were subjected to chemical fractionation. Residues were tested for their antibacterial activity, and the first chemical findings were described based on thin layer chromatography (TLC). Extracts obtained from Ipomoea alba, Symphonia globulifera and Moronobea coccinea showed significant bactericidal activity in the MDBA. The same I. alba and S. globulifera extracts, as well as the extract obtained from Connarus ruber var. ruber, showed significant activity in the DDA. RH2O obtained from Psidium densicomum and Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum showed better antibacterial activity compared to the respective crude extracts and CHX. TLC analysis showed that phenolic compounds and triterpenes represent the first findings of chemical groups that may occur in all species. The results of the present study include the discovery of six active extracts against planktonic E. faecalis and support further testing via assays involving biofilm formation, as well as the determination of the compounds' chemical profiles, as their activity was significantly better than that observed for CHX. PMID:23538423

  9. In Vitro Screening of 10 Edible Thai Plants for Potential Antifungal Properties

    PubMed Central

    Luplertlop, Natthanej

    2014-01-01

    Growing rates of fungal infections and increasing resistance against standard antifungal drugs can cause serious health problems. There is, therefore, increasing interest in the potential use of medicinal plants as novel antifungal agents. This study investigates the antifungal properties of crude plant extracts from ten medicinal plant species. Crude samples were extracted using the hot water extraction process. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and diameter zone of inhibition were determined in each extract against ten fungal strains, and fluconazole was used as a positive control. The cytotoxicity of crude extracts on in vitro human skin fibroblast (HSF) cell models was determined by MTT assay. Of the ten crude extracts, Psidium guajava L. exhibited the highest antifungal activity, diameter zone of inhibition, and percentage HSF cell viability. Although all extracts exhibited antifungal activity, Psidium guajava L. had the greatest potential for developing antifungal treatments. PMID:24516502

  10. Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6 mg mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5 mg mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3 mg mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08 mg mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  11. Cytotoxic Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6 mg mL−1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5 mg mL−1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3 mg mL−1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08 mg mL−1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

  12. A new antibacterial benzophenone glycoside from Psidium guajava (Linn.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ukwueze, Stanley E; Osadebe, Patience O; Okoye, Festus B C

    2015-01-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of methanol extract from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae) yielded a new benzophenone glycoside, Guajaphenone A (2) together with two known compounds, Garcimangosone D (1) and Guaijaverin (3). Their structures were elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data including 1D and 2D NMR and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The isolated compounds were screened against standard strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using broth dilution assay method, and the MIC values determined and compared with reference antibiotic ceftriaxone. They were found to have significant antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with all of them showing better activities against S. aureus, but displaying weaker activities, in comparison to ceftriaxone. However, despite reduced effect of these compounds against the organisms, this work opens the perspective to use these molecules as 'leads' for the design of novel and selective drug candidates for some tropical infectious diseases. PMID:25631395

  13. Plant extracts as natural amoebicidal agents.

    PubMed

    Derda, Monika; Hadaś, Edward; Thiem, Barbara

    2009-02-01

    Strains of Acanthamoeba sp. constitute a factor contributing to the occurrence of chronic granulomatous amoebic encephalitis, keratitis, pneumonia, as well as inflammations of other organs. Treatment of these diseases is very difficult and not always effective. A majority of these infections have been fatal. The aim of our study was to examine the amoebicidal or amoebistatic activity of plant extracts from Rubus chamaemorus, Pueraria lobata, Solidago virgaurea and Solidago graminifolia. For the purpose of isolation of pharmacologically active substances, we used the aboveground parts of plants, together with flowers, roots and leaves. It was established that extracts from S. virgauera, P. lobata and R. chamaemorus displayed chemotherapeutic properties in vitro in concentrations of approximately 0.01-0.05 mg extract/mL, i.e., in concentrations of 0.350 microg/mL expressed in ellagic acid for R. chamaemorus and 0.053 microg/mL expressed in puerarin for P. lobata. Therapeutic index values is 3.5-20. As a result of in vivo experiments, it was found out that, following therapy using the extracts, animals infected with Acanthamoeba sp. survived for an extended period (2.5-3 times longer). It was determined that plant extracts may be used both externally and internally in the case of a combined therapy for acanthamoebiasis. The tested extracts are not toxic for animals. PMID:19050923

  14. Antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities of extracts from some antidiarrhoeal traditional preparations used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Mesia, K; Penge, O; Lusakibanza, M; Cimanga, K; De Bruyne, T; Apers, S; Totte, J; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2000-03-01

    Three major extracts from some traditional preparations, based on medicinal plants, used as antidiarrhoeal agents were investigated for their putative antiamoebic and spasmolytic activities in vitro. Results indicated that both biological activities are concentrated in the polyphenolic fraction, and not in the saponin or alkaloid containing fractions. The most active polyphenolic extracts were those from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Alchornea cordifolia, Crossopteryx febrifuga, Nauclea latifolia, Psidium guajava, Tithonia diversifolia, stem bark of Harungana madagascariensis, Mangifera indica, Maprounea africana and Psidium guajava, inhibiting Entamoeba histolytica growth with MAC < 10 micrograms/ml. The same extracts, at a concentration of 80 micrograms/ml in an organ bath, also exhibited more than 70% inhibition of acetylcholine and/or KCl solution-induced contractions on isolated guinea-pig ileum. PMID:10782488

  15. Gastroprotective effects of flavonoids in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Zayachkivska, O S; Konturek, S J; Drozdowicz, D; Konturek, P C; Brzozowski, T; Ghegotsky, M R

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to overview the relations between plant-originated substances and their bioactivity measured in terms of antioxidant, cytoprotective and antiulcer activities. In addition, we assessed whether these compounds are capable of affecting the gastric mucosal lesions induced by absolute ethanol applied intragastrically (i.g.). The following plant-originated flavonoid substances were considered; Solon (Sophoradin extract), Amaranth seed extract, grapefruit-seed extract (GSE) and capsaicin (extract of chilly pepper). The area of gastric mucosa lesions and gastric blood flow were measured in rats with ethanol-induced lesions without (control) and with one of the tested substances without and with capsaicin denervation of afferent nerves or administration of L-nitro-arginine (L-NNA), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Male Wistar rats, weighing 180-220 g fasted for 24 h before the study where used 100% ethanol was applied i.g. to induce gastric lesions, whose area was determined by planimetry. Gastric blood flow was assessed using electrolytic regional blood flowmeter. All tested plant-originated substances afforded gastroprotection against ethanol-induced damage and this was accompanied by increase in gastric microcirculation, both changes being reversed by pretreatment with neurotoxic dose of capsaicin or by pretreatment with L-NNA. We conclude that plant-originated flavonoid substances are highly gastroprotective probably due to enhancement of the expression of constitutive NOS and release of NO and neuropeptides such as calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) released from sensory afferent nerves increasing gastric microcirculation. PMID:15800396

  16. Antibacterial activity of resin rich plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Shuaib, Mohd; Ali, Abuzer; Ali, Mohd; Panda, Bibhu Prasad; Ahmad, Mohd Imtiyaz

    2013-01-01

    Background: The in vitro antibacterial activity of resin rich methanolic extracts (RRMEs) of Commiphora myrrha, Operculina turpethum, and Pinus roxburghii. Materials and Methods: Different concentration were studied by agar-well diffusion method against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae). Results: Among all the bacterial strains tested, E. faecalis was most sensitive and S. typhi was resistant to C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. The extracts of O. turpethum were active against all tested strains in which B. subtilis and S. aureus were the most sensitive. Conclusion: This suggested that the antibacterial activity of RRMEs of O. turpethum was more than C. myrrha and P. roxburghii. This probably explains the potential of these plants against a number of infections caused by bacterial strains tested. PMID:24302834

  17. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-05-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  18. Plant extracts as potential mosquito larvicides

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Anupam; Chowdhury, Nandita; Chandra, Goutam

    2012-01-01

    Mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya ferver, filariasis, encephalitis, West Nile Virus infection, etc. Under the Integrated Mosquito Management (IMM), emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. The continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain and adverse effects on environmental quality and non target organisms including human health. Application of active toxic agents from plant extracts as an alternative mosquito control strategy was available from ancient times. These are non-toxic, easily available at affordable prices, biodegradable and show broad-spectrum target-specific activities against different species of vector mosquitoes. In this article, the current state of knowledge on phytochemical sources and mosquitocidal activity, their mechanism of action on target population, variation of their larvicidal activity according to mosquito species, instar specificity, polarity of solvents used during extraction, nature of active ingredient and promising advances made in biological control of mosquitoes by plant derived secondary metabolites have been reviewed. PMID:22771587

  19. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacity verification of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) fruits at different stages of maturation

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Heverton M.; Rodrigues, Fabíola F. G.; Costa, Wégila D.; Nonato, Carla de F. A.; Rodrigues, Fábio F. G.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth L.; Costa, José G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), a common plant in Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil, as well as in various parts of the world, contains high concentrations of bioactive compounds and in many communities its parts are used for therapeutic purposes. Studies describe antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diarrheal actions from extracts obtained from leaves, but information about the activities of the fruits and comparison of these at different maturity stages (immature, partially mature and mature) are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant properties by quantifying the levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C of P. guajava fruits at different stages of maturation. The content of phenolic compounds for the immature fruit, partially mature and mature were: 22.41; 34.61 and 32.92 mg of AG/g fraction. The flavonoid content for immature fruits, intermediate and mature were: 2.83; 5.10 and 5.65 mg RUT/g fraction, respectively. Following the same standards of maturation stages, the ascorbic acid content was determined with values of 0.48; 0.38 and 0.21 mg AA/g fraction, respectively. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, glycosylated campeferol, tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene. The antioxidant activity carried out by DPPH method showed the mature fruits bearing the best results, whereas chelation of Fe2+ ions showed higher percentage for the immature fruit. The results obtained by lipidic peroxidation were not satisfactory. PMID:26933403

  20. Chemical profile and antioxidant capacity verification of Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) fruits at different stages of maturation.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Heverton M; Rodrigues, Fabíola F G; Costa, Wégila D; Nonato, Carla de F A; Rodrigues, Fábio F G; Boligon, Aline A; Athayde, Margareth L; Costa, José G M

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), a common plant in Cariri region, Ceara, Brazil, as well as in various parts of the world, contains high concentrations of bioactive compounds and in many communities its parts are used for therapeutic purposes. Studies describe antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-diarrheal actions from extracts obtained from leaves, but information about the activities of the fruits and comparison of these at different maturity stages (immature, partially mature and mature) are scarce. This study aims to evaluate the antioxidant properties by quantifying the levels of phenolic and flavonoid compounds, carotenoids and vitamin C of P. guajava fruits at different stages of maturation. The content of phenolic compounds for the immature fruit, partially mature and mature were: 22.41; 34.61 and 32.92 mg of AG/g fraction. The flavonoid content for immature fruits, intermediate and mature were: 2.83; 5.10 and 5.65 mg RUT/g fraction, respectively. Following the same standards of maturation stages, the ascorbic acid content was determined with values of 0.48; 0.38 and 0.21 mg AA/g fraction, respectively. HPLC analysis identified and quantified the presence of gallic acid, catechin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, epicatechin, rutin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, quercetin, kaempferol, glycosylated campeferol, tocopherol, β-carotene and lycopene. The antioxidant activity carried out by DPPH method showed the mature fruits bearing the best results, whereas chelation of Fe2+ ions showed higher percentage for the immature fruit. The results obtained by lipidic peroxidation were not satisfactory. PMID:26933403

  1. Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, K.; Divyashree, P.

    2014-01-01

    Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review. PMID:25125881

  2. Psidium guajava: A review on its potential as an adjunct in treating periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Ravi, K; Divyashree, P

    2014-07-01

    Plants for thousands of years have been used to enhance health and for medicinal purposes. Psidium guajava is one which has an enormous wealth of medicinal value. It for long has been known for its anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiarrheal, antimutagenic properties. Despite of its widespread biologic uses there is a dearth of information on its therapeutic effect in the treatment of periodontal disease. Hence, this review is an attempt to highlight the potential of P. guajava in the treatment of periodontal disease. Internet databases PubMed, Google Scholar were searched and the most relevant articles were considered for review. PMID:25125881

  3. In vitro breast cancer cell lethality of Brazilian plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Suffredini, I B; Paciencia, M L B; Frana, S A; Varella, A D; Younes, R N

    2007-10-01

    In this study we screened the cytotoxicity of 1220 plant extracts obtained from 351 plants belonging to 74 families occurring in the Amazon and Atlantic rain forests against MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines. All extracts were tested at a dose of 100 microg/mL. Only 11 aqueous or organic extracts belonging to the Annonaceae, Apocynaceae, Araceae, Clusiaceae, Flacourtiaceae, Leguminosae, Olacaceae and Violaceae showed marked lethal activity. Vismia guianensis and Annona hypoglauca extracts showed the greatest lethal activity. PMID:18236788

  4. Endothelial cytoprotection from oxidized LDL by some crude Melanesian plant extracts is not related to their antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Owen, Patrick L; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Sirois, Martin; Johns, Timothy

    2007-01-01

    Habitual consumption of some Melanesian medicinal and food plants may influence atherosclerosis development via their antioxidant capacity at the endothelial level. Areca nut (AN; Areca catechu), piper inflorescence (PBI; Piper betle), betel quid (BQ), guava buds (GB; Psidium guajava), the leaves (NL), juice (NJ), fruit (NF), and root (NR) of noni (Morinda citrifolia), the propagules of raw (MBR), and cooked (MBC) mangrove (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza) were evaluated for their ability to scavenge the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyle (DPPH) radical, to protect human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) from Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation and to protect cultured bovine aortal endothelial cells (BAEC) from oxidized LDL (oxLDL)-induced cytotoxicity. Polyphenol-rich extracts AN, PBI, and BQ were potent DPPH scavengers, having similar activity to quercetin and able to protect LDL from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations higher than 10 microg/mL, but were pro-oxidants at lower concentrations. These extracts were cytotoxic to BAEC at concentrations above 10 microg/mL and were unable to prevent oxLDL endotheliopathy. GB and NR at 10 mug/mL displayed both the ability to delay LDL oxidation and prevent oxLDL cytotoxicity, although the latter lacked the ability to scavenge the DPPH radical. At higher concentrations, however, both were cytotoxic in themselves. The remaining noni extracts NF, NJ, NL, and both mangrove extracts MBC and MBR were unable to protect LDL from oxidation at all tested concentrations, but were effective cytoprotective agents at 50 microg/mL. All extracts were able to prevent an oxLDL-mediated increase in intracellular aldehyde generation but had little effect on extracellular peroxidation as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). On the basis of this model system, we conclude that the antioxidant benefits of AN, PBI, and BQ may be offset by their enhancement of their cytotoxic effects of oxLDL toward BAEC, whereas GB and low

  5. Diuretic Potential of Whole Plant Extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.)

    PubMed Central

    Bhavin, Vyas; Ruchi, Vyas; DD, Santani

    2011-01-01

    The whole plant, Pergularia daemia (Family: Asclepediaceae), was extracted with 50% alcohol and a fresh batch of the plant material was successively extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to determine its diuretic activity. The diuretic activity of the different extracts at a dose of 400 mg/Kg was assessed orally in rats with furosemide as a standard drug using Lipschitzs test. All extracts except the petroleum ether extract showed significant increase (p < 0.001) in urine output. Urinary electrolyte excretion was also affected by the extracts: the alcoholic, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract caused an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium ions. These findings suggest that among the mentioned extracts, ethanolic has the maximum diuretic activity followed by n-butanol extract. PMID:24250415

  6. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Najib Nik A Rahman, N; Furuta, T; Kojima, S; Takane, K; Ali Mohd, M

    1999-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species. PMID:10363840

  7. Effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on biological parameters and pathogenicity of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Cordycipitaceae).

    PubMed

    Martins, C C; Alves, L F A; Mamprim, A P

    2016-06-01

    The fungus Beauveria bassiana is naturally found in poultry houses and causes high rates of mortality in Alphitobius diaperinus. Laboratory and field experiments have shown the potential of this fungus as an insect control agent. However, in poultry houses, bacteria as Salmonella, can be found and have been studied alternative control methods for this pathogen. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of plant extracts and a disinfectant on the fungus Beauveria bassiana (strain Unioeste 4). Conidial viability, colony-forming unit (CFU) counts, vegetative growth, conidia production, insecticidal activity of the fungus and compatibility were used as parameters in the evaluation of the effect of these products on the fungus. Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba (Myrciaria cauliflora (Mart.), guava (Psidium guajava (L.)), and jambolan (Syzygium cumini (L.), at concentrations of 10% as well as the commercial disinfectant, Peroxitane® 1512 AL, were evaluated at the recommended concentrations (RC), 1:200 (RC), 0.5 RC and 2 RC. There was a negative influence of alcoholic and aqueous extracts of jabuticaba, guava and three dilutions of Peroxitane on the viability of conidia. The CFUs and vegetative growth of the fungus were affected only by the Peroxitane (all dilutions). For conidial production, the aqueous extract of guava had a positive effect, increasing production, while the Peroxitane at the R and RC concentrations resulted in a negative influence. The mortality of A. diaperinus, caused by the fungus after exposure to these products, was 60% for the peracetic acid at 0.5 RC, and above 80% for the extracts. Thus, the results showed that all the extracts and Peroxitane at RC 0.5 are compatible with the fungus B. bassiana Unioeste 4, however only the extracts had a low impact on inoculum potential. PMID:27143049

  8. Evaluation of plant extracts for sweetness using the Mongolian gerbil.

    PubMed

    Jakinovich, W; Moon, C; Choi, Y H; Kinghorn, A D

    1990-01-01

    Extracts of Thladiantha grosvenorii fruits, Stevia rebaudiana leaves, and Abrus precatorius leaves were investigated using Mongolian gerbil electrophysiological and conditioned taste aversion procedures, which were designed to respond to sucrose. A close correlation was observed between extracts of these sweet plants known to contain sweet principles and those extracts indicated as being sweet by a combination of these gerbil bioassays. The methods employed seem to be suitable for use in aiding the purification of highly sweet compounds of plant origin. PMID:2348201

  9. Antimicrobial efficacy of the combinations of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers

    PubMed Central

    Chandra Shekar, B. R.; Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Singh, Rupal; Thaku, Roopesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for innovative strategies to combat the two most common dental diseases of mankind namely dental caries and periodontitis. Objective: The aim was to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the double combinations of Acacia nilotica (AN), Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel (MKL), Eucalyptus hybrid and Psidium guajava on primary plaque colonizers. Materials and Methods: The plant extracts of AN, MKL. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid and P. guajava were prepared using Soxhlet apparatus. The stock solutions of individual plant extracts (100 mg/ml) were prepared. Equal quantities of stock solutions were mixed to obtain six double combinations of herbal extracts. The antimicrobial efficacy testing was done against three primary plaque colonizers using agar well-diffusion method. 0.2% chlorhexidine and dimethyl sulfoxide were used as positive and as negative controls. The mean inhibition zone between the categories was compared using one-way Analysis of Variance and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the highest mean diameter of inhibition zone (21.08 mm ± 2.11) against Streptococcus mutans. The chlorhexidine produced the least inhibition zone against S. mutans (14.50 ± 2.07). The combination of AN and P. guajava produced the maximum antimicrobial efficacy against Streptococcus sanguis (19.67 ± 1.03) and Streptococcus salivarius (20.33 ± 1.86). Conclusion: All the combinations of plant extracts have the potential to be used as antiplaque and anticaries agents. The combinations of herbal extracts offer enhanced antimicrobial efficacy due to the synergistic effects besides slowing the development of resistance. PMID:25316992

  10. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds. PMID:18390447

  11. Soxhlet Extraction of Caffeine from Beverage Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, D. J.; Mainwaring, J.; Quigley, Michael N.

    1996-12-01

    A simple procedure is described for the extraction of caffeine from coffee beans or granules, tea leaves, mat leaves, etc. Since dichloromethane and several other hazardous substances are used, the procedure is best performed in a fume hood. Following extraction, melting point determination of the crystalline precipitate establishes its positive identity. Includes 33 references.

  12. Screening of Crude Plant Extracts with Anti-Obesity Activity

    PubMed Central

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a global health problem. It is also known to be a risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, systemic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia, and atherosclerosis. In this study, we screened crude extracts from 400 plants to test their anti-obesity activity using porcine pancreatic lipase assay (PPL; triacylglycerol lipase, EC 3.1.1.3) in vitro activity. Among the 400 plants species examined, 44 extracts from plants, showed high anti-lipase activity using 2,4-dinitrophenylbutyrate as a substrate in porcine pancreatic lipase assay. Furthermore, 44 plant extracts were investigated for their inhibition of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells. Among these 44 extracts examined, crude extracts from 4 natural plant species were active. Salicis Radicis Cortex had the highest fat inhibitory activity, whereas Rubi Fructus, Corni Fructus, and Geranium nepalense exhibited fat inhibitory capacity higher than 30% at 100 μg/mL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting anti-obesity activity. These results suggest that four potent plant extracts might be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity. PMID:22408418

  13. Progress towards rapid identification of phytochemicals in plant extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New mass spectrometry equipment is bringing closer to reality the rapid accurate assessment of chemical composition of extracts from a variety of plant materials. Using a variety of plant sources, we are using HPLC separation, UV-VIS spectrometry, ion trap mass fragmentation and accurate mass deter...

  14. The effects of different plant extracts on nematodes.

    PubMed

    Klimpel, Sven; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A S; Aksu, Gülendem; Fischer, Katja; Strassen, Bianca; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2011-04-01

    The anthelminthic efficacy of some differently obtained extracts of several plants was tested in vivo in laboratory animals and in vitro. The extracts were obtained by ethanolic, methanolic, aqueous, or chloroform, respectively, acetonitrile polyethylenglycol (PEG) and/or propylencarbonate (PC) elution at room temperature or at 37°C. The plants used were bulbs of onions, garlic, chives, coconut, birch tree, ananas, cistrose, banana, chicory, date palm fruit, fig, pumpkin, and neem tree seeds. The worm systems tested both in vivo and in vitro were Trichuris muris and Angiostrongylus cantonensis but only in vivo Toxocara cati. The tests clearly showed that the different extraction methods eluted different components and different mass amounts, which had different efficacies against the above-cited worms. In vitro effects against A. cantonensis and T.muris were best with aqueous extracts, followed by chloroform extracts. The other plant extracts showed only low or no effects on A. cantonensis in vitro. In the case of T. muris, best results were obtained in vivo and in vitro with PEG/PC extracts of the onion followed by the aqueous extract of coconut. The complete elimination of worms in the in vivo experiments with T. muris was obtained when infected mice were treated with a 1:1 mixture of extracts of coconut and onion being produced by elutions with a mixture of 1:1 PEG and PC and fed daily for 8 days. T. cati in a naturally infected cat was eliminated by daily oral application of 6 ml coco's fluid for 5 days. This study shows that a broad spectrum of plants has anti-nematodal activities, the intensity of which, however, depends on the mode of extraction. This implicates that, if results should be really comparable, the same extraction methods at the same temperatures have to be used. Furthermore, efficacy in in vitro systems does not guarantee as good--if at all--efficacy in vivo. PMID:21110041

  15. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ficker, Christine E; Arnason, J T; Vindas, P S; Alvarez, L P; Akpagana, K; Gbéassor, M; De Souza, C; Smith, M L

    2003-02-01

    In this study, 36 extracts derived from 29 plant species selected using an ethnobotanical approach were tested for antifungal activity against a taxonomically diverse group of 13 human pathogenic fungi. We compared the inhibitory characteristics of these plant extracts with those of the commonly used antifungals, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, and the plant-derived antifungal, berberine. Several plant extracts, notably those from Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Juglans cinerea (butternut), had pronounced antifungal activity against a wide variety of fungi, including strains that were highly resistant to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Further exploration of Z. officinale as an antifungal is warranted as this species is generally regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:12588480

  16. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    PubMed Central

    BARNABÉ, Michele; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Coury; DUTRA-CORREA, Maristela; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry. PMID:25466471

  17. Antioxidant activity of Paraguayan plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Velázquez, E; Tournier, H A; Mordujovich de Buschiazzo, P; Saavedra, G; Schinella, G R

    2003-02-01

    The antioxidant properties of six medical herbs used in the traditional Paraguayan medicine were studied using free radical-generating systems. The methanol extracts from Aristolochia giberti, Cecropia pachystachya, Eugenia uniflora, Piper fulvescens, Schinus weinmannifolia and Schinus terebinthifolia protected against enzymatic and non-enzymatic lipid peroxidation in microsomal membranes of rat. C. pachystachya, E. uniflora, S. weinmannifolia and S. terebinthifolia showed the highest scavenging activity on the superoxide and DPPH radicals. PMID:12628400

  18. Comparison of methods for extracting thylakoid membranes of Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Yuan, Shu; Schröder, Wolfgang P

    2016-01-01

    Robust and reproducible methods for extracting thylakoid membranes are required for the analysis of photosynthetic processes in higher plants such as Arabidopsis. Here, we compare three methods for thylakoid extraction using two different buffers. Method I involves homogenizing the plant material with a metal/glass blender; method II involves manually grinding the plant material in ice-cold grinding buffer with a mortar and method III entails snap-freezing followed by manual grinding with a mortar, after which the frozen powder is thawed in isolation buffer. Thylakoid membrane samples extracted using each method were analyzed with respect to protein and chlorophyll content, yields relative to starting material, oxygen-evolving activity, protein complex content and phosphorylation. We also examined how the use of fresh and frozen thylakoid material affected the extracts' contents of protein complexes. The use of different extraction buffers did not significantly alter the protein content of the extracts in any case. Method I yielded thylakoid membranes with the highest purity and oxygen-evolving activity. Method III used low amounts of starting material and was capable of capturing rapid phosphorylation changes in the sample at the cost of higher levels of contamination. Method II yielded thylakoid membrane extracts with properties intermediate between those obtained with the other two methods. Finally, frozen and freshly isolated thylakoid membranes performed identically in blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis experiments conducted in order to separate multimeric protein supracomplexes. PMID:26337850

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh

    2007-09-01

    The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE is a simple, inexpensive, fast, effective and virtually solvent-free sample pretreatment technique. This review provides a detailed and updated discussion of the developments, modes and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is usually performed with pure or modified carbon dioxide, which facilitates off-line collection of extracts and on-line coupling with other analytical methods such as gas, liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography. In this review, we showed that a number of factors influence extraction yields, these being solubility of the solute in the fluid, diffusion through the matrix and collection process. Finally, SFE has been compared with conventional extraction methods in terms of selectivity, rapidity, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:17624357

  20. Global distribution of plant-extractable water capacity of soil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dunne, K.A.; Willmott, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plant-extractable water capacity of soil is the amount of water that can be extracted from the soil to fulfill evapotranspiration demands. It is often assumed to be spatially invariant in large-scale computations of the soil-water balance. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that this assumption is incorrect. In this paper, we estimate the global distribution of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. A representative soil profile, characterized by horizon (layer) particle size data and thickness, was created for each soil unit mapped by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)/Unesco. Soil organic matter was estimated empirically from climate data. Plant rooting depths and ground coverages were obtained from a vegetation characteristic data set. At each 0.5?? ?? 0.5?? grid cell where vegetation is present, unit available water capacity (cm water per cm soil) was estimated from the sand, clay, and organic content of each profile horizon, and integrated over horizon thickness. Summation of the integrated values over the lesser of profile depth and root depth produced an estimate of the plant-extractable water capacity of soil. The global average of the estimated plant-extractable water capacities of soil is 8??6 cm (Greenland, Antarctica and bare soil areas excluded). Estimates are less than 5, 10 and 15 cm - over approximately 30, 60, and 89 per cent of the area, respectively. Estimates reflect the combined effects of soil texture, soil organic content, and plant root depth or profile depth. The most influential and uncertain parameter is the depth over which the plant-extractable water capacity of soil is computed, which is usually limited by root depth. Soil texture exerts a lesser, but still substantial, influence. Organic content, except where concentrations are very high, has relatively little effect.

  1. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat. PMID:24824531

  2. [Plant extracts with cytostatic properties growing in Cuba. II].

    PubMed

    Lopez Abraham, A M; Rojas Hernandez, N M; Jimenez Misas, C A

    1979-01-01

    The study of the cytostatic activity of aqueous, alcoholic and ketonic extracts from 18 parts of 9 species of superior plants of the families Araceae, Borraginacease, Burseraceae, Cesalpinaceae, Meliaceae, Compositae, Rebiaceae, Cruciferaceae and Verbenaceae using the microbiologic method of described by Kubas in 1972 is pursued. The best results were obtained from Hamelia patens. Lippia alba, Lepidium virginicum, Cassia ligustrina, Bursera simaruba and Heliotropium campechianum extracts. PMID:161406

  3. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC < 100 microg/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

  4. Lactobacillus plantarum mediated fermentation of Psidium guajava L. fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ravish; Suryanarayana, Lakshminarayana Chikkanayakanahalli; Chandrashekara, Karunakara Alageri; Krishnan, Padma; Kush, Anil; Ravikumar, Puja

    2015-04-01

    Sixteen hour fermentation of the white flesh raw guava Lucknow 49 cultivar using Lactobacillus plantarum NCIM 2912 was taken up for enhancing the antioxidant potential. The fermented guava product with high antioxidant potential, total phenolic content and short and medium chain fatty acids can be used as functional food. PMID:25300190

  5. Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Lyophilized Plant Material

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene

    1966-01-01

    Four methods for extracting nucleic acids from lyophilized cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Stoneville 62) leaves and roots were compared. They were based on the use of: (I) HC104; (II) KOH; (III) a mixture of 90% phenol, Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane buffer, and sodium lauryl sulfate; and (IV) NaCl. (I) extracted large amounts of RNA but little DNA and extracted much carbohydrate and protein contaminants. (II) gave a good yield of both RNA and DNA but extracted such large amounts of contaminating material that purification of RNA on an anion exchange column was necessary. (III) extracted only part of the RNA and practically no DNA, but extracted contaminating materials. (IV) resulted in high yields of both RNA and DNA when modified to omit preliminary acid extraction of impurities. The use of cold trichloroacetic acid instead of ethanol, to precipitate NaCl-extracted nucleic acids, separated the nucleic acids from most of the carbohydrate and acid-soluble phosphate contaminants and resulted in good agreement among results by ultraviolet absorbance, pentose tests, and phosphate analysis. This method also resulted in lower protein contents and better ultraviolet absorption spectra than the other methods tested. Nucleic acids were extracted from leaves of 14 other species of plants, in addition to cotton, by this modified NaCl procedure. PMID:16656306

  6. Effect of extraction solvent/technique on the antioxidant activity of selected medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2009-01-01

    Theeffects of four extracting solvents [absolute ethanol, absolute methanol, aqueous ethanol (ethanol: water, 80:20 v/v) and aqueous methanol (methanol: water, 80:20 v/v)] and two extraction techniques (shaking and reflux) on the antioxidant activity of extracts of barks of Azadirachta indica, Acacia nilotica, Eugenia jambolana, Terminalia arjuna, leaves and roots of Moringa oleifera, fruit of Ficus religiosa,and leaves of Aloe barbadensis were investigated. The tested plant materials contained appreciable amounts of total phenolic contents (0.31-16.5 g GAE /100g DW), total flavonoid (2.63-8.66 g CE/100g DW); reducing power at 10 mg/mL extract concentration (1.36-2.91), DPPH(.) scavenging capacity (37.2-86.6%), and percent inhibition of linoleic acid (66.0-90.6%). Generally higher extract yields, phenolic contents and plant material antioxidant activity were obtained using aqueous organic solvents, as compared to the respective absolute organic solvents. Although higher extract yields were obtained by the refluxing extraction technique, in general higher amounts of total phenolic contents and better antioxidant activity were found in the extracts prepared using a shaker. PMID:19553890

  7. PILOT PLANT EVALUATION OF CRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of using liquefied-gas solvents in a pilot plant study to extract oil from mill scale (a steel mill by-product) and bleaching clay (a vegetable oil filtering media). The process, operated on a semi-batch cycle, involved two extractors and a solvent recove...

  8. Antioxidative activities of aroma extracts isolated from natural plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A; Shibamoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Natural leaves and flowers containing numerous aroma chemicals are widely used in aromatherapy since ancient times. In addition to their pleasant smells, aroma chemicals might have some beneficial health effects. Aroma extracts, isolated from coffee beans, soybeans, and mung beans by steam distillation under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 85 mm Hg) were examined for their antioxidative activities. The inhibitory effect of these extracts toward hexanal/hexanoic acid conversion was measured in the testing solution over prolonged time periods. The inhibitory effects of these extracts toward malonaldehyde formation from lipids oxidized by Fenton's reagent were also measured. The antioxidative activity of these extracts, in particular coffee bean extract, was consistent with that of BHT or alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Soybeans and mung beans extract contained maltol, which inhibits hexanal oxidation significantly. Eugenol, which is one of the major constituents of mung bean extract, exhibited potent antioxidative activity in an aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Antioxidants such as eugenol and maltol may play an important role in the pharmaceutical activities of natural plant extracts used for aromatherapy. PMID:11237179

  9. Arsenic extraction and speciation in plants: Method comparison and development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Li, Hong-Bo; Xu, Jia-Yi; Luo, Jun; Ma, Lena Qiying

    2015-08-01

    We compared four methods to extract arsenic (As) from three different plants containing different As levels for As speciation with the goal of developing a more efficient method, i.e., As-hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata at 459-7714mgkg(-1), rice seedling at 53.4-574mgkg(-1), and tobacco leaf at 0.32-0.35mgkg(-1). The four methods included heating with dilute HNO3, and sonication with phosphate buffered solution, methanol/water, and ethanol/water, with As being analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Among the four methods, the ethanol/water method produced the most satisfactory extraction efficiency (~80% for the roots and >85% for the fronds) without changing As species based on P. vittata. The lower extraction efficiency from P. vittata roots was attributed to its dominance by arsenate (82%) while arsenite dominated in the fronds (89%). The ethanol/water method used sample:solution ratio of 1:200 (0.05g:10mL) with 50% ethanol and 2h sonication. Based on different extraction times (0.5-2h), ethanol concentrations (25-100%) and sample:solution ratios (1:50-1:300), the optimized ethanol/water method used less ethanol (25%) and time (0.5h for the fronds and 2h for the roots). Satisfactory extraction was also obtained for tobacco leaf (78-92%) and rice seedlings (~70%) using the optimized method, which was better than the other three methods. Based on satisfactory extraction efficiency with little change in As species during extraction from three plants containing different As levels, the optimized method has the potential to be used for As speciation in other plants. PMID:25863504

  10. Multi-plant or single-plant extracts, which is the most effective for local healing in Tanzania?

    PubMed

    Otieno, Joseph Nicolao; Hosea, Kennedy Macha Matengo; Lyaruu, Herbert Valentine; Mahunnah, Rogasian Lemmy Anselm

    2008-01-01

    Use of multi-plant extracts against infectious diseases is increasing in rural Tanzania. The study evaluated this ethnomedicinal practice by using mixed root extracts of Carisa edulis, Ximenia caffra, Harrisonia abyssinica and Euclea natalensis against single extracts of the same plants. Disc diffusion assay and Tube dilution techniques were used to compare bioactivity of plant extracts in-vitro. The ANOVA test indicated significant difference (P < 0.05) between these extracts types. Multi-plant extracts had inhibition zones of up to 26 mm as compared to 14 mm for single extracts. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration for multi-plant extract was 8.3 microg/ml against 69 microg/ml for single extracts. Multi-plant extracts inhibited all the five test bacterial species while single extracts inhibited three species. Eight out of ten multi-plant extracts (80%) were bactericidal while only two out of four single extracts (50%) were bactericidal. Generally, multi-plant extracts were more superior over single plant extracts and could be developed into more potent antibiotics against resistant pathogens. PMID:20161933

  11. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  12. Anticholinesterase activity of endemic plant extracts from Soqotra.

    PubMed

    Bakthira, Hussein; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Arnold, Norbert; Teichert, Axel; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    A total of 30 chloroform and methanol extracts from the following endemic Soqotran plants Acridocarpus socotranus Olive, Boswellia socotranao Balf.fil, Boswellia elongata Balf. fil., Caralluma socotrana N. Br, Cephalocroton socotranus Balf.f, Croton socotranus Balf. fil.., Dendrosicycos socotrana Balf.f., Dorstenia gigas Schweinf. ex Balf. fil., Eureiandra balfourii Cogn. & Balf. fil., Kalanchoe farinaceae Balf.f, Limonium sokotranum (Vierh) Radcl. Sm), Oldenlandia pulvinata, Pulicaria diversifolia (Balf. and Pulicaria stephanocarpa Balf. were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity by using in vitro Ellman method at 50 and 200 µg/ml concentrations. Chloroform extracts of Croton socotranus, Boswellia socotrana, Dorstenia gigas, and Pulicaria stephanocarpa as well as methanol extracts of Eureiandra balfourii exhibited inhibitory activities higher than 50 % at concentration of 200 µg. At a concentrations of 50 µg, the chloroform extract of Croton socotranus exhibited an inhibition of 40.6 %. PMID:22468008

  13. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity of environmental plants: activity of the leaf extracts from seashore plants.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Yonemori, S; Oyama, Y; Takeda, Y; Tanaka, T; Andoh, T; Shinohara, A; Nakata, M

    1999-04-01

    The antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of the leaves of 39 plant species was examined. These leaves were collected from the plants growing on subtropical seashores. The activity was evaluated by three kinds of assay methods, which included the DPPH radical scavenging assay, linoleic acid oxidation assay, and oxidative cell death assay. Two extracts from Excoecaria agallocha and Terminalia catappa showed remarkably potent activity in all assay systems. The HPLC analysis of the extracts indicated the presence of the same antioxidant and isolation work for the compound identified ellagic acid. The isolated ellagic acid showed strong antioxidant activity in the assay systems used. PMID:10564049

  14. Extraction and downstream processing of plant-derived recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Buyel, J F; Twyman, R M; Fischer, R

    2015-11-01

    Plants offer the tantalizing prospect of low-cost automated manufacturing processes for biopharmaceutical proteins, but several challenges must be addressed before such goals are realized and the most significant hurdles are found during downstream processing (DSP). In contrast to the standardized microbial and mammalian cell platforms embraced by the biopharmaceutical industry, there are many different plant-based expression systems vying for attention, and those with the greatest potential to provide inexpensive biopharmaceuticals are also the ones with the most significant drawbacks in terms of DSP. This is because the most scalable plant systems are based on the expression of intracellular proteins in whole plants. The plant tissue must therefore be disrupted to extract the product, challenging the initial DSP steps with an unusually high load of both particulate and soluble contaminants. DSP platform technologies can accelerate and simplify process development, including centrifugation, filtration, flocculation, and integrated methods that combine solid-liquid separation, purification and concentration, such as aqueous two-phase separation systems. Protein tags can also facilitate these DSP steps, but they are difficult to transfer to a commercial environment and more generic, flexible and scalable strategies to separate target and host cell proteins are preferable, such as membrane technologies and heat/pH precipitation. In this context, clarified plant extracts behave similarly to the feed stream from microbes or mammalian cells and the corresponding purification methods can be applied, as long as they are adapted for plant-specific soluble contaminants such as the superabundant protein RuBisCO. Plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins cannot yet compete directly with established platforms but they are beginning to penetrate niche markets that allow the beneficial properties of plants to be exploited, such as the ability to produce 'biobetters' with tailored

  15. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  16. Biological Activity of Vegetal Extracts Containing Phenols on Plant Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ertani, Andrea; Pizzeghello, Diego; Francioso, Ornella; Tinti, Anna; Nardi, Serenella

    2016-01-01

    The influence of vegetal extracts derived from red grape, blueberry fruits and hawthorn leaves on Zea mays L. plant growth and the activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway, was investigated in laboratory experiments. The extracts were characterized using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies in order to obtain a pattern of the main functional groups. In addition, phenols content was determined by HPLC, whereas the content of indoleacetic acid and isopentenyladenosine hormones was determined by ELISA test and the auxin and gibberellin-like activities by plant-bioassays. The treated maize revealed increased root and leaf biomass, chlorophyll and sugars content with respect to untreated plants. Hawthorn, red grape skin and blueberry at 1.0 mL/L induced high p-coumaric content values, whilst hawthorn also showed high amounts of gallic and p-hydroxybenzoic acids. PAL activity induced by hawthorn at 1.0 mL/L had the highest values (11.1-fold UNT) and was strongly and linearly related with the sum of leaf phenols. Our results suggest that these vegetal extracts contain more than one group of plant-promoting substances. PMID:26867189

  17. Plant extracts affect in vitro rumen microbial fermentation.

    PubMed

    Busquet, M; Calsamiglia, S; Ferret, A; Kamel, C

    2006-02-01

    Different doses of 12 plant extracts and 6 secondary plant metabolites were incubated for 24 h in diluted ruminal fluid with a 50:50 forage:concentrate diet. Treatments were: control (no additive), plant extracts (anise oil, cade oil, capsicum oil, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, dill oil, fenugreek, garlic oil, ginger oil, oregano oil, tea tree oil, and yucca), and secondary plant metabolites (anethol, benzyl salicylate, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol). Each treatment was supplied at 3, 30, 300, and 3,000 mg/L of culture fluid. At 3,000 mg/L, most treatments decreased total volatile fatty acid concentration, but cade oil, capsicum oil, dill oil, fenugreek, ginger oil, and yucca had no effect. Different doses of anethol, anise oil, carvone, and tea tree oil decreased the proportion of acetate and propionate, which suggests that these compounds may not be nutritionally beneficial to dairy cattle. Garlic oil (300 and 3,000 mg/L) and benzyl salicylate (300 and 3,000 mg/L) reduced acetate and increased propionate and butyrate proportions, suggesting that methane production was inhibited. At 3,000 mg/L, capsicum oil, carvacrol, carvone, cinnamaldehyde, cinnamon oil, clove bud oil, eugenol, fenugreek, and oregano oil resulted in a 30 to 50% reduction in ammonia N concentration. Careful selection and combination of these extracts may allow the manipulation of rumen microbial fermentation. PMID:16428643

  18. Biological reduction of graphene oxide using plant leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geummi; Kim, Beom Soo

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene has attracted significant attention due to its unique mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical properties. Most commonly employed methods to chemically reduce graphene oxide to graphene use hydrazine or its derivatives as the reducing agent. However, they are highly hazardous and explosive. Various phytochemicals obtained from different natural sources such as leaves and peels of a plant are used as reducing agents in the preparation of different gold, silver, copper, and platinum nanoparticles. In this study, seven plant leaf extracts (Cherry, Magnolia, Platanus, Persimmon, Pine, Maple, and Ginkgo) were compared for their abilities to reduce graphene oxide. The optimized reaction conditions for the reduction of graphene oxide were determined as follows. Type of plant: Cherry (Prunus serrulata), reaction time: 12 h, composition of the reaction mixture: 16.7% v/v of plant leaf extract in total suspension, and temperature: 95°C. The degree of reduction caused by Cherry leaf extract was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reduction of graphene oxide was also confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. PMID:24375994

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction of plant flavors and fragrances.

    PubMed

    Capuzzo, Andrea; Maffei, Massimo E; Occhipinti, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of plant material with solvents like CO₂, propane, butane, or ethylene is a topic of growing interest. SFE allows the processing of plant material at low temperatures, hence limiting thermal degradation, and avoids the use of toxic solvents. Although today SFE is mainly used for decaffeination of coffee and tea as well as production of hop extracts on a large scale, there is also a growing interest in this extraction method for other industrial applications operating at different scales. In this review we update the literature data on SFE technology, with particular reference to flavors and fragrance, by comparing traditional extraction techniques of some industrial medicinal and aromatic crops with SFE. Moreover, we describe the biological activity of SFE extracts by describing their insecticidal, acaricidal, antimycotic, antimicrobial, cytotoxic and antioxidant properties. Finally, we discuss the process modelling, mass-transfer mechanisms, kinetics parameters and thermodynamic by giving an overview of SFE potential in the flavors and fragrances arena. PMID:23783457

  20. Screening of microfilaricidal effects of plant extracts against Dirofilaria immitis.

    PubMed

    Merawin, L T; Arifah, A K; Sani, R A; Somchit, M N; Zuraini, A; Ganabadi, S; Zakaria, Z A

    2010-02-01

    Canine dirofilariasis is a common tropical parasitic disease of companion animals, caused by infestation of Dirofilaria immitis filarids within the pulmonary arteries and extending into the right heart. Increased reports of adverse reactions elicited by current microfilaricidal agents against D. immitis such as neurological disorders, circulatory collapse and potential resistance against these agents, warrant the search for new agents in forms of plant extracts. The use of plant extracts in therapeutic medicine is commonly met with scepticism by the veterinary community, thus the lack of focus on its medical potential. This study evaluated the presence of microfilaricidal activities of the aqueous extracts of Zingiber officinale, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa Miers on D. immitisin vitro at different concentrations; 10mg/ml, 1mg/ml, 100 microg/ml, 10 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml within 24h, by evaluation of relative microfilarial motility as a measure of microfilaricidal activity. All extracts showed microfilaricidal activity with Z. officinale exhibiting the strongest activity overall, followed by A. paniculata and T. crispa Miers. It is speculated that the microfilaricidal mechanism exhibited by these extracts is via spastic paralysis based upon direct observation of the microfilarial motility. PMID:19500810

  1. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis

    PubMed Central

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  2. Activity of Cuban Plants Extracts against Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    García, Marley; Monzote, Lianet; Scull, Ramón; Herrera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Natural products have long been providing important drug leads for infectious diseases. Leishmaniasis is a major health problem worldwide that affects millions of people especially in the developing nations. There is no immunoprophylaxis (vaccination) available for Leishmania infections, and conventional treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, antileishmanial drugs are urgently needed. In this work, 48 alcoholic extracts from 46 Cuban plants were evaluated by an in vitro bioassay against Leishmania amazonensis. Furthermore, their toxicity was assayed against murine macrophage. The three most potent extracts against the amastigote stage of Leishmania amazonensis were from Hura crepitans, Bambusa vulgaris, and Simarouba glauca. PMID:22530133

  3. Cytotoxic and antioxidant constituents from the leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiao-He; Wang, Zi-Hao; Meng, Da-Li; Li, Xian

    2015-01-01

    Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub growing extensively throughout the tropical and subtropical areas. Four new compounds, guavinoside C, D, E and F (1-3, 10) were isolated from the leaves of P. guajava, along with six known ones (4-9). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1, 4 and 10 showed significant cytotoxic activities on HeLa, SGC-7901 and A549 cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 4-10 showed antioxidant activities in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, and five of them (1, 4-6, 10) exhibited stronger activities than that of vitamin C. PMID:25862199

  4. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50) =37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90) =166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50) =26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90) =127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) =69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90) =324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

  5. Effect of water extracts from edible Myrtaceae plants on uptake of 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose in TNF-α-treated FL83B mouse hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wen-Chang; Shen, Szu-Chuan

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated the glucose uptake activity of the water extracts from the leaves and fruit of edible Myrtaceae plants, including guava (Psidium guajava Linn.), wax apples [Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and L.M. Perry], Pu-Tau [Syzygium jambo (L.) Alston], and Kan-Shi Pu-Tau (Syzygium cumini Linn.) in FL83B mouse hepatocytes. The fluorescent dye 2-(n-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)-2-deoxyglucose was used to estimate the uptake ability of the cells. Glucose uptake test showed that pink wax apple fruit extract (PWFE) exhibits the highest glucose uptake activity, at an increment of 21% in the insulin-resistant FL83B mouse hepatocytes as compared with the TNF-α-treated control group. Vescalagin was isolated using column chromatography of PWFE. This compound, at the concentration of 6.25 µg/mL, exhibits the same glucose uptake improvement in insulin-resistant cells as PWFE at a 100-µg/mL dose. We postulate that vescalagin is an active component in PWFE that may alleviate the insulin resistance in mouse hepatocytes. PMID:22532499

  6. Antibacterial potency of methanol extracts of lower plants

    PubMed Central

    Ojo, O.O.; Ajayi, A.O.; Anibijuwon, I.I.

    2007-01-01

    Antibacterial potency of methanol extracts of three green lower plants, Pneumatopteris afra, Platycerium bifurcatum and Nephrolepsis bisserata was determined using agar dilution method on clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. and Salmomelia typhi. Antibacterial activities were observed at concentrations of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 µg/ml. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 12.5~100 μg/ml. Extracts of P. afra and P. bifurcatum were most active. Antibacterial activities observed with N. bisserata were less pronounced with no detectable activity at extract concentrations of 12.5 and 25.0 µg/ml. E. coli, together with S. aureus appeared to be the most susceptible of the test bacteria while Klebsiella spp. was least sensitive. The significance of our findings is discussed. PMID:17323431

  7. Antibacterial potency of methanol extracts of lower plants.

    PubMed

    Ojo, O O; Ajayi, A O; Anibijuwon, I I

    2007-03-01

    Antibacterial potency of methanol extracts of three green lower plants, Pneumatopteris afra, Platycerium bifurcatum and Nephrolepsis bisserata was determined using agar dilution method on clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella spp. and Salmomelia typhi. Antibacterial activities were observed at concentrations of 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 and 100.0 microg/ml. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from 12.5approximately 100 microg/ml. Extracts of P. afra and P. bifurcatum were most active. Antibacterial activities observed with N. bisserata were less pronounced with no detectable activity at extract concentrations of 12.5 and 25.0 microg/ml. E. coli, together with S. aureus appeared to be the most susceptible of the test bacteria while Klebsiella spp. was least sensitive. The significance of our findings is discussed. PMID:17323431

  8. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives. PMID:17387460

  9. [Uterotonic action of extracts from a group of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Shipochliev, T

    1981-01-01

    Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinal plants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446

  10. Venezuelan extraction plant expanding to 1 bcfd rating

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez-Gomez, H. )

    1990-12-03

    This paper discusses how modification of the two process trains at Corpoven's San Joaquin, Venezuela, extraction plant will increase each train's sustained capacity to 500 MMscfd and 1 bcfd total plant capacity. The San Joaquin 1000 project, set for completion in 1991, will represent an increase in NGL production of 8,000 b/d, with a gross revenue of $25 million/year for Corpoven S.A., a subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela. The San Joaquin extraction plant currently consists of two identical process trains, each designed to handle 400 MMscfd of rich gas. Original design also provided for future conversion for 70% ethane recovery with the installation of CO{sub 2}-removal units for the inlet gas. Because actual inlet gas has been much leaner than design, and excess capacity has existed in some vessels resulting from considerations for the 70% ethane-recovery case, true capacity of the plant is considerably higher than design. In addition, stream tests have shown peak processing capacity approaching 500 MMscfd/train.

  11. Extraction of DNA from plant and fungus tissues in situ

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When samples are collected in the field and transported to the lab, degradation of the nucleic acids contained in the samples is frequently observed. Immediate extraction and precipitation of the nucleic acids reduces degradation to a minimum, thus preserving accurate sequence information. An extraction method to obtain high quality DNA in field studies is described. Findings DNA extracted immediately after sampling was compared to DNA extracted after allowing the sampled tissues to air dry at 21°C for 48 or 72 hours. While DNA extracted from fresh tissues exhibited little degradation, DNA extracted from all tissues exposed to 21°C air for 48 or 72 hours exhibited varying degrees of degradation. Yield was higher for extractions from fresh tissues in most cases. Four microcentrifuges were compared for DNA yield: one standard electric laboratory microcentrifuge (max rcf = 16,000×g), two battery-operated microcentrifuges (max rcf = 5,000 and 3,000 ×g), and one manually-operated microcentrifuge (max rcf = 120×g). Yields for all centrifuges were similar. DNA extracted under simulated field conditions was similar in yield and quality to DNA extracted in the laboratory using the same equipment. Conclusions This CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) DNA extraction method employs battery-operated and manually-operated equipment to isolate high quality DNA in the field. The method was tested on plant and fungus tissues, and may be adapted for other types of organisms. The method produced high quality DNA in laboratory tests and under simulated field conditions. The field extraction method should prove useful for working in remote sites, where ice, dry ice, and liquid nitrogen are unavailable; where degradation is likely to occur due to the long distances between the sample site and the laboratory; and in instances where other DNA preservation and transportation methods have been unsuccessful. It may be possible to adapt this method for genomic

  12. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Borris R. T.; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N.; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F.; Brodin, Priscille; Rouillé, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Séron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 μg/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 μg/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 μg/mL and P. capitata up to 800 μg/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  13. Consumption of guava (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) may protect betel quid-chewing Papua New Guineans against diabetes.

    PubMed

    Owen, Patrick L; Martineau, Louis C; Caves, Dayna; Haddad, Pierre S; Matainaho, Teatulohi; Johns, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (DM2) in Papua New Guinea, coupled with compelling epidemiological evidence supporting a diabetogenic association with betel quid (BQ) chewing has lead us to investigate dietary strategies that might offer protection from developing DM2. We investigated the dietary habits of Kalo residents from coastal Central Province who are avid BQ chewers yet have a relatively low incidence of DM2 compared to the ethnically similar and adjacent Wanigelans who abstain from BQ yet have an unusually high incidence of DM2. In Kalo, guava bud (Psidium guajava L) and noni (Morinda citrifolia L) were consumed much more frequently than in Wanigela, whereas the inverse was observed for mangrove bean (Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L) Lam.). These plants, along with BQ and its component ingredients areca nut (Areca catechu L) and Piper betle L inflorescence, were assessed for their ability to mediate insulin-dependent and insulin-independent glucose transport in cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes. A dose-dependent inhibition of glucose uptake from methanolic extracts of BQ, areca nut and P. betle inflorescence supports previous reports of prodiabetic activity. Conversely, guava bud extract displayed significant insulin-mimetic and potentiating activity. Noni fruit, noni leaf, commercial noni juice and mangrove bean all displayed insulin-like activity but had little or no effect on insulin action. Habitual intake of guava and noni is proposed to offer better protection against DM2 development and/or betel quid diabetogenicity than cooked mangrove bean. These findings provide empirical support that DM2 risk reduction can be accomplished using traditional foods and medicines. PMID:19114402

  14. Plant and metagenomic DNA extraction of mucilaginous seeds.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Simone N M; Salazar, Marcela M; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Efraim, Priscilla

    2014-01-01

    The pulp surrounding the seeds of some fruits is rich in mucilage, carbohydrates, etc. Some seeds are rich in proteins and polyphenols. Fruit seeds, like cacao (Theobroma cacao) and cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum), are subjected to fermentation to develop flavor. During fermentation, ethanol is produced [2-6]. All of these compounds are considered as interfering substances that hinder the DNA extraction [4-8]. Protocols commonly used in the DNA extraction in samples of plant origin were used, but without success. Thus, a protocol for DNA samples under different conditions that can be used for similar samples was developed and applied with success. The protocol initially described for RNA samples by Zeng et al. [9] and with changes proposed by Provost et al. [5] was adapted for extracting DNA samples from those described. However, several modifications have been proposed:•Samples were initially washed with petroleum ether for fat phase removal.•RNAse was added to the extraction buffer, while spermidin was removed.•Additional steps of extraction with 5 M NaCl, saturated NaCl and CTAB (10%) were included and precipitation was carried out with isopropanol, followed by washing with ethanol. PMID:26150956

  15. Exploring the Potential for Using Inexpensive Natural Reagents Extracted from Plants to Teach Chemical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Supaporn Kradtap

    2012-01-01

    A number of scientific articles report on the use of natural extracts from plants as chemical reagents, where the main objective is to present the scientific applications of those natural plant extracts. The author suggests that natural reagents extracted from plants can be used as alternative low cost tools in teaching chemical analysis,…

  16. Antimycobacterial and cytotoxic activity of selected medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nguta, Joseph M.; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Nyarko, Alexander K.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Addo, Phyllis G.A.; Otchere, Isaac; Kissi-Twum, Abena

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains an ongoing threat to human health. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally to treat tuberculosis in Ghana. The current study was designed to investigate the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts from five selected medicinal plants. Material and methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) was used for antimycobacterial studies while the CellTiter 96® AQueous Assay, which is composed of solutions of a novel tetrazolium compound [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt; MTS] and an electron coupling reagent (phenazine methosulfate) PMS, was used for cytotoxic studies. Correlation coefficients were used to compare the activity of crude extracts against nonpathogenic strains and the pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis. Results Results of the MIC determinations indicated that all the crude extracts were active on all the three tested mycobacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration values as low as 156.3 µg/mL against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra (ATCC® 25,177™) were recorded from the leaves of Solanum torvum Sw. (Solanaceae). Cytotoxicity of the extracts varied, and the leaves from S. torvum had the most promising selectivity index. Activity against M. tuberculosis; Strain H37Ra was the best predictor of activity against pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp.tuberculosis (correlation coefficient=0.8). Conclusion The overall results of the present study provide supportive data on the use of some medicinal plants for tuberculosis treatment. The leaves of Solanum torvum are a potential source of anti-TB natural products and deserve further investigations to develop novel anti-TB agents against sensitive and drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. PMID:26875647

  17. Toxicity of some plant extracts against vector of lymphatic filariasis, Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    Hasaballah, Ahmed I

    2015-04-01

    Many insecticides are generally used as larvicides to control Culex pipiens, vector of lymphatic filariasis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the larvicidal activity of some potential larvicidal plants extracts against C. pipiens larvae. The toxic effects of both ethanolic and petroleum ether plant extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions against 3rd instar larvae of C. pipiens. Forty ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of 10 plants namely Echinochloa stagninum, Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes, Rhizophora mucronata, Cichorium intybus, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana, Azadirachta indica, Rosmarinus officinalis and Nigella sativa. On the basis of LC50, the toxic effect of the plant extracts tested varied depending on the plant species, part, solvent used in extraction and the extract concentrations. The petroleum ether extraction was more effective against mosquito as compared with ethanolic extraction. The most effective plant extract was A. indica followed by Ph. australis, N. sativa, C. intybus, R. officinalis, O. basilicum, O. majorana, E. stagninum, Rh. Mucronata and E. crassipes. PMID:26012233

  18. Comparative analysis of aroma compounds and sensorial features of strawberry and lemon guavas (Psidium cattleianum Sabine).

    PubMed

    Egea, Mariana Buranelo; Pereira-Netto, Adaucto Bellarmino; Cacho, Juan; Ferreira, Vicente; Lopez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    The aroma of strawberry and lemon guava fruits (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) was studied by sensory analysis, gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and quantitative analysis. Volatiles released from the pulps were collected in a trapping system consisting of LiChrolut EN resins and eluted with dichloromethane/methanol. In total, 23 odour zones were detected by GC-O, of which 16 were found in the extract from the strawberry guava pulp and 17 in the extract from the lemon guava pulp. Among the compounds identified, only 10 were common to both strawberry and lemon guavas. The descriptive sensorial analysis differentiated between the aroma profiles of the strawberry guava pulp with the descriptor "tomato" and the lemon guava pulp with the descriptor "tropical fruit". The typical aroma of the guava fruits was dominated by the presence of numerous aldehydes and ketones among which (Z)-3-hexenal was the most intense odorant, while 1,8-cineole and linalool were also revealed as important aroma constituents. PMID:24996334

  19. Solid-phase extraction of plant thionins employing aluminum silicate based extraction columns.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shah; Güzel, Yüksel; Pezzei, Cornelia; Rainer, Matthias; Huck, Christian W; Bonn, Günther K

    2014-08-01

    Thionins belong to a family of cysteine-rich, low-molecular-weight (∼5 KDa) biologically active proteins in the plant kingdom. They display a broad cellular toxicity against a wide range of organisms and eukaryotic cell lines. Thionins protect plants against different pathogens, including bacteria and fungi. A highly selective solid-phase extraction method for plant thionins is reported deploying aluminum silicate (3:2 mullite) powder as a sorbent in extraction columns. Mullite was shown to considerably improve selectivity compared to a previously described zirconium silicate embedded poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) monolithic polymer. Due to the presence of aluminum(III), mullite offers electrostatic interactions for the selective isolation of cysteine-rich proteins. In comparison to zirconium(IV) silicate, aluminum(III) silicate showed reduced interactions towards proteins which resulted into superior washings of unspecific compounds while still retaining cysteine-rich thionins. In the presented study, European mistletoe, wheat and barley samples were subjected to solid-phase extraction analysis for isolation of viscotoxins, purothionins and hordothionins, respectively. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectroscopy was used for determining the selectivity of the sorbent toward thionins. The selectively retained thionins were quantified by colorimetric detection using the bicinchoninic acid assay. For peptide mass-fingerprint analysis tryptic digests of eluates were examined. PMID:24913248

  20. Roles of plant extracts and constituents in cervical cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2013-01-01

    Cervical cancer is a major health problem worldwide and is the most frequent cause of cancer in women in India. Early detection and affordable drugs with clinical efficacy have to go hand-in-hand in order to comprehensibly address this serious health challenge. Plant-based drugs with potent anticancer effects should add to the efforts to find a cheap drug with limited clinical side effects. Keeping this very purpose in mind, an attempt has been made in this review to explore the potential of plant extracts or constituents known to exhibit antitumorigenic activity or exert cytotoxic effect in human cervical carcinoma cells. Alkaloids such as those isolated from C. vincetoxicum and T. Tanakae, naucleaorals A and B, isolated from the roots of N. orientalis, (6aR)-normecambroline, isolated from the bark of N. dealbata appear promising in different human cervical carcinoma cells with the IC50 of 4.0-8 μg/mL. However, other compounds such as rhinacanthone and neolignans isolated from different plants are not far behind and kill cervical cancer cells at a very low concentrations. Among plant extracts or its constituents that enhance the effect of known anticancer drugs, noni, derived from the plant M. citrifolia perhaps is the best candidate. The cytotoxic potency and apoptotic index of cisplatin was found to significantly enhanced in combination with noni in different human cervical carcinoma cells and it therefore holds significance as promising herbal-based anticancer agent. However, efficacy needs to be further investigated in various cervical cell lines and more importantly, in in vivo cervical cancer models for possible use as an alternative and safe anticancer drug. PMID:23886123

  1. Root based responses account for Psidium guajava survival at high nickel concentration.

    PubMed

    Bazihizina, Nadia; Redwan, Mirvat; Taiti, Cosimo; Giordano, Cristiana; Monetti, Emanuela; Masi, Elisa; Azzarello, Elisa; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    The presence of Psidium guajava in polluted environments has been reported in recent studies, suggesting that this species has a high tolerance to the metal stress. The present study aims at a physiological characterization of P. guajava response to high nickel (Ni) concentrations in the root-zone. Three hydroponic experiments were carried out to characterize the effects of toxic Ni concentrations on morphological and physiological parameters of P. guajava, focusing on Ni-induced damages at the root-level and root ion fluxes. With up to 300μM NiSO4 in the root-zone, plant growth was similar to that in control plants, whereas at concentrations higher than 1000μM NiSO4 there was a progressive decline in plant growth and leaf gas exchange parameters; this occurred despite, at all considered concentrations, plants limited Ni(2+) translocation to the shoot, therefore avoiding shoot Ni(2+) toxicity symptoms. Maintenance of plant growth with 300μM Ni(2+) was associated with the ability to retain K(+) in the roots meanwhile 1000 and 3000μM NiSO4 led to substantial K(+) losses. In this study, root responses mirror all plant performances suggesting a direct link between root functionality and Ni(2+) tolerance mechanisms and plant survival. Considering that Ni was mainly accumulated in the root system, the potential use of P. guajava for Ni(2+) phytoextraction in metal-polluted soils is limited; nevertheless, the observed physiological changes indicate a good Ni(2+) tolerance up to 300μM NiSO4 suggesting a potential role for the phytostabilization of polluted soils. PMID:25462976

  2. Efficacy of two plant extracts against vaginal trichomoniasis.

    PubMed

    El-Sherbini, Gehad T M; El Gozamy, Bothina R; Abdel-Hady, Nevein M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2009-04-01

    Trichomoniasis vaginalis is now an important worldwide health problem. Metronidazole has so far been used in treatment, but the metronidazole-resistant strains and unpleasant adverse effects have been developed. Treatment of patients with metronidazole refractory vaginal trichomoniasis constitutes a major therapeutic challenge and treatment options are extremely limited. In the present study, 33 metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis females were treated with a combined course of metronidazole and tinidazole. Those still resistant to the combined treatment were given Commiphora molmol (Myrrh) as two capsules for six to eight successive days on an empty stomach two hours before breakfast. Also, natural plant extract purified from (Roman) was in-vitro investigated for its efficacy against T. vaginalis on fresh Diamond media. The anti-trichomoniasis vaginalis activity of both P. granatum (in-vitro) and C. molmol (in-vivo) extracts gave promising results. PMID:19530609

  3. Cellulose nanofibrils extracted from the byproduct of cotton plant.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiaran; Lin, Jinyou; Tian, Feng; Li, Xiuhong; Bian, Fenggang; Wang, Jie

    2016-01-20

    Cotton stalk bark, as the byproduct of cotton plant, was usually discarded and/or combusted, leading to waste of resources and environment pollution. How to efficiently utilize this kind of cellulosic materials is of significative to energy saving and environment protection. Herein, we report on the extraction of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) from the cotton stalk bark for the first time by a combination of TEMPO-oxidation and mechanical disintegration method. The obtained CNF showed a yield more than 20 wt%. The morphologies, crystalline structures and thermal properties of CNF were extensively investigated by the transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation wide-angle X-ray scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectra and differential scanning calorimetry, respectively. The results showed that the final extracted CNF have similar polymorphs with their starting materials and a significantly increased crystallinity. This work will provide a new way to utilize the cotton stalk barks. PMID:26572420

  4. Protective Effect of Psidium guajava in Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress and Cytological Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Neeraj; Roy, Manju; Roy, Sushovan; Gupta, Neelu

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of aqueous extract of Psidium guajava leaves against sodium arsenite-induced toxicity in experimental rats. Animals were divided into four groups. Control group received arsenic free distilled water and three treatment groups (II, III, and IV) exposed to the arsenic (NaAsO2) (20 mg/kg b.wt) through drinking water. Group III and IV were administered a daily oral dose of P. guajava leaf extract 50 and 100 mg/kg b.wt. (AEPG50 and AEPG100) for the period of 6 weeks. Blood samples and organs were collected at the end of the experiment. Arsenic exposure resulted in significant rise in lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels in erythrocyte, liver, kidney, and brain. In addition toxin decreased (P<0.05) the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in the studied tissues. Residual effect of arsenic in various tissues was also observed. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis and degenerative changes in kidney and liver of arsenic intoxicated animals. Cytological alteration in brain tissue was also observed. Treatment with AEPG100 (aqueous extract of P. guajava) @100 mg/kg body weight) significantly restored activities of oxidative stress markers like LPO levels, GSH levels, SOD, and CAT activities but having the limited protective activity of the herbal extract was observed on tissues architecture. It is therefore concluded that prophylactic co-administration of AEPG could provide specific protection from oxidative injury and to some extent on tissue damage. PMID:23293461

  5. Plant extracts and plant-derived compounds: promising players in a countermeasure strategy against radiological exposure.

    PubMed

    Kma, Lakhan

    2014-01-01

    Radiation exposure leads to several pathophysiological conditions, including oxidative damage, inflammation and fibrosis, thereby affecting the survival of organisms. This review explores the radiation countermeasure properties of fourteen (14) plant extracts or plant-derived compounds against these cellular manifestations. It was aimed at evaluating the possible role of plants or its constituents in radiation countermeasure strategy. All the 14 plant extracts or compounds derived from it and considered in this review have shown some radioprotection in different in vivo, ex-vivo and or in vitro models of radiological injury. However, few have demonstrated advantages over the others. C. majus possessing antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects appears to be promising in radioprotection. Its crude extracts as well as various alkaloids and flavonoids derived from it, have shown to enhance survival rate in irradiated mice. Similarly, curcumin with its antioxidant and the ability to ameliorate late effect of radiation exposure, combined with improvement in survival in experimental animal following irradiation, makes it another probable candidate against radiological injury. Furthermore, the extracts of P. hexandrum and P. kurroa in combine treatment regime, M. piperita, E. officinalis, A. sinensis, nutmeg, genistein and ginsan warrants further studies on their radioprotective potentials. However, one that has received a lot of attention is the dietary flaxseed. The scavenging ability against radiation-induced free radicals, prevention of radiation-induced lipid peroxidation, reduction in radiation cachexia, level of inflammatory cytokines and fibrosis, are some of the remarkable characteristics of flaxseed in animal models of radiation injury. While countering the harmful effects of radiation exposure, it has shown its ability to enhance survival rate in experimental animals. Further, flaxseed has been tested and found to be equally effective when

  6. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β.

    PubMed

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1-42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  7. Potential Properties of Plant Sprout Extracts on Amyloid β

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Mizue; Okada, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the amyloid β (Aβ) inhibition mechanism of plant sprouts' aqueous extracts (PSAE). In this study, we screened the effects of five plant sprouts' extracts on Aβ (1–42) structure modification using gel electrophoresis. In PSAE, no band of Aβ monomer was recognized in Japanese butterbur. Similarly, the Aβ monomer band became light in buckwheat, red cabbage, broccoli, and brussels. The neuroprotective effects of PSAE were evaluated by measuring levels of Aβ in mixtures (Aβ  and PSAE) with Aβ ELISA assay. The treatment with PSAE decreased Aβ levels. The results indicated that the levels of red cabbage, Japanese butterbur, and broccoli were 9.6, 28.0, and 44.0%, respectively. The lowest value was observed with buckwheat. Furthermore, we carried out a Congo Red (CR) and Aβ binding experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. The correlation coefficient for the absorption spectrum peak of CR was found to be bigger than 0.8 (r = 0.882) which proved that the Aβ levels could be attributed to the peak of CR. In conclusion, we demonstrated that treatment with PSAE effectively decreases Aβ concentration. Thus, the mechanism that decreased the Aβ levels may be modification by PSAE. PMID:27429807

  8. Protective effects of polysaccharides from Psidium guajava leaves against oxidative stresses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seo-Young; Kim, Eun-A; Kim, Young-Sun; Yu, Seok-Kyu; Choi, Changyong; Lee, Jung-Suk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Nah, Jae-Woon; Jeon, You-Jin

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze antioxidant properties of a polysaccharide isolated from Psidium guajava leaves (PS-PGL) in vitro including its radical scavenging activities and protective effects against damage to cells as well as in vivo in zebrafish. The water extract of P. guajava leaves (WE-PGL) and PS-PGL showed strong radical scavenging effects in terms of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl, and alkyl radical. Compared to WE-PGL, PS-PGL enhanced all scavenging activities and in particular strongly scavenged the hydroxyl radical (50% inhibitory concentration [IC50], 0.02mg/mL). In addition, PS-PGL exerted a protective effect against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and against toxicity to Vero cells. Furthermore, in vivo experiments using zebrafish embryos indicated that treatment with hydrogen peroxide decreased the survival rate and heart-beating rate of zebrafish embryos, whereas these problems were reduced by PS-PGL treatment. Moreover, PS-PGL inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that PS-PGL may be useful as a beneficial antioxidant material in the food and cosmetic industries. PMID:27296444

  9. Use of plant extracts for tea pest management in India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Somnath; Handique, Gautam; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair; Dashora, Kavya; Roy, Sudipta Mukhopadhyay; Mukhopadhyay, Ananda; Babu, Azariah

    2016-06-01

    India is the second largest producer of black tea in the world. The biggest challenge for tea growers of India nowadays is to combat pests and diseases. Tea crop in India is infested by not less than 720 insect and mite species. At least four sucking pests and six chewing pests have well established themselves as regular pests causing substantial damage to this foliage crop. Various synthetic pesticides are widely used for the management of tea pests in India. Applications of such large quantity of pesticides could cause various problems such as development of resistance, deleterious effects on non-target organisms such as insect predators and parasitoids, upsetting the ecological balance, and accumulation of pesticide residues on tea leaves. There is a growing demand for organic tea or at least pesticide residue free tea in the international market which affects the export price. There is also a higher emphasis of implementation of new regulations on internationally traded foods and implementation of Plant Protection Code (PPC) for tea by the Government of India. This necessitates a relook into the usage pattern of synthetic pesticides on this crop. There are various non-chemical interventions which are being worked out for their sustainability, compatibility, and eco-friendly properties which can gradually replace the use of toxic chemicals. The application of plant extracts with insecticidal properties provides an alternative to the synthetic pesticides. Botanical products, especially neem-based products, have made a relatively moderate impact in tea pest control. Research has also demonstrated the potential of 67 plant species as botanical insecticides against tea pests. The majority of plant products used in pest management of tea in India are in the form of crude extracts prepared locally in tea garden itself, and commercial standardized formulations are not available for most of the plants due to lack of scientific research in the area. Apart from systematic

  10. Metal Analysis in Citrus Sinensis Fruit Peel and Psidium Guajava Leaf

    PubMed Central

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-01-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's ‘t’ test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  11. Metal analysis in citrus sinensis fruit peel and psidium guajava leaf.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2011-07-01

    The determination of metal traces is very important because they are involved in biological cycles and indicate high toxicity. The objective of the present study is to measure the levels of heavy metals and mineral ions in medicinally important plant species, Citrus sinensis and Psidium guajava. This study investigates the accumulation of Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd), Aluminum (Al), Mercury (Hg), Arsenic (As), Selenium (Se) and inorganic minerals like Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) in C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peel and P. guajava (guava) leaf, to measure the levels of heavy metal contamination. Dried powdered samples of the plants were digested using wet digestion method and elemental determination was done by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and analysed by student's 't' test. Values are considered significant at P < 0.05. The results were compared with suitable safety standards and the levels of Cu, Zn, Cd, Mg and Ca in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves were within the acceptable limits for human consumption. The order of concentration of elements in both the samples showed the following trend: Mg > Ca > Al > Zn > Cu > Cd > Hg = As = Se. The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was significantly low and below detection limit. The content of toxic metals in tested plant samples was found to be low when compared with the limits prescribed by various authorities (World Health Organization, WHO; International Centre for Materials Research, ICMR; American Public Health Association, APHA). The content of Hg, As and Se in C. sinensis fruit peel and P. guajava leaves was not detectable and met the appropriate safety standards. In conclusion, the tested plant parts taken in the present study were found to be safe. PMID:21976824

  12. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  13. Enhanced Microbial, Functional and Sensory Properties of Herbal Yogurt Fermented with Korean Traditional Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Jae Yeon; Lee, Ji Young; Ha, Young Sik; Shin, Yong Kook; Kim, Younghoon; Kim, Sae Hun; Oh, Nam Su

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two Korean traditional plant extracts (Diospyros kaki THUNB. leaf; DK, and Nelumbo nucifera leaf; NN) on the fermentation, functional and sensory properties of herbal yogurts. Compared to control fermentation, all plant extracts increased acidification rate and reduced the time to complete fermentation (pH 4.5). Supplementation of plant extracts and storage time were found to influence the characteristics of the yogurts, contributing to increased viability of starter culture and phenolic compounds. In particular, the increase in the counts of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was highest (2.95 and 1.14 Log CFU/mL respectively) in DK yogurt. Furthermore, supplementation of the plant extracts significantly influenced to increase the antioxidant activity and water holding capacity and to produce volatile compounds. The higher antioxidant activity and water holding capacity were observed in NN yogurt than DK yogurt. Moreover, all of the sensory characteristics were altered by the addition of plant extracts. Addition of plant extracts increased the scores related to flavor, taste, and texture from plain yogurt without a plant extract, as a result of volatile compounds analysis. Thus, the overall preference was increased by plant extracts. Consequently, supplementation of DK and NN extracts in yogurt enhanced the antioxidant activity and physical property, moreover increased the acceptability of yogurt. These findings demonstrate the possibility of using plant extracts as a functional ingredient in the manufacture of herbal yogurt. PMID:27499669

  14. Guatemalan plants extracts as virucides against HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Luis M; Alvarez, Amparo; Bermejo, Mercedes; González, Nuria; Beltrán, Manuela; Sánchez-Palomino, Sonsoles; Cruz, Sully M; Gaitán, Isabel; del Olmo, Esther; Escarcena, Ricardo; García, Pablo A; Cáceres, Armando; San Feliciano, Arturo; Alcamí, José

    2008-06-01

    Prevention methods to avoid transmission of pathogens, including HIV, are crucial in the control of infectious diseases, not only to block epidemic spread but to avoid long-term treatments leading to emergence of resistances and drug associated side effects. Together with vaccine development, the discovery of new virucidal agents represents a research priority in this setting. In the screening of new compounds with antiviral activity, three Guatemalan plant extracts from Justicia reptans, Neurolaena lobata and Pouteria viridis were evaluated with a classic antiviral assay and were found to inhibit HIV replication. This activity was corroborated by an original recombinant virus assay, leading us to perform a deeper study of the virucidal activity. Active fractions were non-toxic in vitro and also inhibited other enveloped viruses. Moreover, these fractions were able to inhibit the transfer of HIV from dendritic cells (DCs) to lymphocytes, that represents the main way of HIV spread in vivo. PMID:18068962

  15. Antimicrobial activities of skincare preparations from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kareru, P G; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M; Thiong'o, G T; Gachanja, A N; Mukiira, H N

    2010-01-01

    In this study, Tithonia diversifolia Helms. (A Gray), Aloe secundiflora (Miller) and Azadirachta indica (A. Juss) plant extracts were used to make herbal soaps while Thevetia peruviana (Schum) seed oil was used to make a herbal lotion for skincare. The soaps were tested for the growth inhibition of Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The lotion was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus and E.coli. Although Tithonia diversifolia soap exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on the test bacterial strains, it had the least inhibition against C. albicans. Results from this study indicated that the 'Tithonia diversifolia' soap would have superior skin protection against the tested bacteria but would offer the least skin protection against C. albicans. The herbal lotion inhibited S. aureus and E. coli in a concentration dependent manner, however, the inhibitory effect was more pronounced on S. aureus. PMID:21461148

  16. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  17. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using plant extracts show strong antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Guliani, Anika; Singla, Rubbel; Yadav, Ramdhan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three plants Populus alba, Hibiscus arboreus and Lantana camara were explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The effect of reaction temperature and leaf extract (LE) concentration of P. alba, H. arboreus and L. camara was evaluated on the synthesis and size of SNPs. The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The synthesis rate of SNPs was highest with LE of L. camara followed by H. arboreus and P. alba under similar conditions. L. camara LE showed maximum potential of smaller size SNPs synthesis, whereas bigger particles were formed by H. arboreous LE. The size and shape of L. camara LE synthesised SNPs were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size 17±9.5 nm with 5% LE of L. camara. The SNPs synthesised by LE of L. camara showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The results document that desired size SNPs can be synthesised using these plant LEs at a particular temperature for applications in the biomedical field. PMID:26023158

  18. Extraction and GC determination of volatile aroma compounds from extracts of three plant species of the Apiaceae family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stan, M.; Soran, M. L.; Varodi, C.; Lung, I.; Copolovici, L.; MǎruÅ£oiu, C.

    2013-11-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum), dill (Anethum graveolens) and celery (Apium graveolens), three aromatic plants belonging to the Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) botanical family, were selected as sources of essential or volatile oils. Essential oils are composed of a large diversity of volatile aroma compounds. Plant-derived essential oils and extracts have long been used as natural agents in food preservation, pharmaceuticals and medicinal therapies. In the present study, the plant extracts from leaves of parsley, dill and celery, were obtained by maceration, ultrasound-assisted extraction and microwave-assisted extraction. All extractions were performed at 30°C, using different solvents (ethanol, diethyl ether, n-hexane) and solvent mixtures (1:1, v/v). The most effective solvent system for the extraction of volatile aroma compounds was diethyl ether - n-hexane (1:1, v/v). Extraction efficiency and determination of aroma volatiles were performed by GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. The major volatile compounds present in plant extracts were myristicin, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, 1,3,8-p-menthatriene, apiol, dill ether and allyl phenoxyacetate.

  19. Leishmanicidal evaluation of extracts from native plants of the Yucatan peninsula.

    PubMed

    Peraza-Sánchez, S R; Cen-Pacheco, F; Noh-Chimal, A; May-Pat, F; Simá-Polanco, P; Dumonteil, E; García-Miss, M R; Mut-Martín, M

    2007-06-01

    Methanol extracts were prepared from different parts of 18 plants collected in the Yucatan peninsula and evaluated in an in vitro bioassay for leishmanicidal activity against Leishmania mexicana promastigotes. The ten most potent plant extracts (IC(50)<50 microg/ml) were Aphelandra scabra leaves, Byrsonima bucidaefolia bark, Byrsonima crassifolia bark, Clusia flava leaves, Cupania dentata bark, Diphysa carthagenensis leaves, Dorstenia contrajerva whole plant, Milleria quinqueflora roots, Tridax procumbens whole plant, and Vitex gaumeri bark. PMID:17482379

  20. Whitening efficacy of plant extracts including Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula extracts on the skin of Asian patients with melasma

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Naveed; Hussain, Irshad; Abbas, Khwaja Asad; Rasul, Akhtar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Melasma/hyperpigmentation and solar damage of the skin remains a difficult problem to treat. Various types of whitening agents are used to treat hyperpigmentation. A change has been observed recently to use plant extracts as skin whitening agents. Aim To compare the effectiveness of emulsion formulations containing plant extracts that include catechins/polyphenols and placebo without plant extracts, on patients with melasma. Material and methods Two groups of 25 patients each (aged 21–35 years), who reported to the outpatient department of BV Hospital and Personal clinic of a dermatologist, were included in the study. Volunteers applied the formulations with plant extracts and placebo to one side of the cheek. Prior to the study, signed consent was obtained from each patient. The tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the extracts and formulations was tested in vitro. The pigment density of patients was evaluated biometrologically using Mexameter® and subjectively using a visual survey before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of Faculty of Pharmacy, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur was obtained before the study. One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used in the statistical analysis. Results A significant decrease in the level of melanin was determined in all 50 patients who used a plant extract containing catechin (p ≤ 0.05). The difference between pre- and post-treatment levels of melanin was statistically significant (p = 0.05). Formulations prepared with plant extracts containing catechin were found effective on melasma, compared to the placebo. Conclusions Formulations containing plant extracts that are not yet being used widespread commercially on melasma could be an effective alternative treatment of melasma. PMID:24278079

  1. SImbol Materials Lithium Extraction Operating Data From Elmore and Featherstone Geothermal Plants

    DOE Data Explorer

    Stephen Harrison

    2015-07-08

    The data provided in this upload is summary data from its Demonstration Plant operation at the geothermal power production plants in the Imperial Valley. The data provided is averaged data for the Elmore Plant and the Featherstone Plant. Included is both temperature and analytical data (ICP_OES). Provide is the feed to the Simbol Process, post brine treatment and post lithium extraction.

  2. Critical issues with cryogenic water extraction for tracing plant's source water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Winkler, Anna; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Numerous scientists and disciplines around the world are applying stable water isotope techniques-, especially in the ecohydrological context. For more than two decades, cryogenic vacuum extraction has been the most widely used method for obtaining water from soils and plant tissues for isotope analysis. Recent findings suggested that cryogenic extraction conditions (extraction time, temperature, vacuum threshold) and physicochemical soil properties considerably affected the extracted soil water isotope results. The key question therefore is: Which soil water pool/s are we actually extracting cryogenically under certain extraction conditions and is this soil water pool the source of plant water uptake? We conducted a greenhouse trial with two different plant species grown on two physicochemically different soils (sandy soil and clayey loam) to test the effects of varying cryogenic extraction conditions and physicochemical soil properties on extracted soil water isotope results. We further aimed to identify the unique soil water isotopic signature which mirrors plant's water source. We sampled root crowns and an aliquot of the first and second soil layer for cryogenic water extraction. To determine the plant water available soil water pool/s, we varied water extraction parameters (time and temperature). Our dual-isotope study showed that physicochemical soil properties (i.e. clay content, pore size) along with extraction parameters lead to isotope fractionation effects of soil water. Extraction temperature and time significantly impacted isotope results of clayey loam samples but no effect could be observed for the sandy soil. In general, for water extracts of both soil types, longer extraction times and higher temperatures resulted in enriched isotopic signatures, although this influence was more pronounced for the clayey loam. Determining ideal soil water extraction parameters to identify plant available soil water pools revealed that extraction settings of 200

  3. Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost

    SciTech Connect

    Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C.

    2008-04-01

    Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

  4. DNA extraction protocols from dormant buds of twelve woody plant genera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard plant DNA extraction protocols call for samples of newly expanding leaves and shoots yet analysis is sometimes needed when plants are dormant. We evaluated three DNA extraction protocols using dormant buds from 40 species and four hybrids of 12 genera. Two protocols were from ready-to-use ...

  5. Antifungal activities of Hedychium essential oils and plant extracts against mycotoxigenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-derived antifungal compounds are preferred to chemicals to reduce the risk of toxic effects on humans, livestock and the environment. Essential oil extracted from rhizomes and plant extracts of ornamental ginger lily (Hedychium spp.) were evaluated for their antifungal activity against two fu...

  6. EXTRACTION AND DETERMINATION OF SELECTED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN PLANT TISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A procedure has been developed for analysis of plant material for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Sonication is used to extract the PAHs from homogenized plant material into acetonitrile and then the PAHs are partitioned into pentane. The pentane extract is fractionated ...

  7. Phenolic Profiles and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts from Peanut Plant Parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represents approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were de...

  8. Identification of Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract as the most potent anti-inflammatory of four plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Walker, Joel M; Maitra, Amarnath; Walker, Jessica; Ehrnhoefer-Ressler, Miriam M; Inui, Taichi; Somoza, Veronika

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the anti-inflammatory potential of a Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract solely or in combination with extracts prepared from either Polygonum aviculare L., Sambucus nigra L., or Isodon japonicus L. in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (HGF-1) and human U-937 monocytes, as cell models of periodontal disease. HGF-1 and U-937 cells were incubated with LPS from either Porphyromonas gingivalis or Escherichia coli together with the four plant extracts alone or in combination. Secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines from HGF-1 and U-937 cells was measured by means of a multiplexed bead assay system. Magnolia officinalis L. bark extract, at concentrations of 1 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL, reduced interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion from HGF-1 cells to 72.5 ± 28.6% and reduced matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) secretion from U-937 cells to 8.87 ± 7.97% compared to LPS-treated cells (100%). The other three extracts also reduced secretion of these inflammatory markers but were not as effective. Combination of 9 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 1 μg/mL of each of the other extracts maintained the anti-inflammatory effect of Magnolia officinalis L. extract. Combination of 5 μg/mL Magnolia officinalis L. extract with 5 μg/mL Isodon japonicus L. extract also maintained the anti-inflammatory potential of the Magnolia officinalis L. extract, whereas increasing concentrations of any of the other plant extracts in the combination experiments reduced the Magnolia officinalis L. extract efficacy in U-937 cells. PMID:23711140

  9. Design of Peumus boldus tablets by direct compression using a novel dry plant extract.

    PubMed

    Palma, Santiago; Luján, Claudia; Llabot, Juan Manuel; Barboza, Gloria; Manzo, Ruben Hilario; Allemandi, Daniel Alberto

    2002-02-21

    A solid pharmaceutical dosage formulation using a novel dry plant extract of Peumus boldus MOL. (Monimiaceae) (Pb) is proposed. The botanical evaluation of plant material, through morphological and anatomical diagnosis, is presented. This evaluation permits to identify the herb to be used correctly. The analysis of the most extractive solvent mixture and the attainment of plant extract (fluid and dry) are reported. Several formulations (tablets) containing a novel dry plant extract of Pb and common excipients for direct compression are evaluated. The following formulation: dry plant extract of Pb (170 mg), Avicel PH101 (112 mg), Lactose CD (112) and magnesium stearate (6 mg), compressed at 1000 mPa, showed the best pharmaceutical performance. PMID:11897423

  10. Extraction of /sup 14/C-labeled photosynthate from aquatic plants with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Filbin, G.J.; Hough, R.A.

    1984-03-01

    DMSO was tested as a solvent to extract /sup 14/C-labeled photosynthate from three species of aquatic plants in photosynthesis measurements and compared with the dry oxidation method for plant radioassay. Extraction efficiency was in the range of 96-99% of fixed /sup 14/C, and precision was comparable to, or better than, that obtained with dry oxidation. The method is simple and inexpensive, and for fresh tissue the same sample extracts can be used for chlorophyll analyses.

  11. Extracts of edible and medicinal plants damage membranes of Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-10-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pH(in)), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  12. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal Plants Damage Membranes of Vibrio cholerae▿

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Eduardo; García, Santos; Heredia, Norma

    2010-01-01

    The use of natural compounds from plants can provide an alternative approach against food-borne pathogens. The mechanisms of action of most plant extracts with antimicrobial activity have been poorly studied. In this work, changes in membrane integrity, membrane potential, internal pH (pHin), and ATP synthesis were measured in Vibrio cholerae cells after exposure to extracts of edible and medicinal plants. A preliminary screen of methanolic, ethanolic, and aqueous extracts of medicinal and edible plants was performed. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were measured for extracts showing high antimicrobial activity. Our results indicate that methanolic extracts of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), nopal cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica var. Villanueva L.), sweet acacia (Acacia farnesiana L.), and white sagebrush (Artemisia ludoviciana Nutt.) are the most active against V. cholera, with MBCs ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 mg/ml. Using four fluorogenic techniques, we studied the membrane integrity of V. cholerae cells after exposure to these four extracts. Extracts from these plants were able to disrupt the cell membranes of V. cholerae cells, causing increased membrane permeability, a clear decrease in cytoplasmic pH, cell membrane hyperpolarization, and a decrease in cellular ATP concentration in all strains tested. These four plant extracts could be studied as future alternatives to control V. cholerae contamination in foods and the diseases associated with this microorganism. PMID:20802077

  13. Phytosterols and their extraction from various plant matrices using supercritical carbon dioxide: a review.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Salim; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Akanda, Md Jahurul Haque; Easmin, Mst Sabina; Bt Shamsudin, Siti Hadijah; Bin Yunus, Kamaruzzaman

    2015-05-01

    Phytosterols provide important health benefits: in particular, the lowering of cholesterol. From environmental and commercial points of view, the most appropriate technique has been searched for extracting phytosterols from plant matrices. As a green technology, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using carbon dioxide (CO2) is widely used to extract bioactive compounds from different plant matrices. Several studies have been performed to extract phytosterols using supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and this technology has clearly offered potential advantages over conventional extraction methods. However, the efficiency of SFE technology fully relies on the processing parameters, chemistry of interest compounds, nature of the plant matrices and expertise of handling. This review covers SFE technology with particular reference to phytosterol extraction using SC-CO2. Moreover, the chemistry of phytosterols, properties of supercritical fluids (SFs) and the applied experimental designs have been discussed for better understanding of phytosterol solubility in SC-CO2. PMID:25048690

  14. Comparison of extractants for plant-available zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper in contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, A.U.; Bates, T.E.; Soon, Y.K.

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to find a suitable extractant(s) for plant-available metals in metal contaminated soils. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. Fordhook Giant) was grown in greenhouse pots on 46 Ontario soils varying in degree of contamination with metals. The soils had been contaminated with metals to varying degrees over a period of years. After 40 days, the plants were harvested and Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu concentrations were measured. Each soil was extracted with nine different extractants: aqua regia, 0.01M EDTA, 0.005M DTPA, 0.02M NTA, 0.5N CH/sub 3/COOH, 1N CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/, 0.6N HCl + 0.05N AlCl/sub 3/, (COOH)/sub 2/ + (COONH/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 2/O. Zinc, cadmium, nickel, and copper concentrations in Swiss chard were correlated with the amounts of soil Zn, Cd, Ni, and Cu removed by each extractant. Of the nine soil extractants, CH/sub 3/COONH/sub 4/ was the best predictor of plant-available Zn if only extractable Zn and soil pH were included as independent variables in a regression equation. Acetic acid was the best extractant for prediction of both plant-available Cd and Ni when soil pH was included in the equation. Attempts to find a suitable soil extractant for plant-available Cu were unsuccessful.

  15. Antibacterial activity of two plant extracts on eight burn pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gnanamani, A; Priya, K Shanmuga; Radhakrishnan, N; Babu, Mary

    2003-05-01

    Antibacterial activity of crude alcoholic extract of Datura alba and Celosia argentea leaves were studied against pathogens isolated from infected burn patients. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied and the results are comparable to the conventional antibiotic cream namely Silver Sulphadiazine (SSD). On comparing the efficiency of the two extracts, extract of D. alba exhibited more than 50% increase in antibacterial activity compared to C. argentea. PMID:12686442

  16. Bridging the gap between comprehensive extraction protocols in plant metabolomics studies and method validation.

    PubMed

    Bijttebier, Sebastiaan; Van der Auwera, Anastasia; Foubert, Kenn; Voorspoels, Stefan; Pieters, Luc; Apers, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    It is vital to pay much attention to the design of extraction methods developed for plant metabolomics, as any non-extracted or converted metabolites will greatly affect the overall quality of the metabolomics study. Method validation is however often omitted in plant metabolome studies, as the well-established methodologies for classical targeted analyses such as recovery optimization cannot be strictly applied. The aim of the present study is to thoroughly evaluate state-of-the-art comprehensive extraction protocols for plant metabolomics with liquid chromatography-photodiode array-accurate mass mass spectrometry (LC-PDA-amMS) by bridging the gap with method validation. Validation of an extraction protocol in untargeted plant metabolomics should ideally be accomplished by validating the protocol for all possible outcomes, i.e. for all secondary metabolites potentially present in the plant. In an effort to approach this ideal validation scenario, two plant matrices were selected based on their wide versatility of phytochemicals: meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria) for its polyphenols content, and spicy paprika powder (from the genus Capsicum) for its apolar phytochemicals content (carotenoids, phytosterols, capsaicinoids). These matrices were extracted with comprehensive extraction protocols adapted from literature and analysed with a generic LC-PDA-amMS characterization platform that was previously validated for broad range phytochemical analysis. The performance of the comprehensive sample preparation protocols was assessed based on extraction efficiency, repeatability and intermediate precision and on ionization suppression/enhancement evaluation. The manuscript elaborates on the finding that none of the extraction methods allowed to exhaustively extract the metabolites. Furthermore, it is shown that depending on the extraction conditions enzymatic degradation mechanisms can occur. Investigation of the fractions obtained with the different extraction methods

  17. Fermentation of aqueous plant seed extracts by lactic acid bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Schafner, D.W.; Beuchat, R.L.

    1986-05-01

    The effects of lactic acid bacterial fermentation on chemical and physical changes in aqueous extracts of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), peanut (Arachis hypogea), soybean (Glycine max), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) were studied. The bacteria investigated were Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. acidophilus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. Organisms were inoculated individually into all of the seed extracts; L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were also evaluated together as inocula for fermenting the legume extracts. During fermentation, bacterial population and changes in titratable acidity, pH, viscosity, and color were measured over a 72 h period at 37 degrees C. Maximum bacterial populations, titratable acidity, pH, and viscosity varied depending upon the type of extract and bacterial strain. The maximum population of each organism was influenced by fermentable carbohydrates, which, in turn, influenced acid production and change in pH. Change in viscosity was correlated with the amount of protein and titratable acidity of products. Color was affected by pasteurization treatment and fermentation as well as the source of extract. In the extracts inoculated simultaneously with L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus, a synergistic effect resulted in increased bacterial populations, titratable acidity, and viscosity, and decreased pH in all the legume extracts when compared to the extracts fermented with either of these organisms individually. Fermented extracts offer potential as substitutes for cultured dairy products. 24 references.

  18. Investigation on the effects of guava (Psidium guajava L.) infusions on germination, root tips and meristematic cells of Latuca sativa.

    PubMed

    Luber, Jaquelini; Palmieri, Marcel J; Botelho, Carolina M; Rinaldo, Daniel; Andrade-Vieira, Larissa F

    2015-01-01

    Guava (Psidium guajava L.) is a plant often employed in popular medicine. Recently several studies have alerted about the toxicity of substances present in medicinal plants, which can pose risks to the human health. In this sense, the present work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic, cytotoxic and genotoxic action of three guava varieties - Paluma, Pedro Sato and Roxa ("purple") - on the plant test system Lactuca sativa L. Thus, macro- and microscopic evaluations were carried out for five infusion concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 g.L(-1)) prepared from each variety. Distilled water was used as negative control. Chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis by HPLC-PAD indicated that the chemical composition of the infusion of Roxa is different than that of the infusions of the varieties Paluma and Pedro Sato. It was observed that seed germination and root growth in L. sativa exposed to infusions decreased with increasing infusion concentration, regardless of the tested cultivar. For the mitotic index, no statistical differences were observed. On the other hand, a significant increase in the frequency of cell cycle alterations was verified, especially for the highest concentrations tested. The cytogenotoxic effect was significant. Therefore, guava should not be used indiscriminately in popular medicine. PMID:25993362

  19. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. PMID:27268248

  20. Anthocyanin characterization of pilot plant water extracts of Delonix regia flowers.

    PubMed

    Adje, Felix; Lozano, Yves F; Meudec, Emmanuelle; Lozano, Paul; Adima, Augustin; N'zi, Georges Agbo; Gaydou, Emile M

    2008-01-01

    Following the development of new applications of pilot plant scale extraction and formulation processes for natural active bioproducts obtained from various underutilized tropical plants and herbs, we have manufactured water-extracts from Delonix regia flowers, grown in Ivory Coast. These extracts, which contain polyphenols, are traditionally home made and used as healthy bioproducts. They are reddish-coloured due to the presence of anthocyanins. The three major anthocyanins in these extracts have been characterized. The molecular structures were confirmed by LC-SM analysis. Amongst them, two are described for the first time in Delonix regia. PMID:18596650

  1. In vitro antiviral activity of plant extracts from Asteraceae medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to the high prevalence of viral infections having no specific treatment and the constant appearance of resistant viral strains, the development of novel antiviral agents is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral activity against bovine viral diarrhea virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 2 (PV-2) and vesicular stomatitis virus of organic (OE) and aqueous extracts (AE) from: Baccharis gaudichaudiana, B. spicata, Bidens subalternans, Pluchea sagittalis, Tagetes minuta and Tessaria absinthioides. A characterization of the antiviral activity of B. gaudichaudiana OE and AE and the bioassay-guided fractionation of the former and isolation of one active compound is also reported. Methods The antiviral activity of the OE and AE of the selected plants was evaluated by reduction of the viral cytopathic effect. Active extracts were then assessed by plaque reduction assays. The antiviral activity of the most active extracts was characterized by evaluating their effect on the pretreatment, the virucidal activity and the effect on the adsorption or post-adsorption period of the viral cycle. The bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE was carried out by column chromatography followed by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography fractionation of the most active fraction and isolation of an active compound. The antiviral activity of this compound was also evaluated by plaque assay. Results B. gaudichaudiana and B. spicata OE were active against PV-2 and VSV. T. absinthioides OE was only active against PV-2. The corresponding three AE were active against HSV-1. B. gaudichaudiana extracts (OE and AE) were the most selective ones with selectivity index (SI) values of 10.9 (PV-2) and >117 (HSV-1). For this reason, both extracts of B. gaudichaudiana were selected to characterize their antiviral effects. Further bioassay-guided fractionation of B. gaudichaudiana OE led to an active fraction, FC (EC50

  2. Comparative Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy of Six Indian Plant Extracts against Streptococcus Mutans

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pankaj; Bisht, Dakshina; Sharma, Alosha; Srivastava, Binita; Gupta, Nidhi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To assess the antimicrobial efficacy of six plant extracts of Indian origin often used as traditional medicine against standard strains of Streptococcus mutans. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial activity of six plant extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for the crude (raw), Organic solvent based, aqueous extracts was determined by the agar well diffusion method. Results: Out of all the six extracts evaluated, organic solvent based and aqueous extracts of all the extracts were found to have variable antimicrobial activities against the oral pathogen. The crude extract of Garlic was the most effective against Streptococcus mutans with the highest zone of inhibition (24.62 mm) followed by the aqueous extract of Amla (19.47mm) and organic solvent based extract of Ginger (18.76 mm). Conclusion: Despite of the fact that the extracts were not pure compounds and antimicrobial results were obtained. This recommends the potency of these extracts. The figment of the derivation of antimicrobial compounds from plants seems lucrative as it will lead to the development of a phytomedicine to act against microbes. PMID:25859526

  3. Behavioural response of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) larvae to selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Gökçe, Ayhan; Isaacs, Rufus; Whalon, Mark E

    2006-11-01

    Potato leaves were treated with 2, 20 or 200 g kg(-1) solutions of extracts of five plant species collected in Turkey, and then exposed to larvae of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). During the first 24 h of exposure, leaf consumption was not affected by 2 g kg(-1) extracts, whereas significantly more leaf tissue remained on leaves treated with 20 g kg(-1) extracts of Arctium lappa L., Bifora radians M Bieb, Humulus lupulus L. or Xanthium strumarium L. than on untreated control leaves. Feeding was not affected by the 20 g kg(-1) extract of Verbascum songaricum Schrenk ex Fisch & Mey. Extracts of all species at 200 g kg(-1) reduced larval feeding, with H. lupulus and X. strumarium providing the greatest protection. Observations of larval behaviour over the first 15 min of exposure to these extracts revealed that the interaction of beetles with leaf tissue was significantly affected by plant extracts. Feeding frequency was not affected by 2 g kg(-1) extracts but was reduced by all higher concentrations. Feeding was inhibited completely by 20 g kg(-1) of H. lupulus extract and reduced significantly compared with the controls by all other extracts. Suppression of feeding was caused by all extracts at 200 g kg(-1), with V. songaricum providing 91% reduction in feeding duration. Rejection behaviour, in which larvae did not return to the leaf after their interaction with it, was rare on 2 g kg(-1) extracts but seen in over 60% of larvae on 20 g kg(-1) extracts and over 80% on 200 g kg(-1) extracts. The present results demonstrate that these extracts have significant ability to protect potato leaves for up to 24 h by prevention of feeding behaviour by L. decemlineata. Further studies are needed to determine the potential of these plant extracts, or their active components, for use in biologically based pest management strategies. PMID:16886174

  4. Extraction, Separation, Identification and Quantity Analysis of Plant Substances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytochemical investigations often begin with a series of crude extractions consisting of a series of solvents progressing from non-polar to polar. The crude extracts are further separated using liquid/liquid chromatography techniques to enable broad separations based on liquid solubility. Finally...

  5. Subcritical water extraction of antioxidant compounds from rosemary plants.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, Elena; Kubátová, Alena; Señoráns, F Javier; Cavero, Sofia; Reglero, Guillermo; Hawthorne, Steven B

    2003-01-15

    Subcritical water extraction at several temperatures ranging from 25 to 200 degrees C has been studied to selectively extract antioxidant compounds from rosemary leaves. An exhaustive characterization of the fractions obtained using subcritical water at different temperatures has been carried out by LC-MS, and the antioxidant activities of the extracts have been measured by a free radical method (DPPH). Results indicate high selectivity of the subcritical water toward the most active compounds of rosemary such as carnosol, rosmanol, carnosic acid, methyl carnosate, and some flavonoids such as cirsimaritin and genkwanin. The antioxidant activity of the fractions obtained by extraction at different water temperatures was very high, with values around 11.3 microg/mL, comparable to those achieved by SFE of rosemary leaves. A study of the effect of the temperature on the extraction efficiency of the most typical rosemary antioxidant compounds has been performed. PMID:12517098

  6. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane Dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair Dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  7. Chemical Composition and Larvicidal Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Brazilian Legal Amazon Plants against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Clarice Noleto; Alves, Luciana Patrícia Lima; Rodrigues, Klinger Antonio da Franca; Brito, Maria Cristiane Aranha; Rosa, Carliane dos Santos; do Amaral, Flavia Maria Mendonça; Monteiro, Odair dos Santos; Andrade, Eloisa Helena de Aguiar; Maia, José Guilherme Soares; Moraes, Denise Fernandes Coutinho

    2015-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) is the major vector of dengue and chikungunya fever. The lack of effective therapies and vaccines for these diseases highlights the need for alternative strategies to control the spread of virus. Therefore, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of essential oils from common plant species obtained from the Chapada das Mesas National Park, Brazil, against third instar A. aegypti larvae. The chemical composition of these oils was determined by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The essential oils of Eugenia piauhiensis Vellaff., Myrcia erythroxylon O. Berg, Psidium myrsinites DC., and Siparuna camporum (Tul.) A. DC. were observed to be mainly composed of sesquiterpene hydrocarbons. The essential oil of Lippia gracilis Schauer was composed of oxygenated monoterpenes. Four of the five tested oils were effective against the A. aegypti larvae, with the lethal concentration (LC50) ranging from 230 to 292 mg/L after 24 h of exposure. Overall, this work demonstrated the possibility of developing larvicidal products against A. aegypti by using essential oils from the flora of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. This in turn demonstrates the potential of using natural resources for the control of disease vectors. PMID:25949264

  8. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials. PMID:25553680

  9. Results of a screening programme to identify plants or plant extracts that inhibit ruminal protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Selje, N; Hoffmann, E M; Muetzel, S; Ningrat, R; Wallace, R J; Becker, K

    2007-07-01

    One aim of the EC Framework V project, 'Rumen-up' (QLK5-CT-2001-00 992), was to find plants or plant extracts that would inhibit the nutritionally wasteful degradation of protein in the rumen. A total of 500 samples were screened in vitro using 14C-labelled casein in a 30-min incubation with ruminal digesta. Eight were selected for further investigation using a batch fermentation system and soya protein and bovine serum albumin as proteolysis substrates; proteolysis was monitored over 12 h by the disappearance of soluble protein and the production of branched SCFA and NH3. Freeze-dried, ground foliage of Peltiphyllum peltatum, Helianthemum canum, Arbutus unedo, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi and Knautia arvensis inhibited proteolysis (P < 0.05), while Daucus carota, Clematis vitalba and Erica arborea had little effect. Inhibition by the first four samples appeared to be caused by the formation of insoluble tannin-protein complexes. The samples were rich in phenolics and inhibition was reversed by polyethyleneglycol. In contrast, K. arvensis contained low concentrations of phenolics and no tannins, had no effect in the 30-min assay, yet inhibited the degradation rate of soluble protein (by 14 %, P < 0.0001) and the production of branched SCFA (by 17 %, P < 0.05) without precipitating protein in the 12-h batch fermentation. The effects showed some resemblance to those obtained in parallel incubations containing 3 mum-monensin, suggesting that K. arvensis may be a plant-derived feed additive that can suppress growth and activity of key proteolytic ruminal micro-organisms in a manner similar to that already well known for monensin. PMID:17445338

  10. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies. PMID:20809417

  11. Extraction and use of nutrients from composted wheat and potato plants.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, C F; Alim, J K; Loader, C A; Sager, J C

    1999-01-01

    Human survival on extended-duration space missions will require reliable regenerative life support systems. Biological systems using higher plants could be incorporated into life support systems; however, substantial quantities of inedible crop residues will also be produced. Composting can reduce the volume of crop residues and provide an end product that may be leached to remove soluble nutrients for use in hydroponic plant growth systems. Solubilization can be affected by physical conditions; we investigated several treatments (pH, temperature, agitation, or pretreatment sonication) for aqueous extraction of nutrients from composted inedible potato and wheat biomass. No significant differences were noted in electrical conductivity data. Chemical analyses indicated highly significant differences. Wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Apogee) were germinated in each extract to monitor for potentially inhibitory compounds. Seeds germinated in each extract, but total mean root lengths were affected negatively by sonication before extraction. Aqueous extracts may also support plant growth. PMID:11542243

  12. Efficacy of four plant extracts on nematodes associated with papaya in Sindh, Pakistan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation examines the effect of ethanol extracts of four plant species--Azadirachta indica (neem), Withania somnifera (ashwagandha), Tagetes erecta (marigold) and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus)--against nematodes associated with papaya (Carica papaya), and it assesses their influence o...

  13. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of selected plant extracts by rapid XTT colorimetry and bacterial enumeration.

    PubMed

    Al-Bakri, Amal G; Afifi, Fatma U

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of indigenous Jordanian plant extracts, dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide, using the rapid XTT assay and viable count methods. XTT rapid assay was used for the initial screening of antimicrobial activity for the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity of potentially active plant extracts was further assessed using the "viable plate count" method. Four degrees of antimicrobial activity (high, moderate, weak and inactive) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively, were recorded. The plant extracts of Hypericum triquetrifolium, Ballota undulata, Ruta chalepensis, Ononis natrix, Paronychia argentea and Marrubium vulgare had shown promising antimicrobial activity. This study showed that while both XTT and viable count methods are comparable when estimating the overall antimicrobial activity of experimental substances, there is no strong linear correlation between the two methods. PMID:16831479

  14. In vitro enzyme inhibition activities of crude ethanolic extracts derived from medicinal plants of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Khattak, Somia; Saeed-Ur-Rehman; Shah, Hameed Ullah; Khan, Taous; Ahmad, Manzoor

    2005-09-01

    Twenty two crude ethanolic extracts from 14 indigenous medicinal plants were subjected to enzyme inhibition screening against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and lipoxygenase enzymes (LO). Three extracts showed activity against AChE, nine extracts were found to be active against BChE and four extracts inhibited the enzyme LO. The most significant inhibition activities (> or =50%) were found in extracts derived from Aloe vera (leaves), Alpinia galanga (rhizome), Curcuma longa (rhizome), Cymbopogon citratus (leaves), Ocimum americanum (leaves), Ocimum americanum (stem) and Withania somnifera (roots). PMID:16010821

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of several plant extracts on porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Song, M; Che, T M; Bravo, D; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-08-01

    Certain plant extracts are bioactive substances of some foods or traditional herbs, known to possess antioxidant, antibacterial, and perhaps immunoregulatory effects. This study investigated the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of 7 plant extracts (anethol, capsicum oleoresin, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, garlicon, and turmeric oleoresin) on porcine alveolar macrophages collected from weaned pigs (n = 6 donor pigs) by bronchoalveolar lavage. The experimental design for this assay was a 2 [with or without 1 μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/mL] × 5 (5 different amounts of each plant extract) factorial arrangements in a randomized complete block design. The application of plant extracts were 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL, except for cinnamaldehyde and turmeric oleoresin, which were 0, 2.5, 5, 10, and 20 μg/mL. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the number of live cells, Griess assay was applied to detect nitric oxide (NO) production, and ELISA was used to measure tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), IL-1β, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), and IL-10 in the cell culture supernatants of macrophages. The LPS increased (P < 0.001) the secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, and TGF-β. Without LPS, anethol and capsicum oleoresin increased (linear, P < 0.001) cell viability of macrophages, whereas other plant extracts reduced (linear, P < 0.001) it. Anethol, capsicum oleoresin, and carvacrol enhanced (linear, P < 0.001) the cell proliferation of LPS-treated macrophages. Without LPS, anethol, capsicum oleoresin, cinnamaldehyde, or turmeric oleoresin stimulated TNF-α secretion, whereas all plant extracts except eugenol enhanced IL-1β concentration in the supernatants of macrophages. However, all plant extracts suppressed (linear, P < 0.001) TNF-α, and all plant extracts except turmeric oleoresin decreased (linear, P < 0.05) IL-1β secretion from LPS-treated macrophages. Anethol and capsicum oleoresin

  16. Newer insights into the mechanism of action of Psidium guajava L. leaves in infectious diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Psidium guajava L., Myrtaceae, is used widely in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea, dysentery, gastroenteritis, stomachaches, and indigestion. However, the effect of the leaf extract of P. guajava on the pathogenesis of infectious diarrhoea has not been studied. The present study evaluates the effect of a hot aqueous extract (decoction) of dried leaves of P. guajava on parameters associated with pathogenicity of infectious diarrhoea. The aim was to understand its possible mechanism(s) of action in controlling infectious diarrhoea and compare it with quercetin, one of the most reported active constituents of P. guajava with antidiarrhoeal activity. Methods The crude decoction and quercetin were studied for their antibacterial activity and effect on virulence features of common diarrhoeal pathogens viz. colonization of epithelial cells and production and action of enterotoxins. Colonization as measured by adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and invasion of enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and Shigella flexneri was assessed using HEp-2 cell line. The production of E. coli heat labile toxin (LT) and cholera toxin (CT) and their binding to ganglioside monosialic acid (GM1) were studied by GM1-ELISA whereas the production and action of E. coli heat stable toxin (ST) was assessed by suckling mouse assay. Results The decoction of P. guajava showed antibacterial activity towards S. flexneri and Vibrio cholerae. It decreased production of both LT and CT and their binding to GM1. However, it had no effect on production and action of ST. The decoction also inhibited the adherence of EPEC and invasion by both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Quercetin, on the other hand, had no antibacterial activity at the concentrations used nor did it affect any of the enterotoxins. Although it did not affect adherence of EPEC, it inhibited the invasion of both EIEC and S. flexneri to HEp-2 cells. Conclusion Collectively, the results indicate

  17. Deconvoluting the Dual Antiplatelet Activity of a Plant Extract.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tsoumani, Maria E; Kellici, Tahsin F; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2016-06-01

    A thorough evaluation of the antiplatelet activity profile of hexane olive leaf extract in human platelets indicated a potent activity accomplished through a two axis inhibition of platelet activation triggered both by ADP and thrombin. To delineate the extract components responsible for this dual activity, an NMR based method was established to determine and quantify the triterpenoid content leading to the characterization of uvaol, erythrodiol, and oleanolic acid. The antiplatelet profile of the total extract and of the 3 determined triterpenoids was evaluated against in vitro platelet aggregation induced by several platelet agonists as also on PAC-1 binding and P-selectin membrane expression both in healthy volunteers and in platelets from patients with an acute coronary syndrome receiving dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and ticagrelor. The extract was identified to inhibit ADP-induced platelet activation due to its erythrodiol content and TRAP-induced platelet activation due to the activity of uvaol and oleanolic acid. PMID:27161160

  18. [Toxic effects of plant extracts on mosquito larvae].

    PubMed

    Rageau, J; Delaveau, P

    1979-01-01

    Vegetable extracts prepared with 530 species belonging to 120 botanical families are biologically screened with fourth stage larvae of Aedes aegypti. About twenty species are selected. Eight species of Convolvulaceae are specially toxic. PMID:527161

  19. Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

    2009-07-15

    In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

  20. In vitro inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by crude plant extracts from Colombian flora.

    PubMed

    Niño, Jaime; Hernández, Jimmy A; Correa, Yaned M; Mosquera, Oscar M

    2006-11-01

    The methanol extracts from five different plant families (Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Melastomataceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae) collected at Regional Natural Park Ucumarí (Colombia), were screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity through the modified Ellman's spectrophotometric method. The best inhibitory activities on this study were shown by the extracts of Solanum leucocarpum Dunal (IC50 = 204.59 mg/l) and Witheringia coccoloboides (Damm) (IC50 = 220.68 mg/l), both plants belonging to the Solanaceae family. PMID:17160288

  1. A brief review on anti diabetic plants: Global distribution, active ingredients, extraction techniques and acting mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Chung-Hung; Ngoh, Gek-Cheng; Yusoff, Rozita

    2012-01-01

    A study has been conducted with the aim to provide researchers with general information on anti diabetic extracts based on relevant research articles collected from 34 reliable medical journals. The study showed that Asian and African continents have 56% and 17% share of the worldwide distribution of therapeutic herbal plants, respectively. In Asia, India and China are the leading countries in herbal plants research, and there has been an increase in medicinal research on plants extract for diabetes treatment since 1995 in these regions. The information collected shows that plant leaves are about 20% more favorable for storing active ingredients, as compared to other parts of herbal plants. A brief review on the extraction techniques for the mentioned parts is also included. Furthermore, the acting mechanisms for the anti diabetic activity were described, and the related active ingredients were identified. The findings reveal that most of the anti diabetic research is focused on the alteration of glucose metabolism to prevent diabetes. PMID:22654401

  2. Hydroalcoholic extracts of Indian medicinal plants can help in amelioration from oxidative stress through antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rhitajit; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinal plants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinal plants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183

  3. Review of procedures used for the extraction of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Shaw, Paul N; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2015-01-01

    Tropical plants are important sources of anti-cancer lead molecules. According to the US National Cancer Institute, out of the 3000 plants identified as active against cancer using in vitro studies, 70% are of tropical origin. The extraction of bioactive compounds from the plant materials is a fundamental step whose efficiency is critical for the success of drug discovery efforts. There has been no review published of the extraction procedures of anti-cancer compounds from tropical plants and hence the following is a critical evaluation of such procedures undertaken prior to the use of these compounds in cancer cell line studies, during the last five years. It presents a comprehensive analysis of all approaches taken to extract anti-cancer compounds from various tropical plants. (Databases searched were PubMed, SciFinder, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar). PMID:25403166

  4. Biological screening of some Turkish medicinal plant extracts for antimicrobial and toxicity activities.

    PubMed

    Turker, A U; Usta, C

    2008-01-20

    Screening of antibacterial activity and toxicity of 22 aqueous plant extracts from 17 Turkish plants was conducted. Antibacterial activity was performed with six bacteria including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Extracts of Tussilago farfara leaves, Helichyrsum plicatum flowers, Solanum dulcamara aerial parts and Urtica dioica leaves gave the best inhibitory activity against S. pyogenes, S. aureus and S. epidermidis. Of the 22 plant extracts, 20 extracts displayed toxicity (LC50 was <1000 mg L(-1)) in the brine shrimp bioassay. For radish seed bioassay, two different determinations (root length and seed germination) were performed with a comparison between two concentrations (50,000 mg L(-1) and 10,000 mg L(-1)). At low concentration (10,000 mg L(-1)), S. dulcamara aerial parts and Primula vulgaris leaf extracts were observed to inhibit the root length more than the other plant extracts. Also, the most inhibitive plant extract for seed germination was obtained with S. dulcamara aerial parts. PMID:18075897

  5. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:25114525

  6. Antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles synthesized using Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as a green bioreductant

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mujeeb; Khan, Shams Tabrez; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z

    2014-01-01

    The antibacterial properties of nanoparticles (NPs) can be significantly enhanced by increasing the wettability or solubility of NPs in aqueous medium. In this study, we investigated the effects of the stabilizing agent on the solubility of silver NPs and its subsequent effect on their antimicrobial activities. Silver NPs were prepared using an aqueous solution of Pulicaria glutinosa plant extract as bioreductant. The solution also acts as a capping ligand. During this study, the antimicrobial activities of silver NPs, as well as the plant extract alone, were tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Micrococcus luteus. Silver NPs were prepared with various concentrations of the plant extract to study its effect on antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, various concentrations of P. glutinosa extract did not show any effect on the growth of tested bacteria; however, a significant effect on the antimicrobial property of plant extract capped silver NPs (Ag-NPs-PE) was observed. For instance, the half maximal inhibitory concentration values were found to decrease (from 4% to 21%) with the increasing concentrations of plant extract used for the synthesis of Ag-NPs-PE. These results clearly indicate that the addition of P. glutinosa extracts enhances the solubility of Ag-NPs-PE and, hence, increases their toxicity against the tested microorganisms. PMID:25114525

  7. Foodborne Pathogens Prevention and Sensory Attributes Enhancement in Processed Cheese via Flavoring with Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; Hussein, Heba; Sorour, Noha M; El-Tras, Wael F

    2015-12-01

    Cheese contaminations with foodborne bacterial pathogens, and their health outbreaks, are serious worldwide problems that could happen from diverse sources during cheese production or storage. Plants, and their derivatives, were always regarded as the potential natural and safe antimicrobial alternatives for food preservation and improvement. The extracts from many plants, which are commonly used as spices and flavoring agents, were evaluated as antibacterial agents against serious foodborne pathogens, for example Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, using qualitative and quantitative assaying methods. Dairy-based media were also used for evaluating the practical application of plant extracts as antimicrobial agents. Most of the examined plant extracts exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity; the extracts of cinnamon, cloves, garden cress, and lemon grass were the most powerful, either in synthetic or in dairy-based media. Flavoring processed cheese with plant extracts resulted in the enhancement of cheese sensory attributes, for example odor, taste, color, and overall quality, especially in flavored samples with cinnamon, lemon grass, and oregano. It can be concluded that plant extracts are strongly recommended, as powerful and safe antibacterial and flavoring agents, for the preservation and sensory enhancement of processed cheese. PMID:26540146

  8. Antihyperglycemic effect of crude extracts of some Egyptian plants and algae.

    PubMed

    AbouZid, Sameh Fekry; Ahmed, Osama Mohamed; Ahmed, Rasha Rashad; Mahmoud, Ayman; Abdella, Ehab; Ashour, Mohamed Badr

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a major global health problem. Various plant extracts have proven antidiabetic activity and are considered as promising substitution for antidiabetic drugs. The antihyperglycemic effect of 16 plants and 4 algae, commonly used in Egypt for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, was investigated. A diabetes model was induced by intraperitoneal injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg body weight [b.wt.]), then streptozotocin (200 mg/kg b.wt.) after 15 min. Hydroethanolic extracts (80%) of the plants and algae under investigation were prepared. The extracts were orally administered to nicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice by a gastric tube at doses 10 or 50 mg/kg b.wt. for 1 week. The antidiabetic activity was assessed by detection of serum glucose concentrations at the fasting state and after 2 h of oral glucose loading (4.2 mg/kg b.wt.). Extracts prepared from Cassia acutifolia, Fraxinus ornus, Salix aegyptiaca, Cichorium intybus, and Eucalyptus globulus showed the highest antihyperglycemic activity among the tested plants. Extracts prepared from Sonchus oleraceus, Bougainvillea spectabilis (leaves), Plantago psyllium (seeds), Morus nigra (leaves), and Serena repens (fruits) were found to have antihyperglycemic potentials. Extracts prepared from Caulerpa lentillifera and Spirulina versicolor showed the most potent antihyperglycemic activity among the tested algae. However, some of the tested plants have insulinotropic effects, all assessed algae have not. Identification of lead compounds from these plants and algae for novel antidiabetic drug development is recommended. PMID:24404976

  9. Photoprotection by plant extracts: a new ecological means to reduce pesticide photodegradation.

    PubMed

    Eyheraguibel, Boris; Richard, Claire; Ledoigt, Gérard; Ter Halle, Alexandra

    2010-09-01

    A pesticide's reactivity toward light at the leaf surface after crop treatment is rarely considered, although such degradation reactions directly affect the pesticide's effectiveness. To overcome these limitations, the use of plant pigments was proposed as a new class of photoprotecting agent. The photoprotecting properties of seven plant pigments were tested under controlled conditions over herbicide sulcotrione. Grape wine extracts were tested over a panel of pesticides from distinct chemical families. The addition of plant extracts almost systematically reduced the pesticide's photoreactivity. The grape wine extracts improve at least by 38% the half-life of photolysis of almost all of the active ingredients tested, except for the herbicide triclopyr. Fustictree extract increases by 82% the photostability of the herbicide sulcotrione. Plant extracts mainly act as sunscreens; that is, the photostabilization of the active ingredient is due to the competitive energy absorption of UV photon. The use of natural plant extracts is a promising strategy to limit pesticide photodegradation. It is a way to develop sustainable and innovative technology for the plant protection industry, being beneficial from both economic and ecological points of view. PMID:20707341

  10. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Djè, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Côte d’Ivoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Anti-fungal activity was determined by evaluating anti-fungal parameters values (minimal fungicidal concentrations [MFC] and IC50). Results: The results showed that all extracts possessed anti-fungal activities whose levels vary from plant species to another. Eight of them had a satisfactory anti-candidosic activity and extracts from Terminalia species were the most active. Among them the Terminalia superba extracts generated the strongest activities (MFC = 0.0975 mg/mL). Compared with ketoconazole (MFC = 0.390 mg/mL), the T. superba extracts, aqueous (MFC = 0.195 mg/mL) and hydroethanolic (0.0975 mg/mL) were successively twice and four times more active. The worst anti-fungal activity (MFC = 1600 mg/mL) was obtained with the Guarea cedrata aqueous extract. Conclusion: All medicinal plants extracts produced anti-fungal activities, and T. superba was the most active. PMID:26401367

  11. Microwave-Assisted Solvent Extraction and Analysis of Shikimic Acid from Plant Tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A simple method using microwave-assisted extraction (MWAE) using water as the extraction solvent was developed for the determination of shikimic acid in plant tissue of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, an important Poaceae forage and weed species widely spread in agricultural and non-agricultural areas t...

  12. Evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial properties of leaf extract of Tapinanthus sessilifolius (P. Beauv) van Tiegh.

    PubMed

    Tarfa, Florence D; Obodozie, Obiageri O; Mshelia, Emmanuel; Ibrahim, Kolo; Temple, V J

    2004-03-01

    Leaf extracts of T. sessilifolius growing on five different host plants (Psidium guajava, Citrus lemon, Vernonia amygdalina, Persea americana and Jatropa curcas) were evaluated for antimicrobial activity of the plant. Powdered leaves of T. sessilifolius collected from each host plant was divided into two portions. One portion was used for aqueous infusion and the other portion was successively extracted with hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. Infusion of aqueous extract of powdered leaves did not show antimicrobial effect even at the concentration of 1000 and 2000 microg/ml on test microorganisms (Staph. aureus, E. coli, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans). However in broth culture, methanolic and hexane extract had MIC range of 62.5-500 microg/ml and ethylacetate extract had 250-500 microg/ml. Phytochemical screening of leaf samples of T. sessilifolius collected from different host plants showed positive test for hydrolysable tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes, cardiac glycoside, reducing sugars and proteins. LD50 concentration was found to be > 1.500 mg/kg for samples from P. guajava; 489.89 mg/kg for J. curcas and C. lemon; and 692 mg/kg for V. amydalina in mice. PMID:15233306

  13. Genomic DNA extraction from medicinal plants available in Malaysia using a TriOmic(TM) improved extraction kit.

    PubMed

    Mohd-Hairul, A R; Sade, A B; Yiap, B C; Raha, A R

    2011-01-01

    DNA extraction was carried out on 32 medicinal plant samples available in Malaysia using the TriOmic(TM) extraction kit. Amounts of 0.1 g flowers or young leaves were ground with liquid nitrogen, lysed at 65°C in RY1(plus) buffer and followed by RNAse treatment. Then, RY2 buffer was added to the samples and mixed completely by vortexing before removal of cell debris by centrifugation. Supernatants were transferred to fresh microcentrifuge tubes and 0.1 volume RY3 buffer was added to each of the transferred supernatant. The mixtures were applied to spin columns followed by a centrifugation step to remove buffers and other residues. Washing step was carried out twice by applying 70% ethanol to the spin columns. Genomic DNA of the samples was recovered by applying 50 μL TE buffer to the membrane of each spin column, followed by a centrifugation step at room temperature. A modification of the TriOmic(TM) extraction procedure was carried out by adding chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps in the extraction procedure. The genomic DNA extracted from most of the 32 samples showed an increase of total yield when chloroform:isoamyl alcohol (24:1) steps were applied in the TriOmicTM extraction procedure. This preliminary study is very important for molecular studies of medicinal plants available in Malaysia since the DNA extraction can be completed in a shorter period of time (within 1 h) compared to manual extraction, which entails applying phenol, chloroform and ethanol precipitation, and requires 1-2 days to complete. PMID:22095601

  14. The influence of purge times on the yields of essential oil components extracted from plants by pressurized liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Wianowska, Dorota

    2014-01-01

    The influence of different purge times on the yield of the main essential oil constituents of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), and chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L.) was investigated. The pressurized liquid extraction process was performed by applying different extraction temperatures and solvents. The results presented in the paper show that the estimated yield of essential oil components extracted from the plants in the pressurized liquid extraction process is purge time-dependent. The differences in the estimated yields are mainly connected with the evaporation of individual essential oil components and the applied solvent during the purge; the more volatile an essential oil constituent is, the greater is its loss during purge time, and the faster the evaporation of the solvent during the purge process is, the higher the concentration of less volatile essential oil components in the pressurized liquid extraction receptacle. The effect of purge time on the estimated yield of individual essential oil constituents is additionally differentiated by the extraction temperature and the extraction ability of the applied solvent. PMID:25902980

  15. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  16. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  17. Do cancer cells in human and meristematic cells in plant exhibit similar responses toward plant extracts with cytotoxic activities?

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Noha S; Barakat, Hoda S; Elhallouty, Salwa; Salem, Dina

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of water extracts of Persea americana fruit, and of the leaves of Tabernamontana divericata, Nerium oleander and Annona cherimolia (positive control) on Vicia faba root cells. We had confirmed in our previously published data the cytotoxicity of these plant extracts on four human cancer cell lines: liver (HepG-2), lung (A549), colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7). Vicia faba roots were soaked in plant extracts at dilutions of 100, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, 10,000, 20,000 ppm for 4 and 24 h. All treatments resulted in a significant reduction in the mitotic index in a dose dependant manner. Root cells treated with T. divericata, N. oleander and A. cherimolia exhibited a decrease in prophase cell percentage, increase in micronuclei and chromosomal abnormalities as concentration increased. The P. americana treatment showed the highest cytotoxic effect on cancer cells, prophase cell percentage increased linearly with the applied concentration and no micronuclei were detected. This study shows that root tip assay of beans can be used in initial screening for new plant extracts to validate their use as candidates for containing active cytotoxic agents against malignant cells. This will greatly help in exploring new plant extracts as drugs for cancer treatment. PMID:24705601

  18. Density-dependent phytotoxicity of impatiens pallida plants exposed to extracts of Alliaria petiolata.

    PubMed

    Barto, E Kathryn; Cipollini, Don

    2009-04-01

    Invasive plants are by definition excellent competitors, either indirectly through competition for resources or directly through allelopathic inhibition of neighboring plants. Although both forms of competition are commonly studied, attempts to explore the interactions between direct and indirect competition are rare. We monitored the effects of several doses of extracts of Alliaria petiolata, a Eurasian invader in North America, on the growth of Impatiens pallida, a North American native, at several planting densities. The density-dependent phytotoxicity model predicts that as plant density increases, individual plant size will decrease, unless a toxin is present in the soil. In this case, individual plant size is predicted to increase as plant density increases, as plants share a limited toxin dose. We tested this model using fractions of an A. petiolata extract enriched in flavonoids or glucosinolates, as well as a combined fraction. The flavonoid-enriched fraction and the combined fraction suppressed I. pallida growth but only when applied at a dose eight times higher than that expected in the field. When treated with a dose equivalent to estimated field exposure levels, I. pallida growth was not distinguishable from that of control plants that received no extract, showing that indirect competition for resources was more important for determining the growth of I. pallida than direct allelopathic inhibition by A. petiolata. This is an important reminder that, even though many plants have the demonstrated potential to exert strong allelopathic effects, those effects may not always be apparent when other forms of competition are considered as well. PMID:19381723

  19. Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to selected noxious plant extracts and insecticides.

    PubMed

    Gӧkçe, A; Stelinski, L L; Nortman, D R; Bryan, W W; Whalon, M E

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa-kaolin, H. lupulus-kaolin, and X. strumarium-kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract-kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. PMID:25368046

  20. Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Sowbhagya, H B; Chitra, V N

    2010-02-01

    From times immemorial, colorants, and flavorings have been used in foods. Color and flavor are the major attributes to the quality of a food product, affecting the appearance and acceptance of the product. As a consequence of the increased demand of natural flavoring and colorant from industries, there is a renewed interest in the research on the composition and recovery of natural food flavors and colors. Over the years, numerous procedures have been proposed for the isolation of aromatic compounds and colors from plant materials. Generally, the methods of extraction followed for aroma and pigment from plant materials are solvent extraction, hydro-distillation, steam distillation, and super critical carbon dioxide extraction. The application of enzymes in the extraction of oil from oil seeds like sunflower, corn, coconut, olives, avocado etc. are reported in literature. There is a great potential for this enzyme-based extraction technology with the selection of appropriate enzymes with optimized operating conditions. Various enzyme combinations are used to loosen the structural integrity of botanical material thereby enhancing the extraction of the desired flavor and color components. Recently enzymes have been used for the extraction of flavor and color from plant materials, as a pre-treatment of the raw material before subjecting the plant material to hydro distillation/solvent extraction. A deep knowledge of enzymes, their mode of action, conditions for optimum activity, and selection of the right type of enzymes are essential to use them effectively for extraction. Although the enzyme hydrolases such as lipases, proteases (chymotrypsin, subtilisin, thermolysin, and papain), esterases use water as a substrate for the reaction, they are also able to accept other nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines, thio-esters, and oximes. Advantages of enzyme-assisted extraction of flavor and color in some of the plant materials in comparison with conventional methods are

  1. A New Method for Extraction of Double-Stranded RNA from Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of high molecular weight double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in plants is associated with the presence of RNA viruses. DsRNA is stable and can be extracted easily from the majority of plant species and provides an excellent tool for characterization of novel viruses that are recalcitrant to pur...

  2. Extraction of condensed tannins from Mexican plant sources.

    PubMed

    Garcíaa, Ramiro; Aguilera, Antonio; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C; Rodríguez, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N

    2008-01-01

    Contents of total polyphenols, condensed tannins and proanthocyanidins, and their stability to various pH values and temperatures were studied in Mexican blueberry, cuautecomate fruit, garambullo fruit, aubergine, coffee pulp and residues of black grapes. Several aqueous extracts, obtained through a one-pass-extraction process, were analyzed using liquid chromatography in order to quantify the condensed tannin (proanthocyanidin) content responsible for their antioxidant activity and colour. All tested samples included high proanthocyanidin contents demonstrating that these Mexican fruits and vegetables are good sources of natural antioxidants, and they all could be considered as excellent functional foods due to their bioactivity measured as the condensed tannin level. PMID:18386482

  3. A modified acidic approach for DNA extraction from plant species containing high levels of secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Cavallari, M M; Siqueira, M V B M; Val, T M; Pavanelli, J C; Monteiro, M; Grando, C; Pinheiro, J B; Zucchi, M I; Gimenes, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purified genomic DNA can be difficult to obtain from some plant species because of the presence of impurities such as polysaccharides, which are often co-extracted with DNA. In this study, we developed a fast, simple, and low-cost protocol for extracting DNA from plants containing high levels of secondary metabolites. This protocol does not require the use of volatile toxic reagents such as mercaptoethanol, chloroform, or phenol and allows the extraction of high-quality DNA from wild and cultivated tropical species. PMID:25158268

  4. Characterization of reaction products of iron and iron salts and aqueous plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, J. A.; García de Saldaña, E.; Hernández, C.

    1999-11-01

    The complexes formed in aqueous solution as a result of a reaction of iron and iron salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+) and some plant extracts were analyzed using Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared. The extracts were obtained from Opuntia elatior mill., Acanthocereus pentagonus (L.) Britton, Mimosa tenuiflora, Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq.) Willd., Bumbacopsis quinata (Jacq.) Dugand and Acacia mangium Willd., plants growing wildly in different zones of the Isthmus of Panama. Results suggest the formation of mono- and bis-type complexes, and in some cases, the occurrence of a redox reaction. The feasibility of application of the studied extracts as atmospheric corrosion inhibitors is discussed.

  5. Capillary electrophoresis as a screening tool for alpha amylase inhibitors in plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Hamdan, Imad I.; Afifi, Fatima U.

    2010-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was developed for screening plant extract for potential alpha amylase (AA) inhibitory activity. The method was validated against a well established UV method. Overall, the proposed method was shown able to detect plants with significant alpha amylase inhibitory activity but not those with rather clinically insignificant activities. Fifty plant species were screened using both the proposed CE method and the UV method and seven plant species were found to possess significant AA inhibitory activities. Two plant species were proved to have alpha amylase inhibitory activity for the first time. PMID:24115900

  6. Intensification of bioactive compounds extraction from medicinal plants using ultrasonic irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Vardanega, Renata; Santos, Diego T.; Meireles, M. Angela A.

    2014-01-01

    Extraction processes are largely used in many chemical, biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries for recovery of bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. To replace the conventional extraction techniques, new techniques as high-pressure extraction processes that use environment friendly solvents have been developed. However, these techniques, sometimes, are associated with low extraction rate. The ultrasound can be effectively used to improve the extraction rate by the increasing the mass transfer and possible rupture of cell wall due the formation of microcavities leading to higher product yields with reduced processing time and solvent consumption. This review presents a brief survey about the mechanism and aspects that affecting the ultrasound assisted extraction focusing on the use of ultrasound irradiation for high-pressure extraction processes intensification. PMID:25125880

  7. Microbial growth and quorum sensing antagonist activities of herbal plants extracts.

    PubMed

    Al-Hussaini, Reema; Mahasneh, Adel M

    2009-01-01

    Antimicrobial and antiquorum sensing (AQS) activities of fourteen ethanolic extracts of different parts of eight plants were screened against four Gram-positive, five Gram-negative bacteria and four fungi. Depending on the plant part extract used and the test microorganism, variable activities were recorded at 3 mg per disc. Among the Grampositive bacteria tested, for example, activities of Laurus nobilis bark extract ranged between a 9.5 mm inhibition zone against Bacillus subtilis up to a 25 mm one against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus and Aspergillus fumigatus were the most susceptible among bacteria and fungi tested towards other plant parts. Of interest is the tangible antifungal activity of a Tecoma capensis flower extract, which is reported for the first time. However, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC's) for both bacteria and fungi were relatively high (0.5-3.0 mg). As for antiquorum sensing activity against Chromobacterium violaceum, superior activity (>17 mm QS inhibition) was associated with Sonchus oleraceus and Laurus nobilis extracts and weak to good activity (8-17 mm) was recorded for other plants. In conclusion, results indicate the potential of these plant extracts in treating microbial infections through cell growth inhibition or quorum sensing antagonism, which is reported for the first time, thus validating their medicinal use. PMID:19783935

  8. Determination of fluorine contents in plant samples by means of facilitated extraction with enzyme.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junseok; An, Jinsung; Yoon, Hye-On

    2015-01-01

    In this study, facilitated extraction with enzyme was employed for the first time to extract fluorine (F) from plants. Feasibility of the proposed method for F analysis was assessed by comparing with the alkali fusion-ion selective electrode (ISE) method. In the extraction procedure, 30 mg of a protease and 0.1 g of a plant sample were added in 10 mL of deionized water. In the absence of sonication, the solution was mechanically shaken for 10 s. A variety of parameters (i.e., the amounts of enzymes used, physical treatment conditions applied, extraction time, temperature, and pH) were optimized to enhance the extraction efficiency of the proposed method. The suitability of the proposed method for various plant samples (i.e., grass, perilla, peanut, hot pepper, and eggplant) was also evaluated. The proposed method involves decreased operation time, simplified extraction procedures, and minimal consumption of hazardous reagents and solvents in comparison with other existing methods. Experimental results demonstrated that facilitated extraction with enzyme is appropriate for the rapid determination of F content in plant samples. PMID:25476358

  9. Valeriana officinalis Dry Plant Extract for Direct Compression: Preparation and Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Loreana; Ramírez-Rigo, María Veronica; Piña, Juliana; Palma, Santiago; Allemandi, Daniel; Bucalá, Verónica

    2012-01-01

    Valeriana officinalis L. (Valerianaceae) is one of the most widely used plants for the treatment of anxiety and insomnia. Usually dry plant extracts, including V. officinalis, are hygroscopic materials with poor physico-mechanical properties that can be directly compressed. A V. officinalis dry extract with moderate hygroscocity is suitable for direct compression, and was obtained by using a simple and economical technique. The V. officinalis fluid extract was oven-dried with colloidal silicon dioxide as a drying adjuvant. The addition of colloidal silicon dioxide resulted in a dry plant extract with good physico-mechanical properties for direct compression and lower hygroscopicity than the dry extract without the carrier. The dry plant extract glass transition temperature was considerably above room temperature (about 72 °C). The colloidal silicon dioxide also produced an antiplasticizing effect, improving the powder’s physical stability. The pharmaceutical performance of the prepared V. officinalis dry extract was studied through the design of tablets. The manufactured tablets showed good compactability, friability, hardness, and disintegration time. Those containing a disintegrant (Avicel PH 101) exhibited the best pharmaceutical performance, having the lowest disintegration time of around 40 seconds. PMID:23264947

  10. Extraction of /sup 14/C-labeled photosynthate from aquatic plants with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)

    SciTech Connect

    Filbin, G.J.; Hough, R.A.

    1984-03-01

    DMSO was tested as a solvent to extract /sup 14/C-labeled photosynthate from three species of aquatic plants in photosynthesis measurements and compared with the dry oxidation method for plant radioassay. Extraction of ca. 300 mg of fresh or rehydrated dry plant tissue samples in 10 ml of reagent-grade DMSO for 8h at 65/sup 0/C resulted in a stable, nonviscous solution with excellent liquid scintillation counting characteristics. Extraction efficiency was in the range of 96-99% of fixed /sup 14/C, and precision was comparable to, or better than, that obtained with dry oxidation. The method is simple and inexpensive, and for fresh tissue the same sample extracts can be used for chlorophyll analyses.

  11. Procedure to Evaluate the Efficiency of Flocculants for the Removal of Dispersed Particles from Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Buyel, Johannes F

    2016-01-01

    Plants are important to humans not only because they provide commodities such as food, feed and raw materials, but increasingly because they can be used as manufacturing platforms for added-value products such as biopharmaceuticals. In both cases, liquid plant extracts may need to be clarified to remove particulates. Optimal clarification reduces the costs of filtration and centrifugation by increasing capacity and longevity. This can be achieved by introducing charged polymers known as flocculants, which cross-link dispersed particles to facilitate solid-liquid separation. There are no mechanistic flocculation models for complex mixtures such as plant extracts so empirical models are used instead. Here a design-of-experiments procedure is described that allows the rapid screening of different flocculants, optimizing the clarification of plant extracts and significantly reducing turbidity. The resulting predictive models allow the identification of robust process conditions and sets of polymers with complementary properties, e.g. effective flocculation in extracts with specific conductivities. The results presented for tobacco leaf extracts can easily be adapted to other plant species or tissues and will thus facilitate the development of more cost-effective downstream processes for commodities and plant-derived pharmaceuticals. PMID:27166577

  12. In vitro antitumor actions of extracts from endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to determine the intensity and mechanisms of the cytotoxic actions of five extracts isolated from the endemic plant species Helichrysum zivojinii Černjavski & Soška (family Asteraceae) against specific cancer cell lines. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of normal immunocompetent cells implicated in the antitumor immune response, the cytotoxicity of extracts was also tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods The aerial parts of the plants were air-dried, powdered, and successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human melanoma Fem-x, human myelogenous leukemia K562, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells and PBMC were evaluated by the MTT test. The mode of HeLa cell death was investigated by morphological analysis. Changes in the cell cycle of HeLa cells treated with the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic mechanisms induced by the tested extracts were determined using specific caspase inhibitors. Results The investigated Helichrysum zivojinii extracts exerted selective dose-dependent cytotoxic actions against selected cancer cell lines and healthy immunocompetent PBMC stimulated to proliferate, while the cytotoxic actions exerted on unstimulated PBMC were less pronounced. The tested extracts exhibited considerably stronger cytotoxic activities towards HeLa, Fem-x and K562 cells in comparison to resting and stimulated PBMC. It is worth noting that the cytotoxicity of the extracts was weaker against unstimulated PBMC in comparison to stimulated PBMC. Furthermore, each of the five extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Conclusion Extracts obtained from the endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii may represent an

  13. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  14. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Michalak, Izabela; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  15. Plant Growth Biostimulants Based on Different Methods of Seaweed Extraction with Water

    PubMed Central

    Godlewska, Katarzyna; Tuhy, Łukasz; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    We explored two methods for obtaining aqueous extracts: boiling and soaking of Baltic seaweeds (EB and ES, resp.). Algal extracts were characterized in terms of polyphenols, micro- and macroelements, lipids content, and antibacterial properties. The utilitarian properties were examined in the germination tests on Lepidium sativum for three extract dilutions (0.5, 2.5, and 10%). It was found that the extracts were similar in micro- and macroelement concentrations. Water was proved to be a good solvent to extract phenolic compounds. The algal extract produced by soaking biomass did not show inhibitory effect on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Only the boiled extract had an inhibitory activity against E. coli. Germination tests revealed a positive influence of the bioproducts on the cultivated plants. In the group treated with 10% EB, plants were 13% longer than in the control group; the content of elements B, Mo, Zn, and Na in the group treated with 10% ES was higher by 76%, 48%, 31%, and 59% than in the control group, respectively; the content of chlorophyll was 2.5 times higher in 0.5% ES than in the control group. Extracts showed the slight impact on the morphology of plants. PMID:27366749

  16. Antimalarial activity of 20 crude extracts from nine African medicinal plants used in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Ngimbi, N P; Tsakala, M; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Totté, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-12-15

    Twenty extracts including ten EtOH and ten CH2Cl2 from different parts of nine African medicinal plants used in Congolese traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria, were submitted to a pharmacological test in order to evaluate their effect on P. falciparum growth in vitro. Of these plant species, 14 (70%) extracts including EtOH and CH2Cl2 from Cassia occidentalis leaves, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta root bark, Euphorbia hirta whole plant, Garcinia kola stem bark and seeds, Morinda lucida leaves and Phyllanthus niruri whole plant produced more than 60% inhibition of the parasite growth in vitro at a test concentration of 6 microg/ml. Extracts from E. hirta, C. sanguinolenta and M. morindoides showed a significant chemosuppression of parasitaemia in mice infected with P. berghei berghei at orally given doses of 100-400 mg/kg per day. PMID:10624878

  17. Behavioral and Electroantennogram Responses of Plum Curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar, to Selected Noxious Plant Extracts and Insecticides

    PubMed Central

    Gökçe, A.; Stelinski, L. L.; Nortman, D. R.; Bryan, W. W.; Whalon, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral and electroantennogram responses of plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), adults were tested for several methanolic plant extracts and organically approved insecticides. Plant extracts were evaluated for their potential as antifeedants or oviposition deterrents. These extract responses were also compared to those elicited by the non-neurotoxic, organic irritant-insecticide kaolin clay. Both sexes of plum curculio exhibited antennal response as measured by electroantennogram, which ranged from 0.2 to 1.1 mV, to plant extracts and the organic irritant/insecticide, with the greatest response to the extract of rough cocklebur, Xanthium strumarium L. (1.1 mV). No choice tests were conducted to compare feeding and oviposition by plum curculio on untreated apples or on apples treated with one of the extracts or the insecticide. The insecticide pyrethrum and extracts of X. strumarium and greater burdock, Arctium lappa L., significantly reduced feeding. Also, pyrethrum, A. lappa, Humulus lupulus L. (common hop), X. strumarium, and Verbascum songaricum Schrenk extracts completely inhibited egg deposition. In no-choice assays, the effects of kaolin clay with incorporated plant extracts on plum curculio feeding and oviposition were monitored as complementary tests. A. lappa—kaolin, H. lupulus—kaolin, and X. strumarium—kaolin mixtures significantly reduced the feeding of plum curculio compared to the control or kaolin clay alone. Each of the plant extract—kaolin mixtures evaluated, with the exception of Bifora radians Bieberstein (wild bishop), completely inhibited plum curculio oviposition as compared to controls. PMID:25368046

  18. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  19. Phytotoxic Activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum Extracts on Germination and Seedling Growth of Different Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxic activity of Ocimum tenuiflorum (Lamiaceae) plant extracts was investigated against the germination and seedling growth of cress (Lepidium sativum), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crus-galli), and timothy (Phleum pratense) at four different concentrations. The plant extracts at concentrations greater than 30 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1 reduced significantly the total germination percent (GP), germination index (GI), germination energy (GE), speed of emergence (SE), seedling vigour index (SVI), and coefficient of the rate of germination (CRG) of all test species except barnyard grass and GP of lettuce. In contrast, time required for 50% germination (T50) and mean germination time (MGT) were increased at the same or higher than this concentration. The increasing trend of T50 and MGT and the decreasing trend of other indices indicated a significant inhibition or delay of germination of the test species by O. tenuiflorum plant extracts and vice versa. In addition, the shoot and root growth of all test species were significantly inhibited by the extracts at concentrations greater than 10 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. The I50 values for shoot and root growth were ranged from 26 to 104 mg dry weight equivalent extract mL−1. Seedling growth was more sensitive to the extracts compared to seed germination. Results of this study suggest that O. tenuiflorum plant extracts have phytotoxic properties and thus contain phytotoxic substances. Isolation and characterization of those substances from this plant may act as a tool for new natural, biodegradable herbicide development to control weeds. PMID:25032234

  20. High-performance liquid chromatographic characterization of some medical plant extracts used in cosmetic formulas.

    PubMed

    Schulz, H; Albroscheit, G

    1988-06-17

    Rapid and reliable methods are presented for the characterization of biologically active and/or characteristic constituents in aqueous extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria chamomilla, Achillea millefolium, Thymus vulgaris, Althaea officinalis and Cinchonia spp. Prior to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation a clean-up step was performed using a solid-phase extraction system. The purified extracts were analysed by HPLC coupled with a diode-array detector and a fluorescence detector. In some instances, previously unreported components of the aqueous plant extracts were found. PMID:3417826

  1. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  2. Antiplasmodial activity of ethanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants from the northwest of Iran.

    PubMed

    Sangian, Hadi; Faramarzi, Hossein; Yazdinezhad, Alireza; Mousavi, Seyed Javad; Zamani, Zahra; Noubarani, Maryam; Ramazani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of antimalarial drugs is declining at an ever accelerating rate, with consequent increase in malaria-related morbidity and mortality. The newest antiplasmodial drug from plants is needed to overcome this problem. The aim of this study was to assess antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of 10 different medicinal plants from eight families against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-sensitive 3D7 strain. The selection of the hereby studied plants was based on the existing information on their local ethnobotanic history. Plants were dried, powdered, and macerated in a hydroalcoholic solution. Resulting extracts have been assessed for in vitro and in vivo antimalarial and brine shrimp toxicity activities. Of 10 plant species tested, four plants: Althea officinalis L. (Malvaceae), Myrtus communis Linn (Myrtaceae), Plantago major (Plantaginaceae), and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Papilionaceae) displayed promising antimalarial activity in vitro (50% inhibitory concentration values of 62.77, 42.18, 40.00, and 13.56 μg/mL, respectively) with no toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. The crude extracts of three active plants, G. glabra, M. communis, and A. officinalis, also significantly reduced parasitemia in vivo in female Swiss albino mice at a dose of 400 mg/kg compared to no treatment. Antiplasmodial activities of extracts of A. officinalis and M. communis are reported for the first time. PMID:23922204

  3. Extraction of DNA from the plant Kalanchoë daigremontiana.

    PubMed

    Garcês, Helena; Sinha, Neelima

    2009-10-01

    This protocol describes how to isolate genomic DNA from leaves and stems of Kalanchoë daigremontiana. The procedure can be applied to adult leaves, but it is best to use younger leaves because they have fewer secondary metabolites and polysaccharides, which can interfere with the DNA extraction. The resulting DNA can be used for polymerase chain reactions (PCRs), Southern blots, or other applications. PMID:20147049

  4. Efficacy of plant extracts and oils as mosquito repellents.

    PubMed

    Thorsell, W; Mikiver, A; Malander, I; Tunón, H

    1998-08-01

    Some natural products, extract of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), birch/pine tar-, citronella-, clove-, eucalyptus-, geranium-, lavender-, lily of the valley- and peppermint oils have been tested for repellency in the laboratory against Aedes aegypti and in the field predominantly against Aedes communis and A. cinereus. The laboratory tests showed that yarrow extract exhibited a similar repellency as the reference substances N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide and N,N-diethyl-mandelic acid amide. A good repelling effect was also obtained with the oils of birch/pine tar and eucalyptus. The field tests revealed that the extracts and oils with good activity against Aedes aegypti also were effective against A. communis and A. cinereus. Furthermore oils of citronella and lily of the valley showed similar activity and were comparable with the used reference substances mentioned. Each of these natural products contained a great number of constituents when characterized by chromatography/mass spectrometry. Available data in the literature were gathered, both regarding mosquito repellency and toxicity for humans and larger animals, for each product as well as its major constituents. PMID:23195905

  5. Anticancer activity of rhamnoallosan against DU-145 cells is kinetically complementary to coexisting Polyphenolics in Psidium guajava budding leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Chou; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Huang, Kuan-Dar; Ker, Yaw-Bee; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Peng, Robert Y

    2009-07-22

    Psidium guajava L. is a valuable farm fruit plant having many medicinal uses. Previously its budding leaves (PE) were shown to contain huge amounts of soluble polyphenolics (SP) including (in mg/g) gallic acid (348), catechin (102), epicatechin (60), rutin (100), quercetin (102), and rutin (100) and to exhibit potent anticancer activity. However, reconstitution of these polyphenolics recovered only 40% of the original bioactivity, and the soluble carbohydrate (SC) portion in PE was suspected to contribute the remaining. PE contained a novel rhamnoallosan, which had a carbohydrate/protein (w/w) ratio = 29.06%/10.27% (=2.83, average molecular mass of 5029 kDa), characteristically evidencing a peptidoglycan, consisting of a composition (mole % ratio) of rhamnose/allose/arabinose/tallose/xylose/fucose/glucose/mannose/galactose = 36.05:24.24:8.76:7.95:7.37:5.90:3.69:3.19:2.85 and of amino acid (in wt %) glycine/leucine/proline/alanine/methionine/isoleucine/valine/histidine/tyrosine/phenylalanine/cysteine/aspartic acid/lysine/glutamic acid = 37.12:12.68:10.05:8.97:5.99:4.89:4.83:4.25:4.05:2.78:1.86:1.10:0.73:0.70. Kinetic analysis showed comparable apparent cell-killing rate coefficients (k(app)) to be 4.03 x 10(3) and 2.92 x 10(3) cells mg(-1) h(-1), respectively, by SP and SC, evidencing the complementary anti-DU-145 bioactivity in nature. PMID:19552430

  6. Fumigant Activity of the Psidium guajava Var. Pomifera (Myrtaceae) Essential Oil in Drosophila melanogaster by Means of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Antonio Ivanildo; Wallau, Gabriel Luz; Nunes, Mauro Eugenio Medina; Leite, Nadghia Figueiredo; Tintino, Saulo Relison; da Cruz, Litiele Cezar; da Cunha, Francisco Assis Bezerra; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Douglas Melo Coutinho, Henrique; Posser, Thais

    2014-01-01

    The guava fruit, Psidium guajava var. pomifera (Myrtaceae family), is a native plant from South America. Its leaves and fruits are widely used in popular medicine in tropical and subtropical countries. Drosophila melanogaster has been used as one of the main model organisms in genetic studies since the 1900s. The extensive knowledge about this species makes it one of the most suitable organisms to study many aspects of toxic compound effects. Due to the lack of studies on the effects of the bioactive compounds present in the P. guajava var. pomifera essential oil, we performed a phytochemical characterization by CG-MS and evaluated the toxicity induced by the essential oil in the D. melanogaster insect model. In order to understand the biochemical mechanisms of toxicity, changes on the Nrf2 signaling as well as hallmarks of oxidative stress response were followed in the exposed flies. Our results showed that exposure of insects to the P. guajava oil increased mortality and locomotor deficits in parallel with an oxidative stress response signaling. Therefore, it suggested a bioinsecticidal activity for P. guajava volatile compounds by means of oxidative stress. Further studies are ongoing to identify which oil compounds are responsible for such effect. PMID:25478063

  7. Ball mill assisted rapid mechanochemical extraction method for natural products from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Man; Bi, Wentao; Huang, Xiaohua; Chen, David Da Yong

    2016-06-01

    A ball mill assisted mechanochemical extraction method was developed to extract compounds of natural product (NP) from plant using ionic liquid (IL). A small volume ball mill, also known as PastPrep(®) Homogenizer, which is often used for high-speed lysis of biological samples and for other applications, was used to dramatically increase the speed, completeness and reproducibility of the extraction process at room temperature to preserve the chemical integrity of the extracted compounds. In this study, tanshinones were selected as target compounds to evaluate the performance of this extraction method. Factors affecting the extraction efficiency, such as the duration, IL concentration and solid/liquid ratio were systematically optimized using the response surface methodology. Under the optimized conditions, the described method was more efficient and much faster than the conventional extraction methods such as methanol based ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and heat reflux extraction (HRE) that consumes a lot more organic solvent. In addition, the natural products of interest were enriched by anion metathesis of ionic liquids, combining extraction and preconcentration in the same process. The extractant was analyzed by HPLC and LC-MS. The reproducibility (RSD, n=5), correlation coefficient (r(2)) of the calibration curve, and the limit of detection, were determined to be in the range of 4.7-5.2%, 0.9992-0.9995, and 20-51ng/mL, respectively. PMID:27157426

  8. Data on keratin expression in human cells cultured with Australian native plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Adams, Damian H; Shou, Qingyao; Wohlmuth, Hans; Cowin, Allison J

    2016-06-01

    Australian native plants have a long history of therapeutic use in indigenous cultures particularly for the treatment of wounds. We analysed 14 plant derived compounds from the species Pilidiostigma glabrum, Myoporum montanum, Geijera parviflora, and Rhodomyrtus psidioides for keratin 1, 5, 10 and 14 supporting the research article "Native Australian plant extracts differentially induce Collagen I and Collagen III in vitro and could be important targets for the development of new wound healing therapies" [5]. An in situ immunofluorescence assay was used in a 96 well tissue culture plate format to measure keratin expression in immortalised human keratinocytes (HaCaTs) exposed Australian native plant compounds to NMR spectra for the plant extracts are included in this article as is quantitative fluorescent intensity data of keratin 1, 5, 10 and 14 expression. PMID:27077086

  9. Effect of Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract on immunostimulant response of Aeromonas hydrophila infected Cyprinus carpio

    PubMed Central

    Sukumaran, NatarajaPillai

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to improve the immune power of Cyprinus carpio by using Euphorbia hirta plant leaf extract as immunostimulants. The haematological, immunological and enzymatic studies were conducted on the medicated fish infected with Aeromonas hydrophila pathogen. The results obtained from the haematological studies show that the RBC count, WBC count and haemoglobin content were increased in the infected fish at higher concentration of leaf extract. The feeds with leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta were able to stimulate the specific immune response by increasing the titre value of antibody. It was able to stimulate the antibody production only up to the 5th day, when fed with higher concentrations of (25 g and 50 g) plant leaf extract. The plant extract showed non-specific immune responses such as lysozyme activity, phagocytic ratio, NBT assay, etc. at higher concentration (50 g) and in the same concentration (50 g), the leaf extract of Euphorbia hirta significantly eliminated the pathogen in blood and kidney. It was observed that fish have survival percentage significantly at higher concentration (50 g) of Euphorbia hirta, when compared with the control. The obtained results are statistically significant at P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 levels. This research work suggests that the plant Euphorbia hirta has immunostimulant activity by stimulating both specific and non-specific immunity at higher concentrations. PMID:25405077

  10. Repellent properties of Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. (Family: Sapindaceae) plant leaf extracts against three important vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Govindarajan, M; Sivakumar, R

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine repellent activity of hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and methanol extract of Cardiospermum halicacabum (C. halicacabum) against Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus), Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) and Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi). Methods Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×25 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes of three mosquito species and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2005; The plant leaf crude extracts of C. halicacabum was applied at 1.0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg/cm2 separately in the exposed area of the fore arm. Only ethanol served as control. Results In this observation, the plant crude extracts gave protection against mosquito bites without any allergic reaction to the test person, and also, the repellent activity was dependent on the strength of the plant extracts. The tested plant crude extracts had exerted promising repellent against all the three mosquitoes. Conclusions From the results it can be concluded the crude extract of C. halicacabum was potential for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquitoes. PMID:23569979

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of extracts from some traditional Mediterranean diet plants.

    PubMed

    Strzelecka, M; Bzowska, M; Kozieł, J; Szuba, B; Dubiel, O; Riviera Núńez, D; Heinrich, M; Bereta, J

    2005-03-01

    It is believed that bioactive compounds from plant foods may have health beneficial effects and reduce the risk of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this study extracts of 121 plants typical for the traditional Mediterranean diet have been screened for their potential anti-inflammatory activities. The ability of the extracts to inhibit cytokine-stimulated, iNOS-dependent synthesis of nitric oxide in murine endothelial cells, without affecting cell viability, was the primary indicator of their anti-inflammatory properties. Based on these experiments we selected eight plant extracts for further analysis: Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Scandix pecten-veneris L., Urospermum picroides (L.) Scop. Ex F. W. Smith, Amaranthus cf. graecizans L., Onopordum macracanthum Schousboe, Eryngium campestre L., Artemisia alba Turra and Merendera pyrenaica (Pourret) Fourn. Only the effects of Onopordum macracanthum could be non-specific since the extract strongly inhibited total protein synthesis. All remaining 7 extracts decreased nitric oxide and TNFalpha synthesis in the cells of monocyte origin activated with LPS, and 4 of them significantly reduced surface expression of VCAM1 on TNFalpha-stimulated endothelial cells. All seven plant extracts decreased cytokine or LPS-stimulated iNOS mRNA levels in both cell types. Further research to identify bioactive compounds influencing intracellular signaling pathways activated by cytokines and LPS will consequently be needed in order to better understand these in vitro effects. PMID:15800391

  12. Evaluation of diffusion and dilution methods to determine the antibacterial activity of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Klancnik, Anja; Piskernik, Sasa; Jersek, Barbara; Mozina, Sonja Smole

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate diffusion and dilution methods for determining the antibacterial activity of plant extracts and their mixtures. Several methods for measurement of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of a plant extract are available, but there is no standard procedure as there is for antibiotics. We tested different plant extracts, their mixtures and phenolic acids on selected gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella Infantis, Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli) with the disk diffusion, agar dilution, broth microdilution and macrodilution methods. The disk diffusion method was appropriate only as a preliminary screening test prior to quantitative MIC determination with dilution methods. A comparison of the results for MIC obtained by agar dilution and broth microdilution was possible only for gram-positive bacteria, and indicated the latter as the most accurate way of assessing the antimicrobial effect. The microdilution method with TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) or INT (2-p-iodophenyl-3-p-nitrophenyl-5-phenyl tetrazolium chloride) to indicate the viability of aerobic bacteria was found to be the best alternative approach, while only ATP determination was appropriate for microaerophilic Campylobacter spp. Using survival curves the kinetics of bacterial inactivation on plant extract exposure was followed for 24h and in this way the MIC values determined by the microdilution method were confirmed as the concentrations of extracts that inhibited bacterial growth. We suggest evaluation of the antibacterial activity of plant extracts using the broth microdilution method as a fast screening method for MIC determination and the macrodilution method at selected MIC values to confirm bacterial inactivation. Campylobacter spp. showed a similar sensitivity to plant extracts as the tested gram-positive bacteria, but S

  13. Identification of Traditional Medicinal Plant Extracts with Novel Anti-Influenza Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Dhivya; Palombo, Enzo A.; Chia Yeo, Tiong; Lim Siok Ley, Diana; Lee Tu, Chu; Malherbe, Francois; Grollo, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistant variants of the influenza virus has led to a need to identify novel and effective antiviral agents. As an alternative to synthetic drugs, the consolidation of empirical knowledge with ethnopharmacological evidence of medicinal plants offers a novel platform for the development of antiviral drugs. The aim of this study was to identify plant extracts with proven activity against the influenza virus. Extracts of fifty medicinal plants, originating from the tropical rainforests of Borneo used as herbal medicines by traditional healers to treat flu-like symptoms, were tested against the H1N1 and H3N1 subtypes of the virus. In the initial phase, in vitro micro-inhibition assays along with cytotoxicity screening were performed on MDCK cells. Most plant extracts were found to be minimally cytotoxic, indicating that the compounds linked to an ethnomedical framework were relatively innocuous, and eleven crude extracts exhibited viral inhibition against both the strains. All extracts inhibited the enzymatic activity of viral neuraminidase and four extracts were also shown to act through the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) pathway. Moreover, the samples that acted through both HI and neuraminidase inhibition (NI) evidenced more than 90% reduction in virus adsorption and penetration, thereby indicating potent action in the early stages of viral replication. Concurrent studies involving Receptor Destroying Enzyme treatments of HI extracts indicated the presence of sialic acid-like component(s) that could be responsible for hemagglutination inhibition. The manifestation of both modes of viral inhibition in a single extract suggests that there may be a synergistic effect implicating more than one active component. Overall, our results provide substantive support for the use of Borneo traditional plants as promising sources of novel anti-influenza drug candidates. Furthermore, the pathways involving inhibition of hemagglutination could be a solution

  14. Inhibitory effects of sudanese medicinal plant extracts on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease.

    PubMed

    Hussein, G; Miyashiro, H; Nakamura, N; Hattori, M; Kakiuchi, N; Shimotohno, K

    2000-11-01

    One hundred fifty-two methanol and water extracts of different parts of 71 plants commonly used in Sudanese traditional medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease (PR) using in vitro assay methods. Thirty-four extracts showed significant inhibitory activity (>/=60% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). Of these, eight extracts, methanol extracts of Acacia nilotica, Boswellia carterii, Embelia schimperi, Quercus infectoria, Trachyspermum ammi and water extracts of Piper cubeba, Q. infectoria and Syzygium aromaticum, were the most active (>/=90% inhibition at 100 microg/mL). From the E. schimperi extract, two benzoquinones, embelin (I) and 5-O-methylembelin (II), were isolated and found as potent HCV-PR inhibitors with IC(50) values of 21 and 46 microM, respectively. Inhibitory activities of derivatives of I against HCV-PR as well as their effects on other serine proteases were also investigated. PMID:11054840

  15. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    PubMed

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  16. Effect of plant extracts and systemic fungicide on the pineapple fruit-rotting fungus, Ceratocystis paradoxa.

    PubMed

    Damayanti, M; Susheela, K; Sharma, G J

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal activities of extracts of sixteen plants were tested against Ceratocystis paradoxa which causes soft rot of pineapples. Xanthium strumarium was the most effective followed by Allium sativum. The effectiveness of various extracts against C. paradoxa was in the decreasing order of Meriandra bengalensis, Mentha piperita, Curcuma longa, Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Toona ciliata, Vitex negundo, Azadirachta indica, Eupatorium birmanicum, Ocimum sanctum and Leucas aspera. Extracts of Cassia tora, Gynura cusimba, Calotropis gigantea and Ocimum canum showed poor fungitoxicity. Ethanol was suitable for extraction of the inhibitory substance from X. strumarium. Acetonitrile was highly toxic to this fungus. Millipore filter-sterilized extracts had a more inhibitory effect on the fungus than the autoclaved samples. Treatment of pineapple fruits infested with C. paradoxa by X. strumarium extract reduced the severity of the disease. PMID:9022263

  17. Application of ionic liquid for extraction and separation of bioactive compounds from plants.

    PubMed

    Tang, Baokun; Bi, Wentao; Tian, Minglei; Row, Kyung Ho

    2012-09-01

    In recent years, ionic liquids (ILs), as green and designer solvents, have accelerated research in analytical chemistry. This review highlights some of the unique properties of ILs and provides an overview of the preparation and application of IL or IL-based materials to extract bioactive compounds in plants. IL or IL-based materials in conjunction with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) analytical technologies etc., have been applied successfully to the extraction or separation of bioactive compounds from plants. This paper reviews the available data and references to examine the advantages of IL and IL-based materials in these applications. In addition, the main target compounds reviewed in this paper are bioactive compounds with multiple therapeutic effects and pharmacological activities. Based on the importance of the targets, this paper reviews the applications of ILs, IL-based materials or co-working with analytical technologies. The exploitation of new applications of ILs on the extraction of bioactive compounds from plant samples is expected to increase. PMID:22877739

  18. In vitro biological evaluation of 100 selected methanol extracts from the traditional medicinal plants of Asia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chunmei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES In Asia, various medicinal plants have been used as the primary sources in the health care regimen for thousands of years. In recent decades, various studies have investigated the biological activity and potential medicinal value of the medicinal plants. In this study, 100 methanol extracts from 98 plant species were evaluated for their biological activities. MATERIALS/METHODS The research properties, including 1,1-diphenyl-2-pic-rylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibitory effects, anti-inflammatory activity, and anticancer activity were evaluated for the selected extracts. RESULTS Fifteen of the extracts scavenged more than 90% of the DPPH radical. Among the extracts, approximately 20 extracts showed a strong inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase, while most had no effect on α-tyrosinase. In addition, 52% of the extracts showed low toxicity to normal cells, and parts of the extracts exhibited high anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities on the murine macrophage cell (RAW 264.7) and human colon cancer cell (HT-29) lines, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Our findings may contribute to further nutrition and pharmacological studies. Detailed investigations of the outstanding samples are currently underway. PMID:24741398

  19. 40 CFR 180.1179 - Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant extract derived from Opuntia... Tolerances § 180.1179 Plant extract derived from Opuntia lindheimeri, Quercus falcata, Rhus aromatica, and Rhizophoria mangle; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide plant...

  20. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    PubMed

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States. PMID:11856998

  1. Screening of some plants used in the Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Holetz, Fabíola Barbiéri; Pessini, Greisiele Lorena; Sanches, Neviton Rogério; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício Garcia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias

    2002-10-01

    Extracts of 13 Brazilian medicinal plants were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts. Of these, 10 plant extracts showed varied levels of antibacterial activity. Piper regnellii presented a good activity against Staphylococus aureus and Bacillus subtilis, a moderate activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and a weak activity against Escherichia coli. Punica granatum showed good activity on S. aureus and was inactive against the other standard strains. Eugenia uniflora presented moderate activity on both S. aureus and E. coli. Psidium guajava,Tanacetum vulgare, Arctium lappa, Mikania glomerata, Sambucus canadensis, Plantago major and Erythrina speciosa presented some degree of antibacterial activity. Spilanthes acmella, Lippia alba, and Achillea millefolium were considered inactive. Five of the plant extracts presented compounds with Rf values similar to the antibacterial compounds visible on bioautogram. Of these, three plants belong to the Asteraceae family. This may mean that the same compounds are responsible for the antibacterial activity in these plants. Anticandidal activity was detected in nine plant extracts (P. guajava, E. uniflora, P. granatum, A. lappa, T. vulgare, M. glomerata, L. alba, P. regnellii, and P. major). The results might explain the ethnobotanical use of the studied species for the treatment of various infectious diseases. PMID:12471432

  2. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)

    PubMed Central

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Tropea Garzia, Giovanna; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  3. Repellency of Plant Extracts against the Legume Flower Thrips Megalurothrips sjostedti (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Abtew, Andnet; Subramanian, Sevgan; Cheseto, Xavier; Kreiter, Serge; Garzia, Giovanna Tropea; Martin, Thibaud

    2015-01-01

    Megalurothrips sjostedti Trybom is an important pest of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Africa. To propose an alternative to chemical control, the repellency of 24 plant extracts was evaluated against adult female thrips of M. sjostedti in the laboratory. Plant extracts in ethanol were separately applied on a filter paper disk in a still air visual cue olfactometer. The results showed highly significant differences in repellency among extract type, concentration and their interactions. We classified the level of repellency into four categories as strong, good, moderate and weak or non- repellent based on hierarchical ascendant classification. We identified Piper nigrum, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Cinnamomum cassia as strong repellents. Five extracts were classified as good, eight as moderate and the remaining eight extracts were weak or non-repellent. Repellency of the extracts increased with the concentration suggesting that the behavioral response of M. sjostedti was dose-dependent. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbon compounds from seven highly repellent extracts were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The use of repellent extracts could be useful in developing integrated pest management strategies for thrips on legume crops. In this regard, the specific modes of action of the identified compounds need to be investigated to incorporate them into the existing crop protection strategies. PMID:26463406

  4. Inhibitory activities of pancreatic lipase and phosphodiesterase from Korean medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun Mi; Kim, Young Sook; Lee, Youngseop; Kim, Junghyun; Sun, Hang; Kim, Joo Hwan; Kim, Jin Sook

    2012-05-01

    To find new pancreatic lipase (triacylglycerol acylhydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3) inhibitors from natural products, 61 medicinal plants from Korea were screened for their antilipase activity for prevention of obesity. Dried and powdered plants were extracted three times with EtOH and extracts were obtained by removal of the solvent in vacuo. Lipase activity was determined by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate to p-nitrophenol. Also, the inhibitory effect was measured on phosphodiesterase (PDE), another therapeutic target for obesity. Of the extracts tested, Sorbus commixta (stem, leaf) and Viscum album (whole plant) exhibited antilipase activity (with IC(50) values of 29.6 µg/mL and 33.3 µg/mL, respectively) and only anti-PDE activity (IC(50) values of 20.08 µg/mL and 35.15 µg/mL, respectively). PMID:22069182

  5. Investigation of antibacterial mechanism and identification of bacterial protein targets mediated by antibacterial medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Yong, Ann-Li; Ooh, Keng-Fei; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai; Wong, Fai-Chu

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we investigated the antibacterial mechanism and potential therapeutic targets of three antibacterial medicinal plants. Upon treatment with the plant extracts, bacterial proteins were extracted and resolved using denaturing gel electrophoresis. Differentially-expressed bacterial proteins were excised from the gels and subjected to sequence analysis by MALDI TOF-TOF mass spectrometry. From our study, seven differentially expressed bacterial proteins (triacylglycerol lipase, N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase, flagellin, outer membrane protein A, stringent starvation protein A, 30S ribosomal protein s1 and 60 kDa chaperonin) were identified. Additionally, scanning electron microscope study indicated morphological damages induced on bacterial cell surfaces. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first time these bacterial proteins are being reported, following treatments with the antibacterial plant extracts. Further studies in this direction could lead to the detailed understanding of their inhibition mechanism and discovery of target-specific antibacterial agents. PMID:25976788

  6. Neuropharmacological characterization of the oneirogenic Mexican plant Calea zacatechichi aqueous extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Sałaga, Maciej; Fichna, Jakub; Socała, Katarzyna; Nieoczym, Dorota; Pieróg, Mateusz; Zielińska, Marta; Kowalczuk, Anna; Wlaź, Piotr

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous extract of the Mexican plant Calea zacatechichi Schltdl., which is commonly used in folk medicine to treat cough, asthma, and gastrointestinal disorders. Moreover, it has been used for centuries in traditional rituals based on divination and is thought to possess hallucinogenic activity. To test the neuropharmacological effects of the aqueous extract of C. zacatechichi we used mouse models of convulsions, an elevated plus-maze test and measured locomotor activity. We also evaluated the effect of the extract on antidepressant-like behavior in forced swim test, as well as on muscular strength in a grip test. Moreover the antinociceptive action of the extract was evaluated in the hot-plate and writhing tests. The chemical composition of the extract was evaluated using LC-MS techniques. The aqueous extract of C. zacatechichi did not affect any of the parameters measured in seizure models. It had also no influence on anxiety, exploratory behavior and muscular strength in the applied doses. On the other hand, the extract exhibited antinociceptive effect in the mouse model of abdominal pain. Chemical characterization of the extract showed the presence of chlorogenic acid, acacetin, and germacranolides. Based on this report we suggest that aqueous extract of C. zacatechichi has insignificant neuropharmacological effects in vivo and reduces abdominal pain perception. Our results, together with previous studies showing beneficial effects of the extracts obtained from C. zacatechichi suggest that these preparations may be used to treat medical conditions. PMID:26821073

  7. An evaluation of acetone extracts from six plants in the Ames mutagenicity test.

    PubMed

    White, R D; Krumperman, P H; Cheeke, P R; Buhler, D R

    1983-01-01

    Acetone extracts from six plants were evaluated for mutagenic activity with the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test (Ames) utilizing tester strains TA98 and TA100 and in the presence and absence of induced rat liver microsomes. Extracts from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and thread-leaf groundsel (Senecio longilobus) produced only negative responses. Comfrey (Symphytum officinale) and tansy ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) extracts produced toxic responses that were abolished in the presence of the microsomal bioactivation system. Bracken (Pteridium aquilinum) and tansy ragwort extracts produced positive responses following bioactivation with the liver microsomal system. The results suggest that the Ames mutagenicity test may be of some value in initial evaluations for potential toxic effects of plants consumed by animals and man. PMID:6836587

  8. Plant extracts for the topical management of psoriasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, S; May, B H; Zhang, A L; Lu, C; Xue, C C L

    2013-10-01

    Patients with psoriasis frequently use preparations of plant extracts. Physicians need to be aware of the current evidence concerning these products. This review evaluates the efficacy and safety of preparations of plant extracts used topically for psoriasis. Searches were conducted in PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane library, two Chinese databases and article reference lists. Randomized controlled trials investigating extracts of single plants were included. Preparations of multiple plants and combinations of plant extracts plus conventional therapies were excluded. Two authors conducted searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Outcomes used in meta-analyses were: clinical efficacy, Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score, and quality of life and symptom scores. The 12 included studies investigated extracts of: Mahonia aquifolium (n = 5), Aloe vera (n = 3), indigo naturalis (n = 2), kukui nut oil (n = 1) and Camptotheca acuminata nut (n = 1). Methodological quality was variable. Six studies provided data suitable for meta-analysis of clinical efficacy, and five were vs. placebo (relative risk 3·37, 95% confidence interval 1·36-8·33). Experimental studies indicate components of indigo naturalis, Mahonia and Camptotheca have anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and other actions of relevance to psoriasis. The clinical trial evidence provides limited support for preparations containing extracts of M. aquifolium, indigo naturalis and Aloe vera for the topical management of plaque psoriasis based on multiple studies. No serious adverse events were reported. Because of the small size of most studies and methodological weaknesses, strong conclusions cannot be made. The magnitudes of any effects cannot be measured with accuracy, so it is difficult to assess the clinical relevance of these preparations. PMID:23909714

  9. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Mahesh Kumar, Palanisamy; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Vincent, Savariar; Barnard, Donald R

    2012-06-01

    The present study explored the effects of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera tested against third instar larvae of filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus. The dried plant materials were powdered by an electrical blender. From each sample, 500 g powder was macerated with 1.5 L of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol 8h, using Soxhlet apparatus, and filtered. The extracts were concentrated at reduced temperature on a rotary evaporator and stored at a temperature of 4°C. The yield of crude extract was 11.4, 12.2, 10.6, and 13.5 g in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol, respectively. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extract of J. curcas with LC(50) values of 230.32, 212.85, 192.07, and 113.23 ppm; H. suaveolens with LC(50) values of 213.09, 217.64, 167.59, and 86.93 ppm; A. indicum with LC(50) values of 204.18, 155.53, 166.32, and 111.58 ppm; and L. aspera with LC(50) values of 152.18, 118.29, 111.43, and 107.73 ppm, respectively, against third instar larvae of C. quinquefasciatus. The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. Maximum larvicidal activity was observed in the methanolic extract followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane extract. No mortality was observed in the control. The observed mortality were statistically significant at P < 0.05 level. L. aspera showed the highest mortality rate against the mosquito larvae in laboratory and field. The larval density was decreased after the treatment of plant extracts at the breeding sites (sewage water), and hence, these plant extracts of the suitable alternatives of synthetic insecticides for the mosquito vector management. The present results suggest that the medicinal plants extract was an excellent potential for controlling filarial vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:22146997

  10. Adverse and beneficial effects of plant extracts on skin and skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W

    2001-06-01

    Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants

  11. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  12. Effect of plant extracts on Alzheimer's disease: An insight into therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Obulesu, M; Rao, Dowlathabad Muralidhara

    2011-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastative neurodegenerative disorder which needs adequate studies on effective treatment options. The extracts of plants and their effect on the amelioration of AD symptoms have been extensively studied. This paper summarizes the mechanisms like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, modification of monoamines, antiamyloid aggregation effect, and antioxidant activity which are actively entailed in the process of amelioration of AD symptoms. These effects are induced by extracts of a few plants of different origin like Yizhi Jiannao, Moringa oleifera (Drumstick tree), Ginkgo Biloba (Ginkgo/Maidenhair tree), Cassia obtisufolia (Sicklepod), Desmodium gangeticum (Sal Leaved Desmodium), Melissa officinalis (Lemon Balm), and Salvia officinalis (Garden sage, common sage). PMID:21716802

  13. Anticariogenic activity and phytochemical studies of crude extract from some Indian plant leaves

    PubMed Central

    Barad, Mahesh K.; Ishnava, Kalpesh B.; Chauhan, Jenabhai B.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to screen the selected Indian plants for their antibacterial efficacy against four cariogenic bacteria Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA)(Microbial Type Culture Collection [MTCC]-*447), Lactobacillus casei (LC) (MTCC-1423), Streptococcus mutans (SMU) (MTCC-890) and Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC-96). To identify and characterize active principle present in these plants for the treatment of dental caries. Materials and Methods: The dried plant leaves materials are extracted by cold extraction using hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and distilled water. The solvents were evaporated, and the dried masses were suspended in dimethyl sulfoxide and used for anticariogenic activity by agar well diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated by two-fold serial broth dilution method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of effective extract was carried out by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and bioautography. Results: Ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Eucalyptus globules was found most effective against L. acidophilus with MIC value 31 μg/ml and 62 μg/ml, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts of Acacia nilotica and methanolic extract of E. globules also exhibited antibacterial activity against SMU and L. casei with MIC value of 50 μg/ml. Qualitative analysis of E. globules revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, and cardiac glycosides. The active principle responsible for the anticariogenic activity from E. globules were separated by TLC and subjected to bioautography using SMU, LA and LC. Conclusion: Anticariogenic activity and preliminary phytochemical analysis revealed that E. globule have potential to treat dental caries. PMID:26401353

  14. Antiplasmodial potential of medicinal plant extracts from Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Mohanakrishnan, Dinesh; Elango, Gandhi; Bagavan, Asokan; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Sahal, Dinkar

    2012-08-01

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum with resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the safest and cheapest anti-malarial drug, coupled with the increasing cost of alternative drugs especially in developing countries have necessitated the urgent need to tap the potential of plants for novel anti-malarials. The present study investigates the anti-malarial activity of the methanolic extracts of 13 medicinal plants from the Malaiyur and Javadhu hills of South India against blood stage CQ-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (INDO) strains of P. falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green I assay. Sorbitol-synchronized parasites were incubated under normal culture conditions at 2% hematocrit and 1% parasitemia in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of plant extracts. CQ and artemisinin were used as positive controls, while 0.4% DMSO was used as the negative control. The cytotoxic effects of extracts on host cells were assessed by functional assay using HeLa cells cultured in RPMI containing 10% fetal bovine serum, 0.21% sodium bicarbonate and 50 μg/mL gentamycin (complete medium). Plant extracts (bark methanol extracts of Annona squamosa (IC(50), 30 μg/mL), leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (IC(50), 32 μg/mL), Ocimum tenuiflorum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL), Solanum torvum (IC(50), 31 μg/mL) and Justicia procumbens (IC(50), 63 μg/mL), showed moderate activity. The leaf extracts of Aristolochia indica (IC(50), 10 μg/mL), Cassia auriculata (IC(50), 14 μg/mL), Chrysanthemum indicum (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) and Dolichos biflorus (IC(50), 20 μg/mL) showed promising activity and low activity was observed in the flower methanol extracts of A. indica , leaf methanol extract of Catharanthus roseus, and Gymnema sylvestre (IC(50), >100 μg/mL). These four extracts exhibited promising IC(50) (μg/mL) of 17, 24, 19 and 24 respectively also against the CQ resistant INDO strain of P. falciparum. The high TC(50) in mammalian cell cytotoxicity assay and

  15. Potential of using plant extracts for purification of shallow well water in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pritchard, M.; Mkandawire, T.; Edmondson, A.; O'Neill, J. G.; Kululanga, G.

    There has been very little scientific research work into the use of plant extracts to purify groundwater. Research studies on the purification of groundwater have mainly been carried out in developed countries and have focused on water purification systems using aluminium sulphate (a coagulant) and chlorine (a disinfectant). Such systems are expensive and not viable for rural communities due to abject poverty. Shallow well water, which is commonly available throughout Africa, is often grossly contaminated and usually consumed untreated. As a result, water-related diseases kill more than 5 million people every year worldwide. This research was aimed at examining natural plant extracts in order to develop inexpensive ways for rural communities to purify their groundwater. The study involved creating an inventory of plant extracts that have been used for water and wastewater purification. A prioritisation system was derived to select the most suitable extracts, which took into account criteria such as availability, purification potential, yield and cost of extraction. Laboratory trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were added to water samples obtained from five shallow wells in Malawi. The trials consisted of jar tests to assess the coagulation potential and the resulting effect on physico-chemical and microbiological parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity and coliforms. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera, J. curcas and Guar gum can considerably improve the quality of shallow well water. Turbidity reduction was higher for more turbid water. A reduction efficiency exceeding 90% was achieved by all three extracts on shallow well water that had a turbidity of 49 NTU. A reduction in coliforms was about 80% for all extracts. The pH of the water samples increased with dosage, but remained within acceptable levels for drinking water for all the extracts

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Various Plants Extracts Against Antibiotic-resistant Aeromonas hydrophila

    PubMed Central

    Al Laham, Shaza Anwar; Al Fadel, Frdoos Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aeromonas hydrophila cause one of the most important diseases in fishes and lead to economic losses, and may be contaminated human beings. Objectives: The current research aimed to investigate the anti-bacterial activity shown by the extracts prepared from different parts of Olea europea, Myrtus communis, Thymus vulgaris, Rosmarinuis officinalis, and Achillea falcata that grow in Syria against A. hydrophila that causes the most dangerous bacterial diseases in fish. Materials and Methods: The study was performed in four stages: First of all, the presence of A. hydrophila was investigated in 450 Samples of Cyprinus Carpio fish using blood agar, Trypticase soya agar, and Analytical Profile Index (API20E). Secondly, the plants extract was obtained using water, absolute alcohol, then ether using Soxhlet extraction apparatus and rotary vacuum evaporator. Thirdly, the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics on these bacteria was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Finally, the antibacterial effect of the extracts was determined by disk diffusion method. Results: The studied antibiotics showed no antibacterial activity against these bacteria, except amikacin which had an acceptable effectiveness. However, the ethanol extracts of the studied plants revealed different antibacterial effects against A. hydrophila which showed antibiotic resistant. T. vulgaris extract had the strongest effect, whereas O. europea extract had the weakest activity. The water and ether petroleum extracts had no antibacterial activities. Conclusions: Ethanol extracts of the studied plants had different antibacterial effects against antibiotic-resistant A. hydrophila. T. vulgaris had the highest activity, R. officinalis had the second, and M. communis and A. falcate were in the third place, while the O. europea had the weakest antibacterial activity. PMID:25368797

  17. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    García-Becerra, Ledy; Ortiz Martínez, David Mizael

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF) was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75). Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.). Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values) of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines. PMID:27429633

  18. Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activity of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Nosocomial Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Eduardo; Rivas Morales, Catalina; Castillo, Sandra; Leos-Rivas, Catalina; García-Becerra, Ledy; Ortiz Martínez, David Mizael

    2016-01-01

    Biofilm is a complex microbial community highly resistant to antimicrobials. The formation of biofilms in biotic and abiotic surfaces is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. New alternatives for controlling infections have been proposed focusing on the therapeutic properties of medicinal plants and their antimicrobial effects. In the present study the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of 8 methanolic plant extracts were evaluated against clinical isolated microorganisms. Preliminary screening by diffusion well assay showed the antimicrobial activity of Prosopis laevigata, Opuntia ficus-indica, and Gutierrezia microcephala. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined ranging from 0.7 to >15 mg/mL. The specific biofilm formation index (SBF) was evaluated before and after the addition of plant extracts (MBC × 0.75). Opuntia ficus-indica caused the major reduction on SBF in dose-dependent manner. Cytotoxic activity of plant extracts was determined using brine shrimp lethality test (Artemia salina L.). Lethal Dose concentration (LD50 values) of the plant extracts was calculated. LD50 values for P. laevigata and G. microcephala were 141.6 and 323.3 µg/mL, respectively, while O. ficus-indica showed a slight lethality with 939.2 µg/mL. Phytochemical analyses reveal the presence of flavonoids, tannins, and coumarines. PMID:27429633

  19. Rice-planted area extraction from multi-temporal remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jinxiang; Zhang, Hong; Ma, Yanmei

    2015-12-01

    Rice-planted area and production monitoring has significance for governments to formulate some food related policy. Remote sensing has an obvious advantage for the rice monitoring. As for the rice-planted area, the special growth raw shows different feature in the remote sensing image. In this paper, the multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI image of Menghun and Mengzhe town in Xishuangbanna autonomous prefecture where planting a large number of rice was used as the test data, the corresponding changes of the difference between NDVI and NDWI was used as the diagnostic feature, and the SAM classification approach was introduced to extract rice-planted area. The experiments shows that the approach could acquire more than 95% of the extraction accuracy.

  20. Screening of Panamanian Plant Extracts for Pesticidal Properties and HPLC-Based Identification of Active Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Guldbrandsen, Niels; De Mieri, Maria; Gupta, Mahabir; Seiser, Tobias; Wiebe, Christine; Dickhaut, Joachim; Reingruber, Rüdiger; Sorgenfrei, Oliver; Hamburger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    A library of 600 taxonomically diverse Panamanian plant extracts was screened for fungicidal, insecticidal, and herbicidal activities. A total of 19 active extracts were submitted to HPLC-based activity profiling, and extracts of Bocconia frutescens, Miconia affinis, Myrcia splendens, Combretum aff. laxum, and Erythroxylum macrophyllum were selected for the isolation of compounds. Chelerythrine (2), macarpine (3), dihydrosanguinarine (5), and arjunolic acid (8) showed moderate-to-good fungicidal activity. Myricetin-3-O-(6’’-O-galloyl)-β-galactopyranoside (13) showed moderate insecticidal activity, but no compound with herbicidal activity was identified. PMID:26839818

  1. Factors Affecting the Extraction of Intact Ribonucleic Acid from Plant Tissues Containing Interfering Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Newbury, H. John; Possingham, John V.

    1977-01-01

    Using conventional methods it is impossible to extract RNA as uncomplexed intact molecules from the leaves of grapevines (Vitis vinifera L.) and from a number of woody perennial species that contain high levels of reactive phenolic compounds. A procedure involving the use of high concentrations of the chaotropic agent sodium perchlorate prevents the binding of phenolic compounds to RNA during extraction. Analyses of the phenolics present in plant tissues used in these experiments indicate that there is a poor correlation between the total phenolic content and the complexing of RNA. However, qualitative analyses suggest that proanthocyanidins are involved in the tanning of RNA during conventional extractions. PMID:16660134

  2. Closed vessel microwave assisted extraction - An innovative method for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeztan, S.; Duering, R.-A.

    2012-04-01

    Determination of metal concentrations in plant samples is important for better understanding of effects of toxic metals that are biologically magnified through the food chain and compose a great danger to all living beings. In recent years the use of microwave assisted extraction for plant samples has shown tremendous research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future. Generally conventional procedures have disadvantages including consuming of time and solvents. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare a new closed vessel microwave extraction (MAE) method with the combination of EDTA (MAE-EDTA) for the determination of metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by ICP-OES. Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another MAE procedure (MAE-H) which is applied with the mixture of 69% nitric acid (HNO3) and 30% hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Moreover, conventional plant extraction (CE) method, for which the dissolution of plant samples were handled in HNO3 after dry ashing at 420° C, was used as a reference method. Approximately 0.5 g of sample was digested in 5 ml HNO3, 3 ml H2O2, and 5 ml deionized H2O for MAE-H and in 8 ml EDTA solution for MAE-EDTA. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. Thereby, the applicability of both MAE-H and MAE-EDTA procedures could be demonstrated. For 58 plant samples MAE-H showed the same extraction yields as CE in the determination of trace metal contents of the investigated elements in plant samples. MAE-EDTA gave similar values when compared to MAE-H and highly linear relationships were found for determination of Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn amounts. The recoveries for the CRMs were within the range 89.6-115%. Finally, strategic characteristics of MAE-EDTA for determination metal contents (Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn) in plant samples are: (i) applicability to a large set

  3. A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

  4. Larvicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts from 11 native plants from northeastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    de la Torre Rodriguez, Yael C; Martínez Estrada, Francisco Ricardo; Flores Suarez, Adriana Elizabeth; Waksman de Torres, Noemí; Salazar Aranda, Ricardo

    2013-03-01

    Of all mosquito-borne viral diseases, dengue is spreading most rapidly worldwide. Conventional chemical insecticides (e.g., organophosphates and carbamates) effectively kill mosquitoes at their larval stage, but are toxic to humans. Natural product-based insecticides may be highly specific. Herein, we report the insecticidal activities of 11 native Mexican plants against Aedes aegypti (L). Ether extracts of Ambrosia confertiflora De Candolle, Thymus vulgaris (L.), and Zanthoxylum fagara (L.), and both ether and methanol extracts of Ruta chalepensis L. were significantly larvicidal toward the dengue mosquito after 24 h of exposure. Of them, only the ether extract of A. confertiflora was toxic to Vero cells. In conclusion, the ether extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Z. fagara, and both ether and methanol extracts of Ruta chalepensis L., could be considered as potential bioinsecticides. PMID:23540118

  5. The antioxidant activity and polyphenolic contents of different plant seeds extracts.

    PubMed

    Atrooz, Omar M

    2009-08-01

    Different plant seeds extracts of Citrus sinensis, Hordeum sativum, Triticum sativum, Canna indica, Citrullus vulgaris and Capsicum annuum were evaluated for their antioxidant activity by the following methods: 2,2-diphenyl-1-pycril-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, reducing power, RBCs hemolysis and linoleic acid oxidation, a long with the determination of total phenolic and flavonoids contents. All the methanolic extracts showed high antioxidant activity and have high contents of phenolic and flavonoid. The Canna indica extract exhibited strong antioxidant as a reducing power and as DPPH radical-scavenging (3.61 absorbance, 87.12%, respectively), while the Hordeum sativum extract exhibited highest inhibitory effect on RBCs hemolysis (59.55%) and the Capsicum annuum extract has highest inhibitory effect on linoleic acid peroxidation (65.06%). PMID:19943462

  6. Preliminary studies towards utilization of various plant extracts as antisolar agents.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M F; Santos, E P; Bizarri, C H; Mattos, H A; Padilha, M R; Duarte, H M

    1996-06-01

    Synopsis The aim of this work was to evaluate several plant extracts with regard to ultraviolet absorption spectra in view of a possible application as antisolar agents. Liquid and dry extracts of Hamamelis virginiana, Matricaria recutita, Aesculus hippocastanum, Rhamnus purshiana and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared by repercolation, maceration and microwave oven extraction. UVB absorption spectra (290-320nm) were obtained and the solar protection factors (SPF) of these preparations were determined by a spectrophotometric method. The results showed that after incorporation to a 2% solution of the synthetic sunscreen octylmethoxycinnamate, the extracts showed an intensification in SPF values, suggesting that this can be an interesting method to intensify SPF. In addition, these extracts can contribute their emollient and moistening properties to the product. These are important characteristics for protecting skin against exposure to the sun. PMID:19245460

  7. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical analysis of crude extracts and essential oils from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Silva, N C C; Barbosa, L; Seito, L N; Fernandes, A

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to establish a phytochemical analysis of the crude extracts and performed GC-MS of the essential oils (EOs) of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) and Asteraceae species Baccharis dracunculifolia DC, Matricaria chamomilla L. and Vernonia polyanthes Less, as well as determining their antimicrobial activity. Establishment of the minimal inhibitory concentrations of the crude extracts and EOs against 16 Staphylococcus aureus and 16 Escherichia coli strains from human specimens was carried out using the dilution method in Mueller-Hinton agar. Some phenolic compounds with antimicrobial properties were established, and all EOs had a higher antimicrobial activity than the extracts. Matricaria chamomilla extract and E. uniflora EO were efficient against S. aureus strains, while E. uniflora and V. polyanthes extracts and V. polyanthes EO showed the best antimicrobial activity against E. coli strains. Staphylococcus aureus strains were more susceptible to the tested plant products than E. coli, but all natural products promoted antimicrobial growth inhibition. PMID:22007687

  8. Cardioactive properties of Solanaceae plant extracts and pure glycoalkaloids on Zophobas atratus.

    PubMed

    Ventrella, Emanuela; Marciniak, Paweł; Adamski, Zbigniew; Rosiński, Grzegorz; Chowański, Szymon; Falabella, Patrizia; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A

    2015-04-01

    Glycoalkaloids, the biologically active secondary metabolites produced by Solanaceae plants, are natural defenses against animals, insects and fungi. In this paper, the effects of glycoalkaloids present in extracts of Solanaceae plants (potato, tomato and black nightshade) or pure commercial glycoalkaloids on the coleopteran Zophobas atratus F. were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo bioassays using heart experimental models. Each tested extract induced a dose-dependent cardioinhibitory effect. The perfusion of Zophobas atratus semi-isolated heart using the highest potato and tomato extract concentration (1 mmol/L) caused irreversible cardiac arrests, while extract from black nightshade produced fast but reversible arrests. Pure commercial glycoalkaloids caused similar but less evident effects compared with extracts. Our results showed that the bioactivity of tested compounds depended on their structure and suggested the existence of synergistic interactions when combinations of the main glycoalkaloids of potato and black nightshade were used for trials. Surprisingly, injection of tomato and potato extracts in 1-day-old pupae of Zophobas atratus induced reversible positive chronotropic effects and decreased the duration of the both phases (anterograde and retrograde) of the heart contractile activity. Furthermore, these extracts affected the amplitude of the heart contractions. PMID:24470045

  9. Potato and mushroom polyphenol oxidase activities are differently modulated by natural plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kuijpers, Tomas F M; van Herk, Teunie; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Janssen, Renske H; Narh, Deborah L; van Berkel, Willem J H; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Enzymatic browning is a major quality issue in fruit and vegetable processing and can be counteracted by different natural inhibitors. Often, model systems containing a single polyphenol oxidase (PPO) are used to screen for new inhibitors. To investigate the impact of the source of PPO on the outcome of such screening, this study compared the effect of 60 plant extracts on the activity of PPO from mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus , AbPPO) and PPO from potato ( Solanum tuberosum , StPPO). Some plant extracts had different effects on the two PPOs: an extract that inhibited one PPO could be an activator for the other. As an example of this, the mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) extract was investigated in more detail. In the presence of mate extract, oxygen consumption by AbPPO was found to be reduced >5-fold compared to a control reaction, whereas that of StPPO was increased >9-fold. RP-UHPLC-MS analysis showed that the mate extract contained a mixture of phenolic compounds and saponins. Upon incubation of mate extract with StPPO, phenolic compounds disappeared completely and saponins remained. Flash chromatography was used to separate saponins and phenolic compounds. It was found that the phenolic fraction was mainly responsible for inhibition of AbPPO and activation of StPPO. Activation of StPPO was probably caused by activation of latent StPPO by chlorogenic acid quinones. PMID:24344979

  10. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  11. Antiangiogenic-Like Properties of Fermented Extracts of Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Chérif; Arcile, Guillaume; Cariel, Léon; Lenoir, Christine; Bignon, Jérome; Wdzieczak-Bakala, Joanna; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2015-09-01

    The three ayurvedic medicinal plants, Withania somnifera, Emblica officinalis, and Bacopa monnieri, were extracted by high-pressure static extraction using the Zippertex(®) technology. The extracts were mixed to reach quantifiable amounts of active compounds identified by high-pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) analysis. The mixture of extracts was incubated with resting cells of the fungus Beauveria bassiana ATCC 7159. The fermentation promoted the fluidization of the starting dense mixture, while HPLC monitoring evidenced the disappearance of glucogallin from E. officinalis extract and the concomitant increase in gallic acid content. Topical exposure of the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) to the nonfermented extract led to the extensive necrosis and destruction of the treated membrane. However, the fermented extract was shown to be free of any toxicity. Furthermore, compared with the untreated CAM, the fermented sample reduced CAM vascularization, suggesting its antiangiogenic potency. The innocuity of the fermented extract was demonstrated using the in vivo LD50 test, the morphological examination of internal organs of treated rats, as well as the evaluation of blood biomarkers of liver damage (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase). The fermented extract was developed as a nutraceutical antiangiogenic treatment of age-related macular degeneration and commercialized in an oral form named Ethnodyne-Visio™. PMID:25608021

  12. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  13. Comparison of various techniques for the extraction and determination of antioxidants in plants.

    PubMed

    Bajerová, Petra; Adam, Martin; Bajer, Tomáš; Ventura, Karel

    2014-04-01

    The following extraction techniques have been used for extracting antioxidants (apigenin, coumarin, esculetin, umbelliferone, bergapten, quercetin, rutin, scopoletin and xanthotoxin) from plant material: supercritical fluid extraction, pressurized liquid extraction, extraction by means of Soxhlet apparatus, ultrasonic extraction in ultrasonic bath, and by means of ultrasonic probe. The analytical method based on HPLC-UV detection for the determination of selected antioxidants was developed. For all extracts the antioxidant capacity based on the reduction of free 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical was also determined. Comparing all results the ultrasonic probe method using 0.75 g of sample extracted by 50 mL of acetonitrile in water (30%, v/v) for 25 min at room temperature and with amplitude at 60% (equal to 90 W) without pulsation was evaluated as the best tool. The most significant indicator demonstrating this statement is the antioxidant capacity expressed as gallic acid equivalent where the ultrasonic probe method showed the best results in 10 of 16 samples. Also the operability of ultrasonic probe extraction method compared to other tested methods is more favorable. PMID:24470390

  14. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests. PMID:17478091

  15. Medicinal plants extracts affect virulence factors expression and biofilm formation by the uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Dorota; Kucharska, Alicja Z; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kicia, Marta; Tichaczek-Goska, Dorota

    2012-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important source for the therapeutic remedies of various diseases including urinary tract infections. This prompted us to perform research in this area. We decided to focus on medicinal plants species used in urinary tract infections prevention. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of Betula pendula, Equisetum arvense, Herniaria glabra, Galium odoratum, Urtica dioica, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea extracts on bacterial survival and virulence factors involved in tissue colonization and biofilm formation of the uropathogenic Escherichia coli rods. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of plant extracts were performed. Antimicrobial assay relied on the estimation of the colony forming unit number. Hydrophobicity of cells was established by salt aggregation test. Using motility agar, the ability of bacteria to move was examined. The erythrocyte hemagglutination test was used for fimbriae P screening. Curli expression was determined using YESCA agar supplemented with congo red. Quantification of biofilm formation was carried out using a microtiter plate assay and a spectrophotometric method. The results of the study indicate significant differences between investigated extracts in their antimicrobial activities. The extracts of H. glabra and V. vitis-idaea showed the highest growth-inhibitory effects (p < 0.05). Surface hydrophobicity of autoaggregating E. coli strain changed after exposure to all plant extracts, except V. vitis-idaea (p > 0.05). The B. pendula and U. dioica extracts significantly reduced the motility of the E. coli rods (p < 0.05). All the extracts exhibited the anti-biofilm activity. PMID:22915095

  16. Suppressive properties of extracts from Japanese edible plants regarding nitric oxide generation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joon-Kyoung; Murakami, Akira; Watanabe, Shaw; Ohigashi, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Acetone extracts from a total of 30 species (197 samples) of plants commonly eaten in Japan were tested for their in vitro inhibitory properties against nitric oxide (NO) generation in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, that had been stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in combination with interferon-g. Evaluation of the effects of treatment with 100 mg/mL revealed that 6 extracts (3.1%) exerted a strong inhibitory effect (inhibition rate (IR) > or = 70%) with strong cell viability (CV> or = 70%). However, nine extracts that exhibited an IR of greater than 70% were not considered to exert a significant effect at 100 microg/mL due to their low CV (<70%). Of the 14 plant families evaluated, Cucurbitaceae (extracts of watermelon 1 and melon 2), Liliaceae (extracts of garlic 1 and 2) and Solanaceae (extracts of tomato 3 and eggplant 5) were shown to be promising candidates for the inhibition of NO generation at the tested concentration. When tested at 20 microg/mL, 6 extracts, one of garland-chrysamthemums (sample 5), one of lettuce (sample 2), one of tomatoes (sample 3), two of Japanese hornworts (Mitsuba 1 and 2), and one of carrots (sample 4) showed strong inhibition of NO generation (IR> or = 70%). Even though one of the test samples (sample 2) of Japanese hornwort had a CV of less than 70% (67.8%), Japanese hornwort was still considered to be a highly promising species for the inhibition of NO generation. Furthermore, the activity varied significantly among samples from the same species for several plants. This variation may have been due to differences between cultivars and/or growing districts, or to differences in post-harvesting treatment. Taken together, the results of the present study may provide an experimental basis for new strategies for the production of highly functional dietary plants and food items. PMID:19537895

  17. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  18. Interactions of extracts from selected chewing stick sources with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that activates a pro-inflammatory death of human monocytes/macrophages. A specific clone of this bacterium (JP2) has a 530-base pair deletion in the leukotoxin promoter gene and significantly enhanced expression of leukotoxin. This specific clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is common in some African populations and has a strong association with periodontal attachment loss in adolescents in these populations. Chewing sticks of plant origin are commonly used as oral hygiene tool in Africa, but their role as a therapeutic agent in periodontal disease is poorly investigated. Results Ethanol extracts were made from 7 common plants used as chewing sticks in West-Africa. None of the tested extracts inhibited growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, extracts from Psidium guajava (Guava) completely neutralized the cell death and pro-inflammatory response of human leukocytes induced by the leukotoxin. None of the six other tested chewing stick extracts showed this effect. Conclusions The discovery that extracts from Guava efficiently neutralizes A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity might lead to novel therapeutic agents and strategies for prevention and treatment of aggressive forms of periodontitis induced by infections with the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of this bacterium. PMID:22537711

  19. Naturally occurring insect growth regulators. II. Screening of insect and plant extracts as insect juvenile hormone mimics.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, M; Redfern, R E; Mills, G D

    1975-01-01

    Ethereal extracts prepared from the larvae, pupae, or eggs of 10 species of insects and from various parts of 343 species of higher plants were screened for juvenilizing effects against Tenebrio molitor and Oncopeltus fasciatus. Activity in both species was shown by an extract of the larvae of the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans, whereas an extract of the pupae was active in O. fasiatus only. Extracts of two plant species (Echinacea angustifolia roots and Chamaecyparis lawsoniana seeds) showed high juvenilizing activity in T. MOLITOR, AND EXtracts of five plant species (Clethra alnifolia stems, leaves, and fruits, Sassafras albidum roots and root bark, Eucalyptus camaldulensis stems and bark, Pinus rigida twigs and leaves, and Iris douglasiana roots, stems, and fruits) were highly active in O. fasciatus an extract of Tsuga canadensis leaves showed lower activity in this insect. Extracts of 16 species of plants showed high insecticidal activity (mortality) in O. fasciatus but lacked juvenilizing properties in both species of test insects. PMID:1221244

  20. Screening of Thai medicinal plant extracts and their active constituents for in vitro antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Ichino, C; Soonthornchareonnon, N; Chuakul, W; Kiyohara, H; Ishiyama, A; Sekiguchi, H; Namatame, M; Otoguro, K; Omura, S; Yamada, H

    2006-04-01

    To discover antimalarial substances from plants cultivated in Thailand 80%-EtOH extracts from selected plants were screened for in vitro antimalarial activity against the drug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. In total, 86 Thai medicinal plant samples representing 48 species from 35 genera in 16 families were screened and two species (Polyalthia viridis and Goniothalamus marcanii) were found to show notable antimalarial activity (IC50: 10.0 and 6.3 microg/mL). Marcanine A and 16-hydroxycleroda-3,13(14)Z-dien-15,16-olide were identified as the respective major active constituents in P. viridis and G. marcanii, respectively. PMID:16557615

  1. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria

    PubMed Central

    Nondo, Ramadhani S.O.; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J.; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J.; Kidukuli, Abdul W.

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 107 erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria. PMID:27144154

  2. In vivo antimalarial activity of extracts of Tanzanian medicinal plants used for the treatment of malaria.

    PubMed

    Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J; Zacharia, Abdallah; Masimba, Pax J; Kidukuli, Abdul W

    2016-01-01

    Plants used in traditional medicine have been the source of a number of currently used antimalarial medicines and continue to be a promising resource for the discovery of new classes of antimalarial compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vivo antimalarial activity of four plants; Erythrina schliebenii Harms, Holarrhena pubescens Buch-Ham, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius Poir, and Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Flem used for treatment of malaria in Tanzania. In vivo antimalarial activity was assessed using the 4-day suppressive antimalarial assay. Mice were infected by injection via tail vein with 2 × 10(7) erythrocytes infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Extracts were administered orally, once daily, for a total of four daily doses from the day of infection. Chloroquine (10 mg/kg/day) and solvent (5 mL/kg/day) were used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The extracts of C. bonducella, E. schliebenii, H. pubescens, and P. nummulariifolius exhibited dose-dependent suppression of parasite growth in vivo in mice, with the highest suppression being by C. bonducella extract. While each of the plant extracts has potential to yield useful antimalarial compounds, the dichloromethane root extract of C. bonducella seems to be the most promising for isolation of active antimalarial compound(s). In vivo antimalarial activity presented in this study supports traditional uses of C. bonducella roots, E. schliebenii stem barks, H. pubescens roots, and P. nummulariifolius for treatment of malaria. PMID:27144154

  3. Neuroprotective effect of some plant extracts in cultured CT105-induced PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Tae; Kim, Jeong Do; Lyu, Yeoung-Su; Lee, Min-Yung; Kang, Hyung-Won

    2006-10-01

    Carboxyl-terminal fragments of APP (CT) have been found in plaques, microvessels and the neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of AD patients. These carboxyl-terminal fragments, which contain the complete Abeta sequence, appear to be toxic to neurons in culture cells. However, the possible role of other cleaved products of APP is less clear. We showed that a recombinant carboxy-terminal 105 amino acid fragment (CT105) of APP induced strong neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. We prepared alcoholic extract from Oriental herbal plants and screened their protective effects against CT105-induced cell death in PC12 cells after the treatment of these extracts. Of the 10 kinds of plant extracts, 12 kinds of extracts had considerable protective effects against CT105-induced cell death, especially, Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus (UREU), Gastrodia elata (GAE), Evodia officinalis (EO) and Panax ginseng (PAG) showed the most protective effect at the concentration of 50 microg/ml. BuOH extract of UREU and GAE possessed the strongest protective effects against neurotoxicity of CT105-induced PC12 cells and showed inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 4.8 and 8.3 microg/ml, respectively. These plants are promising candidates of neuroprotective effects and would be useful for the treatment of the neuronal degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:17015944

  4. Evaluation of the RNase H Inhibitory Properties of Vietnamese Medicinal Plant Extracts and Natural Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Bui Huu; Nhut, Nguyen Duy; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Tung, Nguyen Huu; Quang, Tran Hong; Luyen, Bui Thi Thuy; Huong, Tran Thu; Wilson, Jennifer; Beutler, John A.; Cuong, Nguyen Manh; Kim, Young Ho

    2013-01-01

    In research on anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) agents from natural sources, thirty two extracts of Vietnamese plants and twenty five isolated compounds were screened for their inhibitory effect against the ribonuclease H (RNase H) activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and the cytopathic effect of the HIV virus. At a concentration of 50 μg/mL, eleven plant extracts and five isolated compounds inhibited over 90 percent of RNase H enzymatic activity. Of these, the methanol extracts from the leaves of Phyllanthus reticulatus and Aglaia aphanamixis highly inhibited RNase H activity by 99% and 98%, respectively. Several fucoidans isolated from seaweeds Sargassum kuetzingii, Sargassum polycystum, and Gelidiella acerosa, as well as epigallocatechin-3-gallate isolated from Camellia chinensis also showed strong inhibitory effects over ninety percent. Sixteen plant extracts with inhibition of over seventy five percent in the RNase H assay were tested in a cellular model of HIV-1 cytopathicity; four extracts showed modest activity in protecting against the cytopathic effect of the HIV virus. PMID:21595586

  5. Anti-leukemic activities of alcoholic extracts of two traditional Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Shipra; Malhotra, Hemant; Rathore, Om Singh; Malhotra, Bharti; Sharma, Pratibha; Batra, Amla; Sharma, Asha; Chiplunkar, Shubhada V

    2015-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the anticancer in vitro activity of two plants commonly used in traditional Indian medicine: Zingiber officinale Roscoe and Nerium oleander L. The extracts of these plants were tested in vitro on several human leukemic cell lines, K562, THP-1, MOLT-4 and Jurkat. Cell growth inhibition was observed for both plant extracts with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging between 1 and 28 μg/mL using SRB (sulphorodamine B) and MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assays. Enhanced cell growth inhibition was observed when the extracts were combined with imatinib. Exposed cells showed cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cytochrome c release, indicating that the mechanism of cytotoxicity could be via mitochondrial mediated apoptotic pathways. Combination of the extracts of these plants with standard cancer treatment may be a way of enhancing responses. Clinical studies in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia are planned at our center. PMID:25772975

  6. Inhibition of bacterial, fungal and plant growth by testa extracts of Citrullus genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum & Nakai) seed exudates inhibit germination and seedling growth of several plant species and growth of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. This study was conducted to determine if extractable components in testae contribute to the inhibition. T...

  7. Detecting the antimalarial artemisinin in plant extracts using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The antimalarial artemisinin is produced by Artemisia annua L and can be used to kill the protozoan parasite Plasmodium, which is spread by mosquitoes. Artemisinin is extracted from these plants through tea preparation. The artemisinin content of the tea varies depending on how much artemisinin was ...

  8. Response to patient-initiated plant extract treatment for atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Nicole; Patel, Gopal; Agim, Nnenna G

    2013-01-01

    Ethnomedical practices are increasing in all parts of the world, including many urban centers. We describe a unique case of a 7-year-old girl with atopic dermatitis who was responsive to parent-initiated treatment with the extract of a plant from the Chenopodium genus. A brief discussion raises awareness of such practices to the practicing dermatologist. PMID:23458206

  9. Aqueous enzymatic oil extraction from seeds, fruits, and other oil-rich plant materials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods have been developed to obtain oil from corn germ, oilseeds, and other oil-rich plant materials using aqueous enzymatic methods. Unlike traditional oil extraction methods, these new processes are performed without the use of presses and without organic solvents. Beginning with olive...

  10. Quantification of Sesquiterpene Lactones in Asteraceae Plant Extracts: Evaluation of their Allergenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Salapovic, Helena; Geier, Johannes; Reznicek, Gottfried

    2013-01-01

    Sesquiterpene lactones (SLs), mainly those with an activated exocyclic methylene group, are important allergens in Asteraceae (Compositae) plants. As a screening tool, the Compositae mix, consisting of five Asteraceae plant extracts with allergenic potential (feverfew, tansy, arnica, yarrow, and German chamomile) is part of several national patch test baseline series. However, the SL content of the Compositae mix may vary due to the source material. Therefore, a simple spectrophotometric method for the quantitative measurement of SLs with the α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety was developed, giving the percentage of allergenic compounds in plant extracts. The method has been validated and five Asteraceae extracts, namely feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium L.), tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), arnica (Arnica montana L.), yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), and German chamomile (Chamomilla recutita L. Rauschert) that have been used in routine patch test screening were evaluated. A good correlation could be found between the results obtained using the proposed spectrophotometric method and the corresponding clinical results. Thus, the introduced method is a valuable tool for evaluating the allergenic potential and for the simple and efficient quality control of plant extracts with allergenic potential. PMID:24106675

  11. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  12. Could plant extracts have enabled hominins to acquire honey before the control of fire?

    PubMed

    Kraft, Thomas S; Venkataraman, Vivek V

    2015-08-01

    Honey is increasingly recognized as an important food item in human evolution, but it remains unclear whether extinct hominins could have overcome the formidable collective stinging defenses of honey bees during honey acquisition. The utility of smoke for this purpose is widely recognized, but little research has explored alternative methods of sting deterrence such as the use of plant secondary compounds. To consider whether hominins could have used plant extracts as a precursor or alternative to smoke, we review the ethnographic, ethnobotanical, and plant chemical ecology literature to examine how humans use plants in combination with, and independently of, smoke during honey collection. Plant secondary compounds are diverse in their physiological and behavioral effects on bees and differ fundamentally from those of smoke. Plants containing these chemicals are widespread and prove to be remarkably effective in facilitating honey collection by honey hunters and beekeepers worldwide. While smoke may be superior as a deterrent to bees, plant extracts represent a plausible precursor or alternative to the use of smoke during honey collection by hominins. Smoke is a sufficient but not necessary condition for acquiring honey in amounts exceeding those typically obtained by chimpanzees, suggesting that significant honey consumption could have predated the control of fire. PMID:26145789

  13. Herbal Extracts and Phytochemicals: Plant Secondary Metabolites and the Enhancement of Human Brain Function1

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, David O.; Wightman, Emma L.

    2011-01-01

    Humans consume a wide range of foods, drugs, and dietary supplements that are derived from plants and which modify the functioning of the central nervous sytem (CNS). The psychoactive properties of these substances are attributable to the presence of plant secondary metabolites, chemicals that are not required for the immediate survival of the plant but which are synthesized to increase the fitness of the plant to survive by allowing it to interact with its environment, including pathogens and herbivorous and symbiotic insects. In many cases, the effects of these phytochemicals on the human CNS might be linked either to their ecological roles in the life of the plant or to molecular and biochemical similarities in the biology of plants and higher animals. This review assesses the current evidence for the efficacy of a range of readily available plant-based extracts and chemicals that may improve brain function and which have attracted sufficient research in this regard to reach a conclusion as to their potential effectiveness as nootropics. Many of these candidate phytochemicals/extracts can be grouped by the chemical nature of their potentially active secondary metabolite constituents into alkaloids (caffeine, nicotine), terpenes (ginkgo, ginseng, valerian, Melissa officinalis, sage), and phenolic compounds (curcumin, resveratrol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, Hypericum perforatum, soy isoflavones). They are discussed in terms of how an increased understanding of the relationship between their ecological roles and CNS effects might further the field of natural, phytochemical drug discovery. PMID:22211188

  14. Larvicidal efficacy of five cucurbitaceous plant leaf extracts against mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P

    2008-06-01

    Larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, acetone, and methanol extracts of the leaf of five species of cucurbitaceous plants, Citrullus colocynthis, Coccinia indica, Cucumis sativus, Momordica charantia, and Trichosanthes anguina, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis, methanol extracts of C. indica, C. sativus, M. charantia, and acetone extract of T. anguina against the larvae of A. aegypti (LC50=74.57, 309.46, 492.73, 199.14, and 554.20 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC50=88.24, 377.69, 623.80, 207.61, and 842.34 ppm), respectively. The petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis and methanol extract of M. charantia were more effective than the other extracts. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18340464

  15. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF PLANT EXTRACTS FROM SOUTHERN MINAS GERAIS CERRADO

    PubMed Central

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; da Silva, Jéferson Junior; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  16. Evaluation of antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of plant extracts from southern Minas Gerais cerrado.

    PubMed

    Chavasco, Juliana Moscardini; Prado E Feliphe, Bárbara Helena Muniz; Cerdeira, Claudio Daniel; Leandro, Fabrício Damasceno; Coelho, Luiz Felipe Leomil; Silva, Jéferson Junior da; Chavasco, Jorge Kleber; Dias, Amanda Latercia Tranches

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of plant hidroethanolic extracts on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative, yeasts, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis was evaluated by using the technique of Agar diffusion and microdilution in broth. Among the extracts evaluated by Agar diffusion, the extract of Bidens pilosa leaf presented the most expressive average of haloes of growth inhibition to the microorganisms, followed by the extract of B. pilosa flower, of Eugenia pyriformis' leaf and seed, of Plinia cauliflora leaf which statistically presented the same average of haloes inhibitory formation on bacteria Gram positive, Gram negative and yeasts. The extracts of Heliconia rostrata did not present activity. Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG) appeared resistant to all the extracts. The susceptibility profile of Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae fungi were compared to one another and to the Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis and the Gram negative Salmonella typhimurium bacteria (p > 0.05). The evaluation of cytotoxicity was carried out on C6-36 larvae cells of the Aedes albopictus mosquito. The extracts of stem and flower of Heliconia rostrata, leaf and stem of Plinia cauliflora, seed of Anonna crassiflora and stem, flower and root of B. pilosa did not present toxicity in the analyzed concentrations. The highest rates of selectivity appeared in the extracts of stem of A. crassiflora and flower of B. pilosa to Staphylococcus aureus, presenting potential for future studies about a new drug development. PMID:24553603

  17. Response and effect of two plant crude extracts on mosquito larvae Culex pipiens.

    PubMed

    El-Ela, N A; Talha, M; El-Aziz, A A

    1998-01-01

    The response and effect of two plant crude extract from dry Damsissa (Ambrosia maritima) and Neem seeds (Azadirachta indica) were tested against the first and third instar larvae of mosquito (Culex pipiens). The results showed that both extracts had a larvicidal effect. Neem seed extract was more toxic than Damsissa extract against both the first and third instar larvae. In addition, the young larvae (first instar) were more susceptible to Neem seeds than the old ones (third instar) as revealed from the LC50 values, while Damsissa showed nearly the same effect against both stages. Meanwhile, treatment of Neem seed extracts resulted in prolongation of the larval period accompanied with a decrease in larval activity. Moreover, the effect of the two extracts on larval total esterase isozymes was examined. Neem extract showed an adverse effect on the third instar larvae, since only one band (E1) was observed and the other 4 bands disappeared at all concentrations used, as compared with untreated control larvae (El, E2, E3, E4, and E5). Meanwhile, Damsissa extract treatment of the third instar larvae showed an additional band located between E3 and E4, and the absence of two bands (E2 and E3) after treatment with 0.5x10(4), 1x10(4) and 1.5x10(4) ppm, while treatment with 0.25x10(4) ppm did not result in any changes in larval total esterase. PMID:17217029

  18. Evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Younus, Ishrat; Siddiq, Afshan; Ishaq, Humera; Anwer, Laila; Badar, Sehrish; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: Azadirachta indica, Moringa oleifera and Morus alba against Foot and Mouth disease virus using MTT assay (3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). Antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as Means ± S.D. The concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are considered to be effective antiviral concentrations. From the tested plant extracts, Moringa oleifera showed potent antiviral activity (p<0.05) while Azadirachta indica showed significant antiviral activity in the range of 1-50μ/ml & 12-100μ/ml respectively. In contrast no antiviral activity was observed by Morus alba as all the tested concentration resulted in significant reduction (p<0.05) in cell survival percentage. PMID:27393440

  19. Determination of Oxalate Content in Herbal Remedies and Dietary Supplements Based on Plant Extracts.

    PubMed

    Siener, Roswitha; López-Mesas, Montserrat; Valiente, Manuel; Blanco, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    Lifestyle, especially diet, is a prominent risk factor that affects the formation of calcium oxalate stones. Urinary oxalate excretion is directly related to the amount of oral intake and intestinal absorption rate of oxalate. This work evaluated the possibility of increasing oxalate ingestion, which could lead to secondary hyperoxaluria, associated with the intake of herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts. A wide variety of 17 commercially available drugs and dietary supplements were analyzed using ion chromatography. The results showed remarkable differences in oxalate contents of the extracts. Total oxalate concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 2.2 mg/g in solid samples and from 0.005 to 0.073 mg/mL in liquid samples. The selected herbal remedies and dietary supplements containing plant extracts represent only a low risk for calcium oxalate stone formers, if the recommended daily dose is not exceeded. PMID:26670692

  20. Repellency and toxicity of aromatic plant extracts against the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Abdallah F; El-Haj, Samih; Tueni, Marie; Taoubi, Khalil; Nader, Natalie Abi; Mrad, Abir

    2005-06-01

    The insecticidal activities of essential oil extracts from leaves, flowers and roots of aromatic plants against fourth-instar larvae of the mosquito Culex pipiens molestus Forskal were determined. Extracts of Foeniculum vulgare Mill were the most toxic, followed by those of Ferula hermonis Boiss, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, Pinus pinea L, Laurus nobilis L and Eucalyptus spp with LC50 values of 24.5, 44.0, 60.0, 75.0, 117.0 and 120.0 mg litre(-1), respectively. Combination tests between the LC50 and the maximum sub-lethal concentration (MSLC) were determined. Over 20 major components were identified in extracts from each plant species tested. Five essential oils and nine pure components were studied for their repellency against mosquito bites. Terpineol and 1,8-cineole were the most effective against Culex pipiens molestus bites offering complete protection for 1.6 and 2 h, respectively. PMID:15662650

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells with natural dyes extracted from plant seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Ghamri, Hatem S.; El-Agez, Taher M.; Taya, Sofyan A.; Abdel-Latif, Monzir S.; Batniji, Amal Y.

    2014-12-01

    The application of natural dyes extracted from plant seeds in the fabrication of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) has been explored. Ten dyes were extracted from different plant seeds and used as sensitizers for DSSCs. The dyes were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. DSSCs were prepared using TiO2 and ZnO nanostructured mesoporous films. The highest conversion efficiency of 0.875 % was obtained with an allium cepa (onion) extract-sensitized TiO2 solar cell. The process of TiO2-film sintering was studied and it was found that the sintering procedure significantly affects the response of the cell. The short circuit current of the DSSC was found to be considerably enhanced when the TiO2 semiconducting layer was sintered gradually.

  2. Assessment of Antioxidant Potential and Acute Toxicity Studies of Whole Plant Extract of Pergularia Daemia (Forsk)

    PubMed Central

    Vaithiyanathan, Veluchamy; Mirunalini, Sankaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pergularia daemia (Asclepiadacea) is a fetid- smelling perennial herb growing well along the river bang and road sides of India. Naturally the plant has powerful antioxidants including polyphenols, flavanoids, steroids and terpenoids. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant potential and to determine the median lethal dose (LD50) of crude ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pergularia daemia. The plant Pergularia daemia possess effective scavenging activity against 2, 2' azino bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline 6 sulfonic acid (ABTS), nitric oxide and reducing power radicals at different concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400 & 500 µg/mL) of both extracts. Results: From the above in vitro assay we have exposed that the methanolic extract exert higher antioxidant activity at 400 µg/mL than ethyl acetate extract. Acute toxicity study revealed that the extracts showed no signs of toxicity upto a dose level of 2500 mg/kg b.wt. Conclusion: Thus our findings provide that both extracts of Pergularia daemia possess a strong antioxidant capacity and are relatively has high margin of safety. PMID:26862261

  3. Antibacterial activity of extracts from some edible plants commonly consumed in Asia.

    PubMed

    Alzoreky, N S; Nakahara, K

    2003-02-15

    Extracts of edible plants (26 species) from China, Japan, Thailand and Yemen were screened for their antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella infantis. Buffered methanol (80% methanol and 20% PBS) and acetone extracted inhibitory substances against tested bacteria from 16 plants, as revealed by the disc assay. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of extracts determined by the agar dilution method ranged from 165 to 2640 mg l(-1). The most sensitive microorganism to extracts from Azadirachta indica, Cinnamomum cassia, Rumex nervosus, Ruta graveolens, Thymus serpyllum and Zingiber officinale was B. cereus, with MIC of 165 to 660 mg l(-1). E. coli and S. infantis were only inhibited by Cinnamomum cassia extracts at the highest MIC (2640 mg l(-1)). L. monocytogenes (Tottori) was more resistant than the ATCC 7644 strain to extracts from Ruta chalepensis, Artemisia absinthium and Cissus spp. EDTA (0.85 mM) reduced the MICs of Cinnamomum cassia and Cissus rotundifolia by at least 50% when tested against E. coli, S. infantis, S. aureus and L. monocytogenes. PMID:12423924

  4. Surface decontamination and quality enhancement in meat steaks using plant extracts as natural biopreservatives.

    PubMed

    Tayel, Ahmed A; El-Tras, Wael F; Moussa, Shaaban H; El-Sabbagh, Sabha M

    2012-08-01

    Nine plant extracts were evaluated as biopreservatives to decontaminate and maintain the quality of meat steaks. Most of the extracts exhibited a remarkable antibacterial activity against antibiotic resistant strains from Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. The pomegranate peel extract (PPE), cinnamon bark extract (CBE), and lemon grass leaves extract (LGE) were the most effective as bactericides, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 250, 350, and 550 μg/mL, respectively. The most effective treatments, for decontaminating meat steak surfaces, were the application of combined PPE, CBE, and LGE at their MIC values and the treatment with double MIC from PPE; these treatments resulted in complete bacterial inhibitions during the first 2 days of storage period for 7 days. The sensory evaluation of treated steaks revealed that these two treatments had the highest panelist overall scores. The highest scores, for individual attributes, were observed in the treated steaks with double MIC from PPE. Application of plant extracts could be impressively recommended for comprehensive meat decontamination and quality attributes enhancement. PMID:22827400

  5. Medicinal plant extracts can variously modify biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Samoilova, Zoya; Muzyka, Nadezda; Lepekhina, Elena; Oktyabrsky, Oleg; Smirnova, Galina

    2014-04-01

    Low concentrations of black tea and water extracts from medicinal plants Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Vaccinium vitis-idaea, Tilia cordata, Betula pendula and Zea mays stimulated biofilm formation in Escherichia coli BW25113 up to three times. Similar effect was observed for tannic acid and low concentrations of quercetin. In contrast, the extract from Urtica dioica reduced biofilm production. Pretreatment with plant extracts variously modified antibiotic effects on specific biofilm formation (SBF). Extract from V. vitis-idaea increased SBF, while the extracts from Achillea millefolium, Laminaria japonica and U. dioica considerably decreased SBF in the presence of ciprofloxacin, streptomycin and cefotaxime. Stimulatory effect of the extracts and pure polyphenols on biofilm formation was probably related to their prooxidant properties. The rpoS deletion did not affect SBF significantly, but stimulation of biofilm formation by the compounds tested was accompanied by inhibition of rpoS expression, suggesting that a RpoS-independent signal transduction pathway was apparently used. PMID:24500005

  6. Larvicidal activity of some Euphorbiaceae plant extracts against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan

    2008-04-01

    Larvicidal activity of ethyl acetate, butanol, and petroleum ether extracts of five species of Euphorbiaceae plants, Jatropha curcas, Pedilanthus tithymaloides, Phyllanthus amarus, Euphorbia hirta, and Euphorbia tirucalli, were tested against the early fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed low larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in petroleum ether extract. The LC50 value of petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas, P. tithymaloides, P. amarus, E. hirta, and E. tirucalli were 8.79, 55.26, 90.92, 272.36, and 4.25 ppm, respectively, against A. aegypti and 11.34, 76.61, 113.40, 424.94, and 5.52 ppm, respectively, against C quinquefasciatus. Of the various ratios tested, the petroleum ether extracts of J. curcas and E. tirucalli were observed to be more efficient than the other plant extracts. It is, therefore, suggested that E. tirucalli can be applied as an ideal potential larvicide against A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. This is an ideal ecofriendly approach for the control of the dengue vector, A. aegypti, and the lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:18163189

  7. Fabrication Of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles Using Agricultural Crop Plant Leaf Extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajani, P.; SriSindhura, K.; Prasad, T. N. V. K. V.; Hussain, O. M.; Sudhakar, P.; Latha, P.; Balakrishna, M.; Kambala, V.; Reddy, K. Raja

    2010-10-01

    Nanoparticles are being viewed as fundamental building blocks of nanotechnology. Biosynthesis of nanoparticles by plant extracts is currently under exploitation. Use of agricultural crop plant extracts for synthesis of metal nanoparticles would add a new dimension to the agricultural sector in the utilization of crop waste. Silver has long been recognized as having an inhibitory effect towards many bacterial strains and microorganisms commonly present in medical and industrial processes. Four pulse crop plants and three cereal crop plants (Vigna radiata, Arachis hypogaea, Cyamopsis tetragonolobus, Zea mays, Pennisetum glaucum, Sorghum vulgare) were used and compared for their extra cellular synthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles. Stable silver nanoparticles were formed by treating aqueous solution of AgNO3 with the plant leaf extracts as reducing agent at temperatures 50 °C-95 °C. UV-Visible spectroscopy was utilized to monitor the formation of silver nanoparticles. XRD analysis of formed silver nanoparticles revealed face centered cubic structure with (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes. SEM and EDAX analysis confirm the size of the formed silver nanoparticles to be in the range of 50-200 nm. Our proposed work offers a enviro-friendly method for biogenic silver nanoparticles production. This could provide a faster synthesis rate comparable to those of chemical methods and potentially be used in areas such as cosmetics, food and medical applications.

  8. Optimization of isolation and cultivation of bacterial endophytes through addition of plant extract to nutrient media

    PubMed Central

    Eevers, N; Gielen, M; Sánchez-López, A; Jaspers, S; White, J C; Vangronsveld, J; Weyens, N

    2015-01-01

    Many endophytes have beneficial effects on plants and can be exploited in biotechnological applications. Studies hypothesize that only 0.001–1% of all plant-associated bacteria are cultivable. Moreover, even after successful isolations, many endophytic bacteria often show reduced regrowth capacity. This research aimed to optimize isolation processes and culturing these bacteria afterwards. We compared several minimal and complex media in a screening. Beside the media themselves, two gelling agents and adding plant extract to media were investigated to enhance the number and diversity of endophytes as well as the growth capacity when regrown after isolation. In this work, 869 medium delivered the highest numbers of cultivable bacteria, as well as the highest diversity. When comparing gelling agents, no differences were observed in the numbers of bacteria. Adding plant extract to the media lead to a slight increase in diversity. However, when adding plant extract to improve the regrowth capacity, sharp increases of viable bacteria occurred in both rich and minimal media. PMID:25997013

  9. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals. PMID:26333346

  10. In vitro thrombolytic potential of root extracts of four medicinal plants available in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Fahad; Islam, Ariful; Bulbul, Latifa; Moghal, Mizanur Rahman; Hossain, Mohammad Salim

    2014-01-01

    Context: Thrombus formation inside the blood vessels obstructs blood flow through the circulatory system leading hypertension, stroke to the heart, anoxia, and so on. Thrombolytic drugs are widely used for the management of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis patients, but they have certain limitations. Medicinal plants and their components possessing antithrombotic activity have been reported before. However, plants that could be used for thrombolysis has not been reported so far. Aims: This study's aim was to evaluate the thrombolytic potential of selected plants’ root extracts. Settings and Design: Plants were collected, dried, powdered and extracted by methanol and then fractionated by n-hexane for getting the sample root extracts. Venous blood samples were drawn from 10 healthy volunteers for the purposes of investigation. Subjects and Methods: An in vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis potential of four n-hexane soluble roots extracts viz., Acacia nilotica, Justicia adhatoda, Azadirachta indica, and Lagerstroemia speciosa along with streptokinase as a positive control and saline water as a negative control. Statistical Analysis Used: Dunnett t-test analysis was performed using SPSS is a statistical analysis program developed by IBM Corporation, USA. on Windows. Results: Using an in vitro thrombolytic model, A. nilotica, L. speciosa, A. indica, and J. adhatoda at 5 mg extract/ml NaCl solution concentration showed 15.1%, 15.49%, 21.26%, and 19.63% clot lysis activity respectively. The reference streptokinase showed 47.21%, and 24.73% clot lysis for 30,000 IU and 15,000 IU concentrations, respectively whereas 0.9% normal saline showed 5.35% clot lysis. Conclusions: The selected extracts of the plant roots possess marked thrombolytic properties that could lyse blood clots in vitro; however, in vivo clot dissolving properties and active components responsible for clot lysis are yet to be discovered. PMID:25538351

  11. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts.

    PubMed

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg(-1) body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg(-1) body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg(-1)) or leaves (4.60 g kg(-1)) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  12. Anti-spermatogenic activities of Taraxacum officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts

    PubMed Central

    Tahtamouni, Lubna Hamid; Al-Khateeb, Rema Ahmad; Abdellatif, Reem Nasser; Al-Mazaydeh, Zainab Ali; Yasin, Salem Refaat; Al-Gharabli, Samer; Elkarmi, Ali Zuhair

    2016-01-01

    Taraxacum officinale has been used in Jordan folk medicine to treat male infertility. A recent study has proved a contradictory effect of the whole plant aqueous extract. The aim of the current study was to determine if the leaves of T. officinale have similar anti-fertility activities, and whether this effect is mediated through the regulation of spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs). Fifty adult male rats were divided into five groups. Two groups were gavaged with 1/10 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (1.06 g kg-1 body weight) or leaves (2.30 g kg-1 body weight) aqueous extract; while two groups were gavaged with 1/20 of LD50 of T. officinale whole plant (2.13 g kg-1) or leaves (4.60 g kg-1) extract. The control group received distilled water. Oral administration of T. officinale (whole plant and leaves aqueous extract) caused a significant decrease in testis and seminal vesicle weight, a reduction in serum testosterone concentration, impaired sperm parameters, and a decrease in pregnancy parameters. Testicular histology of treated rats showed structural changes such as hypoplasia of germ cells, reduction in the thickness of germinal epithelium, arrest of spermatogenesis at spermatid stage (late maturation arrest) and reduction in the number of Leydig cells. Gene expression levels of two SSCs markers (GFRα1 and CSF1) responsible for self-renewal were relatively counter-balanced. In conclusion, T. officinale whole plant and leaves aqueous extracts changed the gene expression of two SSCs markers leading to the imbalance between spermatogonia self-renewal and differentiation causing late maturation arrest. PMID:27482352

  13. Antimicrobial effects of Finnish plant extracts containing flavonoids and other phenolic compounds.

    PubMed

    Rauha, J P; Remes, S; Heinonen, M; Hopia, A; Kähkönen, M; Kujala, T; Pihlaja, K; Vuorela, H; Vuorela, P

    2000-05-25

    Plant phenolics, especially dietary flavonoids, are currently of growing interest owing to their supposed functional properties in promoting human health. Antimicrobial screening of 13 phenolic substances and 29 extracts prepared from Finnish plant materials against selected microbes was conducted in this study. The tests were carried out using diffusion methods with four to nine microbial species (Aspergillus niger, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis). Flavone, quercetin and naringenin were effective in inhibiting the growth of the organisms. The most active plant extracts were purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) against Candida albicans, meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.), willow herb (Epilobium angustifolium L.), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus L.) and raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) against bacteria, and white birch (Betula pubescens Ehrh.), pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) and potato (Solanum tuberosum. L.) against gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:10857921

  14. Continuous Flow Separation of Hydrophobin Fusion Proteins from Plant Cell Culture Extract.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Lauri J; Conley, Andrew J; Joensuu, Jussi J

    2016-01-01

    Fusion to fungal hydrophobins has proven to be a useful tool to enhance accumulation and recovery of recombinant proteins in plants. Aqueous two-phase separation (ATPS) is an attractive system to capture hydrophobin fusion proteins from plant extracts. The process can simultaneously purify and concentrate target protein with minimal background. ATPS avoids the use of chromatographic column steps, can be carried out in a short time frame, and is amenable to industrial-scale protein purification. A drawback of performing ATPS in large volumes is the lengthy time required for phase separation; however, this can be avoided by incorporating continuous systems, which are often preferred by the processing industry. This method chapter illustrates the capture of GFP-HFBI hydrophobin fusion protein from BY-2 plant cell suspension extract using a semi-continuous ATPS method. PMID:26614291

  15. Effects of CO2 plant extracts on triacylglycerol oxidation in Atlantic salmon during cooking and storage.

    PubMed

    Tarvainen, Marko; Nuora, Anu; Quirin, Karl-Werner; Kallio, Heikki; Yang, Baoru

    2015-04-15

    Increasing concern of consumers on the safety of synthetic food additives has created high interest in natural preservatives in food industry. Plant extracts produced by supercritical CO2 technology from rosemary (R), oregano (O) and an antimicrobial blend (AB) consisting of seven different plants were studied for their effects on lipid oxidation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish pieces were marinated with rapeseed oil containing 0, 1, 2 or 4 g of plant extracts/kg of fish. After cooking the pieces were stored in refrigerator for 26 days. Peroxide values (PVs) were determined and oxidised triacylglycerols (TAGs) measured by UHPLC-ESI/MS at 0, 7, 14 and 26 days of storage. During the first two weeks of storage, AB delayed oxidation by at least one week compared to control samples as shown by PVs (<10 meq. O2) and by the oxidised TAGs. Oregano and rosemary showed also some antioxidative potential. PMID:25466119

  16. Extracts from Traditional Chinese Medicinal Plants Inhibit Acetylcholinesterase, a Known Alzheimer's Disease Target.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Dorothea; Kaur Dogra, Anudeep; Tahrani, Ahmad; Herrmann, Florian; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is a common treatment for early stages of the most general form of dementia, Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In this study, methanol, dichloromethane and aqueous crude extracts from 80 Traditional Chinese Medical (TCM) plants were tested for their in vitro anti-acetylcholinesterase activity based on Ellman's colorimetric assay. All three extracts of Berberis bealei (formerly Mahonia bealei), Coptis chinensis and Phellodendron chinense, which contain numerous isoquinoline alkaloids, substantially inhibited AChE. The methanol and aqueous extracts of Coptis chinensis showed IC50 values of 0.031 µg/mL and 2.5 µg/mL, therefore having an up to 100-fold stronger AChE inhibitory activity than the already known AChE inhibitor galantamine (IC50 = 4.33 µg/mL). Combinations of individual alkaloids berberine, coptisine and palmatine resulted in a synergistic enhancement of ACh inhibition. Therefore, the mode of AChE inhibition of crude extracts of Coptis chinensis, Berberis bealei and Phellodendron chinense is probably due to of this synergism of isoquinoline alkaloids. All extracts were also tested for their cytotoxicity in COS7 cells and none of the most active extracts was cytotoxic at the concentrations which inhibit AChE. Based on these results it can be stated that some TCM plants inhibit AChE via synergistic interaction of their secondary metabolites. The possibility to isolate pure lead compounds from the crude extracts or to administer these as nutraceuticals or as cheap alternative to drugs in third world countries make TCM plants a versatile source of natural inhibitors of AChE. PMID:27589716

  17. Phenolic characterization and antimicrobial activity of folk medicinal plant extracts for their applications in olive production.

    PubMed

    Boiteux, Joana; Soto Vargas, Carolina; Pizzuolo, Pablo; Lucero, Gabriela; Silva, María Fernanda

    2014-06-01

    Phytophthora spp is important in plant pathology due to the importance of the diseases it causes. In olive trees, severe damages are caused by the disease known as "dry branch" occasioned by Phytophthora nicotianae, P. citrophthora and P. palmivora. Much effort has been made to find efficient methods of control, with a low negative impact on environment. In this regard, treatment with plant extracts is a valid strategy. The aims of the present study are (i) to determine the polyphenol composition of extracts of Thymus vulgaris, Origanum vulgare, Matricaria recutita, and Larrea divaricata by CZE, (ii) correlate the analytical composition of these extracts with the inhibition on the mycelial growth, and (iii) determine the individual antimicrobial activity of the most active ingredients. A simple methodology was developed for the determination of catechin, naringenin, cinnamic acid, syringic acid, chlorogenic acid, apigenin, vanillic acid, luteolin, quercetin, and caffeic acid in plant extracts by CZE. The extraction of phenolic compounds in extract was performed by a miniaturized solid phase extraction using a home-made minicolumn packed with suitable filtering material (C18 , 50 mg). The optimized analyses conditions were: 30 mM boric acid buffer, pH 9.50; capillary, 57 cm full length, 50 cm effective length, 75 μm id, hydrodynamic injection 30 mbar, 2 s; 25 kV; 25°C, detection by UV absorbance at 290 nm. Sample results suggest that phenolic composition seems to have a great influence on inhibition of pathogens. The highest inhibitions of mycelial growth were observed for cinnamic acid and naringenin. PMID:24668423

  18. Insecticidal effect of plant extracts on Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Dinesh, Diwakar Singh; Kumari, Seema; Pandit, Vibhishan; Kumar, Jainendra; Kumari, Nisha; Kumar, Prahlad; Hassan, Faizan; Kumar, Vijay; Das, Pradeep

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Phlebotomus argentipes (Diptera: Psychodidae), the established vector for kala-azar is presently being controlled by indoor residual spray of DDT in kala-azar endemic areas in India. Search for non-hazardous and non-toxic biodegradable active molecules from botanicals may provide cost-effective and eco-friendly alternatives to synthetic insecticides. The present study was aimed at evaluating various plant extracts from endemic and non-endemic areas of Bihar for their insecticidal activity against sandfly to identify the most effective plant extract. Methods: Bio-assay test was conducted with larvae and adult of P. argentipes with different plant extracts collected in distilled water, hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. Thin layer chromatography (TLC), column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were conducted for detection of active molecules. Results: Adults and larvae of sandflies exposed to the aqueous extract of Nicotiana tabacum resulted in 100 per cent mortality. The hexane extract of Clerodendrum infortunatum was found to kill 77 per cent adults but was ineffective against larvae. Bio-assay test of the ninth fraction (hexane extract-methanol phase) separated by column chromatography was found to be 63 per cent effective. The purple spot on the TLC of this fraction indicated the presence of a diterpenoid. HPLC of this fraction detected nine compounds with two peaks covering 20.44 and 56.52 per cent areas with retention time of 2.439 and 5.182 min, respectively supporting the TLC results. Interpretation & conclusions: The column separated 9th fraction of C. infortunatum extract was found to be effective in killing 63 per cent of adult P. argentipes. Compounds of this fraction need to be evaluated further for identification and characterization of the active molecule by conducting individual bio-assay tests followed by further fractionation and HPLC. Once the structure of the active molecule is

  19. A Reliable and Inexpensive Method of Nucleic Acid Extraction for the PCR-Based Detection of Diverse Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A reliable extraction method is described for the preparation of total nucleic acids from several plant genera for subsequent detection of plant pathogens by PCR-based techniques. By the combined use of a modified CTAB (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) extraction protocol and a semi-automatic homogen...

  20. Screening North American plant extracts in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products extracts from 522 plants collected from different parts of the North America were screened in vitro against trypamastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei. The active extracts(150)with >90% inhibition at 20ug/mL concentrations from the plants namely, Alnus rubra, Hoita macrostachya, S...

  1. [Neutralization of the hemorrhagic effect induced by Bothrops asper (Serpentes: Viperidae) venom with tropical plant extracts].

    PubMed

    Castro, O; Gutiérrez, J M; Barrios, M; Castro, I; Romero, M; Umaña, E

    1999-09-01

    Organic extracts representing 48 species included in 30 families of Costa Rican tropical plants were evaluated for their ability to neutralize hemorrhagic activity induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper. A bioassay in mice was used, based on intradermal injection of either venom or venom-extract mixtures followed by the measurement of hemorrhagic areas. Total inhibition of hemorrhage was observed with the ethanolic, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of Bursera simaruba, Clusia torresii, C. palmana, Croton draco, Persea americana, Phoebe brenesii, Pimenta dioica, Sapindus saponaria, Smilax cuculmeca and Virola koschnyi. Chemical analysis of these extracts identified catequines, flavones, anthocyanines and condensated tannins, which may be responsible for the inhibitory effect observed, probably owing to the chelation of the zinc required for the catalytic activity of venom's hemorrhagic metalloproteinases. PMID:10883329

  2. Susceptibility of two-week old Lymnaea natalensis to some plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kela, S L; Ogunsusi, R A; Ogbogu, V C; Nwude, N

    1989-01-01

    The molluscacidal potency of 17 Nigerian plants extracted by the unevaporated crude water (UECW) method was evaluated on two-week old Lymnaea natalensis Krauss. Five extracts were not active but extracts of Balanites aegytiaca, Blighia sapida, Boswellia dalzielii, Cissampelos mucronata, Detarium microcarpum, Kigelia africana, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia clappertoniana, Polygonum limbatum, Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Nauclea latifolia and Securidaca longipedunculata were molluscacidal. There is potential for their future use in the integrated control of Lymnaea natalensis, as well as other snails. Mortality data for lethal concentration values for all extracts were analysed by use of probit transformation. The upper and lower fiducial limits of the LC50 (P = 0.05) were also determined. PMID:2626571

  3. Antioxidant Activities of Extract and Fractions from the Hypocotyls of the Mangrove Plant Kandelia candel

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH-20 column), were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that all the extract and fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between the total phenolics concentration and the ferric reducing power or free radical scavenging activity of the extract and fractions. Among the extract and fractions, the LF fraction exhibits the best antioxidant performance. The MALDT-TOF MS and HPLC analyses revealed that the phenolic compounds associated with the antioxidant activity of the LF fraction contains a large number of procyanidins and a small amount of prodelphinidins, and the epicatechin is the main extension unit. PMID:21152321

  4. Preliminary phytochemical screening, Antibacterial potential and GC-MS analysis of two medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Vijayaram, Seerangaraj; Kannan, Suruli; Saravanan, Konda Mani; Vasantharaj, Seerangaraj; Sathiyavimal, Selvam; P, Palanisamy Senthilkumar

    2016-05-01

    The presence study was aimed to catalyze the primary metabolites and their confirmation by using GC-MS analysis and antibacterial potential of leaf extract of two important medicinal plant viz., Eucalyptus and Azadirachta indica. The antibacterial potential of the methanol leaf extract of the studied species was tested against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiellap neumoniae, Streptococcus pyogens, Staphylococcus aureus using by agar well diffusion method. The higher zone of inhibition (16mm) was observed against the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 100μl concentration of methanol leaf extract. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of studied species shows that presence of phytochemical compounds like steroids, phenolic compounds and flavonoids. GC-MS analysis confirms the occurrence of 20 different compounds in the methanol leaf extract of the both studied species. PMID:27166527

  5. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of wild plant extracts from Saudi Arabia on human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ali, M A; Abul Farah, M; Al-Hemaid, F M; Abou-Tarboush, F M

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the in vitro anticancer activities of a total of 14 wild angiosperms collected in Saudi Arabia. The cytotoxic activity of each extract was assessed against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell lines by using the MTT assay. Among the plants screened, the potential cytotoxic activity exhibited by the extract of Lavandula dentata (Lamiaceae) was identified, and we analyzed its anticancer potential by testing antiproliferative and apoptotic activity. Our results clearly show that ethanolic extract of L. dentata exhibits promising cytotoxic activity with an IC50 value of 39 μg/mL. Analysis of cell morphological changes, DNA fragmentation and apoptosis (using an Annexin V assay) also confirmed the apoptotic effect of L. dentata extract, and thus, our data call for further investigations to determine the active chemical constituent(s) and their mechanisms of inducing apoptosis. PMID:24938609

  6. Anti-collagenase, anti-elastase and anti-oxidant activities of extracts from 21 plants

    PubMed Central

    Thring, Tamsyn SA; Hili, Pauline; Naughton, Declan P

    2009-01-01

    Background Owing to their roles in tissue remodelling in health and disease, several studies have reported investigations on plant extracts as inhibitors of proteinases and as anti-oxidants. Methods The anti-ageing and anti-oxidant properties of 23 plant extracts (from 21 plant species) were assessed as anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities and in selected anti-oxidant assays along with phenolic content. Results Anti-elastase activities were observed for nine of the extracts with inhibitory activity in the following order: white tea (~89%), cleavers (~58%), burdock root (~51%), bladderwrack (~50%), anise and angelica (~32%). Anti-collagenase activities were exhibited by sixteen plants of which the highest activity was seen in white tea (~87%), green tea (~47%), rose tincture (~41%), and lavender (~31%). Nine plant extracts had activities against both elastase (E) and collagenase (C) and were ranked in the order of white tea (E:89%, C:87%) > bladderwrack (E:50%, C:25%) > cleavers (E:58%, C:7%) > rose tincture (E:22%, C:41%) > green tea (E:10%: C:47%) > rose aqueous (E: 24%, C:26%) > angelica (E:32%, C:17%) > anise (E:32%, C:6%) > pomegranate (E:15%, C:11%). Total phenolic content varied between 0.05 and 0.26 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/mL with the exception of white tea (0.77 mg GAE/mL). For anti-oxidant assessment, the Trolox equivalent anti-oxidant capacity (TEAC) assay revealed activity for all extracts. White tea had the highest activity equivalent to ~21 μM Trolox for a 6.25 μg aliquot. In addition, seven extracts exhibited activities = 10 μM Trolox with witch hazel (6.25 μg = 13 μM Trolox) and rose aqueous (6.25 μg = 10 μM Trolox) showing very high activities at low concentrations. A high activity for white tea was also found in the superoxide dismutase (SOD) assay in which it exhibited ~88% inhibition of reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium. High activities were also observed for green tea (86.41%), rose tincture (82.77%), witch hazel (82

  7. [Antiviral activity of extracts of transgenic cichory and lettuce plants with the human interferon alpha-2b gene].

    PubMed

    Matveeva, N A; Kudriavets, Iu I; Likhova, A A; Shakhovskiĭ, A M; Bezdenezhnykh, N A; Kvasko, E Iu

    2012-01-01

    Biological activity of protein extracts from transgenic plants of chicory Cichorium intybus L. and lettuce Lactuca sativa L. with human interferon alpha2b gene was investigated against vesicular stomatitis virus. It was shown that the extracts from the hairy roots of chicory and lettuce transformed by A. rhizogenes possess the antiviral activity 1620...5400 IU/g weight, and the extracts from leaves of the plants transformed by A. tumefaciens--till 9375 IU/g weight. Dependence of plant extract biological activity on the transformation vector was shown. PMID:23342646

  8. Cytotoxicity of Brazilian plant extracts against oral microorganisms of interest to dentistry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background With the emergence of strains resistant to conventional antibiotics, it is important to carry studies using alternative methods to control these microorganisms causing important infections, such as the use of products of plant origin that has demonstrated effective antimicrobial activity besides biocompatibility. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of plant extracts of Equisetum arvense L., Glycyrrhiza glabra L., Punica granatum L. and Stryphnodendron barbatimam Mart. against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus mutans, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata, and to analyze the cytotoxicity of these extracts in cultured murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Methods Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts was evaluated by microdilution method based on Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), M7-A6 and M27-A2 standards. The cytotoxicity of concentrations that eliminated the microorganisms was evaluated by MTT colorimetric method and by quantification of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) using ELISA. Results In determining the minimum microbicidal concentration, E. arvense L., P. granatum L., and S. barbatimam Mart. extracts at a concentration of 50 mg/mL and G. glabra L. extract at a concentration of 100 mg/mL, were effective against all microorganisms tested. Regarding cell viability, values were 48% for E. arvense L., 76% for P. granatum L, 86% for S. barbatimam Mart. and 79% for G. glabra L. at the same concentrations. About cytokine production after stimulation with the most effective concentrations of the extracts, there was a significant increase of IL-1β in macrophage cultures treated with S. barbatimam Mart. (3.98 pg/mL) and P. granatum L. (7.72 pg/mL) compared to control (2.20 pg/mL) and a significant decrease of TNF-α was observed in cultures treated with G. glabra L. (4.92 pg/mL), S. barbatimam Mart. (0.85 pg/mL), E. arvense L. (0.83 pg/mL), and P

  9. Tropical Plant Extracts as Sources of Grain-Protectant Compounds Against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, L P; Vendramim, J D; Andrade, M S; Bicalho, K U; Silva, M F G F; Vieira, P C; Fernandes, J B

    2014-10-01

    The toxicity of organic plant extracts to Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was assessed for three tropical plant species: branches, leaves, and seeds of Annona montana (Annonaceae), branches of Aristolochia paulistana (Aristolochiaceae), and leaves and branches of Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae). The screening assay resulted that the extracts of A. montana seeds obtained with hexane (LC50 = 534.75 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 6.10 days) and with dichloromethane (LC50 = 424.67 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 5.03 days) were the most promising treatments, followed by the extract prepared from A. montana leaves with hexane (LC50 = 837.70 mg kg(-1) and LT50 = 4.90 days). Moreover, extracts (at 1,500 mg kg(-1)) prepared from C. sylvestris branches with dichloromethane and A. paulistana with hexane caused significant mortality (37% and 41.5%, respectively) beyond sublethal effects on S. zeamais. Therefore, based on the biological assays, extraction yield, and evaluation of the chromatographic profile of the crude extracts by TLC, the hexane extract of A. montana seeds was selected and fractioned using liquid-liquid partitioning. The hydroalcoholic fraction caused mortality of 55.5%, significantly superior to dichloromethane fraction, which caused 35.5% of mortality. Chemical analyses ((1)H NMR, HPLC, and TLC) were performed, and the results showed the presence of alkaloids and acetogenins in both active fractions, which have been associated with bioactivity. Therefore, extracts prepared from A. montana seeds (especially) is an interesting source of new compounds with promising grain-protectant properties. PMID:27193958

  10. ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS FROM THE SHOOTS AND ROOTS OF pRi-TRANSFORMED PLANTS OF REHMANNIA GLUTINOSA LIBOSCH.

    PubMed

    Piatczak, Ewelina; Dfbska, Marta; Kontek, Bogdan; Olas, Beata; Wysokinskai, Halina

    2016-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts derived from shoots (HR-shoots) and roots (HR-roots) of pRi-transformed Rehmannia glutinosa plants were determined. The activity was indicated by the ability of the plant extracts to inhibit superoxide anion (O2(-·)) generation and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) production in resting blood platelets and platelets activated by thrombin. The strongest activity was exhibited by the HR-shoot extract (50 μg/mL). The present study also examines the antioxidant properties of the plant extracts against human plasma lipid peroxidation induced by strong biological oxidants: hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and H2O2/Fe. The study shows that extracts from transformed R. glutinosa plants may be a promising source of natural antioxidants, which would be valuable in various cardiovascular diseases. The extracts may also protect lipids against oxidative modifications. PMID:27180436

  11. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants.

    PubMed

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  12. Stable Isotope-Assisted Evaluation of Different Extraction Solvents for Untargeted Metabolomics of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Doppler, Maria; Kluger, Bernhard; Bueschl, Christoph; Schneider, Christina; Krska, Rudolf; Delcambre, Sylvie; Hiller, Karsten; Lemmens, Marc; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The evaluation of extraction protocols for untargeted metabolomics approaches is still difficult. We have applied a novel stable isotope-assisted workflow for untargeted LC-HRMS-based plant metabolomics , which allows for the first time every detected feature to be considered for method evaluation. The efficiency and complementarity of commonly used extraction solvents, namely 1 + 3 (v/v) mixtures of water and selected organic solvents (methanol, acetonitrile or methanol/acetonitrile 1 + 1 (v/v)), with and without the addition of 0.1% (v/v) formic acid were compared. Four different wheat organs were sampled, extracted and analysed by LC-HRMS. Data evaluation was performed with the in-house-developed MetExtract II software and R. With all tested solvents a total of 871 metabolites were extracted in ear, 785 in stem, 733 in leaf and 517 in root samples, respectively. Between 48% (stem) and 57% (ear) of the metabolites detected in a particular organ were found with all extraction mixtures, and 127 of 996 metabolites were consistently shared between all extraction agent/organ combinations. In aqueous methanol, acidification with formic acid led to pronounced pH dependency regarding the precision of metabolite abundance and the number of detectable metabolites, whereas extracts of acetonitrile-containing mixtures were less affected. Moreover, methanol and acetonitrile have been found to be complementary with respect to extraction efficiency. Interestingly, the beneficial properties of both solvents can be combined by the use of a water-methanol-acetonitrile mixture for global metabolite extraction instead of aqueous methanol or aqueous acetonitrile alone. PMID:27367667

  13. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  14. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of the methanolic extracts of selected Jordanian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hudaib, Mohammad M.; Tawaha, Khaled A.; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Assaf, Areej M.; Issa, Ala Y.; Alali, Feras Q.; Aburjai, Talal A.; Bustanji, Yasser K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The search for novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors with a higher therapeutic activity and fewer side effects are desired not only to treat gout but also to combat various other diseases associated with the XO activity. At present, the potential of developing successful natural products for the management of XO-related diseases is still largely unexplored. In the present study, we have screened the methanolic extracts of various Jordanian medicinal plants for their XO inhibitory activities using an optimized protocol. Materials and Methods: The methanolic extracts of 23 medicinal plants, belonging to 12 families, were tested in vitro, at 200 μg/ml concentrations, for their XO inhibitory potential. The dose-dependent inhibition profiles of the most active plants were further evaluated by estimating the IC50 values of their corresponding extracts. Results: Six plants were found most active (% inhibition more than 39%). These plants are Salvia spinosa L. (IC50 = 53.7 μg/ml), Anthemis palestina Boiss. (168.0 μg/ml), Chrysanthemum coronarium L. (199.5 μg/ml), Achillea biebersteinii Afansiev (360.0 μg/ml), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (650.0 μg/ml), and Ginkgo biloba L. (595.8 μg/ml). Moreover, four more plants, namely Lavandula angustifolia Mill. (28.7% inhibition), Helianthemum ledifolium (L.) Mill. (28.4%), Majorana syriaca (L.) Kostel. (25.1%), and Mentha spicata L. (22.5%) showed a XO inhibitory activity in the range of 22–30%. Conclusion: The study showed that many of the tested plant species are potential sources of natural XO inhibitors that can be developed, upon further investigation, into successful herbal drugs for treatment of gout and other XO-related disorders. PMID:22262935

  15. Effect of indigenous plant extracts on calcium oxalate crystallization having a role in urolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Fauzia; Waqar, Muhammad A

    2011-10-01

    Crystallization process has a major role in urolithiasis. In the present study, effect of two indigenous plants extracts namely Boerhavia diffusa and Bryophyllum pinnatum extract was determined on the crystallization of calcium oxalate crystals. Effect on the number, size and type of calcium oxalate crystals was observed. Results showed significant activity of both extracts against calcium oxalate crystallization at different concentrations (P < 0.05). Size of the crystals gradually reduced with the increasing concentration of both extracts. The number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals which are injurious to epithelial cells gradually reduced and at the highest concentration of extracts (100 mg/ml) completely disappeared (P < 0.05). These results confirm that B. diffusa and B. pinnatum extracts have antiurolithic activity and have the ability to reduce crystal size as well as to promote the formation of calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals rather than monohydrate (COM) crystals. Control of crystal size and formation of COD rather than COM crystals, in combination with the diuretic action of extracts is an important way to control urolithiasis. PMID:21643743

  16. Effect of six tropical tanniferous plant extracts on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Lorena Mayana Beserra de; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Macedo, Iara Tersia Freitas; Morais, Selene Maia de; Monteiro, Maria Vivina Barros; Campello, Claudio Cabral; Ribeiro, Wesley Lyeverton Correia; Batista, Emanuelle Karine Frota

    2011-01-01

    Tanniferous plants represent a promising alternative for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. This experiment evaluated the effects of extracts from the leaf and stem of Anadenanthera colubrina, Leucaena leucocephala and Mimosa tenuiflora on larval exsheathment of Haemonchus contortus in vitro and verified the role of tannins in this process. Third-stage larvae of H. contortus were incubated with extracts for 3 hours and were exposed to sodium hypochlorite solution. The extracts were tested at 300 μg.mL(-1) and accompanied by controls: phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and polyvinyl polypyrrolidone (PVPP). The larval exsheathment was evaluated for 60 minutes, and the results were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis test (p < 0.05). The six extracts blocked larval exsheathment. After PVPP addition, a tannin inhibitor, the exsheathment percentage was similar to the PBS (p > 0.05), except for L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora leaf extracts. However, pre-incubation with PVPP of these two extracts significantly changed larval exsheathment when compared to the non-treated extracts (p < 0.05). These results suggest that A. colubrina, L. leucocephala and M. tenuiflora could be useful in gastrointestinal nematode control and that tannins are probably the main compounds involved in the observed effects. However, in vivo and toxicological studies should be conducted. PMID:21722491

  17. Investigation of the use of various plant extracts activity in ruminant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yüca, Songül; Gül, Mehmet; Ćaǧlayan, Alper

    2016-04-01

    The prohibition of the use of antibiotics and as a result of the adverse effect on health of synthetic products, research has focused on natural feed additives. In recent years, the diet of farm animals many feed additives have been used for various purposes or continues. These include as used in ruminant rations as plant extract thyme, anise, pepper, mint, garlic, rosemary, cinnamon, parsley, bay leaf, coconut, like used herbal extracts and their effects on the performance of ruminants was investigated. Antioxidant, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflamaotry is known to have effects of plant extract. By stimulating the digestive system of ruminants, they increase the activity of digestive enzymes, to prevent environmental pollution caused by manure, regulations rumen fermentation, inhibition of methane formation and protein degradability in the rumen as well as the animal is known to have many benefits. The structure of essential oils and plant extracts in this collection, examining the use of ruminant livestock events and the importance of the use in animal nutrition into practice will be discussed.

  18. A high-throughput, high-quality plant genomic DNA extraction protocol.

    PubMed

    Li, H; Li, J; Cong, X H; Duan, Y B; Li, L; Wei, P C; Lu, X Z; Yang, J B

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of high-quality genomic DNA (gDNA) is a crucial technique in plant molecular biology. The quality of gDNA determines the reliability of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. In this paper, we reported a high-quality gDNA extraction protocol optimized for real-time PCR in a variety of plant species. Performed in a 96-well block, our protocol provides high throughput. Without the need for phenol-chloroform and liquid nitrogen or dry ice, our protocol is safer and more cost-efficient than traditional DNA extraction methods. The method takes 10 mg leaf tissue to yield 5-10 µg high-quality gDNA. Spectral measurement and electrophoresis were used to demonstrate gDNA purity. The extracted DNA was qualified in a restriction enzyme digestion assay and conventional PCR. The real-time PCR amplification was sufficiently sensitive to detect gDNA at very low concentrations (3 pg/µL). The standard curve of gDNA dilutions from our phenol-chloroform-free protocol showed better linearity (R(2) = 0.9967) than the phenol-chloroform protocol (R(2) = 0.9876). The results indicate that the gDNA was of high quality and fit for real-time PCR. This safe, high-throughput plant gDNA extraction protocol could be used to isolate high-quality gDNA for real-time PCR and other downstream molecular applications. PMID:24222228

  19. Acromyrmex octospinosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) management: effects of TRAMILs fungicidal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Boulogne, Isabelle; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry; Germosén-Robineau, Lionel; Desfontaines, Lucienne; Loranger-Merciris, Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Leaf-cutting ants, Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), are considering among the most important pest species of the New World. Until now, the main insecticides used for controlling these ants were synthetic chemicals. Leaf-cutting ants live in obligate symbiosis with abasidiomycete fungus, Leucocoprinus gongylophorus (Heim) Moeller. The crucial role of this symbiotic partner in the nest of leaf-cutting ants has prompted us to focus on A. octospinosus management through the use of fungicides in our study. Five parts of plants identified for their antifungal potential through TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys were tested: 1) bulbs of Allium cepa L.; 2) seed pods of Allium sativum L.; 3) green fruits of Lycopersicon esculentum L.; 4) leaves of Manihot esculenta Crantz; and 5) leaves of Senna alata (L.) Roxburgh. One plant extract with strong fungicidal activity (S. alata) against L. gongylophorus was found. The other extracts had lesser fungistatic or fungicidal effects depending on the concentrations used. The data presented in this study showed that TRAMILs fungicidal plant extracts have potential to control the symbiotic fungus of leaf cutting ants, in particular a foliage extract of S. alata. PMID:22928301

  20. IN VITRO ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE AND BUTYRYLCHOLINESTERASE INHIBITORY POTENTIALS OF JATROPHA GOSSYPIFOLIA PLANT EXTRACTS.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Hammad; Ahmad, Irshad; Shahid, Muhammad Nabeel; Gill, Muhammad Shoaib Ali; Nadeem, Muhammad Faisal; Mahmood, Waqas; Rashid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), which breakdown acetylcholine and butyrylcholine, are considered as a promising strategy in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Traditional accounts of indigenous plant Jatopha gossypyfolia suggest presence of important medicinal activities including improvement of memory functioning. To establish correlation of its use as anti-Alzheimer, AChE and BuChE inhibitory activity of extracts obtained from different parts of plant Jatropha gossypyfolia belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were tested. Extracts from leaves, stem bark and roots were prepared by maceration. Enzyme inhibitory activity was carried out by using standard in vitro AChE and BuChE inhibition assays (Ellman's assay method) and the percentage inhibition was calculated. The results showed that roots dichloromethane fraction (65.43 ± 0.11), roots methanol fraction (62.79 ± 0.34) and leaves dichloromethane fraction (57.71 ± 0.15) showed significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity compared to other fractions when compared with standard serine (91.29 ± 1.17). Similarly, butyrylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitory results showed that roots dichloromethane fraction (80.46 ± 0.44), JGLE (77.34 ± 0.34) showed significant BuChE enzyme inhibitory activity as compared to other fractions when compared with standard eserine (82.82 ± 1.09). Dichloromethane extracts showed higher enzyme inhibition comparatively. Highest AChE and BuChE inhibition was observed with leaf extracts of ethyl acetate fraction. In conclusion, the plant extracts exhibited presence of bioactive compounds with significant AChE and BuChE inhibition supporting traditional use of this herb in the management of AD. However, further investigation of the plant is required. PMID:27180434

  1. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents.

    PubMed

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  2. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

  3. Green synthesis of gold nanoparticles using plant extracts as reducing agents

    PubMed Central

    Elia, Paz; Zach, Raya; Hazan, Sharon; Kolusheva, Sofiya; Porat, Ze’ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were prepared using four different plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents. The extracts were obtained from the following plants: Salvia officinalis, Lippia citriodora, Pelargonium graveolens and Punica granatum. The size distributions of the GNPs were measured using three different methods: dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle-tracking analysis and analysis of scanning electron microscopy images. The three methods yielded similar size distributions. Biocompatibility was examined by correlation of L-cell growth in the presence of different amounts of GNPs. All GNPs showed good biocompatibility and good stability for over 3 weeks. Therefore, they can be used for imaging and drug-delivery applications in the human body. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used to view the shapes of the larger GNPs, while infrared spectroscopy was employed to characterize the various functional groups in the organic layer that stabilize the particles. Finally, active ingredients in the plant extract that might be involved in the formation of GNPs are proposed, based on experiments with pure antioxidants that are known to exist in that plant. PMID:25187704

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lampronti, Ilaria; Khan, Mahmud T.H.; Borgatti, Monica; Bianchi, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

    Several transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in governing the expression of different genes involved in the immune response, embryo or cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, oncogenesis, repair and fibrosis processes and inflammation. As far as inflammation, TFs playing pivotal roles are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and GATA-1 factors. All these TFs regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human disorders, particularly those with an inflammatory component. Since several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects and because alteration of gene transcription represents a very interesting approach to control the expression of selected genes, this study sought to verify the ability of several extracts derived from Bangladeshi medicinal plants in interfering with molecular interactions between different TFs and specific DNA sequences. We first analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 19 medicinal plants on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B lymphoid Raji and T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines. Secondly, we employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay as a suitable technique for a fast screening of plant extracts altering the binding between NF-kB, AP-1, GATA-1, STAT-3, CREB and the relative target DNA elements. PMID:18830455

  5. Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Buchu Plant Extracts and Their Analgesic Properties.

    PubMed

    Chiguvare, Herbert; Oyedeji, Opeoluwa O; Matewu, Reuben; Aremu, Olukayode; Oyemitan, Idris A; Oyedeji, Adebola O; Nkeh-Chungag, Benedicta N; Songca, Sandile P; Mohan, Sneha; Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi S

    2016-01-01

    We herein report for the first time the synthesis and analgesic properties of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) using buchu plant extract. The as-synthesised Ag-NPs at different temperatures were characterised by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission transform microscopy (TEM) to confirm the formation of silver nanoparticles. Phytochemical screening of the ethanolic extract revealed the presence of glycosides, proteins, tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids and saponins. The absorption spectra showed that the synthesis is temperature and time dependent. The TEM analysis showed that the as-synthesised Ag-NPs are polydispersed and spherical in shape with average particle diameter of 19.95 ± 7.76 nm while the FTIR results confirmed the reduction and capping of the as-synthesised Ag-NPs by the phytochemicals present in the ethanolic extract. The analgesic study indicated that the combined effect of the plant extract and Ag-NPs is more effective in pain management than both the aspirin drug and the extract alone. PMID:27314316

  6. A critical evaluation of sample extraction techniques for enhanced proteomic analysis of recalcitrant plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, Ramu S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2004-09-01

    Most published proteomics studies of bulk plant tissues use a procedure in which proteins are precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) and acetone (TCA-A), but few attempts have been made to contrast this approach in a systematic way with alternative methods against a spectrum of tissues. To address this, TCA-A was compared with another acetone-based protocol (TCA-B) or a phenol (Phe)-based method, targeting a range of tomato tissues and three species of fruits that contain high levels of contaminating compounds: banana, avocado and orange. The Phe method gave a higher protein yield and typically greater resolution and spot intensity, particularly with extracts from tissues containing high levels of soluble polysaccharides. The methods also generated remarkably different two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) protein spot patterns. Peptide mass fingerprinting was used to identify polypeptides that were common to multiple extracts or uniquely present in one extract type. While no clear pattern emerged to explain the basis for the differential protein extraction, it was noted that the Phe method showed enhanced extraction of glycoproteins. These results suggest that the Phe protocol is highly effective with more recalcitrant tissues and that a combination of TCA-A and Phe methods provides enhanced 2-DE based proteomic analyses of most plant tissues. PMID:15352226

  7. Increased carotenoid production in Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous G276 using plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo-Ki; Lee, Jun-Hyeong; Lee, Chi-Ho; Yoon, Yoh-Chang

    2007-04-01

    The red yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (previously named Phaffia rhodozyma) produces astaxanthin pigment among many carotenoids. The mutant X. dendrorhous G276 was isolated by chemical mutagenesis. The mutant produced about 2.0 mg of carotenoid per g of yeast cell dry weight and 8.0 mg/L of carotenoid after 5 days batch culture with YM media; in comparison, the parent strain produced 0.66 mg/g of yeast cell dry weight and a carotenoid concentration of 4.5 mg/L. We characterized the utilization of carbon sources by the mutant strain and screened various edible plant extracts to enhance the carotenoid production. The addition of Perilla frutescens (final concentration, 5%) or Allium fistulosum extracts (final concentration, 1%) enhanced the pigment production to about 32 mg/L. In a batch fermentor, addition of Perilla frutescens extract reduced the cultivation time by two days compared to control (no extract), which usually required five-day incubation to fully produce astaxanthin. The results suggest that plant extracts such as Perilla frutescens can effectively enhance astaxanthin production. PMID:17483797

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of Brazilian medicinal plant extracts against pathogenic microorganisms of interest to dentistry.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elizete Maria; Gomes, Rafael Tomaz; Freire, Natália Ribeiro; Aguiar, Evandro Guimarães; Brandão, Maria das Graças Lins; Santos, Vagner Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    This study evaluated the susceptibility of oral pathogenic microorganisms Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans to Brazilian medicinal plant extracts of Schinus terebinthifolius (aroeira), Croton campestris (velame), Lafoensia pacari (pacari), Centaurium erythraea (centáurea), Stryphnodendron adstringens (barbatimão), and Anacardium humile (cajuzinho-docerrado), as compared to standardized antimicrobial agents (nystatin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline hydrochloride). Ethanol, hexane and butane fractions from stem barks, rinds, leaves, and/or roots were extracted and tested. Antimicrobial diffusion agar test and MIC were performed according to CLSI. After 24 h of incubation at 37 °C, the diameter of inhibition zones and spectrophotometer readings were measured and compared. The results were reported as means ± standard deviation (M ± SD). With the exception of five extracts that showed no antimicrobial activity, all the extracts tested showed antimicrobial activity, in different levels. This study suggests that extracts from the plants tested could be an alternative therapeutic option for infectious conditions of the oral cavity, such as denture stomatitis, dental caries, and periodontitis. PMID:20862640

  9. Antibacterial activities of selected edible plants extracts against multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In response to the propagation of bacteria resistant to many antibiotics also called multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria, the discovery of new and more efficient antibacterial agents is primordial. The present study was aimed at evaluating the antibacterial activities of seven Cameroonian dietary plants (Adansonia digitata, Aframomum alboviolaceum, Aframomum polyanthum, Anonidium. mannii, Hibiscus sabdarifa, Ocimum gratissimum and Tamarindus indica). Methods The phytochemical screening of the studied extracts was performed using described methods whilst the liquid broth micro dilution was used for all antimicrobial assays against 27 Gram-negative bacteria. Results The results of the phytochemical tests indicate that all tested extracts contained phenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively present. The studied extracts displayed various degrees of antibacterial activities. The extracts of A. digitata, H. sabdarifa, A. polyanthum, A. alboviolaceum and O. gratissimum showed the best spectra of activity, their inhibitory effects being recorded against 81.48%, 66.66%, 62.96%, 55.55%, and 55.55% of the 27 tested bacteria respectively. The extract of A. polyanthum was very active against E. aerogenes EA294 with the lowest recorded minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 32 μg/ml. Conclusion The results of the present work provide useful baseline information for the potential use of the studied edible plants in the fight against both sensitive and MDR phenotypes. PMID:23837916

  10. Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; Madrid, J; García, V; Orengo, J; Megías, M D

    2004-02-01

    A 42-d trial was conducted to study the influence of 2 plant extracts on performance, digestibility, and digestive organ weights in broilers. The feeding program consisted of a starter diet until 21 d and a finisher diet until 42 d. There were 4 treatment groups: control; 10 ppm avilamycin (AB); 200 ppm essential oil extract (EOE) from oregano, cinnamon, and pepper; and 5,000 ppm Labiatae extract (LE) from sage, thyme, and rosemary. No differences in feed intake or feed conversion were observed. From 14 to 21 d of age, broilers fed the LE diet grew faster than the broilers fed the control or EOE feeds (68.8 vs. 63.9 and 61.6 g/d, respectively). Antibiotic and plant extract supplementation improved apparent whole-tract and ileal digestibility of the nutrients. For starter feed, LE supplementation improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM (P < 0.01), and all additives increased ether extract digestibility (P < 0.001). However, no effect was detected for CP digestibility (P > 0.1). At the ileal level, the AB, EOE, and LE supplementation of the starter feed increased DM and starch (P < 0.01) digestibility but not CP digestibility (P > 0.1). All additives improved apparent fecal digestibility of DM and CP of the finisher diet. No differences were observed for proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, or large or small intestine weight. In the present study, both plant extracts improved the digestibility of the feeds for broilers. The effect of different additives on digestibility improved the performance slightly, but this effect was not statistically significant. PMID:14979566

  11. Antinociceptive activity of extracts and secondary metabolites from wild growing and micropropagated plants of Renealmia alpinia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Betancur, Isabel; Cortés, Natalie; Benjumea, Dora; Osorio, Edison; León, Francisco; Cutler, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Renealmia alpinia is native to the American continent and can be found from Mexico to Brazil, and in the Caribbean islands. It is known as “matandrea” in Colombia, and it has been commonly used in traditional medicine to treat painful diseases and ailments. Based on its traditional uses, it is of interest to evaluate the pharmacologic effects of this plant and its secondary metabolites. Materials and methods Methanol and aqueous extracts of wild and micropropagated R. alpinia (leaves) were obtained and chemically compared by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC). The antinociceptive activity of these extracts was examined using an in vivo assay (Siegmund test). Additionally, the dichloromethane extract of R. alpinia was fractionated and pure compounds were isolated by chromatographic methods. The structure elucidation of isolated compounds was performed by NMR experiments and spectroscopic techniques and comparison with the literature data. Purified compounds were evaluated for their in vitro binding affinity for opioids and cannabinoids receptors. Results The dichloromethane extract of the plant’s aerial part afforded sinostrobin (1), naringenin 7,4′-dimethyl ether (2), 2′,6′-dihydroxy-4′-methoxychalcone (3), 4-methoxy-6-(2-phenylethenyl)-2H-pyran-2-one (4), naringenin 7-methyl ether (5) and 3,5-heptanediol, 1,7-diphenyl (6), which were isolated using chromatographic methods. Their chemical structures were established by physical and spectroscopic techniques. The antinociceptive effects observed in mice by extracts of wild and micropropagated plants were similar. The compounds isolated from R. alpinia do not show affinity to opioid or cannabinoid receptors. Conclusion Aqueous and methanol extracts of R. alpinia provide antinociceptive and analgesic effects in an in vivo model. These results contribute additional insight as to why this plant is traditionally used for pain management. Also, this is the first

  12. Inhibitors of Urokinase Type Plasminogen Activator and Cytostatic Activity from Crude Plants Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Xueqiang; Diaz, Ricardo; Franco, Jose Javier Rosado; Sanchez, Veronica Forbes; Fasoli, Ezio; Barletta, Gabriel; Carvajal, Augusto; Bansal, Vibha

    2014-01-01

    In view of the clear evidence that urokinase type plasminogen activator (uPA) plays an important role in the processes of tumor cell metastasis, aortic aneurysm, and multiple sclerosis, it has become a target of choice for pharmacological intervention. The goal of this study was thus to determine the presence of inhibitors of uPA in plants known traditionally for their anti-tumor properties. Crude methanol extracts were prepared from the leaves of plants (14) collected from the subtropical dry forest (Guanica, Puerto Rico), and tested for the presence of inhibitors of uPA using the fibrin plate assay. The extracts that tested positive (6) were then partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol, in a sequential manner. The resulting fractions were then tested again using the fibrin plate assay. Extracts from leaves of Croton lucidus (C. lucidus) showed the presence of a strong uPA inhibitory activity. Serial dilutions of these C. lucidus partitions were performed to determine the uPA inhibition IC50 values. The chloroform extract showed the lowest IC50 value (3.52 μg/mL) and hence contained the most potent uPA inhibitor. Further investigations revealed that the crude methanol extract and its chloroform and n-butanol partitions did not significantly inhibit closely related proteases such as the tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasmin, indicating their selectivity for uPA, and hence superior potential for medicinal use with fewer side effects. In a further evaluation of their therapeutic potential for prevention of cancer metastasis, the C. lucidus extracts displayed cytostatic activity against human pancreatic carcinoma (PaCa-2) cells, as determined through an MTS assay. The cytostatic activities recorded for each of the partitions correlated with their relative uPA inhibitory activities. There are no existing reports of uPA inhibitors being present in any of the plants reported in this study. PMID:23896619

  13. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Several Plant Extracts and Oils against Some Gram-Negative Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mariri, Ayman; Safi, Mazen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are considered new resources for producing agents that could act as alternatives to antibiotics in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 28 plant extracts and oils against four Gram-negative bacterial species. Methods: Experimental, in vitro, evaluation of the activities of 28 plant extracts and oils as well as some antibiotics against E. coli O157:H7, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed. The activity against 15 isolates of each bacterium was determined by disc diffusion method at a concentration of 5%. Microdilution susceptibility assay was used in order to determine the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the plant extracts, oils, and antibiotics. Results: Among the evaluated herbs, only Origanum syriacum L., Thymus syriacus Boiss., Syzygium aromaticum L., Juniperus foetidissima Wild, Allium sativum L., Myristica fragrans Houtt, and Cinnamomum zeylanicum L. essential oils and Laurus nobilis L. plant extract showed anti-bacterial activity. The MIC50 values of these products against the Gram-negative organisms varied from 1.5 (Proteus spp. and K. pneumoniae( and 6.25 µl/ml (Yersinia enterocolitica O9 ) to 12.5 µl/ml (E. coli O:157). Conclusion: Among the studied essential oils, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. essential oils were the most effective. Moreover, Cephalosporin and Ciprofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics against almost all the studied bacteria. Therefore, O. syriacum L., T. syriacus Boiss., C. zeylanicum L., and S. aromaticum L. could act as bactericidal agents against Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:24453392

  14. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytic infections. 1. Screening for antimycotic activity of 44 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Lopez, B R; Giron, M A; Logemann, H

    1991-03-01

    Skin infections are common diseases in developing countries, of which dermatophytoses are of particular concern in the tropics, especially in infants. Through ethnobotanical surveys and literature review 100 plants were detected as being used in Guatemala for the treatment of dermatophytoses. Of these, 44 plants were screened for in vitro activity against the most common dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum). Results showed that aqueous extracts from 22 of the plants tested inhibit one or more of the dermatophytes. The most commonly inhibited dermatophytes were E. floccosum (43.2%), T. rubrum (36.0%), and T. mentagrophytes (31.8%); the less inhibited were M. canis (22.7%) and M. gypseum (24.0%). Plants of American origin which exhibited anti-dermatophyte activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Cassia grandis, Cassia occidentalis, Diphysa carthagenensis, Gliricidia sepium, Piscidia piscipula, Sambucus mexicana, Smilax regelii, Solanum americanum and Solanum nigrescens. Fungicidal and fungistatic activities as well as the minimal inhibitory concentration were demonstrated. These results provide a scientific basis for the use of these plants for the treatment of dermatophyte infections in man. PMID:2056755

  15. [Chemical and biological evaluation of the effect of plant extracts against Plasmodium berghei].

    PubMed

    Castro, O; Barrios, M; Chinchilla, M; Guerrero, O

    1996-08-01

    Extracts from thirteen species of plants were evaluated by "in vivo" antimalarial test against plasmodium berghei effects. Significant activities were observed in the ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts, elaborated of Cedrela tonduzii leaves, Trichilia havanensis and Trichilia americana barks, Neurolaena lobata and Gliricidia sepium leaves and Duranta repens fruits. Compounds identified include flavanoids, coumarins, mellilotic acid and iridoids which some kind of biodynamic activity has previously been reported. The flavone quercetin 1 purified from C. tonduzii gave strong antimalarial activity, however, its respective glucosides (quercetin 3-glucoside 2 y robinine 7) showed little significant activity. PMID:9246360

  16. Synergy Effects of Three Plant Extracts on Protection of Gastric Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Wang, Caihui; Su, Wen; Su, Xingli; Ni, Guojun; Liu, Tao; Kong, Yi

    2015-11-01

    The gastric mucosa protection effect of three natural plant extracts, Hericium erinaceus (HE), Centella asiatica (CA) and Amomum villosum (AV), were evaluated using the indomethacin damage model. Compared with a single extract, a combination of HE/CA/AV, especially with the ratios of 80:10:10, 45:45:10 and 45:10:45, showed significant synergistic effects for protection of the gastric mucosa with gastric ulcer inhibition rates of 97.8 ± 0.7%, 86.5 ± 2.8% and 86.1 ± 3.6%, respectively. Microscopic appearances of the gastric mucosa were carried out to help confirm the results. PMID:26749844

  17. Host extract modulates metabolism and fumonisin biosynthesis by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wilman, Karolina

    2015-01-16

    Fusarium proliferatum is a common pathogen able to infect a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Recently, some evidence for genetic variance among the species genotypes in relation to their plant origin has been reported. Mycotoxin contamination of plant tissues is the most important threat caused by F. proliferatum and fumonisins B (FBs) are the principal mycotoxins synthesized. The toxigenic potential of the pathogen genotypes is variable and also the reaction of different host plant species on the infection by pathogen is different. The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of the extracts on the growth and fumonisin biosynthesis by 32 F. proliferatum strains originating from different host species (A-asparagus, M-maize, G-garlic, PS-pea and P-pineapple), and how it changes the secondary metabolism measured by fumonisin biosynthesis. The average strain dry weight was 65.2 mg for control conditions and it reached 180.7 mg, 100.5 mg, 76.6 mg, 126.2 mg and 51.1 mg when pineapple, asparagus, maize, garlic and pea extracts were added, respectively. In the second experiment the extracts were added after 5 days of culturing of the representative group of strains, displaying diverse reaction to the extract presence. Also, the influence of stationary vs. shaken culture was examined. Mean biomass amounts for shaken cultures of 15 chosen strains were as follows: 37.4 mg of dry weight for control culture (C), 219.6 mg (P), 113 mg (A), 93.6 mg (M), 62 mg (G) and 48 mg (PS), respectively. For stationary cultures, the means were as follows: C-57.4 mg, P-355.6 mg, A-291.6 mg, M-191.1 mg, G-171.1 mg and PS-58.9 mg. Few strains showed differential growth when stationary/shaken culture conditions were applied. Almost all strains synthesized moderate amounts of fumonisins in control conditions-less than 10 ng/μL, regardless of the origin and host species. Few strains were able to produce over 100 ng/μL of FBs when pineapple extract was added, twelve

  18. A fully automatable enzymatic method for DNA extraction from plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    Manen, Jean-François; Sinitsyna, Olga; Aeschbach, Lorène; Markov, Alexander V; Sinitsyn, Arkady

    2005-01-01

    Background DNA extraction from plant tissues, unlike DNA isolation from mammalian tissues, remains difficult due to the presence of a rigid cell wall around the plant cells. Currently used methods inevitably require a laborious mechanical grinding step, necessary to disrupt the cell wall for the release of DNA. Results Using a cocktail of different carbohydrases, a method was developed that enables a complete digestion of the plant cell walls and subsequent DNA release. Optimized conditions for the digestion reaction minimize DNA shearing and digestion, and maximize DNA release from the plant cell. The method gave good results in 125 of the 156 tested species. Conclusion In combination with conventional DNA isolation techniques, the new enzymatic method allows to obtain high-yield, high-molecular weight DNA, which can be used for many applications, including genome characterization by AFLP, RAPD and SSR. Automation of the protocol (from leaf disks to DNA) is possible with existing workstations. PMID:16269076

  19. Screening the methanol extracts of some Iranian plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Gholamhoseinian, A.; Moradi, M.N.; Sharifi-far, F.

    2009-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the main enzyme for the breakdown of acetylcholine. Nowadays, usage of the inhibitors of this enzyme is one of the most important types of treatment of mild to moderate neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease. Herbal medicines can be a new source of inhibitors of this enzyme. In this study we examined around 100 different plants to evaluate their inhibitory properties for AChE enzyme. Plants were scientifically identified and their extracts were prepared by methanol percolation. Acetylcholinesterase activity was measured using a colorimetric method in the presence or absence of the extracts. Eserine was used as a positive control. Methanol extracts of the Levisticum officinale, Bergeris integrima and Rheum ribes showed more than 50% AChE inhibitory activity. The inhibition kinetics were studied in the presence of the most effective extracts. L. officinale and B. integrima inhibited AChE activity in a non-competitive manner, while R. ribes competitively inhibitied the enzyme as revealed by double-reciprocal Linweaver-Burk plot analysis. Under controlled condition, Km and Vmax values of the enzyme were found to be 9.4 mM and 0.238 mM/min, respectively. However, in the presence of L. officinale, B. integrima, and R. ribes extracts, Vmax values were 0.192, 0.074 and 0.238 mM/min, respectively. Due to the competitive inhibition of the enzyme by R. ribes extract, the Km value of 21.2 mM was obtained. The concentration required for 50% enzyme inhibition (IC50 value) was 0.5, 0.9, and 0.95 mg/ml for the L. officinale, B. integrima and R. ribes extracts, respectively. The IC50 of the eserine was determined to be 0.8 mg/ml. PMID:21589805

  20. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Seon; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  1. Antiobesity Effects of the Combined Plant Extracts Varying the Combination Ratio of Phyllostachys pubescens Leaf Extract and Scutellaria baicalensis Root Extract

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hyung; Cha, Jimin

    2016-01-01

    The antiobesity effects of several different combinations of extracts (BS) prepared from two plants, Phyllostachys pubescens leaf (bamboo leaf: BL) and Scutellaria baicalensis root (SB), were investigated using a high fat diet (HFD) induced obese mouse model. In order to find the most effective mixture among the mixtures of the two plant extracts, experimental preparations were made by combining BL and SB by different proportions of 3 : 1 (BS31), 2 : 1 (BS21), 1 : 1 (BS11), 1 : 2 (BS12), and 1 : 3 (BS13). Body weight, weight of adipose tissues, size of adipocytes, levels of glucose, leptin and adiponectin, and lipid profile in serum, and fat accumulation in liver were investigated. We have found that BS21 is the most effective in antiobesity among the five mixtures investigated, indicated by reduction in body weight gain, total mass of adipose tissue, and the size of adipocyte. In addition, BS21 has shown to be beneficial in serum lipid profile, levels of glucose, leptin, and adiponectin in serum, and fat accumulation in liver. By chromatographic separation of BS21, the two maker compounds, isoorientin and baicalin, were identified and quantified for the standardization of BS21. PMID:27123038

  2. Direct DNA extraction method of an obligate parasitic fungus from infected plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Wang, C L; Peng, W Y; Yang, J; Lan, M Q; Zhang, B; Li, J B; Zhu, Y Y; Li, C Y

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew and rust fungi are obligate parasites that cannot live without host organisms. They are difficult to culture in synthetic medium in the laboratory. Genomic DNA extraction is one of the basic molecular techniques used to study the genetic structure of populations. In this study, 2 different DNA extraction methods, Chelex-100 and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), were used to extract DNA from euonymus powdery mildew and Puccinia striiformis f. sp Tritici. Polymerase chain reaction was carried out with a race-specific-marker rDNA-internal transcribed spacer sequence. Both DNA extraction methods were compared and analyzed. The results showed that both Chelex-100 and CTAB were effective for extracting genomic DNA from infected plant tissue. However, less DNA was required for the Chelex-100 method than for the CTAB method, and the Chelex-100 method involved fewer steps, was simpler and safer, and did not require organic solvents compared to the CTAB method. DNA quality was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction, and the results showed that genomic DNA extracted using the Chelex-100 method was better than that using CTAB method, and was sufficient for studying the genetic structure of population. PMID:26782502

  3. The root extract of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides is a potent HIV-1 attachment inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  4. Screening for Bioactive Metabolites in Plant Extracts Modulating Glucose Uptake and Fat Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    El-Houri, Rime B.; Kotowska, Dorota; Olsen, Louise C. B.; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Christensen, Lars P.; Oksbjerg, Niels; Færgeman, Nils; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Kathrine B.

    2014-01-01

    Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven different food and medicinal plants were tested in a screening platform for identification of extracts with potential bioactivity related to insulin-dependent glucose uptake and fat accumulation. The screening platform included a series of in vitro bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of golden root (Rhodiola rosea) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) as well as the dichloromethane extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) were able to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake in both adipocytes and myotubes while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake. PMID:25254050

  5. The Root Extract of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides Is a Potent HIV-1 Attachment Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Helfer, Markus; Koppensteiner, Herwig; Schneider, Martha; Rebensburg, Stephanie; Forcisi, Sara; Müller, Constanze; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schindler, Michael; Brack-Werner, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Global HIV-1 treatment would benefit greatly from safe herbal medicines with scientifically validated novel anti-HIV-1 activities. The root extract from the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides (PS) is licensed in Germany as the herbal medicine EPs®7630, with numerous clinical trials supporting its safety in humans. Here we provide evidence from multiple cell culture experiments that PS extract displays potent anti-HIV-1 activity. We show that PS extract protects peripheral blood mononuclear cells and macrophages from infection with various X4 and R5 tropic HIV-1 strains, including clinical isolates. Functional studies revealed that the extract from PS has a novel mode-of-action. It interferes directly with viral infectivity and blocks the attachment of HIV-1 particles to target cells, protecting them from virus entry. Analysis of the chemical footprint of anti-HIV activity indicates that HIV-1 inhibition is mediated by multiple polyphenolic compounds with low cytotoxicity and can be separated from other extract components with higher cytotoxicity. Based on our data and its excellent safety profile, we propose that PS extract represents a lead candidate for the development of a scientifically validated herbal medicine for anti-HIV-1 therapy with a mode-of-action different from and complementary to current single-molecule drugs. PMID:24489923

  6. Screening for bioactive metabolites in plant extracts modulating glucose uptake and fat accumulation.

    PubMed

    El-Houri, Rime B; Kotowska, Dorota; Olsen, Louise C B; Bhattacharya, Sumangala; Christensen, Lars P; Grevsen, Kai; Oksbjerg, Niels; Færgeman, Nils; Kristiansen, Karsten; Christensen, Kathrine B

    2014-01-01

    Dichloromethane and methanol extracts of seven different food and medicinal plants were tested in a screening platform for identification of extracts with potential bioactivity related to insulin-dependent glucose uptake and fat accumulation. The screening platform included a series of in vitro bioassays, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ-mediated transactivation, adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cell cultures, and glucose uptake in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and primary porcine myotubes, as well as one in vivo bioassay, fat accumulation in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that dichloromethane extracts of aerial parts of golden root (Rhodiola rosea) and common elder (Sambucus nigra) as well as the dichloromethane extracts of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and carrot (Daucus carota) were able to stimulate insulin-dependent glucose uptake in both adipocytes and myotubes while weekly activating PPARγ without promoting adipocyte differentiation. In addition, these extracts were able to decrease fat accumulation in C. elegans. Methanol extracts of summer savory (Satureja hortensis), common elder, and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) enhanced glucose uptake in myotubes but were not able to activate PPARγ, indicating a PPARγ-independent effect on glucose uptake. PMID:25254050

  7. Impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaf, bark, and core extracts on germination of five plant species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chemical interaction between plants, which is referred to as allelopathy, may result in the inhibition of plant growth and development. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) plant extracts on the germination and post-germination development ...

  8. Activity of medicinal plant extracts against hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Voravuthikunchai, S P; Kitpipit, L

    2005-06-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of ten traditional Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their ability to inhibit 35 hospital isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nine medicinal plants displayed activity against all isolates tested. Ethanolic extracts of Garcinia mangostana, Punica granatum and Quercus infectoria were most effective, with MICs for MRSA isolates of 0.05-0.4, 0.2-0.4 and 0.2-0.4 mg/mL, respectively, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.1 mg/mL, respectively. MBCs for MRSA isolates were 0.1-0.4, 1.6-3.2 and 0.4-1.6 mg/mL, and for S. aureus ATCC 25923 were 0.4, 3.2 and 1.6 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:15882206

  9. Optimization of diclofenac quantification from wastewater treatment plant sludge by ultrasonication assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Emel; Sari, Sevgi; Ozdemir, Gamze; Aydin, Egemen; Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Okutman Tas, Didem

    2014-05-01

    A rapid quantification method of diclofenac from sludge samples through ultrasonication assisted extraction and solid phase extraction (SPE) was developed and used for the quantification of diclofenac concentrations in sludge samples with liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Although the concentration of diclofenac in sludge samples taken from different units of wastewater treatment plants in Istanbul was below the limit of quantification (LOQ; 5ng/g), an optimized method for sludge samples along with the total mass balances in a wastewater treatment plant can be used to determine the phase with which diclofenac is mostly associated. Hence, the results will provide information on fate and transport of diclofenac, as well as on the necessity of alternative removal processes. In addition, since the optimization procedure is provided in detail, it is possible for other researchers to use this procedure as a starting point for the determination of other emerging pollutants in wastewater sludge samples. PMID:24704687

  10. Extraction of high-quality genomic DNA from latex-containing plants.

    PubMed

    Michiels, An; Van den Ende, Wim; Tucker, Mark; Van Riet, Liesbet; Van Laere, André

    2003-04-01

    The isolation of intact, high-molecular-mass genomic DNA is essential for many molecular biology applications including long PCR, endonuclease restriction digestion, Southern blot analysis, and genomic library construction. Many protocols are available for the extraction of DNA from plant material. However, for latex-containing Asteraceae (Cichorioideae) species, standard protocols and commercially available kits do not produce efficient yields of high-quality amplifiable DNA. A cetyltrimethylammonium bromide protocol has been optimized for isolation of genomic DNA from latex-containing plants. Key steps in the modified protocol are the use of etiolated leaf tissue for extraction and an overnight 25 degrees C isopropanol precipitation step. The purified DNA has excellent spectral qualities, is efficiently digested by restriction endonucleases, and is suitable for long-fragment PCR amplification. PMID:12672415

  11. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine. PMID:26617977

  12. New Paradigm Shift for the Green Synthesis of Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles Utilizing Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This review covers general information regarding the green synthesis of antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Owing to their antibacterial properties, silver nanoparticles are widely used in many areas, especially biomedical applications. In green synthesis practices, the chemical reducing agents are eliminated, and biological entities are utilized to convert silver ions to silver nanoparticles. Among the various biological entities, natural plant extracts have emerged as green reducing agents, providing eco-friendly routes for the preparation of silver nanomaterials. The most obvious merits of green synthesis are the increased biocompatibility of the resulting silver nanoparticles and the ease with which the reaction can be carried out. This review summarizes some of the plant extracts that are used to produce antibacterial silver nanoparticles. Additionally, background information regarding the green synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles is provided. Finally, the toxicological aspects of silver nanoparticles are briefly mentioned. PMID:25343010

  13. Condensed tannins in extracts from European medicinal plants and herbal products.

    PubMed

    Ropiak, Honorata M; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plant materials are not usually analysed for condensed tannins (CT). Thirty commercially available European medicinal plants and herbal products were screened for CT and fourteen CT samples were analysed in detail. This is also the first comprehensive CT analysis of pine buds, walnut leaves, heather flowers and great water dock roots. Acetone/water extracts contained between 3.2 and 25.9g CT/100g of extract, had CT with mean degrees of polymerisation of 2.9 to 13.3, procyanidin/prodelphinidin ratios of 1.6/98.4 to 100/0 and cis/trans flavan-3-ol ratios of 17.7/82.3 to 97.3/2.7. The majority of samples contained procyanidins, four contained A-type linkages (blackthorn flowers, heather flowers, bilberry leaves and cowberry leaves) and one sample also had galloylated procyanidins (great water dock roots). PMID:26826980

  14. Effect of plant extracts on H2O2-induced inflammatory gene expression in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pomari, Elena; Stefanon, Bruno; Colitti, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa (AL), Camellia sinensis (CS), Echinacea angustifolia, Eleutherococcus senticosus, Panax ginseng (PG), and Vaccinium myrtillus (VM) are plants traditionally used in many herbal formulations for the treatment of various conditions. Although they are well known and already studied for their anti-inflammatory properties, their effects on H2O2-stimulated macrophages are a novel area of study. Materials and methods Cell viability was tested after treatment with increasing doses of H2O2 and/or plant extracts at different times of incubation to identify the optimal experimental conditions. The messenger (m)RNA expression of TNFα, COX2, IL1β, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, NFE2L2, and PPARγ was analyzed in macrophages under H2O2 stimulation. The same genes were also quantified after plant extract treatment on cells pre-stimulated with H2O2. Results A noncytotoxic dose (200 μM) of H2O2 induced active mRNA expression of COX2, IL1β, NFE2L2, NFκB1, NFκB2, NOS2, and TNFα, while PPARγ was depressed. The expression of all genes tested was significantly (P<0.001) regulated by plant extracts after pre-stimulation with H2O2. COX2 was downregulated by AL, PG, and VM. All extracts depressed IL1β expression, but upregulated NFE2L2. NFκB1, NFκB2, and TNFα were downregulated by AL, CS, PG, and VM. NOS2 was inhibited by CS, PG, and VM. PPARγ was decreased only after treatment with E. angustifolia and E. senticosus. Conclusion The results of the present study indicate that the stimulation of H2O2 on RAW267.4 cells induced the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, showing that this could be an applicable system by which to activate macrophages. Plant extracts from AL, CS, PG, and VM possess in vitro anti-inflammatory activity on H2O2-stimulated macrophages by modulating key inflammation mediators. Further in vitro and in vivo investigation into molecular mechanisms modulated by herbal extracts should be undertaken to shed light on the development of novel

  15. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue fever regardless of its serotypes has been the most prevalent arthropod-borne viral diseases among the world population. The development of a dengue vaccine is complicated by the antibody-dependent enhancement effect. Thus, the development of a plant-based antiviral preparation promises a more potential alternative in combating dengue disease. Methods Present studies investigated the antiviral effects of standardised methanolic extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Citrus limon, Cymbopogon citratus, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum and Pelargonium citrosum on dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1). Results O. sanctum contained 88.6% of total flavonoids content, an amount that was the highest among all the six plants tested while the least was detected in M. charantia. In this study, the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the six medicinal plants was determined by testing the methanolic extracts against Vero E6 cells in vitro. Studies also determined that the MNTD of methanolic extract was in the decreasing order of M. charantia >C. limon >P. citrosum, O. sanctum >A. paniculata >C. citratus. Antiviral assay based on cytopathic effects (CPE) denoted by degree of inhibition upon treating DENV1-infected Vero E6 cells with MNTD of six medicinal plants showed that A. paniculata has the most antiviral inhibitory effects followed by M. charantia. These results were further verified with an in vitro inhibition assay using MTT, in which 113.0% and 98.0% of cell viability were recorded as opposed to 44.6% in DENV-1 infected cells. Although methanolic extracts of O. sanctum and C. citratus showed slight inhibition effect based on CPE, a significant inhibition was not reflected in MTT assay. Methanolic extracts of C. limon and P. citrosum did not prevent cytopathic effects or cell death from DENV-1. Conclusions The methanol extracts of A. paniculata and M. charantia possess the ability of inhibiting the activity of DENV-1 in in vitro assays. Both of these plants are

  16. First Discovery of Acetone Extract from Cottonseed Oil Sludge as a Novel Antiviral Agent against Plant Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lei; Feng, Chaohong; Hou, Caiting; Hu, Lingyun; Wang, Qiaochun; Wu, Yunfeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel acetone extract from cottonseed oil sludge was firstly discovered against plant viruses including Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Southern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). Gossypol and β-sitosterol separated from the acetone extract were tested for their effects on anti-TMV and analysed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) assay. In vivo and field trials in different geographic distributions and different host varieties declared that this extract mixture was more efficient than the commercial agent Ningnanmycin with a broad spectrum of anti-plant-viruses activity. No phytotoxic activity was observed in the treated plants and environmental toxicology showed that this new acetone extract was environmentally friendly, indicating that this acetone extract has potential application in the control of plant virus in the future. PMID:25705894

  17. Aqueous extracts of some medicinal plants are as toxic as Imidacloprid to the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Ateyyat, Mazen A; Al-Mazra'awi, Mohammad; Abu-Rjai, Talal; Shatnawi, Mohamad A

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of nine plants, known to have medicinal activity, were tested for their toxicity against the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Genn. (Homoptera: Aleurodidae) compared to the toxicity of the insecticide, Imidacloprid. Extracts of Lepidiuim sativum L. (Brassicales: Brassicaceae) killed 71 % of early stage nymphs, which was not significantly different from mortality caused by Imidacloprid. Treatment of pupae with three plant extracts, L. sativum, Achillea biebersteinii L. (Asterales: Asteraceae), or Retama raetam (Forssk.) Webb and Berthel (Fabales: Fabaceae) prevented adult development, and treatment with R. raetam extract killed adults, at levels that were not significantly different from Imidacloprid. None of the other plants showed significant toxicity. However extracts of four plants, Pimpinella anisum L. (Apiales: Apiaceae), Galium longifolium (Sibth. and SM.) (Gentianales: Rubiaceae), R. raetam and Ballota undulata Bentham (Lamiales: Lamiaceae) had a repellent effect. PMID:19613450

  18. Dietary medicinal plant extracts improve growth, immune activity and survival of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus.

    PubMed

    Immanuel, G; Uma, R P; Iyapparaj, P; Citarasu, T; Peter, S M Punitha; Babu, M Michael; Palavesam, A

    2009-05-01

    The effects of supplementing diets with acetone extract (1% w/w) from four medicinal plants (Bermuda grass Cynodon dactylon, H(1), beal Aegle marmelos, H(2), winter cherry Withania somnifera, H(3) and ginger Zingiber officinale, H(4)) on growth, the non-specific immune response and ability to resist pathogen infection in tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus were assessed. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the extract were assessed against Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrioparahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Vibrio campbelli, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio harveyi and Photobacterium damselae. Oreochromis mossambicus were fed 5% of their body mass per day for 45 days, and those fed the experimental diets showed a greater increase in mass (111-139%) over the 45 days compared to those that received the control diet (98%). The specific growth rate of O. mossambicus fed the four diets was also significantly greater (1.66-1.93%) than control (1.52%) diet-fed fish. The blood plasma chemistry analysis revealed that protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and triglyceride levels of experimental fish were significantly higher than that of control fish. Packed cell volume of the blood samples of experimental diet-fed fish was also significantly higher (34.16-37.95%) than control fish (33.0%). Leucocrit value, phagocytic index and lysozyme activity were enhanced in fish fed the plant extract-supplemented diets. The acetone extract of the plants inhibited growth of Vibrio spp. and P. damselae with extracts from W. somnifera showing maximum growth inhibition. A challenge test with V. vulnificus showed 100% mortality in O. mossambicus fed the control diet by day 15, whereas the fish fed the experimental diets registered only 63-80% mortality at the end of challenge experiment (30 days). The cumulative mortality index for the control group was 12,000, which was equated to 1.0% mortality, and accordingly, the lowest mortality of 0.35% was registered in H(4)-diet-fed group. PMID

  19. Bacopa monnieri: An evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potential of methanolic extract of whole plants.

    PubMed

    Taznin, Inin; Mukti, Mohsina; Rahmatullah, Mohammed

    2015-11-01

    Antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity studies were carried out with methanolic extract of whole plants of Bacopa monnieri, respectively, through oral glucose tolerance test and gastric pain model induced by acetic acid in Swiss albino mice. In OGTT (oral glucose tolerance tests) conducted with glucose-challenged mice, the extract, administered at four doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400mg per kg body weight, dose-dependently and significantly inhibited the increase in serum glucose concentrations, respectively, by 33.3, 34.2, 42.1 and 44.2%. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, when administered at a dose of 10mg per kg body weight, inhibited increase in serum glucose concentration by 50.7%. From the results, it can be concluded that the methanolic extract of the plant possess significant antihyperglycemic potential. In antinociceptive activity tests, administration of the extract at the aforementioned four doses also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the number of acetic acid-induced gastric constrictions in mice. The percent inhibitions in gastric constrictions were, respectively, 43.4, 46.6, 50.0, and 53.4 at the above four doses. A reference antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of gastric constrictions by 40.0%. Thus the extract at even the lowest dose of 50 mg, demonstrated antinociceptive activity better than that of aspirin, and which activity was much more than aspirin at the other three higher doses tested. The results demonstrate that the plant can be an excellent candidate for further studies towards isolation of antihyperglycemic and pain-killing compounds. PMID:26639482

  20. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  1. Protective effects of plant seed extracts against amyloid β-induced neurotoxicity in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2013-01-01

    AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by large deposits of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide. Aβ is known to increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neurons, leading to cell death. In this study, we screened 15 plant seeds’ aqueous extracts (PSAE) for inhibitory effects on Aβ (25-35)-induced cell death using hippocampus neurons (HIPN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen chosen plants were nine medical herbs (Japanese honeywort, luffa, rapeseed, Chinese colza, potherb mustard, Japanese radish, bitter melon, red shiso, corn, and kaiware radish) and six general commercial plants (common bean, komatsuna, Qing geng cai, bell pepper, kale, and lettuce). PSAE were measured for total phenolic content (TPC) with the Folin–Ciocalteu method, and the 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of each seed extract was measured. To find a protectant against Aβ-induced oxidative stress, we screened 15 PSAE using a 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. To further unravel the anti-inflammatory effects of PSAE on Aβ-induced inflammation, PSAE were added to HIPN. The neuroprotective effects of the PSAE were evaluated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, measuring the cell viability in Aβ-induced HIPN. RESULTS: TPC of 15 PSAE was in the range of 0.024-1.96 mg of chlorogenic acid equivalents/gram. The aqueous extracts showed antioxidant activities. Furthermore, intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment was reduced when cells were treated with some PSAE. Kale, bitter melon, kaiware radish, red shiso, and corn inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion by the Aβ-stimulated neurons and all samples except Japanese honeywort showed enhancement of cell survival. CONCLUSION: From these results, we suggest that some plant seed extracts offer protection against Aβ-mediated cell death. PMID:23833520

  2. In vivo evaluation of sixteen plant extracts on mice inoculated with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense.

    PubMed Central

    Youan, B. B.; Coulibaly, S.; Miezan, T. B.; Doua, F.; Bamba, M.

    1997-01-01

    After examination of the drugs used by traditional practitioners in Côte d'lvoire, nine formulas prescribed in the treatment of African human trypanosomiasis (AHT) were selected for investigation. These formulas made use of 40 plants, 16 of which were studied because of their properties, as described in the literature, and their frequent use by practitioners. The plant extracts were administered, after maceration or decoction, either orally or intraperitoneally to Swiss mice that had previously been inoculated with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Tbg), strain MHOM/Cl/81/Dal 083. The parasitaemia in each mouse was followed for three consecutive days and compared with that in control mice, which had been given either a saline solution (SS: negative control) or well-known drugs (melarsoprol, difluoromethylornithine, and pentamidine: positive control). Our investigations led to the following conclusions. (a) None of the plant extracts revealed trypanocidal or trypanostatic activity relative to SS controls (P > 0.05). In fact, the mice that received the extracts died on the third day after inoculation, with 0% survival and an average parasitaemia of 10.8 +/- 2 x 10(7) trypanosomes/ml. (b) The treated positive controls, relative to SS, showed 100% survival and no parasitaemia (P < 0.05). Melarsoprol appeared to be active when given orally at a dose of 3.6 mg/kg body weight twice a day for 3 days. This method of testing the sensitivity of trypanosomes to plant extracts is easy and inexpensive, and could be applied to other areas of research on tropical diseases. PMID:9342893

  3. Assessment of effect of hydroalcoholic and decoction methods on extraction of antioxidants from selected Indian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Kaneria, Mital; Kanani, Bhavana; Chanda, Sumitra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of extraction methods on antioxidant activities of selected Indian medicinal flora. Methods Different parts of plants were extracted by hydroalcoholic and decoction methods using water and various concentrations of methanol (ME) viz. 75%, 50% and 25% ME. The antioxidant activity of all the different extracts was evaluated using two different antioxidant assays viz. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay and superoxide anion radical scavenging assay. Total phenol and flavonoid content was also estimated. Results The results showed that the extracting solvent significantly altered the antioxidant property estimations of screened plants. High correlations between phenolic compositions and antioxidant activities of extracts were observed. High levels of antioxidant activities were detected in Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) as compared with other screened plants. Conclusions The results obtained appear to confirm the effect of different methods on extraction of antioxidants and antioxidant property of M. zapota. PMID:23569897

  4. Towards plant protein refinery: Review on protein extraction using alkali and potential enzymatic assistance.

    PubMed

    Sari, Yessie W; Mulder, Wilhelmus J; Sanders, Johan P M; Bruins, Marieke E

    2015-08-01

    The globally increasing protein demands require additional resources to those currently available. Furthermore, the optimal usage of protein fractions from both traditional and new protein resources, such as algae and leaves, is essential. Here, we present an overview on alkaline plant protein extraction including the potentials of enzyme addition in the form of proteases and/or carbohydrolases. Strategic biomass selection, combined with the appropriate process conditions can increase protein yields after extraction. Enzyme addition, especially of proteases, can be useful when alkaline protein extraction yields are low. These additions can also be used to enable processing at a pH closer to 7 to avoid the otherwise severe conditions that denature proteins. Finally, a protein biorefinery concept is presented that aims to upcycle residual biomass by separating essential amino acids to be used for food and feed, and non-essential amino acids for production of bulk chemicals. PMID:26132986

  5. Effect of Plant Extracts Formulated in Different Ointment Bases on MDR Strains.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Pallavi L; Nabar, Bela M

    2010-05-01

    Extracts of Aloe vera whole plant, Eucalyptus globulus leaves, Ficus infectoria bark, Ficus religiosa bark and Piper betel leaves were studied for antibacterial activity on resistant and sensitive strains, isolated from skin and soft tissue infections. A combination of hot alcoholic extracts of Ficus infectoria, Ficus religiosa and Piper betel were found to be more effective against all the isolates. The combined extract was formulated in different ointment bases such as polyethylene glycol, gelatin, sodium alginate, carbopol, cream base and honey. These were then evaluated to find a suitable base for preparation of an ointment. In vitro study of the release of antimicrobials and kill-time studies of the herbal ointments was carried out against multi-drug resistant isolate of Pseudomonas. The ointment showed bactericidal activity within 2 h against the resistant strain of Pseudomonas spp. PMID:21188057

  6. Induction of apoptosis of human primary osteoclasts treated with extracts from the medicinal plant Emblica officinalis

    PubMed Central

    Penolazzi, Letizia; Lampronti, Ilaria; Borgatti, Monica; Khan, Mahmud Tareq Hassan; Zennaro, Margherita; Piva, Roberta; Gambari, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts (OCs) are involved in rheumatoid arthritis and in several pathologies associated with bone loss. Recent results support the concept that some medicinal plants and derived natural products are of great interest for developing therapeutic strategies against bone disorders, including rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. In this study we determined whether extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits display activity of possible interest for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis by activating programmed cell death of human primary osteoclasts. Methods The effects of extracts from Emblica officinalis on differentiation and survival of human primary OCs cultures obtained from peripheral blood were determined by tartrate-acid resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positivity and colorimetric MTT assay. The effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on induction of OCs apoptosis were studied using TUNEL and immunocytochemical analysis of FAS receptor expression. Finally, in vitro effects of Emblica officinalis extracts on NF-kB transcription factor activity were determined by gel shift experiments. Results Extracts of Emblica officinalis were able to induce programmed cell death of mature OCs, without altering, at the concentrations employed in our study, the process of osteoclastogenesis. Emblica officinalis increased the expression levels of Fas, a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. Gel shift experiments demonstrated that Emblica officinalis extracts act by interfering with NF-kB activity, a transcription factor involved in osteoclast biology. The data obtained demonstrate that Emblica officinalis extracts selectively compete with the binding of transcription factor NF-kB to its specific target DNA sequences. This effect might explain the observed effects of Emblica officinalis on the expression levels of interleukin-6, a NF-kB specific target gene. Conclusion Induction of apoptosis of osteoclasts could be an important strategy both in

  7. Immunomodulation of RAW 264.7 murine macrophage functions and antioxidant activities of 11 plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ghonime, Mohammed; Emara, Mohamed; Shawky, Riham; Soliman, Hesham; El-Domany, Ramadan; Abdelaziz, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    A group of 11 medicinal plants, including Lavandula pubescens, Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Silene villosa, Bogonvillea glabra, Cakile maritime, Gomphrene celesoids, Mirabilis jalaba, and Silene nocturna growing in Egypt, were extracted and examined for their immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities. RAW 264.7 cells were recruited to investigate the immunomodulatory effect through multiple parameters analysis. First, the proliferation index of macrophages cells was evaluated revealing that Trigonella foenugricium, Silene succulenta and Silene villosa have a significant cytotoxic effect on RAW cells. Interestingly, we observed enhancement of macrophages phagocytic function of by all extracts except Cakile maritime, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. Afterwards, macrophages were challenged by incubation with LPS and the effect of various extracts on inflammatory responses was investigated; the generation of NO from activated macrophage was substantially suppressed by 7 extracts namely, Trigonella foenugricium, Calligonum comosum, Silene succulenta, Bougainvillea glabra, Mirabilis jalaba, Gomphrena celosioides and Silene nocturna. TNF-α was decreased by percentage range from 3.8 to 85.8% and Trigonella foenugricium extract showed the highest inhibition of TNF-α release. All extracts except Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Silene succulenta and Mirabilis jalaba significantly inhibited COX-2 production from stimulated macrophage. Moreover, evaluating the potential antioxidant activity of these extracts showed that Trigonella foenugricium, Salsola schweinforthi, Calligonum comosum, Bogonvillea glabra and Mirabilis jalaba exhibited some antioxidant activities. Taken together, our results suggest that some of these extracts may have a considerable antinflammatory and antioxidant effects and may be a potential therapeutic choice in the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:25564700

  8. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics

    PubMed Central

    Retnaningtyas, Yuni; Nuri; Lukman, Hilmia

    2016-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been developed for simple analysis of flavonoid in the medicinal plant extract. Flavonoid was extracted from medicinal plant leaves by ultrasonication and maceration. IR spectra of selected medicinal plant extract were correlated with flavonoid content using chemometrics. The chemometric method used for calibration analysis was Partial Last Square (PLS) and the methods used for classification analysis were Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies (SIMCA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). In this study, the calibration of NIR model that showed best calibration with R2 and RMSEC value was 0.9916499 and 2.1521897, respectively, while the accuracy of all classification models (LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) was 100%. R2 and RMSEC of calibration of FTIR model were 0.8653689 and 8.8958149, respectively, while the accuracy of LDA, SIMCA, and SVM was 86.0%, 91.2%, and 77.3%, respectively. PLS and LDA of NIR models were further used to predict unknown flavonoid content in commercial samples. Using these models, the significance of flavonoid content that has been measured by NIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry was evaluated with paired samples t-test. The flavonoid content that has been measured with both methods gave no significant difference. PMID:27529051

  9. Kainic Acid-Induced Excitotoxicity Experimental Model: Protective Merits of Natural Products and Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Sairazi, Nur Shafika; Sirajudeen, K. N. S.; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Muzaimi, Mustapha; Mummedy, Swamy; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah

    2015-01-01

    Excitotoxicity is well recognized as a major pathological process of neuronal death in neurodegenerative diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS). In the animal models of neurodegeneration, excitotoxicity is commonly induced experimentally by chemical convulsants, particularly kainic acid (KA). KA-induced excitotoxicity in rodent models has been shown to result in seizures, behavioral changes, oxidative stress, glial activation, inflammatory mediator production, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and selective neurodegeneration in the brain upon KA administration. Recently, there is an emerging trend to search for natural sources to combat against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegenerative diseases. Natural products and plant extracts had attracted a considerable amount of attention because of their reported beneficial effects on the CNS, particularly their neuroprotective effect against excitotoxicity. They provide significant reduction and/or protection against the development and progression of acute and chronic neurodegeneration. This indicates that natural products and plants extracts may be useful in protecting against excitotoxicity-associated neurodegeneration. Thus, targeting of multiple pathways simultaneously may be the strategy to maximize the neuroprotection effect. This review summarizes the mechanisms involved in KA-induced excitotoxicity and attempts to collate the various researches related to the protective effect of natural products and plant extracts in the KA model of neurodegeneration. PMID:26793262

  10. Silver or gold deposition onto magnetite nanoparticles by using plant extracts as reducing and stabilizing agents.

    PubMed

    Norouz Dizaji, Araz; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Piskin, Erhan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we describe an environmentally friendly procedure to produce silver (Ag) or gold (Au)-deposited magnetite nanoparticles by using plant extracts (Ligustrum vulgare) as reducing and stabilizing agents. Firstly, magnetite nanoparticles (∼6 nm) with superparamagnetic properties - SPIONs - were synthesized by co-precipitation of Fe(+ 2) and Fe(+ 3) ions. Color changes indicated the differing amounts of Au and Ag ions reduced and deposited on to the SPIONs when the plant extracts were used. UV-vis and transmission electron microscope (TEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) apparatus confirmed the metallic deposition. Magnetic saturation decreased when the amount of the metallic deposition increased, which was measured by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). Due to the molecules coming into contact with - and even remaining on - the surface of the nanoparticles after aggressive washing procedures, the Ag/Au-deposited SPIONs were stable, and almost no agglomeration was observed for months. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra depicted that functional groups such as carboxylic and ketone groups, which are most probably responsible for the reduction and stabilization of Ag/Au- carrying magnetite nanoparticles, originated from the plant extract. The proposed route was facile, viable, and reproducible, and it should be stressed that nanoparticles do contain only safe biomolecules as stabilizing agents on their surfaces. PMID:25801040

  11. Analysis of Flavonoid in Medicinal Plant Extract Using Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Wulandari, Lestyo; Retnaningtyas, Yuni; Nuri; Lukman, Hilmia

    2016-01-01

    Infrared (IR) spectroscopy combined with chemometrics has been developed for simple analysis of flavonoid in the medicinal plant extract. Flavonoid was extracted from medicinal plant leaves by ultrasonication and maceration. IR spectra of selected medicinal plant extract were correlated with flavonoid content using chemometrics. The chemometric method used for calibration analysis was Partial Last Square (PLS) and the methods used for classification analysis were Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA), Soft Independent Modelling of Class Analogies (SIMCA), and Support Vector Machines (SVM). In this study, the calibration of NIR model that showed best calibration with R (2) and RMSEC value was 0.9916499 and 2.1521897, respectively, while the accuracy of all classification models (LDA, SIMCA, and SVM) was 100%. R (2) and RMSEC of calibration of FTIR model were 0.8653689 and 8.8958149, respectively, while the accuracy of LDA, SIMCA, and SVM was 86.0%, 91.2%, and 77.3%, respectively. PLS and LDA of NIR models were further used to predict unknown flavonoid content in commercial samples. Using these models, the significance of flavonoid content that has been measured by NIR and UV-Vis spectrophotometry was evaluated with paired samples t-test. The flavonoid content that has been measured with both methods gave no significant difference. PMID:27529051

  12. Thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) separations and bioassays of plant extracts to identify antimicrobial compounds.

    PubMed

    Kagan, Isabelle A; Flythe, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species. PMID:24747583

  13. Antiherpetic Plants: A Review of Active Extracts, Isolated Compounds, and Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Silva-Mares, David; Torres-López, Ernesto; Rivas-Galindo, Verónica M

    2016-04-01

    Herpes simplex is a disease that is widely distributed throughout the world. It is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2). The drugs of choice for treatment are acyclovir (ACV), Penciclovir (PCV) and other guanine analogues, which have the same mechanism of action. However, due to the constant increase of ACV-resistant strains in immunocompromised patients, it is necessary to find new treatment alternatives. It has been shown that natural products are a good alternative for the treatment of these diseases as well as being an excellent source of compounds with anti-herpetic activity, which may be useful for the development of new drugs and act through a mechanism of action different from ACV and PCV. This paper compiles reports on extracts and compounds isolated from plants that have anti-herpetic activity. We present an analysis of the solvents most widely used for extraction from plants as well as cells and commonly used methods for evaluating cytotoxic and anti-herpetic activity. Families that have a higher number of plants with anti-herpetic activity are evaluated, and we also highlight the importance of studies of mechanisms of action of extracts and compounds with anti-herpetic activity. PMID:27396217

  14. Thin-layer Chromatographic (TLC) Separations and Bioassays of Plant Extracts to Identify Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Isabelle A.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A common screen for plant antimicrobial compounds consists of separating plant extracts by paper or thin-layer chromatography (PC or TLC), exposing the chromatograms to microbial suspensions (e.g. fungi or bacteria in broth or agar), allowing time for the microbes to grow in a humid environment, and visualizing zones with no microbial growth. The effectiveness of this screening method, known as bioautography, depends on both the quality of the chromatographic separation and the care taken with microbial culture conditions. This paper describes standard protocols for TLC and contact bioautography with a novel application to amino acid-fermenting bacteria. The extract is separated on flexible (aluminum-backed) silica TLC plates, and bands are visualized under ultraviolet (UV) light. Zones are cut out and incubated face down onto agar inoculated with the test microorganism. Inhibitory bands are visualized by staining the agar plates with tetrazolium red. The method is applied to the separation of red clover (Trifolium pratense cv. Kenland) phenolic compounds and their screening for activity against Clostridium sticklandii, a hyper ammonia-producing bacterium (HAB) that is native to the bovine rumen. The TLC methods apply to many types of plant extracts and other bacterial species (aerobic or anaerobic), as well as fungi, can be used as test organisms if culture conditions are modified to fit the growth requirements of the species. PMID:24747583

  15. Preliminary screening of 44 plant extracts for anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Ya, Wang; Chun-Meng, Zhao; Tao, Guo; Yi-Lin, Zhu; Ping, Zhao

    2015-09-01

    In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors and antioxidant materials, we investigated 44 plants, which were evaluated for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities. The mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assay and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay were conducted to evaluate these activities. Among all tested plant extracts, Morus alba L. (positive control), Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Momordica charantia L., Cuminum cyminum L. et al. exhibit higher tyrosinase inhibition. Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Rosa rugosa Thunb. and Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. perform the highest antioxidant activity, similar to vitamin C (the positive control). A low positive correlation is found in the DPPH radical scavenging and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Considering these factors, the extracts of Rhodiola crenulata (Hook. f. et Thoms.) H. Ohba, Alpinia officinarum Hance and Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim. exhibit high anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities and could be used in the cosmetic industry. Further studies are warranted to characterize the compounds responsible for the anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant properties of these plant extracts. PMID:26408894

  16. Screening of Asteraceae (Compositae) plant extracts for larvicidal activity against Aedes fluviatilis (Diptera:Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Macêdo, M E; Consoli, R A; Grandi, T S; dos Anjos, A M; de Oliveira, A B; Mendes, N M; Queiróz, R O; Zani, C L

    1997-01-01

    Ethanol extracts of 83 plants species belonging to the Asteraceae (Compositae) family, collected in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were tested for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Aedes fluviatilis--Diptera: Culicidae). The extract from Tagetes minuta was the most active with a LC90 of 1.5 mg/l and LC50 of 1.0 mg/l. This plant has been the object of several studies by other groups and its active components have already been identified as thiophene derivatives, a class of compounds present in many Asteraceae species. The extract of Eclipta paniculata was also significantly active, with a LC90 of 17.2 mg/l and LC50 of 3.3 mg/l and no previous studies on its larvicidal activity or chemical composition could be found in the literature. Extracts of Achryrocline satureoides, Gnaphalium spicatum, Senecio brasiliensis, Trixis vauthieri, Tagetes patula and Vernonia ammophila were less active, killing more than 50% of the larvae only at the higher dose tested (100 mg/l). PMID:9361755

  17. Aqueous extracts of Mozambican plants as alternative and environmentally safe acid-base indicators.

    PubMed

    Macuvele, Domingos Lusitaneo Pier; Sithole, Gerre Zebedias Samo; Cesca, Karina; Macuvele, Suzana Lília Pinare; Matsinhe, Jonas Valente

    2016-06-01

    Indicators are substances that change color as the pH of the medium. Many of these substances are dyes of synthetic origin. The mulala plant (Euclea natalensis), which roots are commonly used by rural communities for their oral hygiene, and roseira (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis), an ornamental plant, are abundant in Mozambique. Currently, synthetic acid-base indicators are most commonly used but have environmental implications and, on the other hand, are expensive products, so the demand for natural indicators started. This study investigated the applicability of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis as acid-base indicators. Ground on this work, the extracts can be used as acid-base indicators. On the basis of the absorption spectroscopy in both the UV-Vis region and previous studies, it was possible to preliminarily pinpoint anthocyanins and naphthoquinones as responsible for the shifting of colors depending on the pH range of aqueous extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and E. natalensis. These natural indicators are easily accessible, inexpensive, easy to extract, environmentally safe, and locally available. PMID:26936478

  18. In vitro activities of plant extracts on human Loa loa isolates and cytotoxicity for eukaryotic cells.

    PubMed

    Mengome, Line-Edwige; Akue, Jean Paul; Souza, Alain; Feuya Tchoua, Guy Raymond; Nsi Emvo, Edouard

    2010-08-01

    Loa loa, a filarial worm, can cause fatal encephalitis in humans. In an attempt to find alternatives to the standard treatments (ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine citrate), we tested 12 methanolic extracts of nine traditional plant remedies. The extracts (100-0.09 microg/ml) were incubated with 20 Loa loa microfilariae isolated from patients at 37 degrees C with 5% CO(2) in modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 10% fetal serum and antibiotics. Activity was evaluated 120 h later by counting live microfilariae under a microscope. Cytotoxicity for eukaryotic cells was estimated by measuring 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2-5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide transformation to formazan at 450 nM in a spectrophotometer. The plants tested were Lophira alata, Greenwayodendron suaveolens, Uapaca togoensis, Zanthoxylum heitzii, Peperomia pellucida, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Petersianthus macrocarpus, Vernonia conferta, and Vernonia hymenolepis. Chemical screening showed that most of the extracts contained reducing sugars, tannin or polyphenols, sterols or triterpenes, saponosides, and alkaloids. None contained carotinoids and few contained flavonoids. The 50% lethal concentration ranged from 0.22 to 70.28 microg/ml, while the 50% inhibitory concentration for eukaryotic cells (IC(50)) ranged from 8.52 to 119.52 microg/ml. Extracts of P. macrocarpus (selectivity index = 72.16), P. africanum (13.69), Z. heitzii (12.11), and L. alata (9.26) were highly selective for L. loa. PMID:20495930

  19. Advanced analytical techniques for the extraction and characterization of plant-derived essential oils by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Rabia; Low, Kah Hin

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, essential oils have received a growing interest because of the positive health effects of their novel characteristics such as antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activities. For the extraction of plant-derived essential oils, there is the need of advanced analytical techniques and innovative methodologies. An exhaustive study of hydrodistillation, supercritical fluid extraction, ultrasound- and microwave-assisted extraction, solid-phase microextraction, pressurized liquid extraction, pressurized hot water extraction, liquid-liquid extraction, liquid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, and gas chromatography (one- and two-dimensional) hyphenated with mass spectrometry for the extraction through various plant species and analysis of essential oils has been provided in this review. Essential oils are composed of mainly terpenes and terpenoids with low-molecular-weight aromatic and aliphatic constituents that are particularly important for public health. PMID:25403494

  20. Effect of heating rate and plant species on the size and uniformity of silver nanoparticles synthesized using aromatic plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Pinero, Jorge Luis; Terrón-Rebolledo, Manuel; Foroughbakhch, Rahim; Moreno-Limón, Sergio; Melendrez, M. F.; Solís-Pomar, Francisco; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    Mixing aqueous silver solutions with aqueous leaf aromatic plant extracts from basil, mint, marjoram and peppermint resulted in the synthesis of quasi-spherical silver nanoparticles in a range of size between 2 and 80 nm in diameter as analyzed by analytical high-resolution electron microscopy. The average size could be controlled by applying heat to the initial reaction system at different rates of heating, and by the specific botanical species employed for the reaction. Increasing the rate of heating resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the size of the nanoparticles produced, regardless of the species employed. This fact was more evident in the case of marjoram, which decreased the average diameter from 27 nm at a slow rate of heating to 8 nm at a high rate of heating. With regard to the species, minimum sizes of <10 nm were obtained with basil and peppermint, while marjoram and mint yielded an average size between 10 and 25 nm. The results indicate that aromatic plant extracts can be used to achieve the controlled synthesis of metal nanoparticles.

  1. Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

    2013-01-01

    Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion. PMID:24551809

  2. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

  3. Anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of plant extracts traditionally used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cogo, Laura Lúcia; Monteiro, Cristina Leise Bastos; Miguel, Marilis Dallarmi; Miguel, Obdulio Gomes; Cunico, Miriam Machado; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; de Camargo, Eloá Ramalho; Kussen, Gislene Maria Botão; Nogueira, Keite da Silva; Costa, Libera Maria Dalla

    2010-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of plant extracts obtained from Bixa orellana L., Chamomilla recutita L., Ilex paraguariensis A. St.-Hil., Malva sylvestris L., Plantago major L. and Rheum rhaponticum L. has been evaluated against two reference strains and eleven clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori. All the plant species chosen are used in popular Brazilian cuisine and folk medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Initial screening was made by the disk diffusion test and then minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the agar dilution method. The results presented in this work demonstrated that among the plant preparations analyzed, B. orellana L., C. recutita L., I. paraguariensis A. St.-Hil. and M. sylvestris L. were capable of inhibiting the in vitro growth of H. pylori. PMID:24031496

  4. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain

    PubMed Central

    Lira-De León, Karla I.; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V.; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F.; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50–100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76–56.17% against F. solani and 2.02–69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77–12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops. PMID:25147544

  5. Effect of crude plant extracts from some Oaxacan flora on two deleterious fungal phytopathogens and extract compatibility with a biofertilizer strain.

    PubMed

    Lira-De León, Karla I; Ramírez-Mares, Marco V; Sánchez-López, Vladimir; Ramírez-Lepe, Mario; Salas-Coronado, Raúl; Santos-Sánchez, Norma F; Valadez-Blanco, Rogelio; Hernández-Carlos, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial activity of 12 plant extracts was tested against the phytopathogens Alternaria alternata and Fusarium solani. In addition, the compatibility of the extracts toward Bacillus liqueniformis, a biofertilizer and a non-target microorganism, was assessed. Plants tested belong to the Euphorbiaceae, Asteraceae, Crassulaceae, Rubiaceae, Convolvulaceae, Verbenaceae, Orchidaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Boraginaceae, and Tiliaceae families and were collected in the State of Oaxaca. The antifungal activity of the plant extracts (50-100 mg/mL) against A. alternata and F. solani, was determined by measuring the mycelium radial growth and obtaining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of fungal growth. In addition, with the aim of finding plant extracts which are compatible with a B. licheniformis biofertilizer strain and to test the non-toxic nature of the treatments, the toxicity of the extracts toward this strain was evaluated using the agar diffusion method. Azoxystrobin (12 μg) and chloramphenicol (30 μg) were used as positive controls for the pathogens and for the non-target bacteria, respectively. Plant extracts inhibited fungal growth in the ranges of 0.76-56.17% against F. solani and 2.02-69.07% against A. alternata. The extracts of Acalypha subviscida, Ipomoea murucoides, Tournefortia densiflora and Lantana achyranthifolia showed MIC values between 5.77-12.5 mg/mL for at least one of the fungal species. The best treatment, Adenophyllum aurantium, exhibited a maximum inhibition for both F. solani (56.17%, MIC = 7.78 mg/mL) and A. alternata (68.64% MIC = 7.78 mg/mL), and resulted innocuous toward B. licheniformis. Therefore, this plant has an outstanding potential for the agroecological control of fungal phytopathogens in industrial crops. PMID:25147544

  6. Guapsidial A and Guadials B and C: Three New Meroterpenoids with Unusual Skeletons from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Jian, Yu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Jiang, Ren-Wang; Chen, Min-Feng; Zhao, Bing-Xin; Wang, Ying; Ye, Wen-Cai

    2015-06-15

    A novel sesquiterpene-based Psidium meroterpenoid, possessing an unusual coupling pattern, and two new monoterpene-based meroterpenoids with unprecedented skeletons were isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava. Their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction, and computational methods. The plausible biosynthetic pathway of these meroterpenoids as well as their cytotoxicities toward HepG2 and HepG2/ADM cells were also discussed. PMID:25965842

  7. High-Level Antimicrobial Efficacy of Representative Mediterranean Natural Plant Extracts against Oral Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Cecere, Manuel; Skaltsounis, Alexios Leandros; Argyropoulou, Aikaterini; Hellwig, Elmar; Aligiannis, Nektarios

    2014-01-01

    Nature is an unexplored reservoir of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Since biofilm-related oral diseases often correlate with antibiotic resistance, plant-derived antimicrobial agents could enhance existing treatment options. Therefore, the rationale of the present report was to examine the antimicrobial impact of Mediterranean natural extracts on oral microorganisms. Five different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosa were tested against ten bacteria and one Candida albicans strain. The extraction protocols were conducted according to established experimental procedures. Two antimicrobial assays—the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) assay—were applied. The screened extracts were found to be active against each of the tested microorganisms. O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.60–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.15–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. Extracts were less effective against C. albicans and exerted bactericidal effects at a concentration range of 0.07–5.00 mg mL−1 on strict anaerobic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Parvimonas micra). Ethyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents. PMID:25054150

  8. Impact of Plant Extracts and Antibiotics on Biofilm Formation of Clinical Isolates From Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Saba; Mujtaba Ghauri, Shahbaz; Sabri, Anjum Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media can lead to severe health consequences, and is the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions and biofilm-mediated infections. However, the increased pattern of drug resistance in biofilm forming bacteria complicates the treatment of such infections. Objectives: This study was aimed to estimate the biofilm formation potential of the clinical isolates of otitis media, and to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotics and plant extracts as alternative therapeutic agents in biofilm eradication. Materials and Methods: The ear swab samples collected from the otitis media patients visiting the Mayo Hospital in Lahore were processed to isolate the bacteria, which were characterized using morphological, biochemical, and molecular (16S rRNA ribotyping) techniques. Then, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the antibiotics and crude plant extracts were measured against the isolates. The cell surface hydrophobicity and biofilm formation potential were determined, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with and without antibiotics. Finally, the molecular characterization of the biofilm forming proteins was done by amplifying the ica operon. Results: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (KC417303-05), Staphylococcus hemolyticus (KC417306), and Staphylococcus hominis (KC417307) were isolated from the otitis media specimens. Among the crude plant extracts, Acacia arabica showed significant antibacterial characteristics (MIC up to 13 mg/ml), while these isolates exhibited sensitivity towards ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.2 µg/mL). All of the bacterial strains had hydrophobic cellular surfaces that helped in their adherence to abiotic surfaces, leading to strong biofilm formation potential (up to 7 days). Furthermore, the icaC gene encoding polysaccharide intercellular adhesion protein was amplified from S. hemolyticus. Conclusions: The bacterial isolates exhibited strong biofilm formation potential, while the extracts of Acacia arabica significantly inhibited biofilm

  9. Sympathomimetic effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and catecholamines isolated from plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Freire, S M; Torres, L M; Souccar, C; Lapa, A J

    1996-06-01

    The herb Scoparia dulcis L. is used in Brazilian folk medicine to treat bronchitis, gastric disorders, haemorrhoids, insect bites and skin wounds, and in oriental medicine to treat hypertension. A previous study has shown that extracts of S. dulcis have analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties; in this work the sympathomimetic activity of an ethanolic extract of Scoparia dulcis L. has been investigated in rodent preparations in-vivo and in-vitro. Administration of the extract (0.5-2 mg kg-1, i.v.) to anaesthetized rats produced dose-related hypertension blocked by the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg kg-1). Partition of the extract in chloroform-water yielded an aqueous phase 20 times more potent than the extract; this produced hypertension in either reserpine-treated or pithed rats. In untreated and reserpine-treated rats the same fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) produced concentration-dependent contractions of the vas deferens musculature parallel to those obtained with noradrenaline (10(-8)-10(-4)M). Prazosin (10(-7)M) reduced the maximum contractile effect of the aqueous fraction, and shifted the concentration-response curves for noradrenaline to the right. The aqueous fraction (25 and 50 micrograms mL-1) increased the inotropism of electrically driven left atria of rats, the effect being blocked by propranolol (0.4 microgram mL-1). In preparations of guinea-pig tracheal rings the aqueous fraction (1-3 x 10(3) micrograms mL-1) relaxed the muscle contraction induced by histamine (10(-4) M) in proportion to the concentration. The effect was antagonized competitively by propranolol (1.5 microM). High-performance liquid-chromatographic analysis of the aqueous fraction revealed the presence of both noradrenaline and adrenaline in the plant extract. The results indicated that both catecholamines may account for the hypertensive and inotropic effects obtained after parenteral administration of S. dulcis extracts. This sympathomimetic activity is

  10. Screening of Methanolic Plant Extracts against Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi in Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, Thirumalapura Krishnaiah; Shivanna, Kumuda Sathigal; Achuttan, Vijayan Valiakottukal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of death every year. Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of botanical origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. Nine different locally available medicinally important plants suspected to posse larvicidal property were screened against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi to a series of concentrations of the methanolic extracts. Methods: Susceptibility tests on Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi were conducted using standard WHO methods. The larvae of two mosquito species were exposed to methanolic extracts and mortality counts were made after 24 hours of exposure as per WHO method. Larvae of Ae. aegypti were more susceptible than that of An. stephensi. Results: Among the nine plant species tested, Annona reticulata leaf extract was more effective against Ae. aegypti larvae with LC50 and LC90 values of 95.24 and 262.64 ppm respectively and against An. stephensi larvae 262.71 and 636.94 ppm respectively. The least efficacy was in Cosmos bipinnatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 442.6 and 1225.93 ppm against Ae. aegypti and LC50 and LC90 values of 840.69 and 1334.01 ppm of Thespesia populnea against An. stephensi. Conclusion: The crude methanolic extract of the An. reticulata with good larvicidal efficacy could be considered for further characterization to control mosquito vectors instead of chemical insecticides. High efficacy found in An. reticulata extract will be considered for further studies to isolate the bioactive compound. PMID:27308289

  11. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  12. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J.; Duncan, D.R.

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  13. In vitro trematocidal effects of crude alcoholic extracts of Artemisia annua, A. absinthium, Asimina triloba, and Fumaria officinalis: trematocidal plant alcoholic extracts.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Jorge F S; Peaden, Paul; Keiser, Jennifer

    2011-12-01

    Trematode infections negatively affect human and livestock health, and threaten global food safety. The only approved human anthelmintics for trematodiasis are triclabendazole and praziquantel with no alternative drugs in sight. We tested six crude plant extracts against adult Schistosoma mansoni, Fasciola hepatica, and Echinostoma caproni in vitro. Mortality was best achieved by ethanolic extracts of Artemisia annua (sweet Annie), Asimina triloba (paw-paw), and Artemisia absinthium (wormwood) which, at 2 mg/mL, killed S. mansoni and E. caproni in 20 h or less (except for wormwood), F. hepatica between 16 and 23 h (sweet Annie), or 40 h (paw-paw). Some extracts were active at 0.2 mg/mL and 20 μg/mL, although more time was required to kill trematodes. However, aqueous A. annua and methanol extracts of Fumaria officinalis had no activity. Chromatographic analysis of the three best extracts established that A. annua and A. triloba extracts contained bioactive artemisinin and acetogenins (asimicin and bullatacin), respectively. The anthelmintic activity of our extracts at such low doses indicates that their anthelmintic activity deserves further testing as natural alternative controls for parasites of both animals and humans. Our results also support recent evidence that synergistic effects of multiple bioactive compounds present in crude plant extracts is worth exploring. PMID:21562762

  14. Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant activity: a comparative study on three testing methods.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Irina I; van Beek, Teris A; Linssen, Jozef P H; de Groot, Aede; Evstatieva, Lyuba N

    2002-01-01

    Three methods widely employed in the evaluation of antioxidant activity, namely 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method, static headspace gas chromatography (HS-GC) and beta-carotene bleaching test (BCBT), have been compared with regard to their application in the screening of plant extracts. The strengths and limitations of each method have been illustrated by testing a number of extracts, of differing polarity, from plants of the genus Sideritis, and two known antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene and rosmarinic acid). The sample polarity was important for the exhibited activity in the BCBT and HS-GC methods but not for the DPPH method. The complex composition of the extracts and partition phenomena affected their activity in each assay. The value of the BCBT method appears to be limited to less polar samples. Although slow, the HS-GC method is preferable for assessing the antioxidant inhibitory properties on the formation of unwanted secondary volatile products. Being rapid, simple and independent of sample polarity, the DPPH method is very convenient for the quick screening of many samples for radical scavenging activity. PMID:11899609

  15. Screening of Venezuelan medicinal plant extracts for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Peter; Arsenak, Miriam; Abad, María Jesús; Fernández, Angel; Milano, Balentina; Gonto, Reina; Ruiz, Marie-Christine; Fraile, Silvia; Taylor, Sofía; Estrada, Omar; Michelangeli, Fabian

    2013-04-01

    There are estimated to be more than 20,000 species of plants in Venezuela, of which more than 1500 are used for medicinal purposes by indigenous and local communities. Only a relatively small proportion of these have been evaluated in terms of their potential as antitumor agents. In this study, we screened 308 extracts from 102 species for cytostatic and cytotoxic activity against a panel of six tumor cell lines using a 24-h sulphorhodamine B assay. Extracts from Clavija lancifolia, Hamelia patens, Piper san-vicentense, Physalis cordata, Jacaranda copaia, Heliotropium indicum, and Annona squamosa were the most cytotoxic, whereas other extracts from Calotropis gigantea, Hyptis dilatata, Chromolaena odorata, Siparuna guianensis, Jacaranda obtusifolia, Tapirira guianensis, Xylopia aromatica, Protium heptaphyllum, and Piper arboreum showed the greatest cytostatic activity. These results confirm previous reports on the cytotoxic activities of the above-mentioned plants as well as prompting further studies on others such as C. lancifolia and H. dilatata that have not been so extensively studied. PMID:22648665

  16. Speciation of Mg, Mn and Zn in extracts of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Weber, Günther; Konieczyński, Paweł

    2003-04-01

    Aqueous extracts of birch leaves ( folium Betulae), peppermint leaves ( folium Menthae), sage leaves ( folium Salviae), valerian roots ( radix Valerianae), and dandelion roots ( radix Taraxaci) are analysed for the three essential elements magnesium, manganese and zinc. Ultrafiltration reveals that 60-100% of these metals are present as low molecular weight species (<5000 Da). Further characterisation of the low molecular weight fraction is done by using size exclusion chromatography and different detectors, namely element specific AAS detection, diode array UV-VIS detection and electrochemical detection. The similarities and differences of the plant extracts are well reflected by the respective chromatograms, and typical plant constituents can be identified by their spectral and electrochemical properties (e.g. flavonoids in Betula). Mg and Mn species are selectively detected by AAS in closely neighbouring chromatographic regions for all five samples. However, there are significant differences between the samples investigated. In all cases a good correlation exists between detection of these metals (Mg, Mn) and pulsed amperometric detection (PAD), which is selective for carbohydrates. The respective molecular weight of carbohydrate species is in the range of approximately 300-600 Da. The distribution of zinc species (detectable only in the Betula extract) is totally different from that of Mg and Mn species. For zinc, many more species are detected, and there is no correlation to carbohydrates; instead (poly)phenols are involved in zinc complexation. PMID:12733019

  17. Estrogenic Plant Extracts Reverse Weight Gain and Fat Accumulation without Causing Mammary Gland or Uterine Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Saunier, Elise F.; Vivar, Omar I.; Rubenstein, Andrea; Zhao, Xiaoyue; Olshansky, Moshe; Baggett, Scott; Staub, Richard E.; Tagliaferri, Mary; Cohen, Isaac; Speed, Terence P.; Baxter, John D.; Leitman, Dale C.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial effects of estrogens in adipose tissue and adverse effects on mammary gland and uterus are mediated by estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). One strategy to improve the safety of estrogens to prevent/treat obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome is to develop estrogens that act as agonists in adipose tissue, but not in mammary gland and uterus. We considered plant extracts, which have been the source of many pharmaceuticals, as a source of tissue selective estrogens. Extracts from two plants, Glycyrrhiza uralensis (RG) and Pueraria montana var. lobata (RP) bound to ERα, activated ERα responsive reporters, and reversed weight gain and fat accumulation comparable to estradiol in ovariectomized obese mice maintained on a high fat diet. Unlike estradiol, RG and RP did not induce proliferative effects on mammary gland and uterus. Gene expression profiling demonstrated that RG and RP induced estradiol-like regulation of genes in abdominal fat, but not in mammary gland and uterus. The compounds in extracts from RG and RP might constitute a new class of tissue selective estrogens to reverse weight gain, fat accumulation and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. PMID:22163294

  18. DNA extraction from plant food supplements: Influence of different pharmaceutical excipients.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Amaral, Joana S; Fernandes, Telmo J R; Batista, Andreia; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Mafra, Isabel

    2015-12-01

    The consumption of plant food supplements (PFS) has been growing globally, with an increase of misleading labeling and fraudulent practices also being reported. Recently, the use of molecular biology techniques has been proposed to detect botanical adulterations, one of the possible frauds in PFS. However, difficulties in recovering DNA from some PFS samples have been described. Aiming at using DNA-based methods for the unequivocal identification of plant species in PFS, adequate DNA isolation is required. However, PFS often contain pharmaceutical excipients known to have adsorbent properties that might interfere with DNA extraction. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the effect of different excipients (talc, silica, iron oxide and titanium dioxide) on the recovery/amplification of DNA. For that purpose, known amounts of template maize DNA were spiked either to PFS or to model mixtures of excipients and quantified by real-time PCR. The tested excipients evidenced clear adsorption phenomena that justify the hampering effect on DNA extraction from PFS. The use of either 10% talc or 0.5% dyes completely adsorbed DNA, resulting in negative PCR amplifications. For the first time, pharmaceutical excipients were shown to affect DNA extraction explaining the inability of recovering DNA from some PFS samples in previous studies. PMID:26079045

  19. Antioxidative Activities and Active Compounds of Extracts from Catalpa Plant Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g·DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g·DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g·DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

  20. Antioxidative activities and active compounds of extracts from Catalpa plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hongyu; Hu, Gege; Dong, Juane; Wei, Qin; Shao, Hongbo; Lei, Ming

    2014-01-01

    In order to screen the Catalpa plant with high antioxidant activity and confirm the corresponding active fractions from Catalpa ovata G. Don, C. fargesii Bur., and C. bungei C. A. Mey., total flavonoid contents and antioxidant activities of the extracts/fractions of Catalpa plant leaves were determined. The determined total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity were used as assessment criteria. Those compounds with antioxidant activity were isolated with silica gel column chromatography and ODS column chromatography. Our results showed that the total flavonoid content in C. bungei C. A. Mey. (30.07 mg/g · DW) was the highest, followed by those in C. fargesii Bur. (25.55 mg/g · DW) and C. ovata G. Don (24.96 mg/g · DW). According to the determination results of total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in 3 clones of leaves of C. bungei C. A. Mey., the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity in crude extracts from C. bungei C. A. Mey. 6 (CA6) leaves were the highest. Moreover, the results showed that the total flavonoid content and antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in ethanol crude extracts in CA6 leaves were the highest, followed by n-butanol, petroleum ether (PE), and water fractions. Two flavonoid compounds with antioxidant activity were firstly isolated based on EA fraction. The two compounds were luteolin (1) and apigenin (2), respectively. PMID:25431795

  1. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Reynertson, Kurt A; Charlson, Mary E; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  2. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    PubMed Central

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly-cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from twelve species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from three species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells. PMID:20955699

  3. Induction of murine embryonic stem cell differentiation by medicinal plant extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Reynertson, Kurt A.; Charlson, Mary E.; Gudas, Lorraine J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates that diets high in fruits and vegetables provide a measure of cancer chemoprevention due to phytochemical constituents. Natural products are a rich source of cancer chemotherapy drugs, and primarily target rapidly cycling tumor cells. Increasing evidence indicates that many cancers contain small populations of resistant, stem-like cells that have the capacity to regenerate tumors following chemotherapy and radiation, and have been linked to the initiation of metastases. Our goal is to discover natural product-based clinical or dietary interventions that selectively target cancer stem cells, inducing differentiation. We adapted an alkaline phosphatase (AP) stain to assay plant extracts for the capacity to induce differentiation in embryonic stem (ES) cells. AP is a characteristic marker of undifferentiated ES cells, and this represents a novel approach to screening medicinal plant extracts. Following a survey of approximately 100 fractions obtained from 12 species of ethnomedically utilized plants, we found fractions from 3 species that induced differentiation, decreasing AP and transcript levels of pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct-4, Rex-1). These fractions affected proliferation of murine ES, and human embryonal, prostate, and breast carcinoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. Several phytochemical constituents were isolated; the antioxidant phytochemicals ellagic acid and gallic acid were shown to affect viability of cultured breast carcinoma cells.

  4. Plant RNA processing: soybean pre-mRNA in a pea cell-free extract

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.A.; Hanley, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    Using a pea cell-free extract they have demonstrated the splicing of an SP6 fusion transcript containing an intron derived from the soybean seed storage protein ..beta..-subunit gene. Intron 115 from the conglycinin gene was cloned into a SP6 vector and transcribed using standard recombinant DNA techniques. Incubation of radioactively labeled fusion transcripts in the cell-free system produced a number of products which were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis. All the products are linear RNA molecules. Lariat intermediates, similar to those found in the yeast and HeLa cell RNA processing systems, have not been detected. The linear RNA products detected in their plant in vitro processing system have various portions of the intron removed which suggests that alternative splice sites are used in processing of this plant intron due to activation of cryptic splice sites or creation of splice sites in the fusion construction. The kinetics of the reactions and parameters of the extract are similar to those determined for the HeLa cell system. Sucrose gradient analysis has demonstrated that the plant RNA products sedimented in a 30S particle, similar in size to that found for the spliceosome of the HeLa cell system.

  5. Comparative toxicity of Paraquat herbicide and some plant extracts in Lymnaea natalensis snails.

    PubMed

    Bakry, Fayez A; Eleiwa, Mona E; Taha, Samir A; Ismil, Somya M

    2016-01-01

    Paraquat has been shown to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals, and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The present study was undertaken to evaluate comprehensively herbicides (Paraquat) and some plant extracts to biochemical aspects of Lymnaea natalensis snails. It was found that the exposure of L. natalensis to Paraquat and plant extracts led to a significant reduction in the infectivity of Fasciola gigantica miracidia to the snail. The glucose level in hemolymph of exposed snails was elevated, while the glycogen showed a decrease in soft tissues when compared with the control group. In addition, the activity level of some enzymes representing glycolytic enzymes as hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI) in snail's tissues were reduced in response to the treatment. It was concluded that the pollution of the aquatic environment by herbicide would adversely affect the metabolism of the L. natalensis snails. Snails treated with Agave attenuate, Ammi visnaga, and Canna iridiflora plant had less toxic effect compared to snails treated with Paraquat. PMID:24081640

  6. Activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. tuberculosis by extract of South African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Mativandlela, Sannah Patience Nkami; Meyer, Jacob Jacobus Marion; Hussein, Ahmed A; Houghton, Peter J; Hamilton, Chris J; Lall, Namrita

    2008-06-01

    Seven ethnobotanically selected medicinal plants were screened for their antimycobacterial activity. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of four plants namely Artemisia afra, Dodonea angustifolia, Drosera capensis and Galenia africana ranged from 0.781 to 6.25 mg/mL against Mycobacterium smegmatis. G. africana showed the best activity exhibiting an MIC of 0.78 mg/mL and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 mg/mL. The MICs of ethanol extracts of D. angustifolia and G. africana against M. tuberculosis were found to be 5.0 and 1.2 mg/mL respectively. The mammalian cytotoxicity IC(50) value of the most active antimycobacterial extract, from G. africana, was found to be 101.3 microg/mL against monkey kidney Vero cells. Since the ethanol G. africana displayed the best antimycobacterial activity, it was subjected to fractionation which led to the isolation of a flavone, 5,7,2'-trihydroxyflavone. The MIC of this compound was found to be 0.031 mg/mL against M. smegmatis and 0.10 mg/mL against M. tuberculosis. This study gives some scientific basis to the traditional use of these plants for TB-related symptoms. PMID:18412151

  7. Plant identification through images: Using feature extraction of key points on leaf contours1

    PubMed Central

    Gwo, Chih-Ying; Wei, Chia-Hung

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Because plant identification demands extensive knowledge and complex terminologies, even professional botanists require significant time in the field for mastery of the subject. As plant leaves are normally regarded as possessing useful characteristics for species identification, leaf recognition through images can be considered an important research issue for plant recognition. • Methods: This study proposes a feature extraction method for leaf contours, which describes the lines between the centroid and each contour point on an image. A length histogram is created to represent the distribution of distances in the leaf contour. Thereafter, a classifier is applied from a statistical model to calculate the matching score of the template and query leaf. • Results: The experimental results show that the top value achieves 92.7% and the first two values can achieve 97.3%. In the scale invariance test, those 45 correlation coefficients fall between the minimal value of 0.98611 and the maximal value of 0.99992. Like the scale invariance test, the rotation invariance test performed 45 comparison sets. The correlation coefficients range between 0.98071 and 0.99988. • Discussion: This study shows that the extracted features from leaf images are invariant to scale and rotation because those features are close to positive correlation in terms of coefficient correlation. Moreover, the experimental results indicated that the proposed method outperforms two other methods, Zernike moments and curvature scale space. PMID:25202493

  8. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth. PMID:25907061

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Plant Extracts Against Food-Borne Pathogens and Spoilage Bacteria In Vitro and on Poultry Skin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some plant extracts are known to contain substances that inhibit the growth of bacteria; therefore, experiments were conducted to examine the ability of extracts of pomegranate, orange, and lemon peels to inhibit the growth of five bacteria associated with processed poultry. The antibacterial activi...

  10. Phytochemical attributes of four conventionally extracted medicinal plants and cytotoxic evaluation of their extracts on human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) cells.

    PubMed

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Durgo, Ksenija; Bušić, Arijana; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2014-02-01

    The bioactive composition and cytotoxic and antioxidative/prooxidative effects of four medicinal plants: yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.), hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha L.), ground ivy (Glechoma hederacea L.), and olive (Olea europea L.) on human laryngeal carcinoma cell line (HEp2) were investigated. Water extracts of these plants obtained by infusion, maceration, and decoction were characterized for their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. Based on the extraction efficiency of polyphenols, the final extracts were obtained whose polyphenolic profile, polysaccharides, mineral content, and cytoprotective activities were determined. The overall highest content of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity was determined in hawthorn, followed by yarrow and ground ivy, and the lowest in olive leaves extract. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of phenolic acids, as the most abundant bioactive compounds, followed by flavonoids, flavons, and flavonols. All examined medicinal plants reduced the cell viability and reactive oxygen species formation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Ground ivy and yarrow containing a high content of phenolic acids and polysaccharides were more efficient to decrease the cell survival when compared to olive leaf and hawthorn. Experiments confirmed the importance of polyphenolic composition rather than content of investigated plants and revealed a relationship between the polyphenolic and polysaccharide contents and antioxidant/prooxidant characters of medicinal plants. PMID:24325458

  11. Cytotoxic Meroterpenoids with Rare Skeletons from Psidium guajava Cultivated in Temperate Zone.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yan, Huan; Ni, Wei; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xia; He, Li; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Di, Ying-Tong; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Three new meroterpenoids, guajavadials A-C (1-3), were isolated from Psidium guajava cultivated in temperate zone. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Guajavadial A (1) represents a novel skeleton of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol-coupled monoterpenoid, while guajavadials B (2) and C (3) are new adducts of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpene with different coupling models. The plausible biosynthetic pathways as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these meroterpenoids are also discussed. All these isolates exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with 3 being most effective with an IC50 value of 3.54 μM toward SMMC-7721 cell lines. PMID:27586698

  12. Cytotoxic Meroterpenoids with Rare Skeletons from Psidium guajava Cultivated in Temperate Zone

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Xu-Jie; Yan, Huan; Ni, Wei; Yu, Mu-Yuan; Khan, Afsar; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Hong-Xia; He, Li; Hao, Xiao-Jiang; Di, Ying-Tong; Liu, Hai-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Three new meroterpenoids, guajavadials A–C (1–3), were isolated from Psidium guajava cultivated in temperate zone. Their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic evidence and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Guajavadial A (1) represents a novel skeleton of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol-coupled monoterpenoid, while guajavadials B (2) and C (3) are new adducts of the 3,5-diformylbenzyl phloroglucinol and a sesquiterpene with different coupling models. The plausible biosynthetic pathways as well as antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of these meroterpenoids are also discussed. All these isolates exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against five human cancer cell lines, with 3 being most effective with an IC50 value of 3.54 μM toward SMMC-7721 cell lines. PMID:27586698

  13. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of seven cultivars of guava (Psidium guajava) fruits.

    PubMed

    Flores, Gema; Wu, Shi-Biao; Negrin, Adam; Kennelly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    The antioxidant activity and identification of phenolic compounds of seven edible guava (Psidium guajava) cultivars that varied in colour from white to pink were examined. In the DPPH assay all four pink-pulp guavas (Barbie Pink, Homestead, Sardina 1, Sardina 2) included in the study showed higher activity than the white pulp cultivars (Yen 2 and Sayla) and less than the red pulp guava cultivar (Thai Maroon). In the ABTS(+) assay this trend was the same up to 20 min, but from 20 to 40 min Barbie Pink showed lower activity than the white guavas. Twenty-one compounds were characterised in the cultivars, and ten of them are reported for the first time in this fruit. Principle component analysis was performed to identify differences in chemistry among these cultivars. Our results suggest that the antioxidant activity and phytochemical composition of P. guajava vary significantly according to the cultivar and pulp colour. PMID:25306353

  14. Assessment of the antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts of some Colombian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, M F; Puebla, P; Carrón, R; Martín, M L; Arteaga, L; Román, L San

    2002-04-01

    The antihypertensive and vasodilator effects of ethanolic extracts prepared from Calea glomerata Klatt, Croton schiedeanus Schlecht, Curatella americana L., Lippia alba (Mill)n N.E.Br. and Lupinus amandus, which are medicinal plants used in Colombian folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension, were assayed both in SHR and Wistar rats and in rat isolated aortic rings. At a dose of 20 mg/kg, intravenous bolus administration of the ethanolic extracts, from C. schiedeanus, C. americana and L. amandus showed significant antihypertensive activity in SHR, C. schiedeanus being the most active. C. schiedeanus elicited dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial pressure and heart rate (5-100 mg/kg, i.v.) in SHR but 200 mg/kg administered orally did not show any significant effects, even after 3 h of observation. In intact rat aortic rings, ethanolic extracts from C. schiedeanus and Calea glomerata relaxed the contractions induced by KCl (80 mM) and phenylephrine (10(-6) M) in a concentration-dependent manner (10(-6)-3x10(-4) g/ml), with IC(50) of 6.5x10(-5) (7.3-5.8) g/ml and 7.1x10(-5) (7.9-6.4) g/ml, respectively. Bioguided phytochemical fractionation of the ethanolic extract from C. schiedeanus was started. More than one active principle seems to be present, flavonoids and terpenoids compounds were detected. PMID:11891085

  15. Development of extraction method of pharmaceuticals and their occurrences found in Japanese wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Okuda, Takashi; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Tanabe, Kaoru

    2009-07-01

    In this study, occurrence of 66 PPCPs (pharmaceuticals and personal care products) in liquid and solid phases of sewage sludge was elucidated. The extraction methods for the PPCPs from sludge were newly developed employing Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) and Ultrasonic Solvent Extraction (USE). As an appropriate method, PLE using water (pH2), PLE using methanol (pH4), and USE using mixture of methanol and water (1/9,v/v, pH11) was found most effective because total recovery of most of the PPCPs indicated 40 to 130%. The developed extraction method with previously developed method for liquid phase analysis was applied to field survey at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Japan. 56 compounds were detected from the primary sludge and 61 compounds were detected from the excess sludge. The concentration was ranged between several ng/g and several microg/g. Solid-water distribution coefficient (Log K(d)) ranged between 0.9 L/kg (Caffeine) and 3.7 L/kg (Levofloxacin) for primary sludge and between 1.4 L/kg (Sulpirid) and 4.3 L/kg (Mefenamic acid) for excess sludge. PMID:19201472

  16. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination.

    PubMed

    Khayyal, M T; el-Ghazaly, M A; Kenawy, S A; Seif-el-Nasr, M; Mahran, L G; Kafafi, Y A; Okpanyi, S N

    2001-01-01

    Extracts from the plants Iberis amara, Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Carum carvi, Mentha x piperita, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Angelica archangelica, Silybum marianum and Chelidonium majus, singly and combined in the form of a commercial preparation, STW 5 (Iberogast) and a modified formulation, STW 5-II, lacking the last 3 constituents, were tested for their potential anti-ulcerogenic activity against indometacin induced gastric ulcers of the rat as well as for their antisecretory and cytoprotective activities. All extracts produced a dose dependent anti-ulcerogenic activity associated with a reduced acid output and an increased mucin secretion, an increase in prostaglandin E2 release and a decrease in leukotrienes. The effect on pepsin content was rather variable and did not seem to bear a relationship with the anti-ulcerogenic activity. The most beneficial effects were observed with the combined formulations STW 5 and STW 5-II in a dose of 10 ml/kg b.w., comparable with cimetidine in a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w. The anti-ulcerogenic activity of the extracts was also confirmed histologically. The cytoprotective effect of the extracts could be partly due to their flavonoid content and to their free radical scavenging properties. PMID:11505785

  17. Chemical constitution and effect of extracts of tomato plants byproducts on the enteric viral surrogates.

    PubMed

    Silva-Beltrán, Norma Patricia; Ruiz-Cruz, Saul; Chaidez, Cristobal; Ornelas-Paz, José de Jesús; López-Mata, Marco A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Estrada, Maria Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Byproducts of tomato are known to include phenolic compounds but have not been studied in depth. In this study, the phenolic compositions of (stem, leaf, root, and whole plant) of two tomato cultivars, Pitenza and Floradade, were analyzed by HPLC-DAD. In parallel, the antiviral effects of crude extracts on viral surrogates, the bacteriophages MS2 and Av-05 were evaluated. The leaf extracts from the two varieties showed the highest concentration of phenolic compounds. The compounds identified were gallic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, cafeic acid, rutin, and quercetin, and they represented 3174.3 and 1057.9 mg/100 g dried weight of the Pitenza and Floradade cultivars, respectively. MS2 and Av-05 titers at 5 mg/mL were reduced by 3.47 and 5.78 log10 PFU/mL and 3.78 and 4.93 log10 PFU/mL by Pitenza and Floradade cultivar leaf extract, respectively. These results show that tomato extracts are natural sources of bioactive substances with antiviral activity. PMID:25059828

  18. Antiulcer activity of extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of genera Lychnis and Silene of the Caryophyllaceae family.

    PubMed

    Krylova, S G; Zueva, E P; Zibareva, L N; Amosova, E N; Razina, T G

    2014-12-01

    We studied antiulcer activity of the extracts of ecdysteroid-containing plants of the Caryophyllaceae family: Lychnis chalcedonica L., Silene viridiflora L.Sp.Pl., and Silene frivaldszkyana Hampe. Experiments on the model of neurogenic and aspirin-induced ulcerogenesis showed unidirectional and pronounced gastroprotective effects of S. viridiflora and L. chalcedonica extracts comparable to the efficacy of famotidine. In these models, a course of intragastric treatment with the extracts reduced ulcerative lesions of all types. PMID:25432278

  19. Evaluation of terrestrial plants extracts for uranium sorption and characterization of potent phytoconstituents.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunita; Singh, Bikram; Thulasidas, S K; Kulkarni, Madhuri J; Natarajan, V; Manchanda, Vijay K

    2016-01-01

    Sorption capacity of four plants (Funaria hygrometrica, Musa acuminata, Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus) extracts/fractions for uranium, a radionuclide was investigated by EDXRF and tracer studies. The maximum sorption capacity, i.e., 100% (complete sorption) was observed in case of Musa acuminata extract and fractions. Carbohydrate, proteins, phenolics and flavonoids contents in the active fraction (having maximum sorption capacity) were also determined. Further purification of the most active fraction provided three pure molecules, mannitol, sorbitol and oxo-linked potassium oxalate. The characterization of isolated molecules was achieved by using FTIR, NMR, GC-MS, MS-MS, and by single crystal-XRD analysis. Of three molecules, oxo-linked potassium oxalate was observed to have 100% sorption activity. Possible binding mechanism of active molecule with the uranyl cation has been purposed. PMID:25946322

  20. Antibacterial Potential of Northeastern Portugal Wild Plant Extracts and Respective Phenolic Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.; Barros, Lillian; Carvalho, Ana Maria; Soares, Graça; Henriques, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    The present work aims to assess the antibacterial potential of phenolic extracts, recovered from plants obtained on the North East of Portugal, and of their phenolic compounds (ellagic, caffeic, and gallic acids, quercetin, kaempferol, and rutin), against bacteria commonly found on skin infections. The disk diffusion and the susceptibility assays were used to identify the most active extracts and phenolic compounds. The effect of selected phenolic compounds on animal cells was assessed by determination of cellular metabolic activity. Gallic acid had a higher activity, against gram-positive (S. epidermidis and S. aureus) and gram-negative bacteria (K. pneumoniae) at lower concentrations, than the other compounds. The caffeic acid, also, showed good antibacterial activity against the 3 bacteria used. The gallic acid was effective against the 3 bacteria without causing harm to the animal cells. Gallic and caffeic acid showed a promising applicability as antibacterial agents for the treatment of infected wounds. PMID:24804249

  1. PLS regression using real sample calibration for aluminum and iron determination in plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Coscione, Aline Renée; de, AndradeJoãoCarlos; Poppi, Ronei J

    2002-01-01

    Real samples were used for PLS model calibration and validation steps, showing that this approach can be of value in preventing deviations in the results caused by the matrix effects for the simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of aluminum and iron in plant extracts. One hundred UV-vis spectra, obtained from samples of the 1997 to 2000 International Plant-Analytical Exchange (IPE) program (The Netherlands), were used for model development, with ICP-AES aluminum and iron determinations as reference values for model calculation. The plant extracts were analyzed both by ICP-AES and by the PLS models developed in this work, using calibrations with both aqueous standard solutions and with real sample extracts. In addition, since the use of smaller calibration sets could be of value in reducing both the cost and the time of analysis, sets with fewer calibration samples were also investigated, with the help of the Kennard and Stone algorithm for sample selection. Comparison of the predictability of the best model obtained with each calibration set was made using the ratio of their relative root mean square error (%RMSEV) for samples in the validation set, for aluminum or iron determinations, and were compared against F-test tabulated values. For all the models developed with real samples, the differences in the %RMSEV values for the aluminum or iron determinations were found not to be statistically significant, at a confidence level of 95%. Although it was observed that the aluminum, but not the iron, determinations with the PLS 2 model prepared with aqueous standards tend to be slightly lower than the ICP-AES determinations, this model has a good global prediction ability, as observed through the correlation curves presented, and can be used for screening determinations or for other agricultural purposes. PMID:11827380

  2. In vitro antibacterial activity of some Iranian medicinal plant extracts against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Hajimahmoodi, M; Shams-Ardakani, M; Saniee, P; Siavoshi, F; Mehrabani, M; Hosseinzadeh, H; Foroumadi, P; Safavi, M; Khanavi, M; Akbarzadeh, T; Shafiee, A; Foroumadi, A

    2011-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes lifelong chronic gastritis, which can lead to peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and gastric cancer. The growing problem of antibiotic resistance by the organism demands the search for novel candidates from plant-based sources. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-H. pylori activity of some selected medicinal plants on clinical isolates of H. pylori. Gastric biopsy samples were obtained from patients presenting with gastroduodenal complications. Helicobacter pylori was isolated from the specimens following standard microbiology procedures. The disc-diffusion method was used to determine the susceptibility of three H. pylori isolates to methanol extracts of 23 Iranian plants. All tests were performed in triplicate. Among them, the extracts of Punica granatum and Juglans regia had remarkable anti-H. pylori activity with mean of inhibition zone diameter of 39 and 16 mm at 100 µg disc⁻¹, respectively. In view of the results obtained with P. granatum (pomegranate), the peel extracts of nine cultivars of pomegranate (Shirin-e-Pust Sefid, Agha Mohammad Ali-e-Shirin, Sefid-e-Shomal, Sefid-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Malase, Tabestani-e-Torsh, Shirin-e-Saveh Malase, Alak-e-Shirin, Pust Siyah) were further assayed against the clinical isolates of H. pylori. The results revealed that all Iranian pomegranate cultivars, except for Alak-e-Shirin, showed significant in vitro anti-H. pylori activity against the clinical isolates of H. pylori (mean of inhibition zone diameter ranging from 16 to 40 mm at 50 µg disc⁻¹). PMID:21726128

  3. Biological synthesis of manganese dioxide nanoparticles by Kalopanax pictus plant extract.

    PubMed

    Moon, Sun A; Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Alkotaini, Bassam; Sathiyamoorthi, Ezhaveni; Kim, Beom Soo

    2015-08-01

    Manganese dioxide (MnO₂) nanoparticles were synthesised by the reduction of potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) using Kalopanax pictus leaf extract at room temperature. A transparent dark-brown colour appeared after the addition of K. pictus leaf extract to the solution of permanganate. The time course of the reduction of KMnO₄and synthesis of MnO₂ nanoparticles was monitored by means of UV-Vis spectra. The reduction of KMnO₄occurred after addition of plant extract with disappearance of KMnO₄specific peaks and emergence of peak specific for MnO₂nanoparticles. MnO₂nanoparticles showed absorption maxima at 404 nm. The electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of Mn and O in the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed characteristic binding energies for MnO₂nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed presence of uniformly dispersed spherical shaped particles with average size of 19.2 nm. The selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed the crystalline nature of MnO₂nanoparticles. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy spectra of pure MnO₂show the occurrence of O-Mn-O vibrational mode at around 518 cm⁻¹. The phyto-synthesised MnO₂nanoparticles showed degradation ability of dyes (congo red and safranin O) similar to chemically synthesised MnO₂nanoparticles. This study shows simple and eco-friendly synthesis of MnO₂nanoparticles by plant extract and their utilisation for dye degradation for the first time. PMID:26224352

  4. Multi range spectral feature fitting for hyperspectral imagery in extracting oilseed rape planting area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhuokun; Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Fumin

    2013-12-01

    Spectral feature fitting (SFF) is a commonly used strategy for hyperspectral imagery analysis to discriminate ground targets. Compared to other image analysis techniques, SFF does not secure higher accuracy in extracting image information in all circumstances. Multi range spectral feature fitting (MRSFF) from ENVI software allows user to focus on those interesting spectral features to yield better performance. Thus spectral wavelength ranges and their corresponding weights must be determined. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the performance of MRSFF in oilseed rape planting area extraction. A practical method for defining the weighted values, the variance coefficient weight method, was proposed to set up criterion. Oilseed rape field canopy spectra from the whole growth stage were collected prior to investigating its phenological varieties; oilseed rape endmember spectra were extracted from the Hyperion image as identifying samples to be used in analyzing the oilseed rape field. Wavelength range divisions were determined by the difference between field-measured spectra and image spectra, and image spectral variance coefficient weights for each wavelength range were calculated corresponding to field-measured spectra from the closest date. By using MRSFF, wavelength ranges were classified to characterize the target's spectral features without compromising spectral profile's entirety. The analysis was substantially successful in extracting oilseed rape planting areas (RMSE ≤ 0.06), and the RMSE histogram indicated a superior result compared to a conventional SFF. Accuracy assessment was based on the mapping result compared with spectral angle mapping (SAM) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The MRSFF yielded a robust, convincible result and, therefore, may further the use of hyperspectral imagery in precision agriculture.

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Some Plant Extracts Against Extended- Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Saeidi, Saeide; Amini Boroujeni, Negar; Ahmadi, Hassan; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Background: The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) -producing Escherichia coli isolates make many serious infections, especially urinary tract infections. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial activities of some natural plant extracts against ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM gene in urine samples of the patients who have urinary tract infections. Materials and Methods: Evaluation has to be exactly determined for both methods of disk diffusion test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), separately. We evaluated 120 strains of E. coli isolates from the urine culture of the patients in Boo-Ali Hospital (Zahedan, south-eastern Iran) who were suffering from urinary tract infections. The ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were evaluated by disk diffusion test and PCR through TEM gene detection. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of commonly used antibiotics including ceftazidime, ceftriaxon, amikacin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin along with the MIC of the alcoholic extract of different natural plants including Myrtus communis L (Myrtaceae), Amaranthus retraflexus (Amaranthaceae), Cyminum cuminum L (Apiaceae), Marrubium vulgare (Laminaceae) and Peganum. harmala (Zygrophyllaceae) against the ESBL-producing E. coli isolates, which harbor the TEM genes, were determined using the microdulition method. Results: Results of this study showed that in disk diffusion method, 80 samples of E. coli produced ESBLs. In PCR method, the TEM gene distribution in the isolated ESBL-producing organisms was 50 (41.6%). Amikacin was the most effective anti-bacterial agent and ciprofloxacin was the least effective against E. coli isolates. All the natural plant extracts mentioned above, especially P. harmala, were effective against the selected isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli. The most frequent ESBL rate producing E. coli isolates (32 out of 50) had MIC of 2.5 mg/mL in ethanol extract of P. harmala. Conclusions: The alcoholic

  6. Effects of Five Bangladeshi Plant Extracts on In vitro Thrombolysis and Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Raju; Emran, Talha Bin; Paul, Arkajyoti; Siddique, Mohammad Kutub Uddin; Khan, Mohammad Arfad; Rahman, Md. Golamur; Sarwar, Md. Shahid; Nasir Uddin, Mir Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Piper Betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca are medicinal plants commonly used as traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. To examine, whether organic extracts of these plants possess thrombolytic properties with minimal or no toxicity is our main aim of the study. Materials and Methods: In vitro thrombolytic model was used to check the clot lysis effects using streptokinase (SK) as a positive control and water as a negative control. Cytotoxicity was screened by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate (VS) as positive control. Results: Among herbal drugs, different organic extracts of P. betle, P. acerifolium, S. indica, A. speciosa, and R. glauca showed significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.0001) clot lysis activity viz., 31.58% ±0.76%, 40.50% ±0.94%, 49.70% ±1.69%, 35.81% ±0.86%, and 43.80% ±0.91%, respectively, compared to reference drug SK (79.32% ±1.629%). In brine shrimp cytotoxic assay, mortality achieved by the extracts showed lethal concentration 50 (LC50) values 274.64 ± 3.46, 215.60 ± 4.59, 478.40 ± 6.98, 233.37 ± 2.56, and 209.32 ± 1.98 μg/ml, respectively, with reference to VS (LC50, 0.05 ± 0.34). Conclusion: In this study, S. indica, R. glauca, and P. acerifolium possessed effective thrombolytic activity. Further studies can be undertaken to identify certain structure of the ingredients in the extracts and to elucidate the precise mechanism of action. SUMMARY Five Bangladesh medicinal plants, named Piper betle, Pterospermum acerifolium, Saraca indica, Argyreia speciosa, and Rhaphidophora glauca were subjected to comparative antithrombotic and toxicity based analysis. In comparative study, Saraca indica showed highest clot lysis (49.70 ± 1.69%) activity among the other plant with lowest toxicity (LC50: 478.40 ± 6.98) Abbreviations Used: h: Hour; min: Minutes; sec: Second; kg: Kilogram; g: Gram; μg: Microgram; L: Liter; mL: Millilitre;

  7. [Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Siberian plants].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Iu V; Povet'eva, T N; Aksinenko, S G; Suslov, N I; Gaĭdamovich, N N; Nagorniak, Iu G; Popova, E V; Kravtsova, S S; Andreeva, T I

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that water-alcohol extracts from plants containing alkaloids (Aconitum baikalense, Aconitum septentrionale, Delphinium elatum L., Conium maculatum) and salicylic acid (Filipendula ulmaria, Salix viminalis, Fragaria vesca, Rubus idaeus) inhibited the development of main symptoms of inflammation, viz. exudation, pain, fever, to the same extent as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The substances studied in this work may be used to develop new efficient pharmacological preparations for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions associated with severe pain syndrome. PMID:20017405

  8. [Antimutagenic effect of Eleutherococcus extracts on plants treated with ethylmethane sulfonate].

    PubMed

    Strel'chuk, S I

    1987-01-01

    It is established that Eleutherococcus extracts used in weak concentrations decrease the frequency of chromosome mutations induced by ethylmethanesulphonate in onion and barley. As a result the survival rate of plants under conditions of the field experiment increases. It is shown that the fixation of chromosome mutations takes place in the dividing cells of onion roots in the first four hours after treatment with the mutagen. One of the possible mechanisms of defensive Eleutherococcus action (low concentrations) and of mutagenic one (high concentrations) is discussed. PMID:3590310

  9. Optimization and stabilization of gold nanoparticles by using herbal plant extract with microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasmin, Akbar; Ramesh, Kumaraswamy; Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we have synthesized the gold nanoparticles by using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, a medicinal plant. The gold nanoparticles were synthesized rapidly by the involvement of microwave heating. By changing of plant extract concentration, gold solution concentration, microwave heating time and power of microwave heating the optimized condition was identified. The surface Plasmon resonance found at 520 nm confirmed the gold nanoparticles synthesis. The spherical sized nanoparticles in the size range of 16-30 nm were confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). The stability of the nanoparticles is very well proved in the invitro stability tests. The biochemical like alkaloids and flavonoids play a vital role in the nanoparticles synthesis was identified using the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Combining the phytochemical and microwave heating, the rapid synthesis of gold nanoparticles is the novel process for the medically applicable gold nanoparticles production.

  10. Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridine alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae s.s., is known to feed selectively on certain plants for sugar sources. However, the adaptive significance of this behavior especially on how the extracts of such plants impact on the fitness of this vector has not been explored. This study determined th...

  11. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections: II. Activity of extracts and fractions of five Guatemalan plants against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Berger, I; Barrientos, A C; Cáceres, A; Hernández, M; Rastrelli, L; Passreiter, C M; Kubelka, W

    1998-09-01

    The activities of crude plant extracts of five plants popularly used in Guatemala against bacterial and protozoal infections and some of their fractions have been evaluated against the trypomastigote and epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in vitro. The most active fraction of Neurolaena lobata has also been screened in vivo. Main in vitro activities against trypomastigotes have been observed for the hexane and ethanol extracts of N. lobata (Asteraceae). Both extracts were also active against epimastigotes, whereas all other extracts tested had no effect on epimastigotes. For the hexane extracts of Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) and Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae) a marked inhibition of trypomastigotes has been found. Also the ethanol extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia (Malpighiaceae) leafs and Gliricidia sepium (Papilionaceae) bark showed some trypanocidal activity. Fraction 2 of the ethanol extract of N. lobata was highly active against T. cruzi as well in vitro as in vivo. The chloroforme fraction of P. alliacea showed a high inhibition of trypomastigotes in vitro. Also three fractions of the active extract of B. crassifolia inhibited T. cruzi trypomastigotes. No fraction of G. sepium bark extract showed a marked trypanocidal activity. PMID:9741882

  12. Systematic screening of plant extracts from the Brazilian Pantanal with antimicrobial activity against bacteria with cariogenic relevance.

    PubMed

    Brighenti, F L; Salvador, M J; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Delbem, Ádina Cleia Bottazzo; Oliveira, M A C; Soares, C P; Freitas, L S F; Koga-Ito, C Y

    2014-01-01

    This study proposes a bioprospection methodology regarding the antimicrobial potential of plant extracts against bacteria with cariogenic relevance. Sixty extracts were obtained from ten plants--(1) Jatropha weddelliana, (2) Attalea phalerata, (3) Buchenavia tomentosa, (4) Croton doctoris, (5) Mouriri elliptica, (6) Mascagnia benthamiana, (7) Senna aculeata, (8) Unonopsis guatterioides, (9) Allagoptera leucocalyx and (10) Bactris glaucescens--using different extraction methods - (A) 70° ethanol 72 h/25°C, (B) water 5 min/100°C, (C) water 1 h/55°C, (D) water 72 h/25°C, (E) hexane 72 h/25°C and (F) 90° ethanol 72 h/25°C. The plants were screened for antibacterial activity at 50 mg/ml using the agar well diffusion test against Actinomyces naeslundii ATCC 19039, Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356, Streptococcus gordonii ATCC 10558, Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35688, Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556, Streptococcus sobrinus ATCC 33478 and Streptococcus mitis ATCC 9811. The active extracts were tested to determine their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), cytotoxicity and chemical characterization. Forty-seven extracts (78%) were active against at least one microorganism. Extract 4A demonstrated the lowest MIC and MBC for all microorganisms except S. gordonii and the extract at MIC concentration was non-cytotoxic. The concentrated extracts were slightly cytotoxic. Electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that the extract constituents coincided with the mass of the terpenoids and phenolics. Overall, the best results were obtained for extraction methods A, B and C. The present work proved the antimicrobial activity of several plants. Particularly, extracts from C. doctoris were the most active against bacteria involved in dental caries disease. PMID:24603299

  13. Effect of certain bioactive plant extracts on clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Aqil, Farrukh; Khan, M Sajjad A; Owais, Mohd; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2005-01-01

    Ethanolic extracts and some fractions from 10 Indian medicinal plants, known for antibacterial activity, were investigated for their ability to inhibit clinical isolates of beta-lactamase producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). Synergistic interaction of plant extracts with certain antibiotics was also evaluated. The MRSA test strains were found to be multi-drug resistant and also exhibited high level of resistance to common beta-lactam antibiotics. These strains produced beta-lactamases, which hydrolyze one or other beta-lactam antibiotics, tested. The extract of the plants from Camellia sinensis (leaves), Delonix regia (flowers), Holarrhena antidysenterica (bark), Lawsonia inermis (leaves), Punica granatum (rind), Terminalia chebula (fruits) and Terminalia belerica (fruits) showed a broad-spectrum of antibacterial activity with an inhibition zone size of 11 mm to 27 mm, against all the test bacteria. The extracts from the leaves of Ocimum sanctum showed better activity against the three MRSA strains. On the other hand, extracts from Allium sativum (bulb) and Citrus sinensis (rind) exhibited little or no activity, against MRSA strains. The antibacterial potency of crude extracts was determined in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by the tube dilution method. MIC values, of the plant extracts, ranged from 1.3 to 8.2 mg/ml, against the test bacteria. Further, the extracts from Punica granatum and Delonix regia were fractionated in benzene, acetone and methanol. Antibacterial activity was observed in acetone as well as in the methanol fractions. In vitro synergistic interaction of crude extracts from Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis, Punica granatum, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia belerica was detected with tetracycline. Moreover, the extract from Camellia sinensis also showed synergism with ampicillin.TLC of the above extracts revealed the presence of major phytocompounds, like

  14. Improvement of water treatment pilot plant with Moringa oleifera extract as flocculant agent.

    PubMed

    Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sánchez-Martín, J

    2009-05-01

    Moringa oleifera extract is a high-capacity flocculant agent for turbidity removal in surface water treatment. A complete study of a pilot-plant installation has been carried out. Because of flocculent sedimentability of treated water, a residual turbidity occured in the pilot plant (around 30 NTU), which could not be reduced just by a coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation process. Because of this limitation, the pilot plant (excluded filtration) achieved a turbidity removal up to 70%. A slow sand filter was put in as a complement to installation. A clogging process was characterized, according to Carman-Kozeny's hydraulic hypothesis. Kozeny's k parameter was found to be 4.18. Through fouling stages, this k parameter was found to be up to 6.36. The obtained data are relevant for the design of a real filter in a continuous-feeding pilot plant. Slow sand filtration is highly recommended owing to its low cost, easy-handling and low maintenance, so it is a very good complement to Moringa water treatment in developing countries. PMID:19603700

  15. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and multidrug resistance in cancer cells by Thai plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Takano, M; Kakizoe, S; Kawami, M; Nagai, J; Patanasethnont, D; Sripanidkulchai, B; Yumoto, R

    2014-11-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts from Thai plants belonging to the families of Annonaceae, Rutaceae, and Zingiberaceae on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and multidrug resistance were examined in paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) cells. All the extracts tested, significantly increased the accumulation of [3H]paclitaxel, a P-gp substrate, in the cells. Among nine extracts, Z01 and Z02, extracts from Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata (Zingiberaceae family), respectively, potently increased the accumulation. In addition, Z01 and Z02 increased the accumulation of other P-gp substrates, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, in PR-HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin by Z01 and Z02 was also confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of Z01 and Z02 pretreatment on the expression of MDR1 mRNA was also examined. The expression of MDR1 mRNA was not affected by the treatment of PR-HepG2 cells with these extracts for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity of paclitaxel was examined by XTT and protein assays in the absence and presence of Z02. Z02 potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in PR-HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata belonging to Zingiberaceae are useful sources to search for new P-gp modulator(s) that can be used to overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:25985578

  16. Antimicrobial and antioxidative activities in the bark extracts of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant

    PubMed Central

    Simlai, Aritra; Rai, Archana; Mishra, Saumya; Mukherjee, Kalishankar; Roy, Amit

    2014-01-01

    The present study deals with the phytochemical contents, antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bark tissue of Sonneratia caseolaris, a mangrove plant from Sundarban estuary, India. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of high amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, alkaloids and saponins. Antimicrobial efficacies of various extracts of S. caseolaris were assessed by disc diffusion method against two Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus coagulans), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Proteus vulgaris) bacteria and one fungus (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The methanolic extract among others showed significant minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The antioxidant activity as indicated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the bark tissue extract from the species was found to be quite appreciable. The extracts were found to retain their antimicrobial activities despite pH and thermal treatments, thus indicating the stability of their activity even at extreme conditions. The antioxidant activity was also found to be considerably stable after thermal treatments. The components of the tissue extracts were subjected to separation using thin layer chromatography (TLC). The constituents with antimicrobial and antioxidative properties were identified using TLC-bioautography by agar-overlay and DPPH spraying methods respectively. A number of bioactive constituents with antimicrobial and radical scavenging properties were observed on the developed bioautography plate. The fractions with antimicrobial properties were isolated from the reference TLC plates and subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis for partial characterization and identification of the metabolites that might be responsible for the activities. The study suggests Sonneratia caseolaris bark as a potential source of bioactive compounds with stable antimicrobial and antioxidative properties and can be used as natural

  17. Larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of four plant extracts against three mosquito species.

    PubMed

    Prathibha, K P; Raghavendra, B S; Vijayan, V A

    2014-05-01

    In mosquito control programs, insecticides of botanical origin have the potential to eliminate eggs, larvae, and adults. So, the larvicidal, ovicidal, and oviposition-deterrent activities of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Eugenia jambolana, Solidago canadensis, Euodia ridleyi, and Spilanthes mauritiana were assayed against the three vector mosquito species, namely Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. The larval bioassay was conducted following the World Health Organization method. The maximum larval mortality was found with ethyl acetate extract of S. mauritiana against the larvae of A. stephensi, A. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus with LC50 values of 11.51, 28.1, 14.10 ppm, respectively. The mean percent hatchability of the ovicidal activity was observed at 48-h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was found to be inversely proportional to the concentration of the extract and directly proportional to the number of eggs. The flower head extract of S. mauritiana gave 100% mortality followed by E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and E. jambolana against the eggs of the three mosquito vectors. For oviposition-deterrent effect, out of the five concentrations tested (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 ppm), the concentration of 100 ppm showed a significant egg laying-deterrent capacity. The oviposition activity index value of E. jambolana, E. ridleyi, S. canadensis, and S. mauritiana against A. aegypti, A. stephensi, C. quinquefasciatus at 100 ppm were -0.71, -0.71, -0.90, -0.93, -0.85, -0.91, -1, -1, -0.71, -0.85, -1, and -1, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf/flower extracts of certain local plants have the potential to be developed as possible eco-friendly means for the control of mosquitoes. PMID:24562451

  18. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. PMID:26522747

  19. Analytical methods for the extraction and identification of secondary metabolite production in 'in vitro' plant cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Ruffoni, Barbara; Pistelli, Laura; Pistelli, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    The production of plant secondary metabolites by in vitro culture is one of the most challenging and thrilling field of recent scientific researches. In the few last years, pharmaceutical and food industry demand in phytochemicals has increased steadily. Therefore, the establishment of in vitro plant protocols has to be monitored by phytochemical investigation of their selected extracts in order to supply standardized raw material. In this chapter, the advantages and disadvantages of some modem techniques have been described for the sampling, extraction and analysis ofthe invitro plants and derivatives. Depending on the volatile or nonvolatile substances produced by in vitro plant raw material, different kinds of laboratory facilities are needed for the extraction and quali-quantitative analysis. Recent extraction technology such as accelerated solvent extraction or microwave assisted extraction in combination with hyphenated techniques such as gas chromathography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) represent a modern approach to perform fast and reproducible analytical methods for the quality control of secondary metabolite production in 'in vitro' plant material. PMID:21520717

  20. Identification of potential plant extracts for anti-tick activity against acaricide resistant cattle ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Srikanta; Tiwari, Shashi Shankar; Kumar, Bhanu; Srivastava, Sharad; Sharma, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Sachin; Bandyopadhyay, A; Julliet, Sanis; Kumar, Rajesh; Rawat, A K S

    2015-05-01

    To develop an eco-friendly tick control method, seven plant extracts were prepared using 50 and 95% ethanol and evaluated for acaricidal activity against cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. The adult immersion test was adopted for testing different extracts. Based on 72 h screening criterion, 95% ethanolic extracts of Datura metel fruits and Argemone mexicana whole plant were found effective showing more than 50% mortality of treated ticks. The 95% ethanolic extracts of D. metel fruits and A. mexicana whole plant exhibited acaricidal and reproductive inhibitory effects on treated ticks. The LC90 values of D. metel and A. mexicana extracts were determined as 7.13 and 11.3%, respectively. However, although both the extracts were found efficacious against deltamethrin-resistant IVRI-4 and multi-acaricide resistant IVRI-5 lines of R. (B.) microplus, they caused less mortality than treated ticks of the reference IVRI-I line. Phytochemical studies indicated the presence of alkaloids and glucosides in D. metel fruits and alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolics in A. mexicana whole plant extracts. The results indicated that these botanicals may play an important role in reducing the use of chemicals for tick control and possibly to manage resistant tick population in environment friendly manner. PMID:25717008

  1. Acaricidal activity of the organic extracts of thirteen South African plants against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Fouche, Gerda; Ramafuthula, Mary; Maselela, Vusi; Mokoena, Moses; Senabe, Jeremiah; Leboho, Tlabo; Sakong, Bellonah M; Adenubi, Olubukola T; Eloff, Jacobus N; Wellington, Kevin W

    2016-07-15

    The African blue tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, is a common tick species found in South Africa and affects cattle production as well as vectoring pathogens in regions of Africa and Asia. In an attempt to develop a non-toxic, lower cost and environmentally friendly tick control method, twenty-six plant extracts were prepared from thirteen plant species using 99.5% acetone and 99% ethanol. The adapted Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT) was used to test the efficacy of the extracts. A 1% solution of each of the plant extracts was prepared for efficacy testing and the ethanol extracts were found to have better acaricidal activity than the acetone extracts. The ethanol extract from the leaves and flowers of Calpurnia aurea had the best activity [corrected mortality (CM)=82.9%] which was followed by the stem extract of Cissus quadrangularis (CM=80.4%). The plant species were screened against Vero cells and were found to have low toxicity. From this study it is apparent that there is potential for the development of botanicals as natural acaricides against R. (B.) decoloratus. PMID:27270388

  2. Recovering effects of aqueous extracts of some selected medical plants on the teratogenic effects during the development of D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Handan; Kara, Ayşe Aydan; Algur, Omer Faruk; Dumlupinar, Rahmi; Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri

    2007-05-15

    In this study the effects of some selected medical plants (Pimpinella anisum L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Achillea millefolium L., Acorus calamus L., Hypericum perforatum L.) on the development of Drosophila melanogaster have been investigated. When the different concentration of plant extracts were applied to the cultures of Drosophila melanogaster, they did not caused an elongation of metamorphosis of F1 progeny. Furthermore, depending on an increase of plant extract on the application groups, the number of offsprings increased. But this increasing (for application groups no. I, II and IV) was not statistically significant (p > 0.05) according to control group. The highest increase in the total number of offspring of F1 progeny obtained from applications of Acorus calamus extracts and the 10 mL/100 mL medium concentration of the extract of Hypericum perforatum. PMID:19086522

  3. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiotic Resistance Modifying Effect of Bioactive Plant Extracts on Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis

    PubMed Central

    Chovanová, Romana; Vaverková, Štefánia

    2013-01-01

    The crude extracts of plants from Asteraceae and Lamiaceae family and essential oils from Salvia officinalis and Salvia sclarea were studied for their antibacterial as well as antibiotic resistance modifying activity. Using disc diffusion and broth microdilution assays we determined higher antibacterial effect of three Salvia spp. and by evaluating the leakage of 260 nm absorbing material we detected effect of extracts and, namely, of essential oils on the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane. The evaluation of in vitro interactions between plant extracts and oxacillin described in terms of fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) indices revealed synergistic or additive effects of plant extracts and clearly synergistic effects of essential oil from Salvia officinalis with oxacillin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. PMID:24222768

  4. Functional design criteria for the 242-A evaporator and PUREX (Plutonium-Uranium Extraction) Plant condensate interim retention basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cejka, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains the functional design criteria for a 26- million-gallon retention basin and 10 million gallons of temporary storage tanks. The basin and tanks will be used to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant process distillate discharge stream, and the PUREX Plant ammonia scrubber distillate stream. Completion of the project will allow both the 242-A Evaporator and the PUREX Plant to restart. 4 refs.

  5. Guajavadimer A, a Dimeric Caryophyllene-Derived Meroterpenoid with a New Carbon Skeleton from the Leaves of Psidium guajava.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang-Jun; Ma, Jie; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Dong-Ming

    2016-01-15

    Guajavadimer A (1), a dimeric sesquiterpene-based meroterpenoid which possessed an unprecedented two caryophyllenes, a benzylphlorogulcinol, and a flavonone-fused complicated stereochemical skeleton, was isolated from the leaves of Psidium guajava L. Its structure and absolute configuration were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and X-ray crystallography. Guajavadimer A (1) showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against N-acetyl-p-aminophenol (APAP)-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells. PMID:26710182

  6. Pathogenesis-related protein expression in the apoplast of wheat leaves protected against leaf rust following application of plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Naz, Rabia; Bano, Asghari; Wilson, Neil L; Guest, David; Roberts, Thomas H

    2014-09-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major disease of wheat. We tested aqueous leaf extracts of Jacaranda mimosifolia (Bignoniaceae), Thevetia peruviana (Apocynaceae), and Calotropis procera (Apocynaceae) for their ability to protect wheat from leaf rust. Extracts from all three species inhibited P. triticina urediniospore germination in vitro. Plants sprayed with extracts before inoculation developed significantly lower levels of disease incidence (number of plants infected) than unsprayed, inoculated controls. Sprays combining 0.6% leaf extracts and 2 mM salicylic acid with the fungicide Amistar Xtra at 0.05% (azoxystrobin at 10 μg/liter + cyproconazole at 4 μg/liter) reduced disease incidence significantly more effectively than sprays of fungicide at 0.1% alone. Extracts of J. mimosifolia were most active, either alone (1.2%) or in lower doses (0.6%) in combination with 0.05% Amistar Xtra. Leaf extracts combined with fungicide strongly stimulated defense-related gene expression and the subsequent accumulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins in the apoplast of inoculated wheat leaves. The level of protection afforded was significantly correlated with the ability of extracts to increase PR protein expression. We conclude that pretreatment of wheat leaves with spray formulations containing previously untested plant leaf extracts enhances protection against leaf rust provided by fungicide sprays, offering an alternative disease management strategy. PMID:24624956

  7. Down-modulation of nitric oxide production in murine macrophages treated with crude plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, D R; Mineo, J R; de Souza, M A; de Paula, J E; Espindola, L S; Espindola, F S

    2005-05-13

    Several plant species from the Cerrado biome in Brazil are popularly used as herbal medicines for its reputed analgesic, anti-acid, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumoral properties, among others. It has been reported that some plant extracts interfere in the production of nitric oxide (NO), an important inflammatory mediator. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hexanic and ethanolic extracts from three plant species on NO production by LPS/IFN-gamma-activated J774 macrophages based on traditional use. The cytotoxic effect of the crude extracts was determined by the thiazolyl blue test (MTT) to measure cell viability. Serjania lethalis stem extracts and Cupania vernalis leaf extracts significantly inhibited NO production, while extracts from Casearia sylvestris var. lingua were inactive or showed low activity on NO production, or were very cytotoxic. The ethanolic stem bark and leaf extracts of Serjania lethalis and Cupania vernalis, respectively, almost completely inhibited the production of NO by J774 macrophages. It can be concluded that the selected extracts are potential sources of active compounds that might be used as anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:15848017

  8. Isolation and characterization of antimicrobial compounds in plant extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Miyasaki, Yoko; Rabenstein, John D; Rhea, Joshua; Crouch, Marie-Laure; Mocek, Ulla M; Kittell, Patricia Emmett; Morgan, Margie A; Nichols, Wesley Stephen; Van Benschoten, M M; Hardy, William David; Liu, George Y

    2013-01-01

    The number of fully active antibiotic options that treat nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is extremely limited. Magnolia officinalis, Mahonia bealei, Rabdosia rubescens, Rosa rugosa, Rubus chingii, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Terminalia chebula plant extracts were previously shown to have growth inhibitory activity against a multidrug-resistant clinical strain of A. baumannii. In this study, the compounds responsible for their antimicrobial activity were identified by fractionating each plant extract using high performance liquid chromatography, and determining the antimicrobial activity of each fraction against A. baumannii. The chemical structures of the fractions inhibiting >40% of the bacterial growth were elucidated by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The six most active compounds were identified as: ellagic acid in Rosa rugosa; norwogonin in Scutellaria baicalensis; and chebulagic acid, chebulinic acid, corilagin, and terchebulin in Terminalia chebula. The most potent compound was identified as norwogonin with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 128 µg/mL, and minimum bactericidal concentration of 256 µg/mL against clinically relevant strains of A. baumannii. Combination studies of norwogonin with ten anti-Gram negative bacterial agents demonstrated that norwogonin did not enhance the antimicrobial activity of the synthetic antibiotics chosen for this study. In conclusion, of all identified antimicrobial compounds, norwogonin was the most potent against multidrug-resistant A. baumannii strains. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the prophylactic and therapeutic potential of norwogonin for infections due to multidrug-resistant A. baumannii. PMID:23630600

  9. Protein extraction from Ca-alginate encapsulated plant material for comparative proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Domżalska, Lucyna; Mikuła, Anna; Rybczyński, Jan J

    2016-10-01

    The extensive use of encapsulation material in biotechnology drove the need to develop analytical techniques for this type of material. This study focuses on the specific problems of protein extraction from Ca-alginate encapsulated plant material. Proteomics is one of the fast-developing analysis categories, specifically for stress resistance and developmental changes in plant material. Sample preparation is a critical step in a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteome approach and is essential for good results. The aim was to avoid preliminary manipulations and get good quality material for comparative proteome analysis technique 2DE. The phenol extraction method and the complex method with preliminary TCA precipitation, SDS buffer and phenol phase were compared with respect to the efficiency and quality of the resulting 2DE gel. The most appropriate method turned out to be the TCA/phenol method with the phenol fractioning technique adapted to the gentian cell suspension. It resulted in a high protein concentration and good quality sample that could be analyzed using the standard separation procedures of 2DE and spectrometric identification with high efficiency. The work presented here confirms the possibility of obtaining a sufficient protein sample for effective proteomic analysis from a small number of capsules. PMID:27235574

  10. Cadmium-zinc interactions in plants and extractable cadmium and zinc fractions in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Sabour, M.F.; Mortvedt, J.J.; Kelsoe, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    This study related Cd-Zn concentrations in plants to levels of Cd and Zn in soil recovered by several extractants soon after application of Cd and Zn sources to soil. Cadmium nitrate and ZnSO/sub 4/ or Zn(C/sub 2/H/sub 3/O/sub 2/)/sub 2/ were mixed with a Zn-deficient Crowley silt loam soil, cropped with corn (Zea mays L.), and then cropped with Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris). Applied Cd significantly increased the Cd/Zn ratio in both crops, especially in Swiss chard, which accumulates heavy metals. A previously published sequential-extraction procedure was used to fractionate Cd and Zn in soil after the corn harvest. Results of statistical analyses showed the highest correlation between Cd uptake by each crop and the carbonate and sulfide fractions of Cd in soil. Including other Cd fractions resulted in only slightly higher R/sup 2/ values. Zinc uptake by each crop was best related to the organic fraction of Zn in soil, and including the other Zn fractions did not affect the relationship. These results show that Cd and Zn uptake by corn or Swiss chard was not related to similar chemical fractions of these elements in soil, and that the Cd/Zn ratio in plant tops was significantly affected by both Cd and Zn applications to soil.

  11. Combined effects of plant extracts in inhibiting the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyejung; Kim, Jinsol; Bang, Jihyun; Kim, Hoikyung; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    A study was done to determine the potential use of plant extracts to inhibit the growth of Bacillus cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal. A total of 2116 extracts were screened for inhibitory activity against B. cereus using an agar well diffusion assay. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal lethal concentrations (MLC) of 14 promising extracts in tryptic soy broth (TSB) were determined. Dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern) root extract showed the lowest MIC (0.0156 mg/ml), followed by Siegesbeckia glabrescens (Siegesbeckia herb) leaf (0.0313 mg/ml), Morus alba (white mulberry) cortex (0.0313 mg/ml), Carex pumila (sand sedge) root (0.0625 mg/ml), and Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seed (0.0625 mg/ml) extracts. The order of MLCs of extracts was D. erythrosora root (0.0156 mg/ml)extracts against B. cereus in TSB were determined using a checkerboard assay. A combination of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts showed a partial synergistic inhibition, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) of 0.75. Single and combined inhibitory activities of selected plant extracts against B. cereus in reconstituted infant rice cereal were investigated. The MICs of S. glabrescens, M. alba, D. erythrosora, and C. pumila extracts against B. cereus were 1.0, 2.0, 2.0, and 8.0mg/ml, respectively. A combination of D. erythrosora (1.00 mg/ml) and C. pumila (1.00 mg/ml) extracts showed a partial synergistic effect (FICI 0.63) in inhibiting the growth of B. cereus. Results indicate that by combining extracts, the amounts of D. erythrosora and C. pumila extracts can be reduced by 50% and 87.5%, respectively, compared with individual extracts, and give similar inhibitory activity in reconstituted infant rice cereal. Sensory evaluation showed that supplementing reconstituted

  12. Evaluation of the inhibitory activities of the extracts of Indonesian traditional medicinal plants against Plasmodium falciparum and Babesia gibsoni.