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1

PlantTribes: a gene and gene family resource for comparative genomics in plants.  

PubMed

The PlantTribes database (http://fgp.huck.psu.edu/tribe.html) is a plant gene family database based on the inferred proteomes of five sequenced plant species: Arabidopsis thaliana, Carica papaya, Medicago truncatula, Oryza sativa and Populus trichocarpa. We used the graph-based clustering algorithm MCL [Van Dongen (Technical Report INS-R0010 2000) and Enright et al. (Nucleic Acids Res. 2002; 30: 1575-1584)] to classify all of these species' protein-coding genes into putative gene families, called tribes, using three clustering stringencies (low, medium and high). For all tribes, we have generated protein and DNA alignments and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees. A parallel database of microarray experimental results is linked to the genes, which lets researchers identify groups of related genes and their expression patterns. Unified nomenclatures were developed, and tribes can be related to traditional gene families and conserved domain identifiers. SuperTribes, constructed through a second iteration of MCL clustering, connect distant, but potentially related gene clusters. The global classification of nearly 200 000 plant proteins was used as a scaffold for sorting approximately 4 million additional cDNA sequences from over 200 plant species. All data and analyses are accessible through a flexible interface allowing users to explore the classification, to place query sequences within the classification, and to download results for further study. PMID:18073194

Wall, P Kerr; Leebens-Mack, Jim; Müller, Kai F; Field, Dawn; Altman, Naomi S; dePamphilis, Claude W

2008-01-01

2

Phylogenomics of MADS-Box Genes in Plants -- Two Opposing Life Styles in One Gene Family  

PubMed Central

The development of multicellular eukaryotes, according to their body plan, is often directed by members of multigene families that encode transcription factors. MADS (for MINICHROMOSOME MAINTENANCE1, AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR)-box genes form one of those families controlling nearly all major aspects of plant development. Knowing the complete complement of MADS-box genes in sequenced plant genomes will allow a better understanding of the evolutionary patterns of these genes and the association of their evolution with the evolution of plant morphologies. Here, we have applied a combination of automatic and manual annotations to identify the complete set of MADS-box genes in 17 plant genomes. Furthermore, three plant genomes were reanalyzed and published datasets were used for four genomes such that more than 2,600 genes from 24 species were classified into the two types of MADS-box genes, Type I and Type II. Our results extend previous studies, highlighting the remarkably different evolutionary patterns of Type I and Type II genes and provide a basis for further studies on the evolution and function of MADS-box genes.

Gramzow, Lydia; Theissen, Gunter

2013-01-01

3

Phylogenetic relationships and selective pressure on gene families related to iron homeostasis in land plants.  

PubMed

Iron is involved in many metabolic processes, such as respiration and photosynthesis, and therefore an essential element for plant development. Comparative analysis of gene copies between crops and lower plant groups can shed light on the evolution of genes important to iron homeostasis. A phylogenetic analysis of five metal homeostasis gene families (NAS, NRAMP, YSL, FRO, and IRT) selected in monocots, dicots, gymnosperms, and bryophytes was performed. The homologous genes were found using known iron homeostasis gene sequences of Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Physcomitrella patens as queries. The phylogeny was constructed using bioinfomatics tools. A total of 243 gene sequences for 30 plant species were found. The evolutionary fingerprint analysis suggested a purifying selective pressure of iron homeostasis genes for most of the plant gene homologues. The NAS and YSL genes appear to accumulate more negative selection sites, suggesting a strong selective pressure on these two gene families. The divergence time analysis indicates IRT as the most ancient gene family and FRO as the most recent. NRAMP and YSL genes appear to share a close relationship in the evolution of iron homeostasis gene families. PMID:23231606

Victoria, Filipe de Carvalho; Bervald, Clauber Mateus Priebe; da Maia, Luciano Carlos; de Sousa, Rogerio Oliveira; Panaud, Olivier; de Oliveira, Antônio Costa

2012-12-01

4

Different evolutionary histories of two cation/proton exchanger gene families in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Gene duplication events have been proposed to be involved in the adaptation of plants to stress conditions; precisely how is unclear. To address this question, we studied the evolution of two families of antiporters. Cation/proton exchangers are important for normal cell function and in plants, Na+,K+/H+ antiporters have also been implicated in salt tolerance. Two well-known plant cation/proton antiporters are NHX1 and SOS1, which perform Na+ and K+ compartmentalization into the vacuole and Na+ efflux from the cell, respectively. However, our knowledge about the evolution of NHX and SOS1 stress responsive gene families is still limited. Results In this study we performed a comprehensive molecular evolutionary analysis of the NHX and SOS1 families. Using available sequences from a total of 33 plant species, we estimated gene family phylogenies and gene duplication histories, as well as examined heterogeneous selection pressure on amino acid sites. Our results show that, while the NHX family expanded and specialized, the SOS1 family remained a low copy gene family that appears to have undergone neofunctionalization during its evolutionary history. Additionally, we found that both families are under purifying selection although SOS1 is less constrained. Conclusions We propose that the different evolution histories are related with the proteins’ function and localization, and that the NHX and SOS1 families are examples of two different evolutionary paths through which duplication events may result in adaptive evolution of stress tolerance.

2013-01-01

5

Analysis of the evolution of the family of the Sig genes encoding plant sigma factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within the latter decade, sigma subunits of bacterial-type RNA polymerases were found in eukaryote cells. In the higher plants\\u000a and algae, these subunits determine the promoter specificity of the chloroplast multisubunit RNA polymerase. In the higher\\u000a plants, sigma subunits are encoded by the family of nuclear Sig genes comprising 5–6 genes. Several conclusions as to the evolution of this gene

E. A. Lysenko

2006-01-01

6

Conservation and diversity of gene families explored using the CODEHOP strategy in higher plants  

PubMed Central

Background Availability of genomewide information on an increasing but still limited number of plants offers the possibility of identifying orthologues, or related genes, in species with major economical impact and complex genomes. In this paper we exploit the recently described CODEHOP primer design and PCR strategy for targeted isolation of homologues in large gene families. Results The method was tested with two different objectives. The first was to analyze the evolution of the CYP98 family of cytochrome P450 genes involved in 3-hydroxylation of phenolic compounds and lignification in a broad range of plant species. The second was to isolate an orthologue of the sorghum glucosyl transferase UGT85B1 and to determine the complexity of the UGT85 family in wheat. P450s of the CYP98 family or closely related sequences were found in all vascular plants. No related sequence was found in moss. Neither extensive duplication of the CYP98 genes nor an orthologue of UGT85B1 were found in wheat. The UGT85A subfamily was however found to be highly variable in wheat. Conclusions Our data are in agreement with the implication of CYP98s in lignification and the evolution of 3-hydroxylation of lignin precursors with vascular plants. High conservation of the CYP98 family strongly argues in favour of an essential function in plant development. Conversely, high duplication and diversification of the UGT85A gene family in wheat suggests its involvement in adaptative response and provides a valuable pool of genes for biotechnological applications. This work demonstrates the high potential of the CODEHOP strategy for the exploration of large gene families in plants.

Morant, Marc; Hehn, Alain; Werck-Reichhart, Daniele

2002-01-01

7

Comparative genome analysis of lignin biosynthesis gene families across the plant kingdom  

PubMed Central

Background As a major component of plant cell wall, lignin plays important roles in mechanical support, water transport, and stress responses. As the main cause for the recalcitrance of plant cell wall, lignin modification has been a major task for bioenergy feedstock improvement. The study of the evolution and function of lignin biosynthesis genes thus has two-fold implications. First, the lignin biosynthesis pathway provides an excellent model to study the coordinative evolution of a biochemical pathway in plants. Second, understanding the function and evolution of lignin biosynthesis genes will guide us to develop better strategies for bioenergy feedstock improvement. Results We analyzed lignin biosynthesis genes from fourteen plant species and one symbiotic fungal species. Comprehensive comparative genome analysis was carried out to study the distribution, relatedness, and family expansion of the lignin biosynthesis genes across the plant kingdom. In addition, we also analyzed the comparative synteny map between rice and sorghum to study the evolution of lignin biosynthesis genes within the Poaceae family and the chromosome evolution between the two species. Comprehensive lignin biosynthesis gene expression analysis was performed in rice, poplar and Arabidopsis. The representative data from rice indicates that different fates of gene duplications exist for lignin biosynthesis genes. In addition, we also carried out the biomass composition analysis of nine Arabidopsis mutants with both MBMS analysis and traditional wet chemistry methods. The results were analyzed together with the genomics analysis. Conclusion The research revealed that, among the species analyzed, the complete lignin biosynthesis pathway first appeared in moss; the pathway is absent in green algae. The expansion of lignin biosynthesis gene families correlates with substrate diversity. In addition, we found that the expansion of the gene families mostly occurred after the divergence of monocots and dicots, with the exception of the C4H gene family. Gene expression analysis revealed different fates of gene duplications, largely confirming plants are tolerant to gene dosage effects. The rapid expansion of lignin biosynthesis genes indicated that the translation of transgenic lignin modification strategies from model species to bioenergy feedstock might only be successful between the closely relevant species within the same family.

2009-01-01

8

Genome-Wide Analysis of the NADK Gene Family in Plants  

PubMed Central

Background NAD(H) kinase (NADK) is the key enzyme that catalyzes de novo synthesis of NADP(H) from NAD(H) for NADP(H)-based metabolic pathways. In plants, NADKs form functional subfamilies. Studies of these families in Arabidopsis thaliana indicate that they have undergone considerable evolutionary selection; however, the detailed evolutionary history and functions of the various NADKs in plants are not clearly understood. Principal Findings We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 74 NADK gene homologs from 24 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots and eudicots. Phylogenetic and structural analysis classified these NADK genes into four well-conserved subfamilies with considerable variety in the domain organization and gene structure among subfamily members. In addition to the typical NAD_kinase domain, additional domains, such as adenylate kinase, dual-specificity phosphatase, and protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domains, were found in subfamily II. Interestingly, NADKs in subfamily III exhibited low sequence similarity (?30%) in the kinase domain within the subfamily and with the other subfamilies. These observations suggest that gene fusion and exon shuffling may have occurred after gene duplication, leading to specific domain organization seen in subfamilies II and III, respectively. Further analysis of the exon/intron structures showed that single intron loss and gain had occurred, yielding the diversified gene structures, during the process of structural evolution of NADK family genes. Finally, both available global microarray data analysis and qRT-RCR experiments revealed that the NADK genes in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa show different expression patterns in different developmental stages and under several different abiotic/biotic stresses and hormone treatments, underscoring the functional diversity and functional divergence of the NADK family in plants. Conclusions These findings will facilitate further studies of the NADK family and provide valuable information for functional validation of this family in plants.

Li, Wen-Yan; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ri; Li, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Kun-Ming

2014-01-01

9

Conservation, Divergence, and Genome-Wide Distribution of PAL and POX A Gene Families in Plants  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide identification and phylogenetic and syntenic comparison were performed for the genes responsible for phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and peroxidase A (POX A) enzymes in nine plant species representing very diverse groups like legumes (Glycine max and Medicago truncatula), fruits (Vitis vinifera), cereals (Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays, and Oryza sativa), trees (Populus trichocarpa), and model dicot (Arabidopsis thaliana) and monocot (Brachypodium distachyon) species. A total of 87 and 1045 genes in PAL and POX A gene families, respectively, have been identified in these species. The phylogenetic and syntenic comparison along with motif distributions shows a high degree of conservation of PAL genes, suggesting that these genes may predate monocot/eudicot divergence. The POX A family genes, present in clusters at the subtelomeric regions of chromosomes, might be evolving and expanding with higher rate than the PAL gene family. Our analysis showed that during the expansion of POX A gene family, many groups and subgroups have evolved, resulting in a high level of functional divergence among monocots and dicots. These results will act as a first step toward the understanding of monocot/eudicot evolution and functional characterization of these gene families in the future.

Rawal, H. C.; Singh, N. K.; Sharma, T. R.

2013-01-01

10

The six genes of the Rubisco small subunit multigene family from Mesembryanthemum crystallinum , a facultative CAM plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nucleotide sequences of the entire gene family, comprising six genes, that encodes the Rubisco small subunit (rbcS) multigene family in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant), were determined. Five of the genes are arranged in a tandem array spanning 20 kb, while the sixth gene is not closely linked to this array. The mature small subunit coding regions are highly

E. Jay DeRocher; Francoise Quigley; Regis Mache; Hans J. Bohnert

1993-01-01

11

Patterns of expansion and expression divergence in the plant polygalacturonase gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Polygalacturonases (PGs) belong to a large gene family in plants and are believed to be responsible for various cell separation\\u000a processes. PG activities have been shown to be associated with a wide range of plant developmental programs such as seed germination,\\u000a organ abscission, pod and anther dehiscence, pollen grain maturation, fruit softening and decay, xylem cell formation, and\\u000a pollen tube

Joonyup Kim; Shin-Han Shiu; Sharon Thoma; Wen-Hsiung Li; Sara E Patterson

2006-01-01

12

Multifunctionality and diversity within the plant MYB-gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

MYB proteins constitute a diverse class of DNA-binding proteins of particular importance in transcriptional regulation in plants. Members are characterised by having a structurally conserved DNA-binding domain, the MYB domain. Different categories of MYB proteins can be identified depending on the number of imperfect repeats of the MYB domain they contain. It is likely that single MYB-domain proteins, a class

Hailing Jin; Cathie Martin

1999-01-01

13

Expression, splicing, and evolution of the myosin gene family in plants.  

PubMed

Plants possess two myosin classes, VIII and XI. The myosins XI are implicated in organelle transport, filamentous actin organization, and cell and plant growth. Due to the large size of myosin gene families, knowledge of these molecular motors remains patchy. Using deep transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics, we systematically investigated myosin genes in two model plants, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon). We improved myosin gene models and found that myosin genes undergo alternative splicing. We experimentally validated the gene models for Arabidopsis myosin XI-K, which plays the principal role in cell interior dynamics, as well as for its Brachypodium ortholog. We showed that the Arabidopsis gene dubbed HDK (for headless derivative of myosin XI-K), which emerged through a partial duplication of the XI-K gene, is developmentally regulated. A gene with similar architecture was also found in Brachypodium. Our analyses revealed two predominant patterns of myosin gene expression, namely pollen/stamen-specific and ubiquitous expression throughout the plant. We also found that several myosins XI can be rhythmically expressed. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the last common ancestor of the angiosperms possessed two myosins VIII and five myosins XI, many of which underwent additional lineage-specific duplications. PMID:21233331

Peremyslov, Valera V; Mockler, Todd C; Filichkin, Sergei A; Fox, Samuel E; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Makarova, Kira S; Koonin, Eugene V; Dolja, Valerian V

2011-03-01

14

Expression, Splicing, and Evolution of the Myosin Gene Family in Plants1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Plants possess two myosin classes, VIII and XI. The myosins XI are implicated in organelle transport, filamentous actin organization, and cell and plant growth. Due to the large size of myosin gene families, knowledge of these molecular motors remains patchy. Using deep transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics, we systematically investigated myosin genes in two model plants, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon). We improved myosin gene models and found that myosin genes undergo alternative splicing. We experimentally validated the gene models for Arabidopsis myosin XI-K, which plays the principal role in cell interior dynamics, as well as for its Brachypodium ortholog. We showed that the Arabidopsis gene dubbed HDK (for headless derivative of myosin XI-K), which emerged through a partial duplication of the XI-K gene, is developmentally regulated. A gene with similar architecture was also found in Brachypodium. Our analyses revealed two predominant patterns of myosin gene expression, namely pollen/stamen-specific and ubiquitous expression throughout the plant. We also found that several myosins XI can be rhythmically expressed. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the last common ancestor of the angiosperms possessed two myosins VIII and five myosins XI, many of which underwent additional lineage-specific duplications.

Peremyslov, Valera V.; Mockler, Todd C.; Filichkin, Sergei A.; Fox, Samuel E.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

2011-01-01

15

Convergent gene loss following gene and genome duplications creates single-copy families in flowering plants  

PubMed Central

The importance of gene gain through duplication has long been appreciated. In contrast, the importance of gene loss has only recently attracted attention. Indeed, studies in organisms ranging from plants to worms and humans suggest that duplication of some genes might be better tolerated than that of others. Here we have undertaken a large-scale study to investigate the existence of duplication-resistant genes in the sequenced genomes of 20 flowering plants. We demonstrate that there is a large set of genes that is convergently restored to single-copy status following multiple genome-wide and smaller scale duplication events. We rule out the possibility that such a pattern could be explained by random gene loss only and therefore propose that there is selection pressure to preserve such genes as singletons. This is further substantiated by the observation that angiosperm single-copy genes do not comprise a random fraction of the genome, but instead are often involved in essential housekeeping functions that are highly conserved across all eukaryotes. Furthermore, single-copy genes are generally expressed more highly and in more tissues than non–single-copy genes, and they exhibit higher sequence conservation. Finally, we propose different hypotheses to explain their resistance against duplication.

De Smet, Riet; Adams, Keith L.; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Montagu, Marc C. E.; Maere, Steven; Van de Peer, Yves

2013-01-01

16

Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.  

PubMed

The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry. PMID:17562090

Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

2007-10-01

17

Gene structure dynamics and divergence of the polygalacturonase gene family of plants and fungus.  

PubMed

Whole copies of the polygalacturonase (PG) genes from rice (Oryza sativa subsp. japonica) and a filamentous fungus (Aspergillus oryzae) were isolated. The orthologs of the rice PGs were also retrieved from other plant species. The 106 plant PGs analyzed were divided into 5 clades, A, B, C, D, and E. The fungus PGs were classified into 3 clades, of which one formed a loose cluster with clade E of the plant PGs. Four domain motifs (I, II, III, IV) were identified in all PGs. Motifs II and III were split by introns such as G/DDC and CGPGHGIS/IGSLG, respectively. In plant PGs there were 446 introns in total and 3.98 introns per gene. Intron phase distribution was 65.5% for phase 0, 19.7% for phase 1, and 14.8% for phase 2 in plant PGs. In the PGs of A. oryzae there were 37 introns of phase 0 (59.5%), phase 1 (24.3%), and phase 2 (16.2%), with 2.47 introns per gene. The 5 clades of plant PGs were divided into 3 basic gene structure lineages. Intron positions and phases were conserved among the PGs in the first 2 lineages. The third lineage consisted of PGs of clade E, which also carried highly conserved introns at different positions from other PGs. Intron positions were not as highly conserved in fungus PGs as in plant PGs. The introns in the current PGs have been present since before the divergence of monocots from dicots. The results obtained show that differential losses of introns created gene diversity, which was followed by segmental and tandem duplication in plant PGs. PMID:18356937

Park, K-C; Kwon, S-J; Kim, P-H; Bureau, T; Kim, N-S

2008-01-01

18

Evolution of the PEBP Gene Family in Plants: Functional Diversification in Seed Plant Evolution1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family is present in all eukaryote kingdoms, with three subfamilies identified in angiosperms (FLOWERING LOCUS T [FT], MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 [MFT], and TERMINAL FLOWER1 [TFL1] like). In angiosperms, PEBP genes have been shown to function both as promoters and suppressors of flowering and to control plant architecture. In this study, we focus on previously uncharacterized PEBP genes from gymnosperms. Extensive database searches suggest that gymnosperms possess only two types of PEBP genes, MFT-like and a group that occupies an intermediate phylogenetic position between the FT-like and TFL1-like (FT/TFL1-like). Overexpression of Picea abies PEBP genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggests that the FT/TFL1-like genes (PaFTL1 and PaFTL2) code for proteins with a TFL1-like function. However, PaFTL1 and PaFTL2 also show highly divergent expression patterns. While the expression of PaFTL2 is correlated with annual growth rhythm and mainly confined to needles and vegetative and reproductive buds, the expression of PaFTL1 is largely restricted to microsporophylls of male cones. The P. abies MFT-like genes (PaMFT1 and PaMFT2) show a predominant expression during embryo development, a pattern that is also found for many MFT-like genes from angiosperms. P. abies PEBP gene expression is primarily detected in tissues undergoing physiological changes related to growth arrest and dormancy. A first duplication event resulting in two families of plant PEBP genes (MFT-like and FT/TFL1-like) seems to coincide with the evolution of seed plants, in which independent control of bud and seed dormancy was required, and the second duplication resulting in the FT-like and TFL1-like clades probably coincided with the evolution of angiosperms.

Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Kallman, Thomas; Sundstrom, Jens F.; Moore, David; Lascoux, Martin; Lagercrantz, Ulf

2011-01-01

19

Functional Evolution in the Plant SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) Gene Family  

PubMed Central

The SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family of transcription factors is functionally diverse, controlling a number of fundamental aspects of plant growth and development, including vegetative phase change, flowering time, branching, and leaf initiation rate. In natural plant populations, variation in flowering time and shoot architecture have major consequences for fitness. Likewise, in crop species, variation in branching and developmental rate impact biomass and yield. Thus, studies aimed at dissecting how the various functions are partitioned among different SPL genes in diverse plant lineages are key to providing insight into the genetic basis of local adaptation and have already garnered attention by crop breeders. Here we use phylogenetic reconstruction to reveal nine major SPL gene lineages, each of which is described in terms of function and diversification. To assess evidence for ancestral and derived functions within each SPL gene lineage, we use ancestral character state reconstructions. Our analyses suggest an emerging pattern of sub-functionalization, neo-functionalization, and possible convergent evolution following both ancient and recent gene duplication. Based on these analyses we suggest future avenues of research that may prove fruitful for elucidating the importance of SPL gene evolution in plant growth and development.

Preston, Jill C.; Hileman, Lena C.

2013-01-01

20

Plant Receptor-Like Kinase Gene Family: Diversity, Function, and Signaling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A basic feature of all biological systems is the ability to sense and process information from chemical signals via cell-surface receptors. One prevalent class of receptors in both plants and animals is the receptor protein kinases. These proteins contain a signal-binding region located outside the cell linked to a region inside the cell called the protein kinase domain. The protein kinase domain transmits information to other cellular components by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to an amino acid residue on the target proteins. In animals and humans, the well-studied family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) mediates a wide range of signaling events at the cell surface. The importance of receptor protein kinases in plant biology was revealed by the discovery of a family of more than 400 genes coding for receptor-like kinases (RLKs) present in the recently sequenced genome of the model plant Arabidopsis. Unlike most animal RTKs, the plant RLKs use serine and threonine residues in proteins as targets for phosphorylation. Detailed studies of a handful of plant RLK genes have implicated them in the control of plant growth and development and in responses to pathogens. Multiple signals can be sensed by different RLKs, including peptides produced by neighboring cells, steroid hormones, and pathogen cell-wall proteins and carbohydrates. Major challenges for the future will include understanding the wide range of specific signaling functions performed by this large family of receptors and discovering how the information from this multitude of signal initiation points is integrated by the plant's cells.

Shin-Han Shiu (University of Wisconsin-Madison;The Department of Botany REV); Anthony B. Bleecker (University of Wisconsin-Madison;The Department of Botany REV)

2001-12-18

21

The Lateral Organ Boundaries Gene Defines a Novel, Plant-Specific Gene Family1  

PubMed Central

The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) gene in Arabidopsis defines a new conserved protein domain. LOB is expressed in a band of cells at the adaxial base of all lateral organs formed from the shoot apical meristem and at the base of lateral roots. LOB encodes a predicted protein that does not have recognizable functional motifs, but that contains a conserved domain (the LOB domain) that is present in 42 other Arabidopsis proteins and in proteins from a variety of other plant species. Proteins showing similarity to the LOB domain were not found outside of plant databases, indicating that this unique protein may play a role in plant-specific processes. Genes encoding LOB domain proteins are expressed in a variety of temporal- and tissue-specific patterns, suggesting that they may function in diverse processes. Loss-of-function LOB mutants have no detectable phenotype under standard growth conditions, suggesting that LOB is functionally redundant or required during growth under specific environmental conditions. Ectopic expression of LOB leads to alterations in the size and shape of leaves and floral organs and causes male and female sterility. The expression of LOB at the base of lateral organs suggests a potential role for LOB in lateral organ development.

Shuai, Bin; Reynaga-Pena, Cristina G.; Springer, Patricia S.

2002-01-01

22

Recombination between Diverged Clusters of the Tomato Cf9 Plant Disease Resistance Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The tomato Cf-4 and Cf-9 genes are the founder members of a large gene family of homologues of Cladosporium fulvum resistance gene Cf-9 (Hcr9 genes), several of which confer resistance against C. fulvum through recognition of different pathogen-encoded avirulence determinants. Three loci of tandemly repeated Hcr9 genes--Southern Cross (SC), Milky Way (MW), and Northern Lights (NL)--are located on the short

Martin Parniske; Jonathan D. G. Jones

1999-01-01

23

Revolver and Superior: Novel Transposon-Like Gene Families of the Plant Kingdom  

PubMed Central

High-throughput sequencing of eukaryotic genomes has revived interest in the structure and function of repetitive genomic sequences, previously referred to as junk DNA. Repetitive sequences, including transposable elements, are now believed to play a significant role in genomic differentiation and evolution. Some are also expressed as regulatory noncoding RNAs. Vast DNA databases exist for higher eukaryotes; however, with the exception of homologues of known repetitive-sequence-families and transposable elements, most repetitive elements still need to be annotated. Revolver and Superior, both discovered in the Triticeae, are novel classes of transposon-like genes and major components of large cereal genomes. Revolver was isolated from rye via genome subtraction of sequences common to rye and wheat. Superior was isolated from rye by cleavage with EcoO109I, the recognition sites of which consist of a 5?- PuGGNCCPy-3? multi-sequence. Revolver is 2929–3041 bp long with an inverted repeat sequence on each end. The Superior family elements are 1292–1432 bp in length, with divergent 5? regions, indicating the presence of considerable structural diversity. Revolver and Superior are transcriptionally active elements; Revolver harbors a single gene consisting of three exons and two introns, encoding a protein of 139 amino acid residues. Revolver variants range in size from 2665 bp to 4269 bp, with some variants lacking the 5? region, indicating structural diversity around the first exon. Revolver and Superior are dispersed across all seven chromosomes of rye. Revolver has existed since the diploid progenitor of wheat, and has been amplified or lost in several species during the evolution of the Triticeae. This article reviews the recently discovered Revolver and Superior families of plant transposons, which do not share identity with any known autonomous transposable elements or repetitive elements from any living species.

Tomita, Motonori

2010-01-01

24

Stowaway: a new family of inverted repeat elements associated with the genes of both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants.  

PubMed Central

Members of a new inverted repeat element family, named Stowaway, have been found in close association with more than 40 monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plant genes listed in the GenBank and EMBL nucleic acid data bases. Stowaway elements are characterized by a conserved terminal inverted repeat, small size, target site specificity (TA), and potential form stable DNA secondary structures. Some elements are located at the extreme 3' ends of sequenced cDNAs and supply polyadenylation signals to their host genes. Other elements are in the 5' upstream regions of several genes and appear to contain previously identified cis-acting regulatory domains. Although the Stowaway elements share many structural features with the recently discovered Tourist elements, the two families share no significant sequence similarity. Together, the Stowaway and Tourist families serve to define an important new class of short inverted repeat elements found in possibly all flowering plant genomes.

Bureau, T E; Wessler, S R

1994-01-01

25

Phylogenetic analysis, structural evolution and functional divergence of the 12-oxo-phytodienoate acid reductase gene family in plants  

PubMed Central

Background The 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductases (OPRs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of double-bonds in ?, ?-unsaturated aldehydes or ketones and are part of the octadecanoid pathway that converts linolenic acid to jasmonic acid. In plants, OPRs belong to the old yellow enzyme family and form multigene families. Although discoveries about this family in Arabidopsis and other species have been reported in some studies, the evolution and function of multiple OPRs in plants are not clearly understood. Results A comparative genomic analysis was performed to investigate the phylogenetic relationship, structural evolution and functional divergence among OPR paralogues in plants. In total, 74 OPR genes were identified from 11 species representing the 6 major green plant lineages: green algae, mosses, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots and dicots. Phylogenetic analysis showed that seven well-conserved subfamilies exist in plants. All OPR genes from green algae were clustered into a single subfamily, while those from land plants fell into six other subfamilies, suggesting that the events leading to the expansion of the OPR family occurred in land plants. Further analysis revealed that lineage-specific expansion, especially by tandem duplication, contributed to the current OPR subfamilies in land plants after divergence from aquatic plants. Interestingly, exon/intron structure analysis showed that the gene structures of OPR paralogues exhibits diversity in intron number and length, while the intron positions and phase were highly conserved across different lineage species. These observations together with the phylogenetic tree revealed that successive single intron loss, as well as indels within introns, occurred during the process of structural evolution of OPR paralogues. Functional divergence analysis revealed that altered functional constraints have occurred at specific amino acid positions after diversification of the paralogues. Most notably, significant functional divergence was also found in all pairs, except for the II/IV, II/V and V/VI pairs. Strikingly, analysis of the site-specific profiles established by posterior probability revealed that the positive-selection sites and/or critical amino acid residues for functional divergence are mainly distributed in ?-helices and substrate binding loop (SBL), indicating the functional importance of these regions for this protein family. Conclusion This study highlights the molecular evolution of the OPR gene family in all plant lineages and indicates critical amino acid residues likely relevant for the distinct functional properties of the paralogues. Further experimental verification of these findings may provide valuable information on the OPRs' biochemical and physiological functions.

Li, Wenyan; Liu, Bing; Yu, Lujun; Feng, Dongru; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Jinfa

2009-01-01

26

Speciation genes in plants  

PubMed Central

Background Analyses of speciation genesgenes that contribute to the cessation of gene flow between populations – can offer clues regarding the ecological settings, evolutionary forces and molecular mechanisms that drive the divergence of populations and species. This review discusses the identities and attributes of genes that contribute to reproductive isolation (RI) in plants, compares them with animal speciation genes and investigates what these genes can tell us about speciation. Scope Forty-one candidate speciation genes were identified in the plant literature. Of these, seven contributed to pre-pollination RI, one to post-pollination, prezygotic RI, eight to hybrid inviability, and 25 to hybrid sterility. Genes, gene families and genetic pathways that were frequently found to underlie the evolution of RI in different plant groups include the anthocyanin pathway and its regulators (pollinator isolation), S RNase-SI genes (unilateral incompatibility), disease resistance genes (hybrid necrosis), chimeric mitochondrial genes (cytoplasmic male sterility), and pentatricopeptide repeat family genes (cytoplasmic male sterility). Conclusions The most surprising conclusion from this review is that identities of genes underlying both prezygotic and postzygotic RI are often predictable in a broad sense from the phenotype of the reproductive barrier. Regulatory changes (both cis and trans) dominate the evolution of pre-pollination RI in plants, whereas a mix of regulatory mutations and changes in protein-coding genes underlie intrinsic postzygotic barriers. Also, loss-of-function mutations and copy number variation frequently contribute to RI. Although direct evidence of positive selection on speciation genes is surprisingly scarce in plants, analyses of gene family evolution, along with theoretical considerations, imply an important role for diversifying selection and genetic conflict in the evolution of RI. Unlike in animals, however, most candidate speciation genes in plants exhibit intraspecific polymorphism, consistent with an important role for stochastic forces and/or balancing selection in development of RI in plants.

Rieseberg, Loren H.; Blackman, Benjamin K.

2010-01-01

27

Comparative genome analysis of lignin biosynthesis gene families across the plant kingdom  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: As a major component of plant cell wall, lignin plays important roles in mechanical support, water transport, and stress responses. As the main cause for the recalcitrance of plant cell wall, lignin modification has been a major task for bioenergy feedstock improvement. The study of the evolution and function of lignin biosynthesis genes thus has two-fold implications. First, the

Zhanyou Xu; Dandan Zhang; Jun Hu; Xin Zhou; Xia Ye; Kristen L. Reichel; Nathan R. Stewart; Ryan D. Syrenne; Xiaohan Yang; Peng Gao; Weibing Shi; Crissa Doeppke; Robert W. Sykes; Jason N. Burris; Joseph J. Bozell; Douglas G. Hayes; Nicole Labbe; Mark Davis; C. Neal Stewart Jr.; Joshua S. Yuan

2009-01-01

28

Multiple forms of phospholipase D in plants: the gene family, catalytic and regulatory properties, and cellular functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple Phospholipase D (PLD) genes have been identified in plants and encode isoforms with distinct regulatory and catalytic properties. Elucidation of the genetic and biochemical heterogeneity has provided important clues as to the regulation and function of this family of enzymes. Polyphosphoinositides, Ca2+, and G-proteins are possible cellular regulators for PLD activation. PLD-mediated hydrolysis of membrane lipids increases in response

Xuemin Wang

2000-01-01

29

Functional analyses of three ASMT gene family members in rice plants.  

PubMed

N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase (ASMT) is the final enzyme in a biosynthetic pathway that produces melatonin. ASMT may play a rate-limiting role in the production of this bioactive molecule in plants. There are three ASMT genes (ASMT1-ASMT3) in the rice genome, but only ASMT1 has been functionally characterized. A major barrier to further progress in characterizing these genes has been a failure of functional expression within the Escherichia coli. Purified recombinant ASMT2 and ASMT3 are inactive in ASMT enzyme catalysis. To determine the biological functions of ASMT2 and ASMT3, we first overexpressed them in rice calli, which resulted in enhanced production of melatonin in the respective transgenic calli. To further corroborate the functions of ASMT2 and ASMT3 as ASMT genes, we generated stable transgenic rice plants. ASMT enzyme activity was increased in comparison with the wild type in T2 homozygous transgenic rice plants expressing three ASMT genes independently. When seedlings were treated with 1 mm N-acetylserotonin (NAS), leaf melatonin contents were higher in the three transgenic lines than in the wild type. There were no significant differences between the transgenic lines and the wild type without this treatment. ASMT1 and ASMT2 transcripts were highly expressed in stems and flowers, but ASMT3 was barely detectable in any of the plant organs. All three ASMT mRNAs were simultaneously induced in treatments with abscisic and methyl jasmonic acids. PMID:24033370

Park, Sangkyu; Byeon, Yeong; Back, Kyoungwhan

2013-11-01

30

Torn at the Genes One Family's Debate Over Genetically Altered Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The setting for this case is the family dinner table, where a heated discussion about genetically altered foods is taking place. Marsha Cumberland’s brother-in-law has joined the family for dinner. Ed is an industry official whose job it is to decide whether or not new products need pre-market approval by the FDA. He has just returned from a conference on transgenic foods.  When it turns out that some of the food on the dinner table is genetically modified, a debate ensues with different members of the family at different ends of the spectrum. Written for an introductory biology course, the case considers the scientific and ethical issues of genetically altered plants.

Nelson, Jennifer; Herreid, Clyde F.

2000-01-01

31

Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants.  

PubMed

Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:24744764

Socha, Amanda L; Guerinot, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

32

Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants  

PubMed Central

Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis.

Socha, Amanda L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

2014-01-01

33

A Comparative Analysis of the Plant Cellulose Synthase (CesA) Gene Family1  

PubMed Central

CesA genes are believed to encode the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. Identification of nine distinct CesA cDNAs from maize (Zea mays) has allowed us to initiate comparative studies with homologs from Arabidopsis and other plant species. Mapping studies show that closely related CesA genes are not clustered but are found at different chromosomal locations in both Arabidopsis and maize. Furthermore, sequence comparisons among the CesA-deduced proteins show that these cluster in groups wherein orthologs are often more similar than paralogs, indicating that different subclasses evolved prior to the divergence of the monocot and dicot lineages. Studies using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with gene-specific primers for six of the nine maize genes indicate that all genes are expressed to at least some level in all of the organs examined. However, when expression patterns for a few selected genes from maize and Arabidopsis were analyzed in more detail, they were found to be expressed in unique cell types engaged in either primary or secondary wall synthesis. These studies also indicate that amino acid sequence comparisons, at least in some cases, may have value for prediction of such patterns of gene expression. Such analyses begin to provide insights useful for future genetic engineering of cellulose deposition, in that identification of close orthologs across species may prove useful for prediction of patterns of gene expression and may also aid in prediction of mutant combinations that may be necessary to generate severe phenotypes.

Holland, Neta; Holland, Doron; Helentjaris, Tim; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S.; Xoconostle-Cazares, Beatriz; Delmer, Deborah P.

2000-01-01

34

A comparative analysis of the plant cellulose synthase (CesA) gene family.  

PubMed

CesA genes are believed to encode the catalytic subunit of cellulose synthase. Identification of nine distinct CesA cDNAs from maize (Zea mays) has allowed us to initiate comparative studies with homologs from Arabidopsis and other plant species. Mapping studies show that closely related CesA genes are not clustered but are found at different chromosomal locations in both Arabidopsis and maize. Furthermore, sequence comparisons among the CesA-deduced proteins show that these cluster in groups wherein orthologs are often more similar than paralogs, indicating that different subclasses evolved prior to the divergence of the monocot and dicot lineages. Studies using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with gene-specific primers for six of the nine maize genes indicate that all genes are expressed to at least some level in all of the organs examined. However, when expression patterns for a few selected genes from maize and Arabidopsis were analyzed in more detail, they were found to be expressed in unique cell types engaged in either primary or secondary wall synthesis. These studies also indicate that amino acid sequence comparisons, at least in some cases, may have value for prediction of such patterns of gene expression. Such analyses begin to provide insights useful for future genetic engineering of cellulose deposition, in that identification of close orthologs across species may prove useful for prediction of patterns of gene expression and may also aid in prediction of mutant combinations that may be necessary to generate severe phenotypes. PMID:10938350

Holland, N; Holland, D; Helentjaris, T; Dhugga, K S; Xoconostle-Cazares, B; Delmer, D P

2000-08-01

35

Species-Specific Expansion and Molecular Evolution of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase (HMGR) Gene Family in Plants  

PubMed Central

The terpene compounds represent the largest and most diverse class of plant secondary metabolites which are important in plant growth and development. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34) is one of the key enzymes contributed to terpene biosynthesis. To better understand the basic characteristics and evolutionary history of the HMGR gene family in plants, a genome-wide analysis of HMGR genes from 20 representative species was carried out. A total of 56 HMGR genes in the 14 land plant genomes were identified, but no genes were found in all 6 algal genomes. The gene structure and protein architecture of all plant HMGR genes were highly conserved. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the plant HMGRs were derived from one ancestor gene and finally developed into four distinct groups, two in the monocot plants and two in dicot plants. Species-specific gene duplications, caused mainly by segmental duplication, led to the limited expansion of HMGR genes in Zea mays, Gossypium raimondii, Populus trichocarpa and Glycine max after the species diverged. The analysis of Ka/Ks ratios and expression profiles indicated that functional divergence after the gene duplications was restricted. The results suggested that the function and evolution of HMGR gene family were dramatically conserved throughout the plant kingdom.

Li, Wei; Liu, Wei; Wei, Hengling; He, Qiuling; Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Baohong; Zhu, Shuijin

2014-01-01

36

Phylogenetic analysis of pectin-related gene families in Physcomitrella patens and nine other plant species yields evolutionary insights into cell walls  

PubMed Central

Background Pectins are acidic sugar-containing polysaccharides that are universally conserved components of the primary cell walls of plants and modulate both tip and diffuse cell growth. However, many of their specific functions and the evolution of the genes responsible for producing and modifying them are incompletely understood. The moss Physcomitrella patens is emerging as a powerful model system for the study of plant cell walls. To identify deeply conserved pectin-related genes in Physcomitrella, we generated phylogenetic trees for 16 pectin-related gene families using sequences from ten plant genomes and analyzed the evolutionary relationships within these families. Results Contrary to our initial hypothesis that a single ancestral gene was present for each pectin-related gene family in the common ancestor of land plants, five of the 16 gene families, including homogalacturonan galacturonosyltransferases, polygalacturonases, pectin methylesterases, homogalacturonan methyltransferases, and pectate lyase-like proteins, show evidence of multiple members in the early land plant that gave rise to the mosses and vascular plants. Seven of the gene families, the UDP-rhamnose synthases, UDP-glucuronic acid epimerases, homogalacturonan galacturonosyltransferase-like proteins, ?-1,4-galactan ?-1,4-galactosyltransferases, rhamnogalacturonan II xylosyltransferases, and pectin acetylesterases appear to have had a single member in the common ancestor of land plants. We detected no Physcomitrella members in the xylogalacturonan xylosyltransferase, rhamnogalacturonan I arabinosyltransferase, pectin methylesterase inhibitor, or polygalacturonase inhibitor protein families. Conclusions Several gene families related to the production and modification of pectins in plants appear to have multiple members that are conserved as far back as the common ancestor of mosses and vascular plants. The presence of multiple members of these families even before the divergence of other important cell wall-related genes, such as cellulose synthases, suggests a more complex role than previously suspected for pectins in the evolution of land plants. The presence of relatively small pectin-related gene families in Physcomitrella as compared to Arabidopsis makes it an attractive target for analysis of the functions of pectins in cell walls. In contrast, the absence of genes in Physcomitrella for some families suggests that certain pectin modifications, such as homogalacturonan xylosylation, arose later during land plant evolution.

2014-01-01

37

Genome-wide analyses of a plant-specific LIM-domain gene family implicate its evolutionary role in plant diversification.  

PubMed

The Arabidopsis DA1 genes appear to have multiple functions in regulating organ size and abiotic stress response, but the biological roles of its closely related genes remain unknown. Evolutionary analyses might provide some clues to aid in an understanding of their functional diversification. In this work, we characterized the molecular evolution and expressional diversification of DA1-like genes. Surveying 354 sequenced genomes revealed 142 DA1-like genes only in plants, indicating plant-specificity of these genes. The DA1-like protein modular structure was composed of two UIMs (ubiquitin interaction motifs), one LIM-domain (from lin-11, isl-1, and mec-3), and a conserved C-terminal, and was distinguishable from the already defined three groups of LIM-domain proteins. We further found that the DA1-like genes diverged into Classes I and II at the ancestor of seed plants and acquired 13 clade-specific residues during their evolutionary history. Moreover, diverse intron size evolution was noted following the transition from size-expandable introns to minimal ones, accompanying the emergence and diversification of angiosperms. Functional diversification as it relates to gene expression was further investigated in soybean. Glycine max DA1 genes showed diverse tissues expression patterns during development and had substantially varied abiotic stress response expression. Thus, variations in the coding regions, intron size, and gene expression contributed to the functional diversification of this gene family. Our data suggest that the evolution of the DA1-like genes facilitated the development of diverse molecular and functional diversification patterns to accompany the successful radiation of plants into diverse environments during evolution. PMID:24723730

Zhao, Man; He, Lingli; Gu, Yongzhe; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qingshan; He, Chaoying

2014-04-01

38

Genome-Wide Analyses of a Plant-Specific LIM-Domain Gene Family Implicate Its Evolutionary Role in Plant Diversification  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis DA1 genes appear to have multiple functions in regulating organ size and abiotic stress response, but the biological roles of its closely related genes remain unknown. Evolutionary analyses might provide some clues to aid in an understanding of their functional diversification. In this work, we characterized the molecular evolution and expressional diversification of DA1-like genes. Surveying 354 sequenced genomes revealed 142 DA1-like genes only in plants, indicating plant-specificity of these genes. The DA1-like protein modular structure was composed of two UIMs (ubiquitin interaction motifs), one LIM-domain (from lin-11, isl-1, and mec-3), and a conserved C-terminal, and was distinguishable from the already defined three groups of LIM-domain proteins. We further found that the DA1-like genes diverged into Classes I and II at the ancestor of seed plants and acquired 13 clade-specific residues during their evolutionary history. Moreover, diverse intron size evolution was noted following the transition from size-expandable introns to minimal ones, accompanying the emergence and diversification of angiosperms. Functional diversification as it relates to gene expression was further investigated in soybean. Glycine max DA1 genes showed diverse tissues expression patterns during development and had substantially varied abiotic stress response expression. Thus, variations in the coding regions, intron size, and gene expression contributed to the functional diversification of this gene family. Our data suggest that the evolution of the DA1-like genes facilitated the development of diverse molecular and functional diversification patterns to accompany the successful radiation of plants into diverse environments during evolution.

Zhao, Man; He, Lingli; Gu, Yongzhe; Wang, Yan; Chen, Qingshan; He, Chaoying

2014-01-01

39

Plant ALDH10 Family  

PubMed Central

Plant ALDH10 family members are aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs), which oxidize ?-aminoaldehydes to the corresponding acids. They have been linked to polyamine catabolism, osmoprotection, secondary metabolism (fragrance), and carnitine biosynthesis. Plants commonly contain two AMADH isoenzymes. We previously studied the substrate specificity of two AMADH isoforms from peas (PsAMADHs). Here, two isoenzymes from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), SlAMADHs, and three AMADHs from maize (Zea mays), ZmAMADHs, were kinetically investigated to obtain further clues to the catalytic mechanism and the substrate specificity. We also solved the high resolution crystal structures of SlAMADH1 and ZmAMADH1a because these enzymes stand out from the others regarding their activity. From the structural and kinetic analysis, we can state that five residues at positions 163, 288, 289, 444, and 454 (PsAMADHs numbering) can, directly or not, significantly modulate AMADH substrate specificity. In the SlAMADH1 structure, a PEG aldehyde derived from the precipitant forms a thiohemiacetal intermediate, never observed so far. Its absence in the SlAMADH1-E260A structure suggests that Glu-260 can activate the catalytic cysteine as a nucleophile. We show that the five AMADHs studied here are capable of oxidizing 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionaldehyde to the cryo- and osmoprotectant 3-dimethylsulfoniopropionate. For the first time, we also show that 3-acetamidopropionaldehyde, the third aminoaldehyde besides 3-aminopropionaldehyde and 4-aminobutyraldehyde, is generally oxidized by AMADHs, meaning that these enzymes are unique in metabolizing and detoxifying aldehyde products of polyamine degradation to nontoxic amino acids. Finally, gene expression profiles in maize indicate that AMADHs might be important for controlling ?-aminoaldehyde levels during early stages of the seed development.

Kopecny, David; Koncitikova, Radka; Tylichova, Martina; Vigouroux, Armelle; Moskalikova, Hana; Soural, Miroslav; Sebela, Marek; Morera, Solange

2013-01-01

40

Characterizing gene family evolution  

PubMed Central

Gene families are widely used in comparative genomics, molecular evolution, and in systematics. However, they are constructed in different manners, their data analyzed and interpreted differently, with different underlying assumptions, leading to sometimes divergent conclusions. In systematics, concepts like monophyly and the dichotomy between homoplasy and homology have been central to the analysis of phylogenies. We critique the traditional use of such concepts as applied to gene families and give examples of incorrect inferences they may lead to. Operational definitions that have emerged within functional genomics are contrasted with the common formal definitions derived from systematics. Lastly, we question the utility of layers of homology and the meaning of homology at the character state level in the context of sequence evolution. From this, we move forward to present an idealized strategy for characterizing gene family evolution for both systematic and functional purposes, including recent methodological improvements.

Liberles, David A.

2008-01-01

41

Plant F-Box Protein Evolution Is Determined by Lineage-Specific Timing of Major Gene Family Expansion Waves  

PubMed Central

F-box proteins (FBPs) represent one of the largest and fastest evolving gene/protein families in the plant kingdom. The FBP superfamily can be divided in several subfamilies characterized by different C-terminal protein-protein interaction domains that recruit targets for proteasomal degradation. Hence, a clear picture of their phylogeny and molecular evolution is of special interest for the general understanding of evolutionary histories of multi-domain and/or large protein families in plants. In an effort to further understand the molecular evolution of F-box family proteins, we asked whether the largest subfamily in Arabidopsis thaliana, which carries a C-terminal F-box associated domain (FBA proteins) shares evolutionary patterns and signatures of selection with other FBPs. To address this question, we applied phylogenetic and molecular evolution analyses in combination with the evaluation of transcriptional profiles. Based on the 2219 FBA proteins we de novo identified in 34 completely sequenced plant genomes, we compared their evolutionary patterns to a previously analyzed large subfamily carrying C-terminal kelch repeats. We found that these two large FBP subfamilies generally tend to evolve by massive waves of duplication, followed by sequence conservation of the F-box domain and sequence diversification of the target recruiting domain. We conclude that the earlier in evolutionary time a major wave of expansion occurred, the more pronounced these selection signatures are. As a consequence, when performing cross species comparisons among FBP subfamilies, significant differences will be observed in the selective signatures of protein-protein interaction domains. Depending on the species, the investigated subfamilies comprise up to 45% of the complete superfamily, indicating that other subfamilies possibly follow similar modes of evolution.

Quint, Marcel

2013-01-01

42

The root knot nematode resistance gene Mi from tomato is a member of the leucine zipper, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat family of plant genes.  

PubMed

The Mi locus of tomato confers resistance to root knot nematodes. Tomato DNA spanning the locus was isolated as bacterial artificial chromosome clones, and 52 kb of contiguous DNA was sequenced. Three open reading frames were identified with similarity to cloned plant disease resistance genes. Two of them, Mi-1.1 and Mi-1.2, appear to be intact genes; the third is a pseudogene. A 4-kb mRNA hybridizing with these genes is present in tomato roots. Complementation studies using cloned copies of Mi-1.1 and Mi-1.2 indicated that Mi-1.2, but not Mi-1.1, is sufficient to confer resistance to a susceptible tomato line with the progeny of transformants segregating for resistance. The cloned gene most similar to Mi-1.2 is Prf, a tomato gene required for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Prf and Mi-1.2 share several structural motifs, including a nucleotide binding site and a leucine-rich repeat region, that are characteristic of a family of plant proteins, including several that are required for resistance against viruses, bacteria, fungi, and now, nematodes. PMID:9707531

Milligan, S B; Bodeau, J; Yaghoobi, J; Kaloshian, I; Zabel, P; Williamson, V M

1998-08-01

43

Identification of a novel gene family, paralogs of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins present in plants, fungi, and animals.  

PubMed

Only few orthologs of animal apoptosis regulators have been found in plants. Recently, the ectopic expression of mammalian inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) has been shown to affect plant programmed cell death. Here, we identified two novel proteins homologous to Arabidopsis thaliana IAP-like protein (AtILP) 1 and 2 by applying an improved motif searching method. Furthermore, homologs of AtILP1 were found to occur as a novel gene family in other organisms such as fungi and animals including Homo sapiens (HsILP1). Like baculovirus IAP repeats (BIRs) in IAPs, ILPs contain two highly conserved BIR-like domains (BLDs) with a putative C2HC-type zinc finger. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that ILPs are putative paralogs of IAPs. Homology modeling revealed that the three-dimensional structure of BLD in HsILP1 is similar to that of BIR. Transient expression of HsILP1 resulted in inhibition of etoposide-induced apoptosis in HEK293 and HeLaS3 cells. These findings suggest that ILPs are conserved in a wide range of eukaryotes including plants, and that their functions are closely related to those of IAPs. PMID:15909109

Higashi, K; Takasawa, R; Yoshimori, A; Goh, T; Tanuma, S; Kuchitsu, K

2005-05-01

44

Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses  

PubMed Central

Background Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32) into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. Results We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0–12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. Conclusion We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi exhibit a wide range of ability to access plant-synthesized sucrose. Endophytic fungi are more similar to plant pathogens in their possession of GH32 genes, whereas most genomes of mycorrhizal taxa lack GH32 genes. Reliance on plant GH32 enzyme activity for C acquisition in these symbionts supports earlier predictions of possible plant control over C allocation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis.

Parrent, Jeri Lynn; James, Timothy Y; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew FS

2009-01-01

45

Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants  

PubMed Central

The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses.

Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

2013-01-01

46

The I2C family from the wilt disease resistance locus I2 belongs to the nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat superfamily of plant resistance genes.  

PubMed Central

Characterization of plant resistance genes is an important step in understanding plant defense mechanisms. Fusarium oxysporum f sp lycopersici is the causal agent of a vascular wilt disease in tomato. Genes conferring resistance to plant vascular diseases have yet to be described molecularly. Members of a new multigene family, complex I2C, were isolated by map-based cloning from the I2 F. o. lycopersici race 2 resistance locus. The genes show structural similarity to the group of recently isolated resistance genes that contain a nucleotide binding motif and leucine-rich repeats. Importantly, the presence of I2C antisense transgenes abrogated race 2 but not race 1 resistance in otherwise normal plants. Expression of the complete sense I2C-1 transgene conferred significant but partial resistance to F. o. lycopersici race 2. All members of the I2C gene family have been mapped genetically and are dispersed on three different chromosomes. Some of the I2C members cosegregate with other tomato resistance loci. Comparison within the leucine-rich repeat region of I2C gene family members shows that they differ from each other mainly by insertions or deletions.

Ori, N; Eshed, Y; Paran, I; Presting, G; Aviv, D; Tanksley, S; Zamir, D; Fluhr, R

1997-01-01

47

Characterization of Arabidopsis ZIM, a member of a novel plant-specific GATA factor gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Arabidopsis gene ZIM encodes a putative tran- scription factor containing a novel GATA-type zinc- finger domain with a longer spacer between its two sets of conserved cysteine residues (C-X2-C-X20-C-X2- C). In Arabidopsis, ZIM and homologous proteins, ZML1 and ZML2, were identified as GATA factors containing the C-X2-C-X20-C-X2-C motif, a CCT domain, and an uncharacterized conserved domain. Proteins that possess

Masahito Shikata; Yuko Matsuda; Kohei Ando; Akiko Nishii; Miho Takemura; Akiho Yokota; Takayuki Kohchi

2004-01-01

48

The autophagy-associated Atg8 gene family operates both under favourable growth conditions and under starvation stresses in Arabidopsis plants.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis plants possess a family of nine AtAtg8 gene homologues of the yeast autophagy-associated Apg8/Aut7 gene. To gain insight into how these genes function in plants, first, the expression patterns of five AtAtg8 homologues were analysed in young Arabidopsis plants grown under favourable growth conditions or following exposure to prolonged darkness or sugar starvation. Promoters, plus the entire coding regions (exons and introns) of the AtAtg8 genes, were fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis plants. In all plants, grown under favourable growth conditions, beta-glucuronidase staining was much more significant in roots than in shoots. Different genes showed distinct spatial and temporal expression patterns in roots. In some transgenic plants, beta-glucuronidase staining in leaves was induced by prolonged darkness or sugar starvation. Next, Arabidopsis plants were transformed with chimeric gene-encoding Atg8f protein fused to N-terminal green fluorescent protein and C-terminal haemagglutinin epitope tags. Analysis of these plants showed that, under favourable growth conditions, the Atg8f protein is efficiently processed and is localized to autophagosome-resembling structures, both in the cytosol and in the central vacuole, in a similar manner to its processing and localization under starvation stresses. Moreover, treatment with a cocktail of proteasome inhibitors did not prevent the turnover of this protein, implying that its turnover takes place in the vacuoles, as occurs in yeasts. The results suggest that, in plants, the cellular processes involving the Atg8 genes function efficiently in young, non-senescing tissues, both under favourable growth conditions and under starvation stresses. PMID:16157655

Sláviková, Silvia; Shy, Galia; Yao, Youli; Glozman, Rina; Levanony, Hanna; Pietrokovski, Shmuel; Elazar, Zvulun; Galili, Gad

2005-11-01

49

Cadmium and iron transport by members of a plant metal transporter family in Arabidopsis with homology to Nramp genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metal cation homeostasis is essential for plant nutrition and resistance to toxic heavy metals. Many plant metal transporters remain to be identified at the molecular level. In the present study, we have isolated AtNramp cDNAs from Arabidopsis and show that these genes complement the phenotype of a metal uptake deficient yeast strain, smf1. AtNramps show homology to the Nramp gene

Sébastien Thomine; Rongchen Wang; John M. Ward; Nigel M. Crawford; Julian I. Schroeder

2000-01-01

50

Expression Analysis of a Family of nsLTP Genes Tissue Specifically Expressed throughout the Plant and during Potato Tuber Life Cycle1  

PubMed Central

Non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are capable of binding lipid compounds in plant tissues and are coded by the nsLTP genes. Here, we present the analysis of expression of a family of potato (Solanum tuberosum) nsLTP genes that express throughout the developing plant in a highly tissue-specific manner. Three transcript-derived fragments were isolated using an amplified restriction fragment polymorphism-derived technique for RNA fingerprinting that show homology to plant nsLTP genes. These transcript-derived fragments displayed modulated expression profiles related to the development of new tissues, with a peak of transcription around the time of tuberization and just prior to sprout development, at dormancy breakage. In addition, a homologous family of expressed sequence tags was identified whose individual members could be classified according to their tissue specificity. Two subgroups of expressed sequence tags were found to express during tuber life cycle. To study the regulation of potato nsLTP genes, two putative potato nsLTP promoters were isolated and their expression was studied using promoter-marker-gene fusions. The results showed that one of the two promoters directed a highly specific pattern of expression detected in the phloem surrounding the nodes of young plants and in the same tissue of tuber related organs, whereas the second putative promoter showed little tissue or organ specificity. This difference in expression is likely due to a 331-bp insertion present in the tissue-specific promoter.

Horvath, Beatrix M.; Bachem, Christian W.B.; Trindade, Luisa M.; Oortwijn, Marian E.P.; Visser, Richard G.F.

2002-01-01

51

Four transthyretin-like genes of the migratory plant-parasitic nematode Radopholus similis: members of an extensive nematode-specific family.  

PubMed

Screening 1154 ESTs from the plant-parasitic nematode Radopholus similis resulted in seven tags coding for proteins holding a transthyretin-like domain (PF01060). The seven ESTs corresponded to four different genes which were cloned from a cDNA library (accession numbers AM691117, AM691118, AM691119, AM691120). Transthyretin-like genes belong to a large family, different from the transthyretin and the transthyretin-related genes with whom they share some sequence similarity at the protein level. This similarity has caused an inconsistent use of different names and abbreviations in the past. To avoid further confusion, we introduce a standardized nomenclature for this gene family, and chose to name this barely characterized gene family ttl (as for transthyretin-like). Further examination of the identified genes, named Rs-ttl-1 to -4, showed that they are expressed in both juveniles and adults, but not in young embryos. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed a distinct spatial expression pattern for two of the genes: Rs-ttl-1 is expressed in the tissues surrounding the vulva, whereas Rs-ttl-2 is expressed in the ventral nerve cord. The deduced protein sequences contain a putative signal peptide for secretion, pointing to an extracellular function of the mature proteins. Database screens showed that the ttl family is restricted to nematodes. Moreover, a HMMER search revealed that ESTs derived from ttl genes are more abundant in parasitic nematode libraries, with a bias towards the parasitic stages. Despite their abundance in nematodes, including the extensively studied model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, the function of TTL proteins remains obscure. Our data suggest a role in the nervous system. Even without insight into their biological function, the nematode-specific nature of this gene family makes it a promising target for nematicides or RNAi mediated control strategies against parasitic nematodes. PMID:17765408

Jacob, Joachim; Vanholme, Bartel; Haegeman, Annelies; Gheysen, Godelieve

2007-11-01

52

Functional Genomic Analysis Supports Conservation of Function Among Cellulose Synthase-Like A Gene Family Members and Suggests Diverse Roles of Mannans in Plants1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Mannan polysaccharides are widespread among plants, where they serve as structural elements in cell walls, as carbohydrate reserves, and potentially perform other important functions. Previous work has demonstrated that members of the cellulose synthase-like A (CslA) family of glycosyltransferases from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), and Populus trichocarpa catalyze ?-1,4-mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Mannan polysaccharides and homologs of CslA genes appear to be present in all lineages of land plants analyzed to date. In many plants, the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced in insect cells, and each CslA protein catalyzed mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Microarray mining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that transcripts of Arabidopsis and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) CslA genes display tissue-specific expression patterns in vegetative and floral tissues. Glycan microarray analysis of Arabidopsis indicated that mannans are present throughout the plant and are especially abundant in flowers, siliques, and stems. Mannans are also present in chloronemal and caulonemal filaments of Physcomitrella patens, where they are prevalent at cell junctions and in buds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that members of the CslA gene family from diverse plant species encode glucomannan synthases and support the hypothesis that mannans function in metabolic networks devoted to other cellular processes in addition to cell wall structure and carbohydrate storage.

Liepman, Aaron H.; Nairn, C. Joseph; Willats, William G.T.; S?rensen, Iben; Roberts, Alison W.; Keegstra, Kenneth

2007-01-01

53

Early evolutionary colocalization of the nuclear ribosomal 5S and 45S gene families in seed plants: evidence from the living fossil gymnosperm Ginkgo biloba  

PubMed Central

In seed plants, the colocalization of the 5S loci within the intergenic spacer (IGS) of the nuclear 45S tandem units is restricted to the phylogenetically derived Asteraceae family. However, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) colocalization of both multigene families has also been observed in other unrelated seed plant lineages. Previous work has identified colocalization of 45S and 5S loci in Ginkgo biloba using FISH, but these observations have not been confirmed recently by sequencing a 1.8?kb IGS. In this work, we report the presence of the 45S–5S linkage in G. biloba, suggesting that in seed plants the molecular events leading to the restructuring of the ribosomal loci are much older than estimated previously. We obtained a 6.0?kb IGS fragment showing structural features of functional sequences, and a single copy of the 5S gene was inserted in the same direction of transcription as the ribosomal RNA genes. We also obtained a 1.8?kb IGS that was a truncate variant of the 6.0?kb IGS lacking the 5S gene. Several lines of evidence strongly suggest that the 1.8?kb variants are pseudogenes that are present exclusively on the satellite chromosomes bearing the 45S–5S genes. The presence of ribosomal IGS pseudogenes best reconciles contradictory results concerning the presence or absence of the 45S–5S linkage in Ginkgo. Our finding that both ribosomal gene families have been unified to a single 45S–5S unit in Ginkgo indicates that an accurate reassessment of the organization of rDNA genes in basal seed plants is necessary.

Galian, J A; Rosato, M; Rossello, J A

2012-01-01

54

A novel abscisic acid- and dehydration-responsive gene family from the resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum encodes a plastid-targeted protein with DNA-binding activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the desiccation-tolerant resurrection plant Craterostigma plantagineum Hochst. the chloroplasts undergo major ultrastructural changes during dehydration, which are reversible upon rehydration. Such alterations argue the need for efficient protective\\/stabilising mechanisms to exist. Here we describe a novel gene family that is rapidly and transiently expressed in response to both dehydration and exogenously applied abscisic acid, mostly in the chloroplast-rich palisade

Jonathan R. Phillips; Tobias Hilbricht; Francesco Salamini; Dorothea Bartels

2002-01-01

55

Over-expression of an arabidopsis family A sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene alters plant growth and fibre development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to manipulate the intracellular pools of sucrose by differentially expressing exogenous sucrose\\u000a phosphate synthase (SPS) and investigating its role in regulating plant growth and fibre development. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) plants were transformed with an arabidopsis SPS gene under the regulation of the ubiquitously expressed tandem\\u000a repeat of the 35S cauliflower mosaic virus

Ji-Young Park; Thomas Canam; Kyu-Young Kang; David D. Ellis; Shawn D. Mansfield

2008-01-01

56

A viral resistance gene from common bean functions across plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner  

PubMed Central

Genes involved in a viral resistance response in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Othello) were identified by inoculating a geminivirus reporter (Bean dwarf mosaic virus expressing the green fluorescent protein), extracting RNA from tissue undergoing the defense response, and amplifying sequences with degenerate R gene primers. One such gene (a TIR-NBS-LRR gene, RT4-4) was selected for functional analysis in which transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana were generated and screened for resistance to a range of viruses. This analysis revealed that RT4-4 did not confer resistance to the reporter geminivirus; however, it did activate a resistance-related response (systemic necrosis) to seven strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) from pepper or tomato, but not to a CMV strain from common bean. Of these eight CMV strains, only the strain from common bean systemically infected common bean cv. Othello. Additional evidence that RT4-4 is a CMV R gene came from the detection of resistance response markers in CMV-challenged leaves of RT4-4 transgenic plants, and the identification of the CMV 2a gene product as the elicitor of the necrosis response. These findings indicate that RT4-4 functions across two plant families and is up-regulated in a non-virus-specific manner. This experimental approach holds promise for providing insights into the mechanisms by which plants activate resistance responses against pathogens.

Seo, Young-Su; Rojas, Maria R.; Lee, Jung-Youn; Lee, Sang-Won; Jeon, Jong-Seong; Ronald, Pamela; Lucas, William J.; Gilbertson, Robert L.

2006-01-01

57

Distinct patterns of control and expression amongst members of the PEP carboxylase kinase gene family in C4 plants.  

PubMed

We have examined the complexity of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase (PPCK) gene family in the C(4) monocots maize and sorghum. Maize contains at least four PPCK genes. The encoded proteins are similar to other phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) kinases, in that they comprise a protein kinase domain with minimal extensions, except that two of the proteins contain unusual acidic insertions. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the genes provide information about their presumed functions. Expression of ZmPPCK1 in leaves is mesophyll cell-specific and light-induced, indicating that it encodes the PEPC kinase that is responsible for the phosphorylation of leaf PEPC during C(4) photosynthesis. Surprisingly, ZmPPCK2 is expressed in leaf bundle sheath cells, preferentially in the dark. This suggests that a main function of the ZmPPCK2 gene product is to allow PEPC to function anaplerotically in bundle sheath cells in the dark without interfering with the C(4) cycle. ZmPPCK2, ZmPPCK3 and ZmPPCK4 are all induced by exposure of tissue to cycloheximide, whereas ZmPPCK1 is not. This suggests that the ZmPPCK2, ZmPPCK3 and ZmPPCK4 genes share the property that their expression is controlled by a rapidly turning over repressor. Sequence and expression data show that sorghum contains orthologues of ZmPPCK1 and ZmPPCK2. PMID:16925599

Shenton, Matt; Fontaine, Véronique; Hartwell, James; Marsh, Justin T; Jenkins, Gareth I; Nimmo, Hugh G

2006-10-01

58

The Family of Connexin Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The connexin genes code for a family of proteins that form intercellular gap junction channels. There are 21 connexin genes\\u000a in the human genome and 20 in the mouse genome. Most connexin genes contain the protein coding region in a single exon. Variations\\u000a in promoter usage and splicing of 5’-untranslated exons contribute to regulation of connexin expression. Connexin gene promoters

Eric C. Beyer; Viviana M. Berthoud

59

PpeTAC1 promotes the horizontal growth of branches in peach trees and is a member of a functionally conserved gene family found in diverse plants species.  

PubMed

Trees are capable of tremendous architectural plasticity, allowing them to maximize their light exposure under highly competitive environments. One key component of tree architecture is the branch angle, yet little is known about the molecular basis for the spatial patterning of branches in trees. Here, we report the identification of a candidate gene for the br mutation in Prunus persica (peach) associated with vertically oriented growth of branches, referred to as 'pillar' or 'broomy'. Ppa010082, annotated as hypothetical protein in the peach genome sequence, was identified as a candidate gene for br using a next generation sequence-based mapping approach. Sequence similarity searches identified rice TAC1 (tiller angle control 1) as a putative ortholog, and we thus named it PpeTAC1. In monocots, TAC1 is known to lead to less compact growth by increasing the tiller angle. In Arabidopsis, an attac1 mutant showed more vertical branch growth angles, suggesting that the gene functions universally to promote the horizontal growth of branches. TAC1 genes belong to a gene family (here named IGT for a shared conserved motif) found in all plant genomes, consisting of two clades: one containing TAC1-like genes; the other containing LAZY1, which contains an EAR motif, and promotes vertical shoot growth in Oryza sativa (rice) and Arabidopsis through influencing polar auxin transport. The data suggest that IGT genes are ancient, and play conserved roles in determining shoot growth angles in plants. Understanding how IGT genes modulate branch angles will provide insights into how different architectural growth habits evolved in terrestrial plants. PMID:23663106

Dardick, Chris; Callahan, Ann; Horn, Renate; Ruiz, Karina B; Zhebentyayeva, Tetyana; Hollender, Courtney; Whitaker, Michael; Abbott, Albert; Scorza, Ralph

2013-08-01

60

Fast Plants and Families I  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Description: This is an investigation describing the procedure for looking at a seed pod from a mature Fast Plant with a dry pod by sandwiching the pod between layers of clear tape, then exploring the sibling seeds. Questions that might be considered:- In how many ways can you describe the pod (the mother)? Are the pods from one plant more like each other than they are like the pods from other plants? What about the siblings from a single pod? - Do all the seeds in a pod have the same father? - How much variation is there within and between families of Fast Plants? - How much does the environment affect the variation in Fast Plants, e.g. the number of seeds per pod, style length, plant height, days to first flowering, etc? - Is there any relationship between the length of the seed pod and its position on the maternal plant?

Program, The W.

61

The Caenorhabditis chemoreceptor gene families  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chemoreceptor proteins mediate the first step in the transduction of environmental chemical stimuli, defining the breadth of detection and conferring stimulus specificity. Animal genomes contain families of genes encoding chemoreceptors that mediate taste, olfaction, and pheromone responses. The size and diversity of these families reflect the biology of chemoperception in specific species. RESULTS: Based on manual curation and sequence

James H Thomas; Hugh M Robertson

2008-01-01

62

Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32) into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use

Jeri Lynn Parrent; Timothy Y James; Rimvydas Vasaitis; Andrew FS Taylor

2009-01-01

63

Retinoblastoma family genes  

PubMed Central

The retinoblastoma gene Rb was the first tumor suppressor gene cloned, and it is well known as a negative regulator of the cell cycle through its ability to bind the transcription factor E2Fand repress transcription of genes required for S phase. Although over 100 other proteins have been reported to interact with Rb, in most cases these interactions are much less well characterized. Therefore, this review will primarily focus on Rb and E2F interactions. In addition to cell cycle regulation, studies of Rb and E2Fproteins in animal models have revealed important roles for these proteins in apoptosis and differentiation. Recent screens of Rb/E2Ftarget genes have identified new targets in all these areas. In addition, the mechanisms determining how different subsets of target genes are regulated under different conditions have only begun to be addressed and offer exciting possibilities for future research.

Du, W; Pogoriler, J

2007-01-01

64

The root knot nematode resistance gene Mi from tomato is a member of the leucine zipper, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat family of plant genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mi locus of tomato confers resistance to root knot nematodes. Tomato DNA spanning the locus was isolated as bacterial artificial chromosome clones, and 52 kb of contiguous DNA was sequenced. Three open reading frames were identified with similarity to cloned plant disease resistance genes. Two of them, Mi-1.1 and Mi-1.2 , appear to be intact genes; the third is

Stephen B. Milligan; John Bodeau; Jafar Yaghoobi; Isgouhi Kaloshian; Pim Zabel; Valerie M. Williamson

1998-01-01

65

Family selection in plant breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant breeding programmes rarely take explicit practical account of the two sources of genetic variance, namely between and within full-sib families, even though existence of these two sources of variation has long been recognised. This paper refers to inbred and clonal crops, not to outbred, seed-propagated species. Theory suggests that the two variances should be of similar size, sometimes very

N. W. Simmonds

1996-01-01

66

The Families of Flowering Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Australian authors L. Watson and M. J. Dallwitz have updated this magnificent resource of detailed character descriptions, taxonomic information, references, and line illustrations of "all the Angiosperm families" from Acanthaceae to Zygophyllaceae. Users will find extensive data on plant and flower morphology, "seedling germination type, embryology, anther ontogeny, pollen cytology and morphology, stigma type, sieve-tube plastids, leaf, stem, nodal and wood anatomy, and phytochemistry (phenolics, alkaloids, cyanogenesis, etc.)." Watson and Dallwitz also include detailed taxonomic information on family synonyms, "numbers of species and genera in each family, and complete lists or (in the case of the largest families only) examples of the genera in each." A character list and an 'implicit attributes' section accompany the resource; information for downloading is available at the site. For teachers and graduate students alike, this online resource will be hard to beat.

67

Overexpression of a Cotton Gene That Encodes a Putative Transcription Factor of AP2/EREBP Family in Arabidopsis Affects Growth and Development of Transgenic Plants  

PubMed Central

In the study, a gene encoding a putative ethylene response factor of AP2/EREBP family was isolated from cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and designated as GhERF12. Sequence alignment showed that GhERF12 protein contains a central AP2/ERF domain (58 amino acids) with two functional conserved amino acid residues (ala14 and asp19). Transactivation assay indicated that GhERF12 displayed strong transcription activation activity in yeast cells, suggesting that this protein may be a transcriptional activator in cotton. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that GhERF12 expression in cotton was induced by ACC and IAA. Overexpression of GhERF12 in Arabidopsis affected seedling growth and development. The GhERF12 transgenic plants grew slowly, and displayed a dwarf phenotype. The mean bolting time of the transgenic plants was delayed for about 10 days, compared with that of wild type. Further study revealed that some ethylene-related and auxin-related genes were dramatically up-regulated in the transgenic plants, compared with those of wild type. Collectively, we speculated that GhERF12, as a transcription factor, may be involved in regulation of plant growth and development by activating the constitutive ethylene response likely related to auxin biosynthesis and/or signaling.

Li, Xiao-Jie; Hu, Rong; Chen, Yun; Li, Xue-Bao

2013-01-01

68

The plant energy-dissipating mitochondrial systems: depicting the genomic structure and the expression profiles of the gene families of uncoupling protein and alternative oxidase in monocots and dicots.  

PubMed

The simultaneous existence of alternative oxidases and uncoupling proteins in plants has raised the question as to why plants need two energy-dissipating systems with apparently similar physiological functions. A probably complete plant uncoupling protein gene family is described and the expression profiles of this family compared with the multigene family of alternative oxidases in Arabidopsis thaliana and sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) employed as dicot and monocot models, respectively. In total, six uncoupling protein genes, AtPUMP1-6, were recognized within the Arabidopsis genome and five (SsPUMP1-5) in a sugarcane EST database. The recombinant AtPUMP5 protein displayed similar biochemical properties as AtPUMP1. Sugarcane possessed four Arabidopsis AOx1-type orthologues (SsAOx1a-1d); no sugarcane orthologue corresponding to Arabidopsis AOx2-type genes was identified. Phylogenetic and expression analyses suggested that AtAOx1d does not belong to the AOx1-type family but forms a new (AOx3-type) family. Tissue-enriched expression profiling revealed that uncoupling protein genes were expressed more ubiquitously than the alternative oxidase genes. Distinct expression patterns among gene family members were observed between monocots and dicots and during chilling stress. These findings suggest that the members of each energy-dissipating system are subject to different cell or tissue/organ transcriptional regulation. As a result, plants may respond more flexibly to adverse biotic and abiotic conditions, in which oxidative stress is involved. PMID:16473895

Borecky, Jirí; Nogueira, Fábio T S; de Oliveira, Kívia A P; Maia, Ivan G; Vercesi, Aníbal E; Arruda, Paulo

2006-01-01

69

Testing Times for Plant Family Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Plant families are the level of the taxonomic hierarchy that many biologists use to organise their understanding of plant diversity. Consequently, from many perspectives, it is very useful to be able to recognise the major plant families "on sight". To this end numerous books and web sites have described and illustrated plant families, but few…

Burrows, Geoffrey E.

2010-01-01

70

Characterization of the multigene family TaHKT 2;1 in bread wheat and the role of gene members in plant Na+ and K+ status  

PubMed Central

Background A member of the TaHKT2;1 multigene family was previously identified as a Na+ transporter with a possible role in root Na+ uptake. In the present study, the existing full-length cDNA of this member was used as a basis to query the International Wheat Genome Survey Sequence to identify all members of the TaHKT2;1 family. Individual TaHKT2;1 genes were subsequently studied for gene and predicted protein structures, promoter variability, tissue expression and their role in Na+ and K+ status of wheat. Results Six TaHKT2;1 genes were characterized which included four functional genes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7DL-1) and two pseudogenes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7AL-3), on chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D of hexaploid wheat. Variability in protein domains for cation specificity and in cis-regulatory elements for salt response in gene promoters, were identified amongst the functional TaHKT2;1 members. The functional genes were expressed under low and high NaCl conditions in roots and leaf sheaths, but were down regulated in leaf blades. Alternative splicing events were evident in TaHKT2;1 7AL-1. Aneuploid lines null for each functional gene were grown in high NaCl nutrient solution culture to identify potential role of each TaHKT2;1 member. Aneuploid lines null for TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1 and TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 showed no difference in Na+ concentration between Chinese Spring except for higher Na+ in sheaths. The same aneuploid lines had lower K+ in roots, sheath and youngest fully expanded leaf but only under high (200 mM) NaCl in the external solution. There was no difference in Na+ or K+ concentration for any treatment between aneuploid line null for the TaHKT2;1 7DL-1 gene and Chinese Spring. Conclusions TaHKT2;1 is a complex family consisting of pseudogenes and functional members. TaHKT2;1 genes do not have an apparent role in controlling root Na+ uptake in bread wheat seedlings under experimental conditions in this study, contrary to existing hypotheses. However, TaHKT2;1 genes or, indeed other genes in the same chromosome region on 7AL, are candidates that may control Na+ transport from root to sheath and regulate K+ levels in different plant tissues.

2014-01-01

71

Phylogenetic and Structural Relationships of the PR5 Gene Family Reveal an Ancient Multigene Family Conserved in Plants and Select Animal Taxa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogenesis-related group 5 (PR5) plant proteins include thaumatin, osmotin, and related proteins, many of which have antimicrobial\\u000a activity. The recent discovery of PR5-like (PR5-L) sequences in nematodes and insects raises questions about their evolutionary\\u000a relationships. Using complete plant genome data and discovery of multiple insect PR5-L sequences, phylogenetic comparisons\\u000a among plants and animals were performed. All PR5\\/PR5-L protein sequences were

Robert G. Shatters; Laura M. Boykin; Stephen L. Lapointe; Wayne B. Hunter; A. A. Weathersbee

2006-01-01

72

Identification of a novel gene family, paralogs of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins present in plants, fungi, and animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only few orthologs of animal apoptosis regulators have been found in plants. Recently, the ectopic expression of mammalian inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) has been shown to affect plant programmed cell death. Here, we identified two novel proteins homologous to ArabidopsisthalianaIAP-like protein (AtILP) 1 and 2 by applying an improved motif searching method. Furthermore, homologs of AtILP1 were found to

K. Higashi; R. Takasawa; A. Yoshimori; T. Goh; S. Tanuma; K. Kuchitsu

2005-01-01

73

Characterization of the caleosin gene family in the Triticeae  

PubMed Central

Background The caleosin genes encode proteins with a single conserved EF hand calcium-binding domain and comprise small gene families found in a wide range of plant species. Some members of the gene family have been shown to be upregulated by environmental stresses including low water availability and high salinity. Caleosin 3 from wheat has been shown to interact with the ?-subunit of the heterotrimeric G proteins, and to act as a GTPase activating protein (GAP). This study characterizes the size and diversity of the gene family in wheat and related species and characterizes the differential tissue-specific expression of members of the gene family. Results A total of 34 gene family members that belong to eleven paralogous groups of caleosins were identified in the hexaploid bread wheat, T. aestivum. Each group was represented by three homeologous copies of the gene located on corresponding homeologous chromosomes, except the caleosin 10, which has four gene copies. Ten gene family members were identified in diploid barley, Hordeum vulgare, and in rye, Secale cereale, seven in Brachypodium distachyon, and six in rice, Oryza sativa. The analysis of gene expression was assayed in triticale and rye by RNA-Seq analysis of 454 sequence sets and members of the gene family were found to have diverse patterns of gene expression in the different tissues that were sampled in rye and in triticale, the hybrid hexaploid species derived from wheat and rye. Expression of the gene family in wheat and barley was also previously determined by microarray analysis, and changes in expression during development and in response to environmental stresses are presented. Conclusions The caleosin gene family had a greater degree of expansion in the Triticeae than in the other monocot species, Brachypodium and rice. The prior implication of one member of the gene family in the stress response and heterotrimeric G protein signaling, points to the potential importance of the caleosin gene family. The complexity of the family and differential expression in various tissues and under conditions of abiotic stress suggests the possibility that caleosin family members may play diverse roles in signaling and development that warrants further investigation.

2014-01-01

74

Plant defense multigene families: I. Divergence of Fusarium solani-induced expression in Pisum and Lathyrus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The defense response in plants challenged with pathogens is characterized by the activation of a diverse set of genes. Many of the same genes are induced in the defense responses of a wide range of plant species. How plant defense gene families evolve may therefore provide an important clue to our understanding of how disease resistance evolves. Because studies usually

Sandhya Tewari; Stuart M. Brown; Brian Fristensky

2003-01-01

75

Transcription Factor Families Have Much Higher Expansion Rates in Plants than in Animals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcription factors (TFs), which are central to the regulation of gene expression, are usually members of multigene families. In plants, they are involved in diverse processes such as developmental control and elicitation of defense and stress responses. To investigate if differences exist in the expansion patterns of TF gene families between plants and other eukaryotes, we first used Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis

Shin-Han Shiu; Ming-Che Shih; Wen-Hsiung Li

2005-01-01

76

Multiple Inter-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfers in the Evolution of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Gene Family  

PubMed Central

Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought.

Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

2012-01-01

77

Knots in the family tree: evolutionary relationships and functions of knox homeobox genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knotted-like homeobox (knox) genes constitute a gene family in plants. Class I knox genes are expressed in shoot apical meristems, and (with notable exceptions) not in lateral organ primordia. Class II genes have more diverse expression patterns. Loss and gain of function mutations indicate that knox genes are important regulators of meristem function. Gene duplication has contributed to the evolution

Leonore Reiser; Patricia Sánchez-Baracaldo; Sarah Hake

2000-01-01

78

Heterochronic genes in plant evolution and development  

PubMed Central

Evolution of morphology includes evolutionary shifts of developmental processes in space or in time. Heterochronic evolution is defined as a temporal shift. The concept of heterochrony has been very rewarding to investigators of both animal and plant developmental evolution, because it has strong explanatory power when trying to understand morphological diversity. While for animals, extensive literature on heterochrony developed along with the field of evolution of development, in plants the concept has been applied less often and is less elaborately developed. Yet novel genetic findings highlight heterochrony as a developmental and evolutionary process in plants. Similar to what has been found for the worm Caenorhabditis, a heterochronic gene pathway controlling developmental timing has been elucidated in flowering plants. Two antagonistic microRNA’s miR156 and miR172 target two gene families of transcription factors, SQUAMOSA PROMOTOR BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE and APETALA2-like, respectively. Here, we propose that this finding now allows the molecular investigation of cases of heterochronic evolution in plants. We illustrate this point by examining microRNA expression patterns in the Antirrhinum majus incomposita and choripetala heterochronic mutants. Some of the more beautiful putative cases of heterochronic evolution can be found outside flowering plants, but little is known about the extent of conservation of this flowering plant pathway in other land plants. We show that the expression of an APETALA2-like gene decreases with age in a fern species. This contributes to the idea that ferns share some heterochronic gene functions with flowering plants.

Geuten, Koen; Coenen, Heleen

2013-01-01

79

Second Gene Linked to Familial Testicular Cancer  

Cancer.gov

Specific variations or mutations in a particular can gene raise a man's risk of familial, or inherited, testicular germ-cell cancer, the most common form of this disease, according to new research by scientists at the National Institutes of Health. This is only the second gene to be identified that affects the risk of familial testicular cancer, and the first gene in a key biochemical pathway.

80

A Bayesian model for gene family evolution  

PubMed Central

Background A birth and death process is frequently used for modeling the size of a gene family that may vary along the branches of a phylogenetic tree. Under the birth and death model, maximum likelihood methods have been developed to estimate the birth and death rate and the sizes of ancient gene families (numbers of gene copies at the internodes of the phylogenetic tree). This paper aims to provide a Bayesian approach for estimating parameters in the birth and death model. Results We develop a Bayesian approach for estimating the birth and death rate and other parameters in the birth and death model. In addition, a Bayesian hypothesis test is developed to identify the gene families that are unlikely under the birth and death process. Simulation results suggest that the Bayesian estimate is more accurate than the maximum likelihood estimate of the birth and death rate. The Bayesian approach was applied to a real dataset of 3517 gene families across genomes of five yeast species. The results indicate that the Bayesian model assuming a constant birth and death rate among branches of the phylogenetic tree cannot adequately explain the observed pattern of the sizes of gene families across species. The yeast dataset was thus analyzed with a Bayesian heterogeneous rate model that allows the birth and death rate to vary among the branches of the tree. The unlikely gene families identified by the Bayesian heterogeneous rate model are different from those given by the maximum likelihood method. Conclusions Compared to the maximum likelihood method, the Bayesian approach can produce more accurate estimates of the parameters in the birth and death model. In addition, the Bayesian hypothesis test is able to identify unlikely gene families based on Bayesian posterior p-values. As a powerful statistical technique, the Bayesian approach can effectively extract information from gene family data and thereby provide useful information regarding the evolutionary process of gene families across genomes.

2011-01-01

81

The mammalian aldehyde oxidase gene family  

PubMed Central

Aldehyde oxidases (EC 1.2.3.1) are a small group of structurally conserved cytosolic proteins represented in both the animal and plant kingdoms. In vertebrates, aldehyde oxidases constitute the small sub-family of molybdo-flavoenzymes, along with the evolutionarily and structurally related protein, xanthine oxidoreductase. These enzymes require a molybdo-pterin cofactor (molybdenum cofactor, MoCo) and flavin adenine dinucleotide for their catalytic activity. Aldehyde oxidases have broad substrate specificity and catalyse the hydroxylation of N-heterocycles and the oxidation of aldehydes to the corresponding acid. In humans, a single aldehyde oxidase gene (AOX1) and two pseudogenes clustering on a short stretch of chromosome 2q are known. In other mammals, a variable number of structurally conserved aldehyde oxidase genes has been described. Four genes (Aox1, Aox3, Aox4 and Aox3l1), coding for an equivalent number of catalytically active enzymes, are present in the mouse and rat genomes. Although human AOX1 and its homologous proteins are best known as drug metabolising enzymes, the physiological substrate(s) and function(s) are as yet unknown. The present paper provides an update of the available information on the evolutionary history, tissue- and cell-specific distribution and function of mammalian aldehyde oxidases.

2009-01-01

82

The novel ethylene-regulated gene OsUsp1 from rice encodes a member of a plant protein family related to prokaryotic universal stress proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using subtractive hybridization a submergence- induced gene was identified from deepwater rice, OsUsp1, that encodes a homologue of the bacterial universal stress protein family. Sequence analysis revealed that OsUSP1 is most closely related to the bacterial MJ0577-type of ATP-binding USP proteins which have been suggested to act as a molecular switch. USP protein homologues appear to be ubiqui- tous in

Margret Sauter; Guillaume Rzewuski; Tanja Marwedel

2002-01-01

83

Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase  

DOEpatents

The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Tsai, Fong-Ying (New York, NY)

1993-10-26

84

An anaerobically inducible early (aie) gene family from rice.  

PubMed

One of the major abiotic stresses that affect plant growth and development is anoxia or hypoxia. Plants respond to anoxia by regulation of gene expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels. Genes involved in such regulation are expected to be expressed soon after onset of anoxia. To date, however, anaerobically regulated genes that have been characterized predominantly encode enzymes for sugar phosphate metabolism, and are induced after several hours of anaerobic conditions. Early induced genes, those responding after 1-2 h of anoxia, have not been studied extensively. To study the early anaerobic response we investigated the most flooding-tolerant variety of rice, FR13A (flood-resistant). We used differential display techniques to identify cDNA fragments representing mRNAs that are induced within 90 min of anoxia. We isolated two cDNA fragments and one full-length cDNA that were induced to high levels. These cDNAs were found to be members of a family of 2-3 genes, which were called the aie (anaerobically inducible early) gene family. Northern blot analyses showed that the mRNA levels of aie genes peaked after 1.5 to 3 h of anoxia and were still at high levels after 72 h of anoxia. RNase protection assays showed 4-5 different protected bands indicating multiple transcripts from the aie gene family. Sequence analyses of the full-length cDNA showed an open reading frame that putatively encodes a 14 kDa protein of 127 amino acid residues. Neither the nucleotide nor the deduced amino acid sequences of this gene showed any significant homology to any known genes or proteins present in the GenBank or SwissProt databases. This novel gene, that is induced so early under anoxia in plants, may play an important role in plant metabolism under anaerobic conditions. PMID:10480383

Huq, E; Hodges, T K

1999-07-01

85

Dynamic actin gene family evolution in primates.  

PubMed

Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through "birth and death" model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves. PMID:23841080

Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Yijun; Wen, Tieqiao; Wang, Qiang

2013-01-01

86

Book Review: Plant Gene Expression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Whereas many important biological discoveries have been made using plants, subsequent progress in some areas of plant research has fallen behind that in other organisms for which funding and in vitro assays are more readily available. Gene expression is one such field in which importance continues to grow because many potential plant biotechnology–based solutions to global problems depend on regulating the expression of specific genes. Previous limitations to exploring gene expression in plants have been partially mitigated by recent advances in genomics, genetics, and transformation techniques. The book Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants: The Role of Transcript Structure and Processing, edited by Carole L. Bassett, summarizes our current understanding of plant gene expression, with an emphasis on transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation. The topics covered in six chapters include differences in messenger RNA (mRNA) structure caused by variations in transcription start and polyadenylation sites, alternative splicing, regulation by small RNAs, and mRNA transport and degradation. The chapters vary in depth, quality, and the degree to which the emphasis is placed on plants rather than eukaryotes in general. However, this slim volume is a useful review of gene expression in plants. The question of whether or not all differences in mRNA structure have functional importance remains open.

Alan Rose (University of California Davis;Molecular and Cellular Biology REV)

2007-05-22

87

Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome  

DOE Data Explorer

Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

88

Familial Hypercholesterolemia: The Lipids or the Genes?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a common cause of premature cardiovascular disease and is often undiagnosed in young\\u000a people. Although the disease is diagnosed clinically by high LDL cholesterol levels and family history, to date there are\\u000a no single internationally accepted criteria for the diagnosis of FH. Several genes have been shown to be involved in FH; yet\\u000a determining the implications

Akl C Fahed; Georges M Nemer

2011-01-01

89

Gene structure and molecular analysis of the laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Completed genome sequences have made it clear that multicopper oxidases related to laccase are widely distributed as multigene families in higher plants. Laccase-like multicopper oxidase (LMCO) sequences culled from GenBank and the Arabidopsis thaliana genome, as well as those from several newly cloned genes, were used to construct a gene phylogeny that clearly divided plant LMCOs into six distinct classes,

Bonnie C. McCaig; Richard B. Meagher; Jeffrey F. D. Dean

2005-01-01

90

The human crystallin gene families  

PubMed Central

Crystallins are the abundant, long-lived proteins of the eye lens. The major human crystallins belong to two different superfamilies: the small heat-shock proteins (?-crystallins) and the ??-crystallins. During evolution, other proteins have sometimes been recruited as crystallins to modify the properties of the lens. In the developing human lens, the enzyme betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase serves such a role. Evolutionary modification has also resulted in loss of expression of some human crystallin genes or of specific splice forms. Crystallin organization is essential for lens transparency and mutations; even minor changes to surface residues can cause cataract and loss of vision.

2012-01-01

91

Genome-wide analysis of plant-type II Ca(2+)ATPases gene family from rice and Arabidopsis: potential role in abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

The Plant Ca(2+)ATPases are members of the P-type ATPase superfamily and play essential roles in pollen tube growth, vegetative development, inflorescence architecture, stomatal opening or closing as well as transport of Ca(2+), Mn(2+) and Zn(2+). Their role in abiotic stress adaptation by activation of different signaling pathways is emerging. In Arabidopsis, the P-type Ca(2+)ATPases can be classified in two distinct groups: type IIA (ECA) and type IIB (ACA). The availability of rice genome sequence allowed performing a genome-wide search for P-type Ca(2+)ATPases proteins, and the comparison of the identified proteins with their homologs in Arabidopsis model plant. In the present study, we identified the P-type II Ca(2+)ATPases from rice by analyzing their phylogenetic relationship, multiple alignment, cis-regulatory elements, protein domains, motifs and homology percentage. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that rice type IIA Ca(2+)ATPases clustered with Arabidopsis type IIA Ca(2+)ATPases and showed high sequence similarity within the group, whereas rice type IIB Ca(2+)ATPases presented variable sequence similarities with Arabidopsis type IIB members. The protein homology modeling, identification of putative transmembrane domains and conserved motifs of rice P-type II Ca(2+)ATPases provided information on their functions and structural architecture. The analysis of P-type II Ca(2+)ATPases promoter regions in rice showed multiple stress-induced cis-acting elements. The expression profile analysis indicated vital roles of P-type II Ca(2+)ATPases in stress signaling, plant development and abiotic stress responses. The comprehensive analysis and expression profiling provided a critical platform for functional characterization of P-type II Ca(2+)ATPase genes that could be applied in engineering crop plants with modified calcium signaling and homeostatic pathways. PMID:23416494

Kamrul Huda, Kazi Md; Yadav, Sandep; Akhter Banu, Mst Sufara; Trivedi, Dipesh Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

2013-04-01

92

Glutathione transferase supergene family in tomato: Salt stress-regulated expression of representative genes from distinct GST classes in plants primed with salicylic acid.  

PubMed

A family tree of the multifunctional proteins, glutathione transferases (GSTs, EC 2.5.1.18) was created in Solanum lycopersicum based on homology to known Arabidopsis GSTs. The involvement of selected SlGSTs was studied in salt stress response of tomato primed with salicylic acid (SA) or in un-primed plants by real-time qPCR. Selected tau GSTs (SlGSTU23, SlGSTU26) were up-regulated in the leaves, while GSTs from lambda, theta, dehydroascorbate reductase and zeta classes (SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2, SlDHAR5, SlGSTZ2) in the root tissues under salt stress. Priming with SA exhibited a concentration dependency; SA mitigated the salt stress injury and caused characteristic changes in the expression pattern of SlGSTs only at 10(-4) M concentration. SlGSTF4 displayed a significant up-regulation in the leaves, while the abundance of SlGSTL3, SlGSTT2 and SlGSTZ2 transcripts were enhanced in the roots of plants primed with high SA concentration. Unexpectedly, under high salinity the SlDHAR2 expression decreased in primed roots as compared to the salt-stressed plants, however, the up-regulation of SlDHAR5 isoenzyme contributed to the maintenance of DHAR activity in roots primed with high SA. The members of lambda, theta and zeta class GSTs have a specific role in salt stress acclimation of tomato, while SlGSTU26 and SlGSTF4, the enzymes with high glutathione conjugating activity, characterize a successful priming in both roots and leaves. In contrast to low concentration, high SA concentration induced those GSTs in primed roots, which were up-regulated under salt stress. Our data indicate that induction of GSTs provide a flexible tool in maintaining redox homeostasis during unfavourable conditions. PMID:24607575

Csiszár, Jolán; Horváth, Edit; Váry, Zsolt; Gallé, Agnes; Bela, Krisztina; Brunner, Szilvia; Tari, Irma

2014-05-01

93

A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development  

SciTech Connect

The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

John Charles Walker

2011-04-29

94

Similarity in gene organization and homology between proteins of animal picornaviruses and a plant comovirus suggest common ancestry of these virus families.  

PubMed Central

The amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleic acid sequences of several animal picornaviruses and cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV), a plant virus, were compared. Good homology was found between CPMV and the picornaviruses in the region of the picornavirus 2C (P2-X protein), VPg, 3C pro (proteinase) and 3D pol (RNA polymerase) regions. The CPMV B genome was found to have a similar gene organization to the picornaviruses. A comparison of the 3C pro (proteinase) regions of all of the available picornavirus sequences and CPMV allowed us to identify residues that are completely conserved; of these only two residues, Cys-147 and His-161 (poliovirus proteinase) could be the reactive residues of the active site of a proteinase with analogous mechanism to a known proteinase. We conclude that the proteinases encoded by these viruses are probably cysteine proteinases, mechanistically related, but not homologous to papain.

Argos, P; Kamer, G; Nicklin, M J; Wimmer, E

1984-01-01

95

Distinct evolutionary strategies in the GGPPS family from plants.  

PubMed

Multiple geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS) for biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) exist in plants. GGPP is produced in the isoprenoid pathway and is a central precursor for various primary and specialized plant metabolites. Therefore, its biosynthesis is an essential regulatory point in the isoprenoid pathway. We selected 119 GGPPSs from 48 species representing all major plant lineages, based on stringent homology criteria. After the diversification of land plants, the number of GGPPS paralogs per species increases. Already in the moss Physcomitrella patens, GGPPS appears to be encoded by multiple paralogous genes. In gymnosperms, neofunctionalization of GGPPS may have enabled optimized biosynthesis of primary and specialized metabolites. Notably, lineage-specific expansion of GGPPS occurred in land plants. As a representative species we focused here on Arabidopsis thaliana, which retained the highest number of GGPPS paralogs (twelve) among the 48 species we considered in this study. Our results show that the A. thaliana GGPPS gene family is an example of evolution involving neo- and subfunctionalization as well as pseudogenization. We propose subfunctionalization as one of the main mechanisms allowing the maintenance of multiple GGPPS paralogs in A. thaliana genome. Accordingly, the changes in the expression patterns of the GGPPS paralogs occurring after gene duplication led to developmental and/or condition specific functional evolution. PMID:24904625

Coman, Diana; Altenhoff, Adrian; Zoller, Stefan; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vranová, Eva

2014-01-01

96

Distinct evolutionary strategies in the GGPPS family from plants  

PubMed Central

Multiple geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS) for biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) exist in plants. GGPP is produced in the isoprenoid pathway and is a central precursor for various primary and specialized plant metabolites. Therefore, its biosynthesis is an essential regulatory point in the isoprenoid pathway. We selected 119 GGPPSs from 48 species representing all major plant lineages, based on stringent homology criteria. After the diversification of land plants, the number of GGPPS paralogs per species increases. Already in the moss Physcomitrella patens, GGPPS appears to be encoded by multiple paralogous genes. In gymnosperms, neofunctionalization of GGPPS may have enabled optimized biosynthesis of primary and specialized metabolites. Notably, lineage-specific expansion of GGPPS occurred in land plants. As a representative species we focused here on Arabidopsis thaliana, which retained the highest number of GGPPS paralogs (twelve) among the 48 species we considered in this study. Our results show that the A. thaliana GGPPS gene family is an example of evolution involving neo- and subfunctionalization as well as pseudogenization. We propose subfunctionalization as one of the main mechanisms allowing the maintenance of multiple GGPPS paralogs in A. thaliana genome. Accordingly, the changes in the expression patterns of the GGPPS paralogs occurring after gene duplication led to developmental and/or condition specific functional evolution.

Coman, Diana; Altenhoff, Adrian; Zoller, Stefan; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vranova, Eva

2014-01-01

97

Wild and cultivated barleys show differences in the expression pattern of a cold-regulated gene family under different light and temperature conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cold acclimation in plants involves the expression of many genes and gene families. The present study reports the expression analysis of three members of the blt14 gene family in barley. Gene-specific antisense oligonucleotides were used as probes in northern experiments so as to follow independently the expression of individual members of the gene family. Each clone revealed different accumulation kinetics

Maria Grossi; Elena Giorni; Fulvia Rizza; A. Michele Stanca; Luigi Cattivelli

1998-01-01

98

Molecular characterization of the SPL gene family in Populus trichocarpa  

PubMed Central

Background SPLs, a family of transcription factors specific to plants, play vital roles in plant growth and development through regulation of various physiological and biochemical processes. Although Populus trichocarpa is a model forest tree, the PtSPL gene family has not been systematically studied. Results Here we report the identification of 28 full-length PtSPLs, which distribute on 14 P. trichocarpa chromosomes. Based on the phylogenetic relationships of SPLs in P. trichocarpa and Arabidopsis, plant SPLs can be classified into 6 groups. Each group contains at least a PtSPL and an AtSPL. The N-terminal zinc finger 1 (Zn1) of SBP domain in group 6 SPLs has four cysteine residues (CCCC-type), while Zn1 of SPLs in the other groups mainly contains three cysteine and one histidine residues (C2HC-type). Comparative analyses of gene structures, conserved motifs and expression patterns of PtSPLs and AtSPLs revealed the conservation of plant SPLs within a group, whereas among groups, the P. trichocarpa and Arabidopsis SPLs were significantly different. Various conserved motifs were identified in PtSPLs but not found in AtSPLs, suggesting the diversity of plant SPLs. A total of 11 pairs of intrachromosome-duplicated PtSPLs were identified, suggesting the importance of gene duplication in SPL gene expansion in P. trichocarpa. In addition, 18 of the 28 PtSPLs, belonging to G1, G2 and G5, were found to be targets of miR156. Consistently, all of the AtSPLs in these groups are regulated by miR156. It suggests the conservation of miR156-mediated posttranscriptional regulation in plants. Conclusions A total of 28 full-length SPLs were identified from the whole genome sequence of P. trichocarpa. Through comprehensive analyses of gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, chromosomal locations, conserved motifs, expression patterns and miR156-mediated posttranscriptional regulation, the PtSPL gene family was characterized. Our results provide useful information for evolution and biological function of plant SPLs.

2014-01-01

99

Molecular evolution of the LNX gene family  

PubMed Central

Background LNX (Ligand of Numb Protein-X) proteins typically contain an amino-terminal RING domain adjacent to either two or four PDZ domains - a domain architecture that is unique to the LNX family. LNX proteins function as E3 ubiquitin ligases and their domain organisation suggests that their ubiquitin ligase activity may be targeted to specific substrates or subcellular locations by PDZ domain-mediated interactions. Indeed, numerous interaction partners for LNX proteins have been identified, but the in vivo functions of most family members remain largely unclear. Results To gain insights into their function we examined the phylogenetic origins and evolution of the LNX gene family. We find that a LNX1/LNX2-like gene arose in an early metazoan lineage by gene duplication and fusion events that combined a RING domain with four PDZ domains. These PDZ domains are closely related to the four carboxy-terminal domains from multiple PDZ domain containing protein-1 (MUPP1). Duplication of the LNX1/LNX2-like gene and subsequent loss of PDZ domains appears to have generated a gene encoding a LNX3/LNX4-like protein, with just two PDZ domains. This protein has novel carboxy-terminal sequences that include a potential modular LNX3 homology domain. The two ancestral LNX genes are present in some, but not all, invertebrate lineages. They were, however, maintained in the vertebrate lineage, with further duplication events giving rise to five LNX family members in most mammals. In addition, we identify novel interactions of LNX1 and LNX2 with three known MUPP1 ligands using yeast two-hybrid asssays. This demonstrates conservation of binding specificity between LNX and MUPP1 PDZ domains. Conclusions The LNX gene family has an early metazoan origin with a LNX1/LNX2-like protein likely giving rise to a LNX3/LNX4-like protein through the loss of PDZ domains. The absence of LNX orthologs in some lineages indicates that LNX proteins are not essential in invertebrates. In contrast, the maintenance of both ancestral LNX genes in the vertebrate lineage suggests the acquisition of essential vertebrate specific functions. The revelation that the LNX PDZ domains are phylogenetically related to domains in MUPP1, and have common binding specificities, suggests that LNX and MUPP1 may have similarities in their cellular functions.

2011-01-01

100

The human protein disulfide isomerase gene family  

PubMed Central

Enzyme-mediated disulfide bond formation is a highly conserved process affecting over one-third of all eukaryotic proteins. The enzymes primarily responsible for facilitating thiol-disulfide exchange are members of an expanding family of proteins known as protein disulfide isomerases (PDIs). These proteins are part of a larger superfamily of proteins known as the thioredoxin protein family (TRX). As members of the PDI family of proteins, all proteins contain a TRX-like structural domain and are predominantly expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum. Subcellular localization and the presence of a TRX domain, however, comprise the short list of distinguishing features required for gene family classification. To date, the PDI gene family contains 21 members, varying in domain composition, molecular weight, tissue expression, and cellular processing. Given their vital role in protein-folding, loss of PDI activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of numerous disease states, most commonly related to the unfolded protein response (UPR). Over the past decade, UPR has become a very attractive therapeutic target for multiple pathologies including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, and type-2 diabetes. Understanding the mechanisms of protein-folding, specifically thiol-disulfide exchange, may lead to development of a novel class of therapeutics that would help alleviate a wide range of diseases by targeting the UPR.

2012-01-01

101

Characterization of monocot and dicot plant S-adenosyl-l-methionine decarboxylase gene families including identification in the mRNA of a highly conserved pair of upstream overlapping open reading frames.  

PubMed Central

S-Adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC; EC 4.1.1.50) is one of the key regulatory enzymes in the biosynthesis of polyamines. Isolation of genomic and cDNA sequences from rice and Arabidopsis had indicated that this enzyme is encoded by a small multigene family in monocot and dicot plants. Analysis of rice, maize and Arabidopsis AdoMetDC cDNA species revealed that the monocot enzyme possesses an extended C-terminus relative to dicot and human enzymes. Interestingly, we discovered that all expressed plant AdoMetDC mRNA 5' leader sequences contain a highly conserved pair of overlapping upstream open reading frames (uORFs) that overlap by one base. The 5' tiny uORF consists of two or three codons and the 3' small uORF encodes 50-54 residues. Sequences of the small uORFs are highly conserved between monocot, dicot and gymnosperm AdoMetDC mRNA species and the C-terminus of the plant small uORFs is conserved with the C-terminus of nematode AdoMetDC uORFs; such a conserved arrangement is strongly suggestive of a translational regulatory mechanism. No introns were found in the main AdoMetDC proenzyme ORF from any of the plant genes encoding AdoMetDC, whereas introns were found in conserved positions flanking the overlapping uORFs. The absence of the furthest 3' intron from the Arabidopsis gene encoding AdoMetDC2 suggests that this intron was lost recently. Reverse-transcriptase-mediated PCR analysis of the two Arabidopsis genes for AdoMetDC indicated that AdoMetDC1 is abundant and ubiquitous, whereas the gene for AdoMetDC2 is expressed preferentially in leaves and inflorescences. Investigation of recently released Arabidopsis genome sequences has revealed that in addition to the two genes encoding AdoMetDC isolated as part of the present work, four additional genes are present in Arabidopsis but they are probably not expressed.

Franceschetti, M; Hanfrey, C; Scaramagli, S; Torrigiani, P; Bagni, N; Burtin, D; Michael, A J

2001-01-01

102

Prevalence of intron gain over intron loss in the evolution of paralogous gene families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms and evolutionary dynamics of intron insertion and loss in eukaryotic genes remain poorly understood. Reconstruction of parsimonious scen- arios of gene structure evolution in paralogous gene families in animals and plants revealed numer- ous gains and losses of introns. In all analyzed lineages, the number of acquired new introns was substantially greater than the number of lost ancestral

Vladimir N. Babenko; Igor B. Rogozin; Sergei L. Mekhedov; Eugene V. Koonin

2004-01-01

103

Protease gene families in Populus and Arabidopsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Proteases play key roles in plants, maintaining strict protein quality control and degrading specific sets of proteins in response to diverse environmental and developmental stimuli. Similarities and differences between the proteases expressed in different species may give valuable insights into their physiological roles and evolution. RESULTS: We have performed a comparative analysis of protease genes in the two sequenced

Maribel García-Lorenzo; Andreas Sjödin; Stefan Jansson; Christiane Funk

2006-01-01

104

Molecular characterization of the Arginine decarboxylase gene family in rice.  

PubMed

Arginine decarboxylase (ADC) is a key enzyme in plants that converts arginine into putrescine, an important mediator of abiotic stress tolerance. Adc genes have been isolated from a number of dicotyledonous plants but the oat and rice Adc genes are the only representatives of monocotyledonous species described thus far. Rice has a small family of Adc genes, and OsAdc1 expression has been shown to fluctuate under drought and chilling stress. We identified and characterized a second rice Adc gene (OsAdc2) which encodes a 629-amino-acid protein with a predicted molecular mass of 67 kDa. An unusual feature of the OsAdc2 gene is the presence of an intron and a short upstream open reading frame in the 5'-UTR. Sequence comparisons showed that OsAdc2 is more closely related to the oat Adc gene than to OsAdc1 or to its dicot homologs, and mRNA analysis showed that the two rice genes are also differently regulated. Whereas OsAdc1 is expressed in leaf, root and stem, OsAdc2 expression is restricted to stem tissue. Protein expression was investigated with specific antibodies against ADC1 and ADC2, corroborating the mRNA data. We discuss the expression profiles of OsAdc1 and OsAdc2 and potential functions for the two corresponding proteins. PMID:20082138

Peremarti, Ariadna; Bassie, Ludovic; Zhu, Changfu; Christou, Paul; Capell, Teresa

2010-10-01

105

Massive expansion of the calpain gene family in unicellular eukaryotes  

PubMed Central

Background Calpains are Ca2+-dependent cysteine proteases that participate in a range of crucial cellular processes. Dysfunction of these enzymes may cause, for instance, life-threatening diseases in humans, the loss of sex determination in nematodes and embryo lethality in plants. Although the calpain family is well characterized in animal and plant model organisms, there is a great lack of knowledge about these genes in unicellular eukaryote species (i.e. protists). Here, we study the distribution and evolution of calpain genes in a wide range of eukaryote genomes from major branches in the tree of life. Results Our investigations reveal 24 types of protein domains that are combined with the calpain-specific catalytic domain CysPc. In total we identify 41 different calpain domain architectures, 28 of these domain combinations have not been previously described. Based on our phylogenetic inferences, we propose that at least four calpain variants were established in the early evolution of eukaryotes, most likely before the radiation of all the major supergroups of eukaryotes. Many domains associated with eukaryotic calpain genes can be found among eubacteria or archaebacteria but never in combination with the CysPc domain. Conclusions The analyses presented here show that ancient modules present in prokaryotes, and a few de novo eukaryote domains, have been assembled into many novel domain combinations along the evolutionary history of eukaryotes. Some of the new calpain genes show a narrow distribution in a few branches in the tree of life, likely representing lineage-specific innovations. Hence, the functionally important classical calpain genes found among humans and vertebrates make up only a tiny fraction of the calpain family. In fact, a massive expansion of the calpain family occurred by domain shuffling among unicellular eukaryotes and contributed to a wealth of functionally different genes.

2012-01-01

106

NFAT Gene Family in Inflammation and Cancer  

PubMed Central

Calcineurin-NFAT signaling is critical for numerous aspects of vertebrate function during and after embryonic development. Initially discovered in T cells, the NFAT gene family, consisting of five members, regulates immune system, inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cardiac valve formation, myocardial development, axonal guidance, skeletal muscle development, bone homeostasis, development and metastasis of cancer, and many other biological processes. In this review we will focus on the NFAT literature relevant to the two closely related pathological systems: inflammation and cancer.

Pan, M.-G.; Xiong, Y.; Chen, F.

2013-01-01

107

Transgenic plants with cyanobacterial genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the years, cyanobacteria have been regarded as ideal model systems for studying fundamental biochemical processes like\\u000a oxygenic photosynthesis and carbon and nitrogen assimilation. Additionally, they have been used as human foods, sources for\\u000a vitamins, proteins, fine chemicals, and bioactive compounds. Aiming to increase plant productivity as well as nutritional\\u000a values, cyanobacterial genes involved in carbon metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis,

Youn-Il Park; Sang-Bong Choi; Jang R. Liu

2009-01-01

108

Carcinoembryonic antigen gene family: Molecular biology and clinical perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene family belongs to the immunoglobulin super- gene family and can be divided into two main subgroups based on sequence comparisons. In humans it is clustered on the long arm of chromosome 19 and consists of approxi- mately 20 genes. The CEA subgroup genes code for CEA and its classical crossreacting antigens, which are mainly membrane-bound,

John A. Thompson; Fritz Grunert; Wolfgang Zimmermann

1991-01-01

109

The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far.

Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

2011-01-01

110

CHLOROPLAST matK GENE PHYLOGENY OF SOME IMPORTANT SPECIES OF PLANTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study using the chloroplast matK DNA sequence, a chloroplast-encoded locus that has been shown to be much more variable than many other genes, from one hundred and forty two plant species belong to the families of 26 plants we conducted a study to contribute to the understanding of major evolutionary relationships among the studied plant orders, families genus

Mehmet KARACA; A. Naci ONUS

111

Identification and characterization of the maize arogenate dehydrogenase gene family  

PubMed Central

In plants, the amino acids tyrosine and phenylalanine are synthesized from arogenate by arogenate dehydrogenase and arogenate dehydratase, respectively, with the relative flux to each being tightly controlled. Here the characterization of a maize opaque endosperm mutant (mto140), which also shows retarded vegetative growth, is described The opaque phenotype co-segregates with a Mutator transposon insertion in an arogenate dehydrogenase gene (zmAroDH-1) and this led to the characterization of the four-member family of maize arogenate dehydrogenase genes (zmAroDH-1–zmAroDH-4) which share highly similar sequences. A Mutator insertion at an equivalent position in AroDH-3, the most closely related family member to AroDH-1, is also associated with opaque endosperm and stunted vegetative growth phenotypes. Overlapping but differential expression patterns as well as subtle mutant effects on the accumulation of tyrosine and phenylalanine in endosperm, embryo, and leaf tissues suggest that the functional redundancy of this gene family provides metabolic plasticity for the synthesis of these important amino acids. mto140/arodh-1 seeds shows a general reduction in zein storage protein accumulation and an elevated lysine phenotype typical of other opaque endosperm mutants, but it is distinct because it does not result from quantitative or qualitative defects in the accumulation of specific zeins but rather from a disruption in amino acid biosynthesis.

Holding, David R.; Meeley, Robert B.; Hazebroek, Jan; Selinger, David; Gruis, Fred; Jung, Rudolf; Larkins, Brian A.

2010-01-01

112

Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis).  

PubMed

The GRAS gene family is one of the most important families of transcriptional regulators. In this study, 48 GRAS genes are identified from Chinese cabbage, and they are classified into eight groups according to the classification of Arabidopsis. The characterization, classification, gene structure and phylogenetic construction of GRAS proteins are performed. Distribution mapping shows that GRAS proteins are nonrandomly localized in 10 chromosomes. Fifty-five orthologous gene pairs are shared by Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis, and interaction networks of these orthologous genes are constructed. The expansion of GRAS genes in Chinese cabbage results from genome triplication. Among the 17 species examined, 14 higher plants carry the GRAS genes, whereas two lower plants and one fungi species do not. Furthermore, the expression patterns of GRAS genes exhibit differences in three tissues based on RNA-seq data. Taken together, this comprehensive analysis will provide rich resources for studying GRAS protein functions in Chinese cabbage. PMID:24365788

Song, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Tong-Kun; Duan, Wei-Ke; Ma, Qing-Hua; Ren, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Li, Ying; Hou, Xi-Lin

2014-01-01

113

Familial glucocorticoid deficiency: New genes and mechanisms.  

PubMed

Familial Glucocorticoid deficiency (FGD), in which the adrenal cortex fails to produce glucocorticoids, was first shown to be caused by defects in the receptor for ACTH (MC2R) or its accessory protein (MRAP). Certain mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) can also masquerade as FGD. Recently mutations in mini chromosome maintenance-deficient 4 homologue (MCM4) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT), genes involved in DNA replication and antioxidant defence respectively, have been recognised in FGD cohorts. These latest findings expand the spectrum of pathogenetic mechanisms causing adrenal disease and imply that the adrenal may be hypersensitive to replicative and oxidative stresses. Over time patients with MCM4 or NNT mutations may develop other organ pathologies related to their impaired gene functions and will therefore need careful monitoring. PMID:23279877

Meimaridou, Eirini; Hughes, Claire R; Kowalczyk, Julia; Guasti, Leonardo; Chapple, J Paul; King, Peter J; Chan, Li F; Clark, Adrian J L; Metherell, Louise A

2013-05-22

114

Phylogenomics of the plant family Araceae.  

PubMed

The biogeography, chromosome number evolution, pollination biology and evolutionary history of the plant family Araceae have recently become much clearer (Cabrera et al., 2008; Chartier et al., 2013; Cusimano et al., 2011, 2012; Nauheimer et al., 2012). However, phylogenetic ambiguity near the root of the tree precludes answering questions about the early evolution of the family. We use Illumina sequencing technology and reference based assembly to resolve the remaining questions in the deep phylogeny of Araceae. We sampled 32 genera and obtained 7 from GenBank (including an outgroup), representing 42 of 44 major clades described in Cusimano et al. (2011). A subsequent phylogenomic analysis based on mitochondrial data was performed to test congruence between plastid and mitochondrial data for phylogenetic inference. Plastid sequences produced strongly supported phylogenies. In contrast, mitochondrial phylogenies were weakly supported and incongruent with chloroplast data (Templeton test, p?0.0001), although several smaller clades were recovered. New strongly-supported clades seen here are: (1) Anubias and Montrichardia, excluding Calla, form a clade that is sister to the Zantedeschia clade; (2) the South African genus Zantedeschia is sister to the Old World Anchomanes clade; and (3) within the Zantedeschia clade, Philodendron is sister to the rest. Calla and Schismatoglottis form a clade at the base of one of two major clades in Aroideae based on complete chloroplast sequences. Although statistical support is weak, morphological and cytological features support this topology. PMID:24594061

Henriquez, Claudia L; Arias, Tatiana; Pires, J Chris; Croat, Thomas B; Schaal, Barbara A

2014-06-01

115

Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes  

DOEpatents

The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

Coruzzi, Gloria M. (New York, NY); Lam, Hon-Ming (Hong Kong, HK); Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun (Woodside, NY)

2001-01-01

116

Molecular evolution of the junctophilin gene family  

PubMed Central

Junctophilins (JPHs) are members of a junctional membrane complex protein family important for the physical approximation of plasmalemmal and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum membranes. As such, JPHs facilitate signal transduction in excitable cells between plasmalemmal voltage-gated calcium channels and intracellular calcium release channels. To determine the molecular evolution of the JPH gene family, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of over 60 JPH genes from over 40 species and compared conservation across species and different isoforms. We found that JPHs are evolutionary highly conserved, in particular the membrane occupation and recognition nexus motifs found in all species. Our data suggest that an ancestral form of JPH arose at the latest in a common metazoan ancestor and that in vertebrates four isoforms arose, probably following two rounds of whole genome duplications. By combining multiple prediction techniques with sequence alignments, we also postulate the presence of new important functional regions and candidate sites for posttranslational modifications. The increasing number of available sequences yields significant insight into the molecular evolution of JPHs. Our analysis is consistent with the emerging concept that JPHs serve dual important functions in excitable cells: structural assembly of junctional membrane complexes and regulation of intracellular calcium signaling pathways.

Garbino, Alejandro; van Oort, Ralph J.; Dixit, Sayali S.; Landstrom, Andrew P.; Ackerman, Michael J.; Wehrens, Xander H. T.

2009-01-01

117

Widespread impact of horizontal gene transfer on plant colonization of land.  

PubMed

In complex multicellular eukaryotes such as animals and plants, horizontal gene transfer is commonly considered rare with very limited evolutionary significance. Here we show that horizontal gene transfer is a dynamic process occurring frequently in the early evolution of land plants. Our genome analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens identified 57 families of nuclear genes that were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses. Many of these gene families were transferred to the ancestors of green or land plants. Available experimental evidence shows that these anciently acquired genes are involved in some essential or plant-specific activities such as xylem formation, plant defence, nitrogen recycling as well as the biosynthesis of starch, polyamines, hormones and glutathione. These findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer had a critical role in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of horizontal gene transfer mechanism in nonvascular and seedless vascular plants. PMID:23093189

Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling

2012-01-01

118

The SLEEPER genes: a transposase-derived angiosperm-specific gene family  

PubMed Central

Background DAYSLEEPER encodes a domesticated transposase from the hAT-superfamily, which is essential for development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Little is known about the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in other species, or how and when it was domesticated. We studied the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in plants and propose a model for the domestication of the ancestral DAYSLEEPER gene in angiosperms. Results Using specific BLAST searches in genomic and EST libraries, we found that DAYSLEEPER-like genes (hereafter called SLEEPER genes) are unique to angiosperms. Basal angiosperms as well as grasses (Poaceae) and dicotyledonous plants possess such putative orthologous genes, but SLEEPER-family genes were not found in gymnosperms, mosses and algae. Most species contain more than one SLEEPER gene. All SLEEPERs contain a C2H2 type BED-zinc finger domain and a hATC dimerization domain. We designated 3 motifs, partly overlapping the BED-zinc finger and dimerization domain, which are hallmark features in the SLEEPER family. Although SLEEPER genes are structurally conserved between species, constructs with SLEEPER genes from grapevine and rice did not complement the daysleeper phenotype in Arabidopsis, when expressed under control of the DAYSLEEPER promoter. However these constructs did cause a dominant phenotype when expressed in Arabidopsis. Rice plant lines with an insertion in the RICESLEEPER1 or 2 locus displayed phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that these genes are functional and important for normal development in rice. We suggest a model in which we hypothesize that an ancestral hAT transposase was retrocopied and stably integrated in the genome during early angiosperm evolution. Evidence is also presented for more recent retroposition events of SLEEPER genes, such as an event in the rice genome, which gave rise to the RICESLEEPER1 and 2 genes. Conclusions We propose the ancestral SLEEPER gene was formed after a process of retro-transposition during the evolution of the first angiosperms. It may have acquired an important function early on, as mutation of two SLEEPER genes in rice, like the daysleeper mutant in A. thaliana gave a developmental phenotype indicative of their importance for normal plant development.

2012-01-01

119

Molecular characterization of a new type of receptor-like kinase (wlrk) gene family in wheat  

Microsoft Academic Search

In plants, several types of receptor-like kinases (RLK) have been isolated and characterized based on the sequence of their extracellular domains. Some of these RLKs have been demonstrated to be involved in plant development or in the reaction to environmental signals. Here, we describe a RLK gene family in wheat (wlrk, wheat leaf rust kinase) with a new type of

Catherine Feuillet; Christophe Reuzeau; Per Kjellbom; Beat Keller

1998-01-01

120

Elicitor-specific induction of one member of the chitinase gene family in Arachis hypogaea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chitinases are believed to play an important role in plant defence against bacterial and fungal attack. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea) chitinase genes form a small multigene family. Four chitinase cDNAs (chit 1–4) were isolated from cultured peanut cells. Expression of individual chit genes was assayed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP).

Thomas Herget; Jeff Schell; Peter H. Schreier

1990-01-01

121

The SLC13 gene family of sodium sulphate\\/carboxylate cotransporters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SLC13 gene family consist of five sequence-related members that have been identified in a variety of animals, plants, yeast and bacteria. Proteins encoded by these genes are divided into two functionally unrelated groups: the Na +-sulphate (NaS) cotransporters and the Na +-carboxylate (NaC) cotransporters. Members of this family include the renal Na +-dependent inorganic sulphate transporter-1 (NaSi-1, SLC13A1), the

Daniel Markovich; Heini Murer

2004-01-01

122

Structure and evolution of the plant cation diffusion facilitator family of ion transporters  

PubMed Central

Background Members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family are integral membrane divalent cation transporters that transport metal ions out of the cytoplasm either into the extracellular space or into internal compartments such as the vacuole. The spectrum of cations known to be transported by proteins of the CDF family include Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, and Mn. Members of this family have been identified in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea, and in sequenced plant genomes. CDF families range in size from nine members in Selaginella moellendorffii to 19 members in Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CDF family has expanded within plants, but a definitive plant CDF family phylogeny has not been constructed. Results Representative CDF members were annotated from diverse genomes across the Viridiplantae and Rhodophyta lineages and used to identify phylogenetic relationships within the CDF family. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CDF amino acid sequence data supports organizing land plant CDF family sequences into 7 groups. The origin of the 7 groups predates the emergence of land plants. Among these, 5 of the 7 groups are likely to have originated at the base of the tree of life, and 2 of 7 groups appear to be derived from a duplication event prior to or coincident with land plant evolution. Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. Conclusions Defining the CDF gene family phylogeny contributes to our understanding of this family in several ways. First, when embarking upon functional studies of the members, defining primary groups improves the predictive power of functional assignment of orthologous/paralogous genes and aids in hypothesis generation. Second, defining groups will allow a group-specific sequence motif to be generated that will help define future CDF family sequences and aid in functional motif identification, which currently is lacking for this family in plants. Third, the plant-specific expansion resulting in Groups 8 and 9 evolved coincident to the early primary radiation of plants onto land, suggesting these families may have been important for early land colonization.

2011-01-01

123

The tomato cis-prenyltransferase gene family.  

PubMed

cis-prenyltransferases (CPTs) are predicted to be involved in the synthesis of long-chain polyisoprenoids, all with five or more isoprene (C5) units. Recently, we identified a short-chain CPT, neryl diphosphate synthase (NDPS1), in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Here, we searched the tomato genome and identified and characterized its entire CPT gene family, which comprises seven members (SlCPT1-7, with NDPS1 designated as SlCPT1). Six of the SlCPT genes encode proteins with N-terminal targeting sequences, which, when fused to GFP, mediated GFP transport to the plastids of Arabidopsis protoplasts. The SlCPT3-GFP fusion protein was localized to the cytosol. Enzymatic characterization of recombinant SlCPT proteins demonstrated that SlCPT6 produces Z,Z-FPP, and SlCPT2 catalyzes the formation of nerylneryl diphosphate while SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 synthesize longer-chain products (C25-C55). Although no in vitro activity was demonstrated for SlCPT3, its expression in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae dolichol biosynthesis mutant (rer2) complemented the temperature-sensitive growth defect. Transcripts of SlCPT2, SlCPT4, SlCPT5 and SlCPT7 are present at low levels in multiple tissues, SlCPT6 is exclusively expressed in red fruit and roots, and SlCPT1, SlCPT3 and SlCPT7 are highly expressed in trichomes. RNAi-mediated suppression of NDPS1 led to a large decrease in ?-phellandrene (which is produced from neryl diphosphate), with greater reductions achieved with the general 35S promoter compared to the trichome-specific MKS1 promoter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed CPT gene families in both eudicots and monocots, and showed that all the short-chain CPT genes from tomato (SlCPT1, SlCPT2 and SlCPT6) are closely linked to terpene synthase gene clusters. PMID:23134568

Akhtar, Tariq A; Matsuba, Yuki; Schauvinhold, Ines; Yu, Geng; Lees, Hazel A; Klein, Samuel E; Pichersky, Eran

2013-02-01

124

Inferring gene family histories in yeast identifies lineage specific expansions.  

PubMed

The complement of genes found in the genome is a balance between gene gain and gene loss. Knowledge of the specific genes that are gained and lost over evolutionary time allows an understanding of the evolution of biological functions. Here we use new evolutionary models to infer gene family histories across complete yeast genomes; these models allow us to estimate the relative genome-wide rates of gene birth, death, innovation and extinction (loss of an entire family) for the first time. We show that the rates of gene family evolution vary both between gene families and between species. We are also able to identify those families that have experienced rapid lineage specific expansion/contraction and show that these families are enriched for specific functions. Moreover, we find that families with specific functions are repeatedly expanded in multiple species, suggesting the presence of common adaptations and that these family expansions/contractions are not random. Additionally, we identify potential specialisations, unique to specific species, in the functions of lineage specific expanded families. These results suggest that an important mechanism in the evolution of genome content is the presence of lineage-specific gene family changes. PMID:24921666

Ames, Ryan M; Money, Daniel; Lovell, Simon C

2014-01-01

125

Inferring Gene Family Histories in Yeast Identifies Lineage Specific Expansions  

PubMed Central

The complement of genes found in the genome is a balance between gene gain and gene loss. Knowledge of the specific genes that are gained and lost over evolutionary time allows an understanding of the evolution of biological functions. Here we use new evolutionary models to infer gene family histories across complete yeast genomes; these models allow us to estimate the relative genome-wide rates of gene birth, death, innovation and extinction (loss of an entire family) for the first time. We show that the rates of gene family evolution vary both between gene families and between species. We are also able to identify those families that have experienced rapid lineage specific expansion/contraction and show that these families are enriched for specific functions. Moreover, we find that families with specific functions are repeatedly expanded in multiple species, suggesting the presence of common adaptations and that these family expansions/contractions are not random. Additionally, we identify potential specialisations, unique to specific species, in the functions of lineage specific expanded families. These results suggest that an important mechanism in the evolution of genome content is the presence of lineage-specific gene family changes.

Ames, Ryan M.; Money, Daniel; Lovell, Simon C.

2014-01-01

126

Impact of recurrent gene duplication on adaptation of plant genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Recurrent gene duplication and retention played an important role in angiosperm genome evolution. It has been hypothesized that these processes contribute significantly to plant adaptation but so far this hypothesis has not been tested at the genome scale. Results We studied available sequenced angiosperm genomes to assess the frequency of positive selection footprints in lineage specific expanded (LSE) gene families compared to single-copy genes using a dN/dS-based test in a phylogenetic framework. We found 5.38% of alignments in LSE genes with codons under positive selection. In contrast, we found no evidence for codons under positive selection in the single-copy reference set. An analysis at the branch level shows that purifying selection acted more strongly on single-copy genes than on LSE gene clusters. Moreover we detect significantly more branches indicating evolution under positive selection and/or relaxed constraint in LSE genes than in single-copy genes. Conclusions In this – to our knowledge –first genome-scale study we provide strong empirical support for the hypothesis that LSE genes fuel adaptation in angiosperms. Our conservative approach for detecting selection footprints as well as our results can be of interest for further studies on (plant) gene family evolution.

2014-01-01

127

Selection for Higher Gene Copy Number after Different Types of Plant Gene Duplications  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary origins of the multitude of duplicate genes in the plant genomes are still incompletely understood. To gain an appreciation of the potential selective forces acting on these duplicates, we phylogenetically inferred the set of metabolic gene families from 10 flowering plant (angiosperm) genomes. We then compared the metabolic fluxes for these families, predicted using the Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum bicolor metabolic networks, with the families' duplication propensities. For duplications produced by both small scale (small-scale duplications) and genome duplication (whole-genome duplications), there is a significant association between the flux and the tendency to duplicate. Following this global analysis, we made a more fine-scale study of the selective constraints observed on plant sodium and phosphate transporters. We find that the different duplication mechanisms give rise to differing selective constraints. However, the exact nature of this pattern varies between the gene families, and we argue that the duplication mechanism alone does not define a duplicated gene's subsequent evolutionary trajectory. Collectively, our results argue for the interplay of history, function, and selection in shaping the duplicate gene evolution in plants.

Hudson, Corey M.; Puckett, Emily E.; Bekaert, Michael; Pires, J. Chris; Conant, Gavin C.

2011-01-01

128

Selection for higher gene copy number after different types of plant gene duplications.  

PubMed

The evolutionary origins of the multitude of duplicate genes in the plant genomes are still incompletely understood. To gain an appreciation of the potential selective forces acting on these duplicates, we phylogenetically inferred the set of metabolic gene families from 10 flowering plant (angiosperm) genomes. We then compared the metabolic fluxes for these families, predicted using the Arabidopsis thaliana and Sorghum bicolor metabolic networks, with the families' duplication propensities. For duplications produced by both small scale (small-scale duplications) and genome duplication (whole-genome duplications), there is a significant association between the flux and the tendency to duplicate. Following this global analysis, we made a more fine-scale study of the selective constraints observed on plant sodium and phosphate transporters. We find that the different duplication mechanisms give rise to differing selective constraints. However, the exact nature of this pattern varies between the gene families, and we argue that the duplication mechanism alone does not define a duplicated gene's subsequent evolutionary trajectory. Collectively, our results argue for the interplay of history, function, and selection in shaping the duplicate gene evolution in plants. PMID:22056313

Hudson, Corey M; Puckett, Emily E; Bekaert, Michaël; Pires, J Chris; Conant, Gavin C

2011-01-01

129

Expression Patterns of the Human and Mouse IFGP Family Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IFGP gene family has recently been found in human and mouse cells and is structurally related to the leukocytic Fc receptor genes. Expression of six human and four mouse IFGP genes was studied. Apart from mouse IFGP2, the genes of the family are expressed predominantly in hematopoietic cells. Expression of human IFGP1-IFGP5 and mouse IFGP3 is restricted to B

S. A. Ershova; A. M. Najakshin; L. V. Mechetina; M. M. Peklo; A. Ya. Shevelev; T. N. Vlasik; N. A. Chikaev; A. V. Taranin

2005-01-01

130

Analyses of the oligopeptide transporter gene family in poplar and grape  

PubMed Central

Background Oligopeptide transporters (OPTs) are a group of membrane-localized proteins that have a broad range of substrate transport capabilities and that are thought to contribute to many biological processes. The OPT proteins belong to a small gene family in plants, which includes about 25 members in Arabidopsis and rice. However, no comprehensive study incorporating phylogeny, chromosomal location, gene structure, expression profiling, functional divergence and selective pressure analysis has been reported thus far for Populus and Vitis. Results In the present study, a comprehensive analysis of the OPT gene family in Populus (P. trichocarpa) and Vitis (V. vinifera) was performed. A total of 20 and 18 full-length OPT genes have been identified in Populus and Vitis, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these OPT genes consist of two classes that can be further subdivided into 11 groups. Gene structures are considerably conserved among the groups. The distribution of OPT genes was found to be non-random across chromosomes. A high proportion of the genes are preferentially clustered, indicating that tandem duplications may have contributed significantly to the expansion of the OPT gene family. Expression patterns based on our analyses of microarray data suggest that many OPT genes may be important in stress response and functional development of plants. Further analyses of functional divergence and adaptive evolution show that, while purifying selection may have been the main force driving the evolution of the OPTs, some of critical sites responsible for the functional divergence may have been under positive selection. Conclusions Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus and Vitis OPT gene family and of the function and evolution of the OPT gene family in higher plants.

2011-01-01

131

Genome-wide analysis of Aux\\/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Auxin\\/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux\\/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. We identified the suites of genes in the two gene families in Populus and performed comparative genomic analysis with Arabidopsis and rice. RESULTS: A total of 35 Aux\\/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis

Udaya C Kalluri; Stephen P DiFazio; Amy M Brunner; Gerald A Tuskan

2007-01-01

132

Role of SERK genes in plant environmental response  

PubMed Central

In plants, cell signaling connects the environmental input to the intracellular responses in plants. Exogenous signals play an important role in cell metabolism leading to growth and defense responses. Some of these stimuli induce anatomical and physiological modifications that are generally modulated by gene expression. SERK belongs to a small family of genes that code for a transmembrane protein involved in signal transduction and that have been strongly associated with somatic embryogenesis and apomixis in a number of plant species. Recent studies corroborate its role in somatic embryogenesis and suggest a broader range of functions in plant response to biotic and abiotic stimuli. This mini-review aims to present new data on SERK and discuss its involvement in plant development as well as in response to environmental stress.

Santos, Marcelo O

2009-01-01

133

Functions of rol genes in plant secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

For a long time, the Agrobacterium rhizogenes rolA, rolB and rolC oncogenes have been considered to be modulators of plant growth and cell differentiation. A new function of the rol genes in plant-Agrobacterium interaction became apparent with the discovery that these genes are potential activators of secondary metabolism in transformed cells from the Solanaceae, Araliaceae, Rubiaceae, Vitaceae and Rosaceae families. In some cases, the activator effect of individual rol genes is sufficient to overcome the inability of cultured plant cells to produce large amounts of secondary metabolites. Here, I summarize the available evidence that shows that genetic transformation by single Agrobacterium rol genes may be used as a powerful tool to manipulate secondary metabolites in cultured plant cells. Although it is known that the rol genes act via transcriptional activation of defense genes, the mechanism of activation is unclear. In this review, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that the rol genes mediate uncommon signal transduction pathways in plants. PMID:18434069

Bulgakov, Victor P

2008-01-01

134

On the Nyquist envelope of an interval plant family  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this note, we study the envelope of the Nyquist plots generated by an interval plant family and show that this boundary is not always contained in the Nyquist plots of the Kharitonov plants. With this motivation in mind, we give a sufficient condition for an envelope point to be contained in the Nyquist plot of a Kharitonov plant and

C. V. Hollot; R. Tempo

1994-01-01

135

A novel link between tomato GRAS genes, plant disease resistance and mechanical stress response  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Members of the GRAS family of transcriptional regulators have been implicated in the control of plant growth and development, and in the interaction of plants with symbiotic bacteria. Here we examine the complexity of the GRAS gene family in tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and investigate its role in disease resistance and mechanical stress. A large number of tomato

MAYA MAYROSE; SOPHIA K. EKENGREN; SHIRI MELECH-BONFIL; GREGORY B. MARTIN; GUIDO SESSA

2006-01-01

136

Genome-Wide Analysis of the MADS-Box Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon  

PubMed Central

MADS-box genes are important transcription factors for plant development, especially floral organogenesis. Brachypodium distachyon is a model for biofuel plants and temperate grasses such as wheat and barley, but a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Brachypodium is still missing. We report here a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brachypodium distachyon. We identified 57 MADS-box genes and classified them into 32 MIKCc-type, 7 MIKC*-type, 9 M?, 7 M? and 2 M? MADS-box genes according to their phylogenetic relationships to the Arabidopsis and rice MADS-box genes. Detailed gene structure and motif distribution were then studied. Investigation of their chromosomal localizations revealed that Brachypodium MADS-box genes distributed evenly across five chromosomes. In addition, five pairs of type II MADS-box genes were found on synteny blocks derived from whole genome duplication blocks. We then performed a systematic expression analysis of Brachypodium MADS-box genes in various tissues, particular floral organs. Further detection under salt, drought, and low-temperature conditions showed that some MADS-box genes may also be involved in abiotic stress responses, including type I genes. Comparative studies of MADS-box genes among Brachypodium, rice and Arabidopsis showed that Brachypodium had fewer gene duplication events. Taken together, this work provides useful data for further functional studies of MADS-box genes in Brachypodium distachyon.

Wei, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Zhi; Guo, Juan-Juan; Liu, Dan-Mei; Li, Ai-Li; Fan, Ren-Chun; Mao, Long; Zhang, Xiang-Qi

2014-01-01

137

Plant Transformation by Gene Transfer into Pollen.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Present-day gene transfer techniques allow the possibility for the development of more productive crop plants at a pace much faster than before. Gene transfer and selection of the best plants has been the objective of breeding programs for years. Powerful...

J. A. Saunders B. F. Matthews

1990-01-01

138

Regulation of gene expression in plant mitochondria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many genes in plant mitochondria have been analyzed in the past 15 years and regulatory processes controlling gene expression can now be investigated. In vitro systems capable of initiating transcription faithfully at promoter sites have been developed for both monocot and dicot plants and will allow the identification of the interacting nucleic acid elements and proteins which specify and guide

Stefan Binder; Anita Marchfelder; Axel Brennicke

1996-01-01

139

Overexpression of the Retinoblastoma Gene in a Familial Adrenocortical Carcinoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstrad Tumors derived from a Li-Fraumeni syndrome cancer- susceptible family were examined for expression of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene (RB). Whereas RB expression was normal in a primary breast carcinoma and its metastases from one member of this family, overexpression of RB was found in an adrenocortical carcinoma from another family member. This was in contrast to normal RB expression

Sally Warneford; Megan Townsend; Peter B. Rowe; Luciano Dalla-Pozza; Geoff Symonds

1991-01-01

140

Factors affecting gene expression of patatin and proteinase-inhibitor-II gene families in detached potato leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

In whole intact potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants, the gene families of class-I patatin and proteinase inhibitor II (Pin 2) are constitutively expressed in the tubers. However, they are also induced in detached potato leaves in the presence of light. To further characterize this light action, the detached leaves were subjected to monochromatic light of different wavelengths and to darkness

Hugo Peńa-Cortés; Xiangjun Liu; José Sanchez Serrano; Rainer Schmid; Lothar Willmitzer

1992-01-01

141

Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between the parasitic fungus Pneumocystis carinii and its host, the laboratory rat, presumably involves features that allow the fungus to circumvent attacks by the immune system. It is hypothesized that the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene family endows Pneumocystis with the capacity to vary its surface. This gene family is comprised of approximately 80 genes, which each are approximately 3 kb long. Expression of the MSG gene family is regulated by a cis-dependent mechanism that involves a unique telomeric site in the genome called the expression site. Only the MSG gene adjacent to the expression site is represented by messenger RNA. Several P. carinii MSG genes have been sequenced, which showed that genes in the family can encode distinct isoforms of MSG. The vast majority of family members have not been characterized at the sequence level. Results The first 300 basepairs of MSG genes were subjected to analysis herein. Analysis of 581 MSG sequence reads from P. carinii genomic DNA yielded 281 different sequences. However, many of the sequence reads differed from others at only one site, a degree of variation consistent with that expected to be caused by error. Accounting for error reduced the number of truly distinct sequences observed to 158, roughly twice the number expected if the gene family contains 80 members. The size of the gene family was verified by PCR. The excess of distinct sequences appeared to be due to allelic variation. Discounting alleles, there were 73 different MSG genes observed. The 73 genes differed by 19% on average. Variable regions were rich in nucleotide differences that changed the encoded protein. The genes shared three regions in which at least 16 consecutive basepairs were invariant. There were numerous cases where two different genes were identical within a region that was variable among family members as a whole, suggesting recombination among family members. Conclusion A set of sequences that represents most if not all of the members of the P. carinii MSG gene family was obtained. The protein-changing nature of the variation among these sequences suggests that the family has been shaped by selection for protein variation, which is consistent with the hypothesis that the MSG gene family functions to enhance phenotypic variation among the members of a population of P. carinii.

Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R

2009-01-01

142

Genome Dynamics Explain the Evolution of Flowering Time CCT Domain Gene Families in the Poaceae  

PubMed Central

Numerous CCT domain genes are known to control flowering in plants. They belong to the CONSTANS-like (COL) and PREUDORESPONSE REGULATOR (PRR) gene families, which in addition to a CCT domain possess B-box or response-regulator domains, respectively. Ghd7 is the most recently identified COL gene to have a proven role in the control of flowering time in the Poaceae. However, as it lacks B-box domains, its inclusion within the COL gene family, technically, is incorrect. Here, we show Ghd7 belongs to a larger family of previously uncharacterized Poaceae genes which possess just a single CCT domain, termed here CCT MOTIF FAMILY (CMF) genes. We molecularly describe the CMF (and related COL and PRR) gene families in four sequenced Poaceae species, as well as in the draft genome assembly of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Genetic mapping of the ten barley CMF genes identified, as well as twelve previously unmapped HvCOL and HvPRR genes, finds the majority map to colinear positions relative to their Poaceae orthologues. Combined inter-/intra-species comparative and phylogenetic analysis of CMF, COL and PRR gene families indicates they evolved prior to the monocot/dicot divergence ?200 mya, with Poaceae CMF evolution described as the interplay between whole genome duplication in the ancestral cereal, and subsequent clade-specific mutation, deletion and duplication events. Given the proven role of CMF genes in the modulation of cereals flowering, the molecular, phylogenetic and comparative analysis of the Poaceae CMF, COL and PRR gene families presented here provides the foundation from which functional investigation can be undertaken.

Cockram, James; Thiel, Thomas; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Stein, Nils; Taudien, Stefan; Bailey, Paul C.; O'Sullivan, Donal M.

2012-01-01

143

SLC9/NHE gene family, a plasma membrane and organellar family of Na+/H+ exchangers *  

PubMed Central

This brief review of the human Na/H exchanger gene family introduces a new classification with three subgroups to the SLC9 gene family. Progress in the structure and function of this gene family is reviewed with structure based on homology to the bacterial Na/H exchanger NhaA. Human diseases which result from genetic abnormalities of the SLC9 family are discussed although the exact role of these transporters in causing any disease is not established, other than poorly functioning NHE3 in congenital Na diarrhea

Donowitz, Mark; Tse, C. Ming; Fuster, Daniel

2013-01-01

144

Gene for Identifying Individuals with Familial Dysautonomia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This invention relates to methods and compositions useful for detecting mutations which cause Familial Dysautonomia. Familial dysautonomia (FD; Riley-Day syndrome), an Ashkenazi Jewish disorder, is the best known and most frequent of a group of congenital...

S. Slaugenhaupt J. F. Gusella

2005-01-01

145

Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa  

SciTech Connect

Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

Kalluri, Udaya C [ORNL; DiFazio, Stephen P [West Virginia University; Brunner, A. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

2007-01-01

146

Molecular evolution of the rice miR395 gene family.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that play important roles in plant and animal development. They are usually processed from larger precursors that can form stem-loop structures. Among 20 miRNA families that are conserved between Arabidopsis and rice, the rice miR395 gene family was unique because it was organized into compact clusters that could be transcribed as one single transcript. We show here that in fact this family had four clusters of total 24 genes. Three of these clusters were segmental duplications. They contained miR395 genes of both 120 bp and 66 bp long. However, only the latter was repeatedly duplicated. The fourth cluster contained miR395 genes of two different sizes that could be the consequences of intergenic recombination of genes from the first three clusters. On each cluster, both 1-duplication and 2-duplication histories were observed based on the sequence similarity between miR395 genes, some of which were nearly identical suggesting a recent origin. This was supported by a miR395 locus survey among several species of the genus Oryza, where two clusters were only found in species with an AA genome, the genome of the cultivated rice. A comparative study of the genomic organization of Medicago truncatula miR395 gene family showed significant expansion of intergenic spaces indicating that the originally clustered genes were drifting away from each other. The diverse genomic organizations of a conserved microRNA gene family in different plant genomes indicated that this important negative gene regulation system has undergone dramatic tune-ups in plant genomes. PMID:16117853

Guddeti, Sreelatha; Zhang, De Chun; Li, Ai Li; Leseberg, Chuck H; Kang, Hui; Li, Xiao Guang; Zhai, Wen Xue; Johns, Mitrick A; Mao, Long

2005-08-01

147

Genome-Wide Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analyses of WRKY Family Genes in Brachypodium distachyon  

PubMed Central

Members of plant WRKY gene family are ancient transcription factors that function in plant growth and development and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. In our present study, we have investigated WRKY family genes in Brachypodium distachyon, a new model plant of family Poaceae. We identified a total of 86 WRKY genes from B. distachyon and explored their chromosomal distribution and evolution, domain alignment, promoter cis-elements, and expression profiles. Combining the analysis of phylogenetic tree of BdWRKY genes and the result of expression profiling, results showed that most of clustered gene pairs had higher similarities in the WRKY domain, suggesting that they might be functionally redundant. Neighbour-joining analysis of 301 WRKY domains from Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and B. distachyon suggested that BdWRKY domains are evolutionarily more closely related to O. sativa WRKY domains than those of A. thaliana. Moreover, tissue-specific expression profile of BdWRKY genes and their responses to phytohormones and several biotic or abiotic stresses were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of BdWRKY genes was rapidly regulated by stresses and phytohormones, and there was a strong correlation between promoter cis-elements and the phytohormones-induced BdWRKY gene expression.

Wen, Feng; Zhu, Hong; Li, Peng; Jiang, Min; Mao, Wenqing; Ong, Chermaine; Chu, Zhaoqing

2014-01-01

148

BOTANY: A Plant Receptor with a Big Family  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. A hormone that controls plant development and survival acts through a member of a receptor family whose other members are pervasive in animal cells.

Erwin Grill (Technical University Munich;Department of Plant Science); Alexander Christmann (Technical University Munich;Department of Plant Science)

2007-03-23

149

A comparative genome analysis of PME and PMEI families reveals the evolution of pectin metabolism in plant cell walls.  

PubMed

Pectins are fundamental polysaccharides in the plant primary cell wall. Pectins are synthesized and secreted to cell walls as highly methyl-esterified polymers and then demethyl-esterified by pectin methylesterases (PMEs), which are spatially regulated by pectin methylesterase inhibitors (PMEIs). Although PME and PMEI genes are pivotal in plant cell wall formation, few studies have focused on the evolutionary patterns of the PME and PMEI gene families. In this study, the gene origin, evolution, and expression diversity of these two families were systematically analyzed using 11 representative species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes and flowering land plants. The results show that 1) for the two subfamilies (PME and proPME) of PME, the origin of the PME subfamily is consistent with the appearance of pectins in early charophyte cell walls, 2) Whole genome duplication (WGD) and tandem duplication contribute to the expansion of proPME and PMEI families in land plants, 3) Evidence of selection pressure shows that the proPME and PMEI families have rapidly evolved, particularly the PMEI family in vascular plants, and 4) Comparative expression profile analysis of the two families indicates that the eudicot Arabidopsis and monocot rice have different expression patterns. In addition, the gene structure and sequence analyses show that the origin of the PMEI domain may be derived from the neofunctionalization of the pro domain after WGD. This study will advance the evolutionary understanding of the PME and PMEI families and plant cell wall development. PMID:23951288

Wang, Maojun; Yuan, Daojun; Gao, Wenhui; Li, Yang; Tan, Jiafu; Zhang, Xianlong

2013-01-01

150

Gene clustering in plant specialized metabolism.  

PubMed

Physically linked clusters of genes that encode the enzymatic information for the synthesis of specialized metabolites are a well-established feature of microbial secondary metabolism. In contrast, the biosynthesis of plant specialized metabolites has until recently been thought to be almost exclusively encoded by genes that are randomly scattered in the genome. However, recent reports highlight the growing number of examples of gene clusters for specialized metabolic pathways in plants. Numerous gene clusters that encode for the biosynthesis of different classes of metabolite have now been discovered in a variety of plant species. Comparison of these characterized clusters now enables us to begin to define their salient features and to exploit plant biosynthetic gene clusters for synthetic biology applications. PMID:24679264

Nützmann, Hans-Wilhelm; Osbourn, Anne

2014-04-01

151

Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of the Unusually Large Stilbene Synthase Gene Family in Grapevine1[W  

PubMed Central

Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed.

Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Rety, Stephane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphael; Marais, Gabriel A.B.; Aubourg, Sebastien; Hugueney, Philippe

2012-01-01

152

The SLC26 Gene Family of Anion Transporters and Channels  

PubMed Central

The phylogenetically ancient SLC26 gene family encodes multifunctional anion exchangers and anion channels transporting a broad range of substrates, including Cl?, HCO3?, sulfate, oxalate, I?, and formate. SLC26 polypeptides are characterized by N-terminal cytoplasmic domains, 10–14 hydrophobic transmembrane spans, and C-terminal cytoplasmic STAS domains, and appear to be homo-oligomeric. SLC26-related SulP proteins of marine bacteria likely transport HCO3? as part of oceanic carbon fixation. SulP genes present in antibiotic operons may provide sulfate for antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. SLC26-related Sultr proteins transport sulfate in unicellular eukaryotes and in plants. Mutations in three human SLC26 genes are associated with congenital or early onset Mendelian diseases: chondrodysplasias for SLC26A2, chloride diarrhea for SLC26A3, and deafness with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct for SLC26A4. Additional disease phenotypes evident only in mouse knockout models include oxalate urolithiasis for Slc26a6 and Slc26a1, non-syndromic deafness for Slc26a5, gastric hypochlorhydria for Slc26a7 and Slc26a9, distal renal tubular acidosis for Slc26a7, and male infertility for Slc26a8. STAS domains are required for cell surface expression of SLC26 proteins, and contribute to regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in complex, cell- and tissue-specific ways. The protein interactomes of SLC26 polypeptides are under active vestigation.

Alper, Seth L.; Sharma, Alok K.

2012-01-01

153

The SLC26 gene family of anion transporters and channels.  

PubMed

The phylogenetically ancient SLC26 gene family encodes multifunctional anion exchangers and anion channels transporting a broad range of substrates, including Cl(-), HCO3(-), sulfate, oxalate, I(-), and formate. SLC26 polypeptides are characterized by N-terminal cytoplasmic domains, 10-14 hydrophobic transmembrane spans, and C-terminal cytoplasmic STAS domains, and appear to be homo-oligomeric. SLC26-related SulP proteins of marine bacteria likely transport HCO3(-) as part of oceanic carbon fixation. SulP genes present in antibiotic operons may provide sulfate for antibiotic biosynthetic pathways. SLC26-related Sultr proteins transport sulfate in unicellular eukaryotes and in plants. Mutations in three human SLC26 genes are associated with congenital or early onset Mendelian diseases: chondrodysplasias for SLC26A2, chloride diarrhea for SLC26A3, and deafness with enlargement of the vestibular aqueduct for SLC26A4. Additional disease phenotypes evident only in mouse knockout models include oxalate urolithiasis for Slc26a6 and Slc26a1, non-syndromic deafness for Slc26a5, gastric hypochlorhydria for Slc26a7 and Slc26a9, distal renal tubular acidosis for Slc26a7, and male infertility for Slc26a8. STAS domains are required for cell surface expression of SLC26 proteins, and contribute to regulation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator in complex, cell- and tissue-specific ways. The protein interactomes of SLC26 polypeptides are under active investigation. PMID:23506885

Alper, Seth L; Sharma, Alok K

2013-01-01

154

3. LOOKING EAST OVER GENE PUMP PLANT AND CAMP; PARKER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. LOOKING EAST OVER GENE PUMP PLANT AND CAMP; PARKER DAM VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

155

The arabinose kinase, ARA1, gene of Arabidopsis is a novel member of the galactose kinase gene family.  

PubMed

The arabinose-sensitive ara1-1 mutant of Arabidopsis is deficient in arabinose kinase activity. A candidate for the ARA1 gene. ISA1, has been previously identified through the Arabidopsis genome sequencing initiative. Here we demonstrate that (1) the ARA1 gene coincides with ISA1 in a positional cloning strategy; (2) there are mutations in the ISA1 gene in both the ara1-1 mutant and an intragenic suppressor mutant; and (3) the ara1-1 and suppressor mutant phenotypes can be complemented by the expression of the ISA1 cDNA in transgenic plants. Together these observations confirm that ISA1 is the ARA1 gene. ARA1 is a member of the galactose kinase family of genes and represents a new substrate specificity among this and other families of sugar kinases. A second gene with similarities to members of the galactose kinase gene family has been identified in the EST database. A 1.8 kb cDNA contained an open reading-frame predicted to encode a 496 amino acid polypeptide. The GAL1 cDNA was expressed in a galK mutant of Escherichia coli and in vitro assays of extracts of the strain expressing GAL1 confirmed that the cDNA encodes a galactose kinase activity. Both GAL1 and ARA1 cross-hybridise at low stringency to other sequences suggesting the presence of additional members of the galactose kinase gene family. PMID:10344205

Sherson, S; Gy, I; Medd, J; Schmidt, R; Dean, C; Kreis, M; Lecharny, A; Cobbett, C

1999-03-01

156

Characterization of the Glycinin Gene Family in Soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

We characterized the structure, organization, and expression of genes that encode the soybean glycinins, a family of storage proteins synthesized exclusively in seeds during embryogenesis. Five genes encode the predominant glycinin subunits found in soybeans, and they have each been cloned, sequenced, and compared. The five genes have diverged into two subfamilies that are designated as Group-I and Group-II glycinin

Niels C. Nielsen; Craig D. Dickinson; Tae-Ju Cho; Vu H. Thanh; Bernard J. Scallon; Robert L. Fischer; Thomas L. Sims; Gary N. Drews; Robert B. Goldberg

1989-01-01

157

The roles of segmental and tandem gene duplication in the evolution of large gene families in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Most genes in Arabidopsis thaliana are members of gene families. How do the members of gene families arise, and how are gene family copy numbers maintained? Some gene families may evolve primarily through tandem duplication and high rates of birth and death in clusters, and others through infrequent polyploidy or large-scale segmental duplications and subsequent losses. RESULTS: Our approach

Steven B Cannon; Arvind Mitra; Andrew Baumgarten; Nevin D Young; Georgiana May

2004-01-01

158

Expression analysis of LIM gene family in poplar, toward an updated phylogenetic classification  

PubMed Central

Background Plant LIM domain proteins may act as transcriptional activators of lignin biosynthesis and/or as actin binding and bundling proteins. Plant LIM genes have evolved in phylogenetic subgroups differing in their expression profiles: in the whole plant or specifically in pollen. However, several poplar PtLIM genes belong to uncharacterized monophyletic subgroups and the expression patterns of the LIM gene family in a woody plant have not been studied. Findings In this work, the expression pattern of the twelve duplicated poplar PtLIM genes has been investigated by semi quantitative RT-PCR in different vegetative and reproductive tissues. As in other plant species, poplar PtLIM genes were widely expressed in the tree or in particular tissues. Especially, PtXLIM1a, PtXLIM1b and PtWLIM1b genes were preferentially expressed in the secondary xylem, suggesting a specific function in wood formation. Moreover, the expression of these genes and of the PtPLIM2a gene was increased in tension wood. Western-blot analysis confirmed the preferential expression of PtXLIM1a protein during xylem differentiation and tension wood formation. Genes classified within the pollen specific PLIM2 and PLIM2-like subgroups were all strongly expressed in pollen but also in cottony hairs. Interestingly, pairs of duplicated PtLIM genes exhibited different expression patterns indicating subfunctionalisations in specific tissues. Conclusions The strong expression of several LIM genes in cottony hairs and germinating pollen, as well as in xylem fibers suggests an involvement of plant LIM domain proteins in the control of cell expansion. Comparisons of expression profiles of poplar LIM genes with the published functions of closely related plant LIM genes suggest conserved functions in the areas of lignin biosynthesis, pollen tube growth and mechanical stress response. Based on these results, we propose a novel nomenclature of poplar LIM domain proteins.

2012-01-01

159

Gene transfer: anything goes in plant mitochondria  

PubMed Central

Parasitic plants and their hosts have proven remarkably adept at exchanging fragments of mitochondrial DNA. Two recent studies provide important mechanistic insights into the pattern, process and consequences of horizontal gene transfer, demonstrating that genes can be transferred in large chunks and that gene conversion between foreign and native genes leads to intragenic mosaicism. A model involving duplicative horizontal gene transfer and differential gene conversion is proposed as a hitherto unrecognized source of genetic diversity. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/150

2010-01-01

160

Evolution of the Class IV HD-Zip Gene Family in Streptophytes  

PubMed Central

Class IV homeodomain leucine zipper (C4HDZ) genes are plant-specific transcription factors that, based on phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, play an important role in epidermal development. In this study, we sampled all major extant lineages and their closest algal relatives for C4HDZ homologs and phylogenetic analyses result in a gene tree that mirrors land plant evolution with evidence for gene duplications in many lineages, but minimal evidence for gene losses. Our analysis suggests an ancestral C4HDZ gene originated in an algal ancestor of land plants and a single ancestral gene was present in the last common ancestor of land plants. Independent gene duplications are evident within several lineages including mosses, lycophytes, euphyllophytes, seed plants, and, most notably, angiosperms. In recently evolved angiosperm paralogs, we find evidence of pseudogenization via mutations in both coding and regulatory sequences. The increasing complexity of the C4HDZ gene family through the diversification of land plants correlates to increasing complexity in epidermal characters.

Zalewski, Christopher S.; Floyd, Sandra K.; Furumizu, Chihiro; Sakakibara, Keiko; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Bowman, John L.

2013-01-01

161

Functional Diversity, Conservation, and Convergence in the Evolution of the ?-, ?-, and ?-Carbonic Anhydrase Gene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

The carbonic anhydrases (CA) catalyze with high efficiency the reversible hydration of carbon dioxide, a reaction underlying many diverse physiological processes in animals, plants, archaebacteria, and eubacteria. We examined the evolutionary history and functional convergence of the CAs encoded by members of three independent CA gene families (?-CA, ?-CA and ?CA). Surprisingly, the six mammalian ?-CA isozymes of defined function

David Hewett-Emmett; Richard E. Tashian

1996-01-01

162

Gene and protein structure of the mate recognition protein gene family in Brachionus manjavacas (Rotifera)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mate recognition protein (MRP) gene is a member of a family of extracellular matrix protein genes, called MRP Motif Repeat\\u000a (MMR) genes, with no known homologs. Two sets of MMR genes, designated MMR-A and MMR-B, were found in Brachionus manjavacas. MMR-B has previously been shown to encode the MRP in the Brachionus plicatilis species complex. MMR family genes share

Kristin E. Gribble; Terry Snell; David B. Mark Welch

2011-01-01

163

Evolutionary rate variation among vertebrate ? globin genes: Implications for dating gene family duplication events  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive dataset of 62 ? globin gene sequences from various vertebrates was compiled to test the molecular clock and to estimate dates of gene duplications. We found that evolution of the ? globin family of genes is not clock-like, a result that is at odds with the common use of this family as an example of a constant rate

Gabriela Aguileta; Joseph P. Bielawski; Ziheng Yang

2006-01-01

164

Interferon induced IFIT family genes in host antiviral defense.  

PubMed

Secretion of interferons (IFNs) from virus-infected cells is a hallmark of host antiviral immunity and in fact, IFNs exert their antiviral activities through the induction of antiviral proteins. The IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats (IFITs) family is among hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes. This family contains a cluster of duplicated loci. Most mammals have IFIT1, IFIT2, IFIT3 and IFIT5; however, bird, marsupial, frog and fish have only IFIT5. Regardless of species, IFIT5 is always adjacent to SLC16A12. IFIT family genes are predominantly induced by type I and type III interferons and are regulated by the pattern recognition and the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. IFIT family proteins are involved in many processes in response to viral infection. However, some viruses can escape the antiviral functions of the IFIT family by suppressing IFIT family genes expression or methylation of 5' cap of viral molecules. In addition, the variants of IFIT family genes could significantly influence the outcome of hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy. We believe that our current review provides a comprehensive picture for the community to understand the structure and function of IFIT family genes in response to pathogens in human, as well as in animals. PMID:23459883

Zhou, Xiang; Michal, Jennifer J; Zhang, Lifan; Ding, Bo; Lunney, Joan K; Liu, Bang; Jiang, Zhihua

2013-01-01

165

Evolutionary Expansion, Gene Structure, and Expression of the Rice Wall-Associated Kinase Gene Family1[w  

PubMed Central

The wall-associated kinase (WAK) gene family, one of the receptor-like kinase (RLK) gene families in plants, plays important roles in cell expansion, pathogen resistance, and heavy-metal stress tolerance in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Through a reiterative database search and manual reannotation, we identified 125 OsWAK gene family members from rice (Oryza sativa) japonica cv Nipponbare; 37 (approximately 30%) OsWAKs were corrected/reannotated from earlier automated annotations. Of the 125 OsWAKs, 67 are receptor-like kinases, 28 receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases, 13 receptor-like proteins, 12 short genes, and five pseudogenes. The two-intron gene structure of the Arabidopsis WAK/WAK-Likes is generally conserved in OsWAKs; however, extra/missed introns were observed in some OsWAKs either in extracellular regions or in protein kinase domains. In addition to the 38 OsWAKs with full-length cDNA sequences and the 11 with rice expressed sequence tag sequences, gene expression analyses, using tiling-microarray analysis of the 20 OsWAKs on chromosome 10 and reverse transcription-PCR analysis for five OsWAKs, indicate that the majority of identified OsWAKs are likely expressed in rice. Phylogenetic analyses of OsWAKs, Arabidopsis WAK/WAK-Likes, and barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvWAKs show that the OsWAK gene family expanded in the rice genome due to lineage-specific expansion of the family in monocots. Localized gene duplications appear to be the primary genetic event in OsWAK gene family expansion and the 125 OsWAKs, present on all 12 chromosomes, are mostly clustered.

Zhang, Shibo; Chen, Calvin; Li, Lei; Meng, Ling; Singh, Jaswinder; Jiang, Ning; Deng, Xing-Wang; He, Zheng-Hui; Lemaux, Peggy G.

2005-01-01

166

RNase T2 genes from rice and the evolution of secretory ribonucleases in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plant RNase T2 family is divided into two different subfamilies. S-RNases are involved in rejection of self-pollen during\\u000a the establishment of self-incompatibility in three plant families. S-like RNases, on the other hand, are not involved in self-incompatibility,\\u000a and although gene expression studies point to a role in plant defense and phosphate recycling, their biological roles are\\u000a less well understood.

Gustavo C. MacIntosh; Melissa S. Hillwig; Alexander Meyer; Lex Flagel

2010-01-01

167

Expression and evolution of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C cleaves the substrate phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and generates inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and 1,2-diacylglycerol, both of which are second messengers in the phosphoinositide signal transduction pathways operative in animal cells. Five PI-PLC isoforms, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon and zeta, have been identified in mammals. Plant PI-PLCs are structurally close to the mammalian PI-PLC-zeta isoform. The Arabidopsis genome contains nine AtPLC genes. Expression patterns of all nine genes in different organs and in response to various environmental stimuli were studied by applying a quantitative RT-PCR approach. Multiple members of the gene family were differentially expressed in Arabidopsis organs, suggesting putative roles for this enzyme in plant development, including tissue and organ differentiation. This study also shows that a majority of the AtPLC genes are induced in response to various environmental stimuli, including cold, salt, nutrients Murashige-Skoog salts, dehydration, and the plant hormone abscisic acid. Results of this and previous studies strongly suggest that transcriptional activation of the PI-PLC gene family is important for adapting plants to stress environments. Expression patterns and phylogenetic relationships indicates that AtPLC gene members probably evolved through multiple rounds of gene duplication events, with AtPLC4 and AtPLC5 and AtPLC8 and AtPLC9 being duplicated in tandem in recent times. PMID:18534862

Tasma, I Made; Brendel, Volker; Whitham, Steven A; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

2008-07-01

168

New Insights into the Evolution of Metazoan Tyrosinase Gene Family  

PubMed Central

Tyrosinases, widely distributed among animals, plants and fungi, are involved in the biosynthesis of melanin, a pigment that has been exploited, in the course of evolution, to serve different functions. We conducted a deep evolutionary analysis of tyrosinase family amongst metazoa, thanks to the availability of new sequenced genomes, assessing that tyrosinases (tyr) represent a distinctive feature of all the organisms included in our study and, interestingly, they show an independent expansion in most of the analyzed phyla. Tyrosinase-related proteins (tyrp), which derive from tyr but show distinct key residues in the catalytic domain, constitute an invention of chordate lineage. In addition we here reported a detailed study of the expression territories of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis tyr and tyrps. Furthermore, we put efforts in the identification of the regulatory sequences responsible for their expression in pigment cell lineage. Collectively, the results reported here enlarge our knowledge about the tyrosinase gene family as valuable resource for understanding the genetic components involved in pigment cells evolution and development.

Squarzoni, Paola; Pezzotti, Maria Rosa; Ristoratore, Filomena; Spagnuolo, Antonietta

2012-01-01

169

Glutathlone Transferase Gene Family from the Housefly Musca Domestica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Glutathione transferase (GST) is a family of isoenzymes found in all metazoans and plants and is one of the major detoxification systems. The enzyme catalyzes a nucleophilic substitution reaction between glutathione, where sulfide is the nucleophile, and ...

M. Syvanen Z. H. Zhou J. Y. Wang

1994-01-01

170

Analysis of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family  

PubMed Central

The glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene family encodes genes that are critical for certain life processes, as well as for detoxication and toxification mechanisms, via conjugation of reduced glutathione (GSH) with numerous substrates such as pharmaceuticals and environmental pollutants. The GST genes are upregulated in response to oxidative stress and are inexplicably overexpressed in many tumours, leading to problems during cancer chemotherapy. An analysis of the GST gene family in the Human Genome Organization-sponsored Human Gene Nomenclature Committee database showed 21 putatively functional genes. Upon closer examination, however, GST-kappa 1 (GSTK1), prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) and three microsomal GSTs (MGST1, MGST2, MGST3) were determined as encoding membrane-bound enzymes having GST-like activity, but these genes are not evolutionarily related to the GST gene family. It is concluded that the complete GST gene family comprises 16 genes in six subfamilies -- alpha (GSTA), mu (GSTM), omega (GSTO), pi (GSTP), theta (GSTT) and zeta (GSTZ).

2004-01-01

171

How Many Processed Pseudogenes Are Accumulated in a Gene Family?  

PubMed Central

A simple kinetic model is developed that describes the accumulation of processed pseudogenes in a functional gene family. Insertion of new pseudogenes occurs at rate ? per gene and is countered by spontaneous deletion (at rate ? per DNA segment) of segments containing processed pseudogenes. If there are k functional genes in a gene family, the equilibrium number of processed pseudogenes is k(?/?), and the percentage of functional genes in the gene family at equilibrium is 1/[1 + (?/?)]. ?/? values estimated for five gene families ranged from 1.7 to 15. This fairly narrow range suggests that the rates of formation and deletion of processed pseudogenes may be positively correlated for these families. If ? is sufficiently large relative to the per nucleotide mutation rate µ (? > 20µ), processed pseudogenes will show high homology with each other, even in the absence of gene conversion between pseudogenes. We argue that formation of processed pseudogenes may share common pathways with transposable elements and retroviruses, creating the potential for correlated responses in the evolution of processed pseudogenes due to direct selection for control of transposable elements and/or retroviruses. Finally, we discuss the nature of the selective forces that may act directly or indirectly to influence the evolution of processed pseudogenes. Anything produced by evolution is bound to be a bit of a mess—S. Brenner

Walsh, James Bruce

1985-01-01

172

Genomewide analysis of LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain gene family in Zea mays.  

PubMed

The investigation of transcription factor (TF) families is a major focus of postgenomic research. The plant-specific ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2-LIKE (ASL) / LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES Domain (LBD) proteins constitute a major zincfinger-like-domain transcription factor family, and regulate diverse biological processes in plants. However, little is known about LBD genes in maize (Zea mays). In this study, a total of 44 LBD genes were identified in maize genome and were phylogenetically clustered into two groups (I and II), together with LBDs from Arabidopsis. The predicted maize LBDs were distributed across all the 10 chromosomes with different densities. In addition, the gene structures of maize LBDs were analysed. The expression profiles of the maize LBD genes under normal growth conditions were analysed by microarray data and qRT-PCR. The results indicated that LBDs might be involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes in maize. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genomewide analysis of the maize LBD gene family, which would provide valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the gene family. PMID:24840825

Zhang, Yue-Min; Zhang, Shi-Zhong; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

2014-04-01

173

[Genome-wide identification and bioinformatic analysis of PPR gene family in tomato].  

PubMed

Pentatricopeptide repeats (PPRs) genes constitute one of the largest gene families in plants, which play a broad and essential role in plant growth and development. In this study, the protein sequences annotated by the tomato (S. lycopersicum L.) genome project were screened with the Pfam PPR sequences. A total of 471 putative PPR-encoding genes were identified. Based on the motifs defined in A. thaliana L., protein structure and conserved sequences for each tomato motif were analyzed. We also analyzed phylogenetic relationship, subcellular localization, expression and GO analysis of the identified gene sequences. Our results demonstrate that tomato PPR gene family contains two subfamilies, P and PLS, each accounting for half of the family. PLS subfamily can be divided into four subclasses i.e., PLS, E, E+ and DYW. Each subclass of sequences forms a clade in the phylogenetic tree. The PPR motifs were found highly conserved among plants. The tomato PPR genes were distributed over 12 chromosomes and most of them lack introns. The majority of PPR proteins harbor mitochondrial or chloroplast localization sequences, whereas GO analysis showed that most PPR proteins participate in RNA-related biological processes. PMID:24846921

Ding, Anming; Li, Ling; Qu, Xu; Sun, Tingting; Chen, Yaqiong; Zong, Peng; Li, Zunqiang; Gong, Daping; Sun, Yuhe

2014-01-01

174

Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants  

PubMed Central

The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL) that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/SHP2) and INDEHISCENT (IND) at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL), responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC) and SPATULA (SPT) that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT, and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms.

Pabon-Mora, Natalia; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ambrose, Barbara A.

2014-01-01

175

Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development  

SciTech Connect

BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a previously unknown transcriptional repressor family, and revealed their possible roles in plant growth and development.

Wang, Shucai [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chang, Ying [Northeast Agricultural University; Guo, Jianjun [Harvard University; Zeng, Qingning [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Ellis, Brian [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Chen, Jay [ORNL

2011-01-01

176

Evolution of the Rice Xa21 Disease Resistance Gene Family  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rice disease resistance gene Xa21, encoding a receptor-like kinase, is a member of a multigene family. Sequence analysis of seven family members revealed two distinkt classes of genes. One member from each class encodes a receptor kinase-like open reading frame. The other five members encode truncated open reading frames of the pre- dicted receptor kinase. A highly conserved 233-bp

Wen-Yuan Song; Guo-Liang Wang; Pamela C. R

1997-01-01

177

Family business: the multidrug-resistance related protein (MRP) ABC transporter genes in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

Despite the completion of the sequencing of the entire genome of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., the exact determination of each single gene and its function remains an open question. This is especially true for multigene families. An approach that combines analysis of genomic structure, expression data and functional genomics to ascertain the role of the members of the multidrug-resistance-related protein ( MRP) gene family, a subfamily of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters from Arabidopsis is presented. We used cDNA sequencing and alignment-based re-annotation of genomic sequences to define the exact genic structure of all known AtMRP genes. Analysis of promoter regions suggested different induction conditions even for closely related genes. Expression analysis for the entire gene family confirmed these assumptions. Phylogenetic analysis and determination of segmental duplication in the regions of AtMRP genes revealed that the evolution of the extraordinarily high number of ABC transporter genes in plants cannot solely be explained by polyploidisation during the evolution of the Arabidopsis genome. Interestingly MRP genes from Oryza sativa L. (rice; OsMRP) show very similar genomic structures to those from Arabidopsis. Screening of large populations of T-DNA-mutagenised lines of A. thaliana resulted in the isolation of AtMRP insertion mutants. This work opens the way for the defined analysis of a multigene family of important membrane transporters whose broad variety of functions expands their traditional role as cellular detoxifiers. PMID:12430019

Kolukisaoglu, H Uner; Bovet, Lucien; Klein, Markus; Eggmann, Thomas; Geisler, Markus; Wanke, Dierk; Martinoia, Enrico; Schulz, Burkhard

2002-11-01

178

Sequence, Regulation, and Evolution of the Maize 22-kD ? Zein Gene Family  

PubMed Central

We have isolated and sequenced all 23 members of the 22-kD ? zein (z1C) gene family of maize. This is one of the largest plant gene families that has been sequenced from a single genetic background and includes the largest contiguous genomic DNA from maize with 346,292 bp to date. Twenty-two of the z1C members are found in a roughly tandem array on chromosome 4S forming a dense gene cluster 168,489-bp long. The twenty-third copy of the gene family is also located on chromosome 4S at a site ?20 cM closer to the centromere and appears to be the wild-type allele of the floury-2 (fl2) mutation. On the basis of an analysis of maize cDNA databases, only seven of these genes appear to be expressed including the fl2 allele. The expressed genes in the cluster are interspersed with nonexpressed genes. Interestingly, some of the expressed genes differ in their transcriptional regulation. Gene amplification appears to be in blocks of genes explaining the rapid and compact expansion of the cluster during the evolution of maize. [The sequence data described in this paper have been submitted to the GenBank data library under accession nos. AF090447, AF031569, and AF090446

Song, Rentao; Llaca, Victor; Linton, Eric; Messing, Joachim

2001-01-01

179

Evolution of Resistance Genes in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potential pathogens deliver effector proteins into plant cells to suppress microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-triggered\\u000a immunity in plants, resulting in host—pathogen coevolution. To counter pathogen suppression, plants evolved disease resistance\\u000a (R) proteins to detect the presence of the pathogen effectors and trigger R-dependent defenses. Most isolated R genes encode proteins possessing a leucine-rich-repeat (LRR) domain, of which the majority also contain

Shunyuan Xiao; Wenming Wang; Xiaohua Yang

180

Considering Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

Flannery, Maura C.

1991-01-01

181

Unique genes in plants: specificities and conserved features throughout evolution  

PubMed Central

Background Plant genomes contain a high proportion of duplicated genes as a result of numerous whole, segmental and local duplications. These duplications lead up to the formation of gene families, which are the usual material for many evolutionary studies. However, all characterized genomes include single-copy (unique) genes that have not received much attention. Unlike gene duplication, gene loss is not an unspecific mechanism but is rather influenced by a functional selection. In this context, we have established and used stringent criteria in order to identify suitable sets of unique genes present in plant proteomes. Comparisons of unique genes in the green phylum were used to characterize the gene and protein features exhibited by both conserved and species-specific unique genes. Results We identified the unique genes within both A. thaliana and O. sativa genomes and classified them according to the number of homologs in the alternative species: none (U{1:0}), one (U{1:1}) or several (U{1:m}). Regardless of the species, all the genes in these groups present some conserved characteristics, such as small average protein size and abnormal intron number. In order to understand the origin and function of unique genes, we further characterized the U{1:1} gene pairs. The possible involvement of sequence convergence in the creation of U{1:1} pairs was discarded due to the frequent conservation of intron positions. Furthermore, an orthology relationship between the two members of each U{1:1} pair was strongly supported by a high conservation in the protein sizes and transcription levels. Within the promoter of the unique conserved genes, we found a number of TATA and TELO boxes that specifically differed from their mean number in the whole genome. Many unique genes have been conserved as unique through evolution from the green alga Ostreococcus lucimarinus to higher plants. Plant unique genes may also have homologs in bacteria and we showed a link between the targeting towards plastids of proteins encoded by plant nuclear unique genes and their homology with a bacterial protein. Conclusion Many of the A. thaliana and O. sativa unique genes are conserved in plants for which the ancestor diverged at least 725 million years ago (MYA). Half of these genes are also present in other eukaryotic and/or prokaryotic species. Thus, our results indicate that (i) a strong negative selection pressure has conserved a number of genes as unique in genomes throughout evolution, (ii) most unique genes are subjected to a low divergence rate, (iii) they have some features observed in housekeeping genes but for most of them there is no functional annotation and (iv) they may have an ancient origin involving a possible gene transfer from ancestral chloroplasts or bacteria to the plant nucleus.

2008-01-01

182

Heterelogous Expression of Plant Genes  

PubMed Central

Heterologous expression allows the production of plant proteins in an organism which is simpler than the natural source. This technology is widely used for large-scale purification of plant proteins from microorganisms for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Additionally expression in well-defined model organisms provides insights into the functions of proteins in complex pathways. The present review gives an overview of recombinant plant protein production methods using bacteria, yeast, insect cells, and Xenopus laevis oocytes and discusses the advantages of each system for functional studies and protein characterization.

Yesilirmak, Filiz; Sayers, Zehra

2009-01-01

183

Recommended nomenclature for five mammalian carboxylesterase gene families: human, mouse, and rat genes and proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mammalian carboxylesterase (CES or Ces) genes encode enzymes that participate in xenobiotic, drug, and lipid metabolism in the body and are members of at least\\u000a five gene families. Tandem duplications have added more genes for some families, particularly for mouse and rat genomes, which\\u000a has caused confusion in naming rodent Ces genes. This article describes a new nomenclature system for

Roger S. Holmes; Matthew W. Wright; Stanley J. F. Laulederkind; Laura A. Cox; Masakiyo Hosokawa; Teruko Imai; Shun Ishibashi; Richard Lehner; Masao Miyazaki; Everett J. Perkins; Phillip M. Potter; Matthew R. Redinbo; Jacques Robert; Tetsuo Satoh; Tetsuro Yamashita; Bingfan Yan; Tsuyoshi Yokoi; Rudolf Zechner; Lois J. Maltais

2010-01-01

184

DNA methylation profiling of pseudogene–parental gene pairs and two gene families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial proportion of human genes contain tissue-specifically DNA-methylated regions (TDMRs). However, little is known about the evolutionary conservation of differentially methylated loci, how they evolve, and the signals that regulate them. We have studied TDMR conservation in the PLG and TBX gene families and in 32 pseudogene–parental gene pairs. Among the members of the recently evolved PLG gene family,

Rene Cortese; Manuel Krispin; Gunter Weiss; Kurt Berlin; Florian Eckhardt

2008-01-01

185

Strong evolutionary conservation of broadly expressed protein isoforms in the troponin I gene family and other vertebrate gene families  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that different protein classes undergo molecular evolution at different rates, presumably reflecting\\u000a differing functional constraints. However, it is also the case that different isoforms of the “same” protein, encoded by a\\u000a multigene family, may evolve at different rates. Here I report a relationship within gene families between isoform evolutionary\\u000a rate and gene expression profile: Broadly expressed

Kenneth E. M. Hastings

1996-01-01

186

Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of mTERF Gene Family in Maize  

PubMed Central

Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) genes comprise a large family with important roles in regulating organelle gene expression. In this study, a comprehensive database search yielded 31 potential mTERF genes in maize (Zea mays L.) and most of them were targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts. Maize mTERF were divided into nine main groups based on phylogenetic analysis, and group IX represented the mitochondria and species-specific clade that diverged from other groups. Tandem and segmental duplication both contributed to the expansion of the mTERF gene family in the maize genome. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes, using microarray data and RNA-seq data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Environmental stimulus experiments revealed differential up or down-regulation expression of maize mTERF genes in seedlings exposed to light/dark, salts and plant hormones, respectively, suggesting various important roles of maize mTERF genes in light acclimation and stress-related responses. These results will be useful for elucidating the roles of mTERF genes in the growth, development and stress response of maize.

Zhao, Yanxin; Cai, Manjun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Yurong; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Hailiang; Kong, Fei; Zheng, Yonglian; Qiu, Fazhan

2014-01-01

187

Evolution and significance of the Lon gene family in Arabidopsis organelle biogenesis and energy metabolism  

PubMed Central

Lon is the first identified ATP-dependent protease highly conserved across all kingdoms. Model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has a small Lon gene family of four members. Although these genes share common structural features, they have distinct properties in terms of gene expression profile, subcellular targeting and substrate recognition motifs. This supports the notion that their functions under different environmental conditions are not necessarily redundant. This article intends to unravel the biological role of Lon proteases in energy metabolism and plant growth through an evolutionary perspective. Given that plants are sessile organisms exposed to diverse environmental conditions and plant organelles are semi-autonomous, it is tempting to suggest that Lon genes in Arabidopsis are paralogs. Adaptive evolution through repetitive gene duplication events of a single archaic gene led to Lon genes with complementing sets of subfunctions providing to the organism rapid adaptability for canonical development under different environmental conditions. Lon1 function is adequately characterized being involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, modulating carbon metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and energy supply, all prerequisites for seed germination and seedling establishment. Lon is not a stand-alone proteolytic machine in plant organelles. Lon in association with other nuclear-encoded ATP-dependent proteases builds up an elegant nevertheless, tight interconnected circuit. This circuitry channels properly and accurately, proteostasis and protein quality control among the distinct subcellular compartments namely mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes.

Rigas, Stamatis; Daras, Gerasimos; Tsitsekian, Dikran; Alatzas, Anastasios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

2014-01-01

188

Sorghum phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family: structure, function and molecular evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although housekeeping functions have been shown for the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31, PEPC) in plants and in prokaryotes, PEPC is mainly known for its specific role in the primary photosynthetic CO2 fixation in C4 and CAM plants. We have shown that in Sorghum, a monocotyledonous C4 plant, the enzyme is encoded in the nucleus by a small multigene family. Here

Loďc Lepiniec; Eliane Keryer; Herve Philippe; Pierre Gadal; Claude Crétin

1993-01-01

189

Characterizations of 9p21 candidate genes in familial melanoma  

SciTech Connect

We have previously collected and characterized 16 melanoma families for the inheritance of a familial melanoma predisposition gene on 9p21. Clear evidence for genetic linkage has been detected in 8 of these families with the 9p21 markers D9S126 and 1FNA, while linkage of the remaining families to this region is less certain. A candidate for the 9p21 familial melanoma gene, the cyclin kinase inhibitor gene p16 (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene), has been recently indentified. Notably, a nonsense mutation within the p16 gene has been detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line DNA from a dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), or familial melanoma, patient. The p16 gene is also known to be frequently deleted or mutated in a variety of tumor cell lines (including melanoma) and resides within a region that has been defined as harboring the 9p21 melanoma predisposition locus. This region is delineated on the distal side by the marker D9S736 (which resides just distal to the p16 gene) and extends in a proximal direction to the marker D9S171. Overall, the entire distance between these two loci is estimated at 3-5Mb. Preliminary analysis of our two largest 9p21-linked melanoma kindreds (by direct sequencing of PCR products) has not yet revealed mutations within the coding region of the p16 gene. Others have reported that 8/11 unrelated 9p21-linked melanoma families do not appear to carry p16 mutations; thus the possibility exists that p16 is not a melanoma susceptibility gene per se, although it appears to play some role in melanoma tumor progression. Our melanoma kindred DNAs are currently being analyzed by SSCP using primers that amplify exons of other candidate genes from the 9p21 region implicated in familial melanoma. These novel genes reside within a distinct critical region of homozygous loss in melanoma which is located >2 Mb from the p16 gene on 9p21.

Walker, G.J.; Flores, J.F.; Glendening, J.M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

190

Roots, cycles and leaves. Expression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase kinase gene family in soybean.  

PubMed

Phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc; EC 4.1.1.31) plays an important role in the control of central metabolism of higher plants. This phosphorylation is controlled largely at the level of expression of PEPc kinase (PPCK) genes. We have analyzed the expression of both PPCK genes and the PEPC genes that encode PEPc in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean contains at least four PPCK genes. We report the genomic and cDNA sequences of these genes and demonstrate the function of the gene products by in vitro expression and enzyme assays. For two of these genes, GmPPCK2 and GmPPCK3, transcript abundance is highest in nodules and is markedly influenced by supply of photosynthate from the shoots. One gene, GmPPCK4, is under robust circadian control in leaves but not in roots. Its transcript abundance peaks in the latter stages of subjective day, and its promoter contains a sequence very similar to the evening element found in Arabidopsis genes expressed at this time. We report the expression patterns of five PEPC genes, including one encoding a bacterial-type PEPc lacking the phosphorylation site of the plant-type PEPcs. The PEPc expression patterns do not match those of any of the PPCK genes, arguing against the existence of specific PEPc-PPCK expression partners. The PEPC and PPCK gene families in soybean are significantly more complex than previously understood. PMID:15299132

Sullivan, Stuart; Jenkins, Gareth I; Nimmo, Hugh G

2004-08-01

191

Roots, Cycles and Leaves. Expression of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Kinase Gene Family in Soybean1  

PubMed Central

Phosphorylation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPc; EC 4.1.1.31) plays an important role in the control of central metabolism of higher plants. This phosphorylation is controlled largely at the level of expression of PEPc kinase (PPCK) genes. We have analyzed the expression of both PPCK genes and the PEPC genes that encode PEPc in soybean (Glycine max). Soybean contains at least four PPCK genes. We report the genomic and cDNA sequences of these genes and demonstrate the function of the gene products by in vitro expression and enzyme assays. For two of these genes, GmPPCK2 and GmPPCK3, transcript abundance is highest in nodules and is markedly influenced by supply of photosynthate from the shoots. One gene, GmPPCK4, is under robust circadian control in leaves but not in roots. Its transcript abundance peaks in the latter stages of subjective day, and its promoter contains a sequence very similar to the evening element found in Arabidopsis genes expressed at this time. We report the expression patterns of five PEPC genes, including one encoding a bacterial-type PEPc lacking the phosphorylation site of the plant-type PEPcs. The PEPc expression patterns do not match those of any of the PPCK genes, arguing against the existence of specific PEPc-PPCK expression partners. The PEPC and PPCK gene families in soybean are significantly more complex than previously understood.

Sullivan, Stuart; Jenkins, Gareth I.; Nimmo, Hugh G.

2004-01-01

192

Chlorogenic acid protects MSCs against oxidative stress by altering FOXO family genes and activating intrinsic pathway.  

PubMed

Chlorogenic acid as an antioxidant exists widely in edible and medicinal plants, and can protect cell against apoptosis induced by oxidative stress. However, its molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that Chlorogenic acid suppressed reactive oxygen species increase by activation of Akt phosphorylation,and increased FOXO family genes and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression in MSCs culturing under oxidative stress. In addition, PI-3Kinase Inhibitor (2-(4-Morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, LY294002) could suppress the Chlorogenic acid-induced: (1) the cellular protective role, (2) the increase of the FOXO family genes expression, (3) increased expression of Bcl-2. These results suggested that Chlorogenic acid protected MSCs against apoptosis via PI3K/AKT signal and FOXO family genes. PMID:21749866

Li, Shiyong; Bian, Hetao; Liu, Zhe; Wang, Ye; Dai, Jianghua; He, Wenfeng; Liao, Xingen; Liu, Rongrong; Luo, Jun

2012-01-15

193

Identification of a family of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor genes  

SciTech Connect

Complementary DNAs for three different muscarinic acetylcholine receptors were isolated from a rat cerebral cortex library, and the cloned receptors were expressed in mammalian cells. Analysis of human and rat genomic clones indicates that there are at least four functional muscarinic receptor genes and that these genes lack introns in the coding sequence. This gene family provides a new basis for evaluating the diversity of muscarinic mechanisms in the nervous system.

Bonner, T.I.; Buckley, N.J.; Young, A.C.; Brann, M.R.

1987-07-31

194

Genome-Wide Analysis of the RNA Helicase Gene Family in Gossypium raimondii  

PubMed Central

The RNA helicases, which help to unwind stable RNA duplexes, and have important roles in RNA metabolism, belong to a class of motor proteins that play important roles in plant development and responses to stress. Although this family of genes has been the subject of systematic investigation in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato, it has not yet been characterized in cotton. In this study, we identified 161 putative RNA helicase genes in the genome of the diploid cotton species Gossypium raimondii. We classified these genes into three subfamilies, based on the presence of either a DEAD-box (51 genes), DEAH-box (52 genes), or DExD/H-box (58 genes) in their coding regions. Chromosome location analysis showed that the genes that encode RNA helicases are distributed across all 13 chromosomes of G. raimondii. Syntenic analysis revealed that 62 of the 161 G. raimondii helicase genes (38.5%) are within the identified syntenic blocks. Sixty-six (40.99%) helicase genes from G. raimondii have one or several putative orthologs in tomato. Additionally, GrDEADs have more conserved gene structures and more simple domains than GrDEAHs and GrDExD/Hs. Transcriptome sequencing data demonstrated that many of these helicases, especially GrDEADs, are highly expressed at the fiber initiation stage and in mature leaves. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in cotton.

Chen, Jie; Zhang, Yujuan; Liu, Jubo; Xia, Minxuan; Wang, Wei; Shen, Fafu

2014-01-01

195

The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling  

PubMed Central

Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters), has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3), one polyol (VvPMT5) and one sucrose (VvSUC27) transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2) and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2) genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5), in roots (VvHT2) or in mature leaves (VvHT5). Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and revealed that sugar transporter gene families in this woody plant are strongly comparable to those of herbaceous species. Dedicated macroarrays have provided a Vitis sugar transporter genes expression profiling, which will likely contribute to understand their physiological functions in plant and berry development. The present results might also have a significant impact on our knowledge on plant sugar transporters.

2010-01-01

196

A Genomic and Expression Compendium of the Expanded PEBP Gene Family from Maize[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding proteins (PEBPs) represent an ancient protein family found across the biosphere. In animals they are known to act as kinase and serine protease inhibitors controlling cell growth and differentiation. In plants the most extensively studied PEBP genes, the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) genes, function, respectively, as a promoter and a repressor of the floral transition. Twenty-five maize (Zea mays) genes that encode PEBP-like proteins, likely the entire gene family, were identified and named Zea mays CENTRORADIALIS (ZCN), after the first described plant PEBP gene from Antirrhinum. The maize family is expanded relative to eudicots (typically six to eight genes) and rice (Oryza sativa; 19 genes). Genomic structures, map locations, and syntenous relationships with rice were determined for 24 of the maize ZCN genes. Phylogenetic analysis assigned the maize ZCN proteins to three major subfamilies: TFL1-like (six members), MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1-like (three), and FT-like (15). Expression analysis demonstrated transcription for at least 21 ZCN genes, many with developmentally specific patterns and some having alternatively spliced transcripts. Expression patterns and protein structural analysis identified maize candidates likely having conserved gene function of TFL1. Expression patterns and interaction of the ZCN8 protein with the floral activator DLF1 in the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) two-hybrid assay strongly supports that ZCN8 plays an orthologous FT function in maize. The expression of other ZCN genes in roots, kernels, and flowers implies their involvement in diverse developmental processes.

Danilevskaya, Olga N.; Meng, Xin; Hou, Zhenglin; Ananiev, Evgueni V.; Simmons, Carl R.

2008-01-01

197

Developmentally regulated Drosophila gene family encoding the fork head domain.  

PubMed Central

We have isolated seven Drosophila genes by means of low-stringency hybridization to a DNA probe containing the coding sequence for the protein domain shared by the rodent hepatocyte-enriched nuclear transcription factor HNF3A (alpha) and the product of the Drosophila region-specific homeotic gene fork head (fkh). The previously unreported genes encode a 110-amino acid conserved sequence, which we call the fork head (fkh) domain. Two of these fkh-domain-encoding genes ("FD genes") map to the sloppy paired locus (slp), which exerts segmentation gene function. The expression patterns of the other FD genes suggest that their protein products are likely to be involved in gut formation, mesoderm specification, and some specific aspects of neural development. The FD gene products presumably represent a family of transcription factors that, like the previously identified DNA-binding proteins, contribute to early developmental decisions in cell fates during embryogenesis. Images

Hacker, U; Grossniklaus, U; Gehring, W J; Jackle, H

1992-01-01

198

Molecular evolution of the polyamine oxidase gene family in Metazoa  

PubMed Central

Background Polyamine oxidase enzymes catalyze the oxidation of polyamines and acetylpolyamines. Since polyamines are basic regulators of cell growth and proliferation, their homeostasis is crucial for cell life. Members of the polyamine oxidase gene family have been identified in a wide variety of animals, including vertebrates, arthropodes, nematodes, placozoa, as well as in plants and fungi. Polyamine oxidases (PAOs) from yeast can oxidize spermine, N1-acetylspermine, and N1-acetylspermidine, however, in vertebrates two different enzymes, namely spermine oxidase (SMO) and acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO), specifically catalyze the oxidation of spermine, and N1-acetylspermine/N1-acetylspermidine, respectively. Little is known about the molecular evolutionary history of these enzymes. However, since the yeast PAO is able to catalyze the oxidation of both acetylated and non acetylated polyamines, and in vertebrates these functions are addressed by two specialized polyamine oxidase subfamilies (APAO and SMO), it can be hypothesized an ancestral reference for the former enzyme from which the latter would have been derived. Results We analysed 36 SMO, 26 APAO, and 14 PAO homologue protein sequences from 54 taxa including various vertebrates and invertebrates. The analysis of the full-length sequences and the principal domains of vertebrate and invertebrate PAOs yielded consensus primary protein sequences for vertebrate SMOs and APAOs, and invertebrate PAOs. This analysis, coupled to molecular modeling techniques, also unveiled sequence regions that confer specific structural and functional properties, including substrate specificity, by the different PAO subfamilies. Molecular phylogenetic trees revealed a basal position of all the invertebrates PAO enzymes relative to vertebrate SMOs and APAOs. PAOs from insects constitute a monophyletic clade. Two PAO variants sampled in the amphioxus are basal to the dichotomy between two well supported monophyletic clades including, respectively, all the SMOs and APAOs from vertebrates. The two vertebrate monophyletic clades clustered strictly mirroring the organismal phylogeny of fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. Evidences from comparative genomic analysis, structural evolution and functional divergence in a phylogenetic framework across Metazoa suggested an evolutionary scenario where the ancestor PAO coding sequence, present in invertebrates as an orthologous gene, has been duplicated in the vertebrate branch to originate the paralogous SMO and APAO genes. A further genome evolution event concerns the SMO gene of placental, but not marsupial and monotremate, mammals which increased its functional variation following an alternative splicing (AS) mechanism. Conclusions In this study the explicit integration in a phylogenomic framework of phylogenetic tree construction, structure prediction, and biochemical function data/prediction, allowed inferring the molecular evolutionary history of the PAO gene family and to disambiguate paralogous genes related by duplication event (SMO and APAO) and orthologous genes related by speciation events (PAOs, SMOs/APAOs). Further, while in vertebrates experimental data corroborate SMO and APAO molecular function predictions, in invertebrates the finding of a supported phylogenetic clusters of insect PAOs and the co-occurrence of two PAO variants in the amphioxus urgently claim the need for future structure-function studies.

2012-01-01

199

A glycine-rich protein gene family predominantly expressed in tomato roots, but not in leaves and ripe fruit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant root is a unique organ conferring various important functions but lacks comprehensive studies. To identify genes that may contribute to root functions, we searched for genes specifically or abundantly expressed in root, but not in fruit tissues. A family of tomato transcripts (designated as LeGRP), sharing a high degree of nucleotide sequence identity in their 3?-regions, was identified. Southern

Wan-Chi Lin; Ming-Lung Cheng; Jia-Wei Wu; Ning-Sun Yang; Chiu-Ping Cheng

2005-01-01

200

Evolution of the multifaceted eukaryotic akirin gene family  

PubMed Central

Background Akirins are nuclear proteins that form part of an innate immune response pathway conserved in Drosophila and mice. This studies aim was to characterise the evolution of akirin gene structure and protein function in the eukaryotes. Results akirin genes are present throughout the metazoa and arose before the separation of animal, plant and fungi lineages. Using comprehensive phylogenetic analysis, coupled with comparisons of conserved synteny and genomic organisation, we show that the intron-exon structure of metazoan akirin genes was established prior to the bilateria and that a single proto-orthologue duplicated in the vertebrates, before the gnathostome-agnathan separation, producing akirin1 and akirin2. Phylogenetic analyses of seven vertebrate gene families with members in chromosomal proximity to both akirin1 and akirin2 were compatible with a common duplication event affecting the genomic neighbourhood of the akirin proto-orthologue. A further duplication of akirins occurred in the teleost lineage and was followed by lineage-specific patterns of paralogue loss. Remarkably, akirins have been independently characterised by five research groups under different aliases and a comparison of the available literature revealed diverse functions, generally in regulating gene expression. For example, akirin was characterised in arthropods as subolesin, an important growth factor and in Drosophila as bhringi, which has an essential myogenic role. In vertebrates, akirin1 was named mighty in mice and was shown to regulate myogenesis, whereas akirin2 was characterised as FBI1 in rats and promoted carcinogenesis, acting as a transcriptional repressor when bound to a 14-3-3 protein. Both vertebrate Akirins have evolved under comparably strict constraints of purifying selection, although a likelihood ratio test predicted that functional divergence has occurred between paralogues. Bayesian and maximum likelihood tests identified amino-acid positions where the rate of evolution had shifted significantly between paralogues. Interestingly, the highest scoring position was within a conserved, validated binding-site for 14-3-3 proteins. Conclusion This work offers an evolutionary framework to facilitate future studies of eukaryotic akirins and provides insight into their multifaceted and conserved biochemical functions.

Macqueen, Daniel J; Johnston, Ian A

2009-01-01

201

A genome-wide analysis of the RNA helicase gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.  

PubMed

Helicases belong to a class of molecular motor proteins that are found in yeast, animals, and plants. The helicase family is divided into three subfamilies, including the DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box helicases, which are classified based on variations within a common motif, known as motif II. The RNA helicases are involved in every step of RNA metabolism, including nuclear transcription, pre-mRNA splicing, ribosome biogenesis, nucleocytoplasmic transport, translation, RNA decay, and organellar gene expression. The RNA helicase protein family plays a crucial role in plant growth and development as well as in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, unlike Arabidopsis, no detailed information regarding the RNA helicase family is currently available for tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) due to a limited number of whole-genome sequences. In this study, we identified a total of 157 RNA helicase genes in the tomato genome. According to the structural features of the motif II region, we classified the tomato RNA helicase genes into DEAD-box, DEAH-box and DExD/H-box helicase genes. But there are 27 RNA helicases not belonging to this three subfamilies, we called that "other helicase". We mapped the 157 RNA helicase genes onto the tomato chromosomes, which range from chr01 to chr12. Microarray and expressed sequence tag data showed that many of these RNA helicase proteins may be involved in diverse biological processes and responses to various stresses. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a genome-wide analysis of the tomato RNA helicase gene family. This study provides valuable information for understanding the classification and putative functions of the RNA helicase gene family in Solanaceae. PMID:23111163

Xu, Ruirui; Zhang, Shizhong; Lu, Longtao; Cao, Hui; Zheng, Chengchao

2013-01-15

202

Identification and expression analysis of mical family genes in zebrafish.  

PubMed

Mical (molecule interacting with CasL) represent a conserved family of cytosolic multidomain proteins that has been shown to be associated with a variety of cellular processes, including axon guidance, cell movement, cell-cell junction formation, vesicle trafficking and cancer cell metastasis. However, the expression and function of these genes during embryonic development have not been comprehensively characterized, especially in vertebrate species, although some limited in vivo studies have been carried out in neural and musculature systems of Drosophila and in neural systems of vertebrates. So far, no mical family homologs have been reported in zebrafish, an ideal vertebrate model for the study of developmental processes. Here we report eight homologs of mical family genes in zebrafish and their expression profiles during embryonic development. Consistent with the findings in Drosophila and mammals, most zebrafish mical family genes display expression in neural and musculature systems. In addition, five mical homologs are detected in heart, and one, micall2a, in blood vessels. Our data established an important basis for further functional studies of mical family genes in zebrafish, and suggest a possible role for mical genes in cardiovascular development. PMID:21035094

Xue, Yulin; Kuok, Chikin; Xiao, An; Zhu, Zuoyan; Lin, Shuo; Zhang, Bo

2010-10-01

203

Genomewide survey and characterization of metacaspase gene family in rice (Oryza sativa).  

PubMed

Metacaspases (MCs), which are cysteine-dependent proteases found in plants, fungi, and protozoa, may be involved in programmed cell death processes, being distant relatives of metazoan caspases. In this study, we analysed the structures, phylogenetic relationship, genome localizations, expression patterns and domestic selections of eight MC genes identified in rice (OsMC). Alignment analysis of the corresponding protein sequences suggested OsMC proteins can be classified into two subtypes. The expression profiles of eight OsMC genes were analysed in 27 tissues covering the whole life cycle of rice. There are four OsMC genes uniquely expressed in mature tissues, indicating that these genes might play certain roles in senescence. Under abiotic and biotic stresses, four OsMC genes were expressed with treatments of one or more of Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae) infected, pest damaged, cold stress and drought stress, indicating they might be involved in plant defense. In addition, gene trees and genetic diversity (?) were performed to measure whether candidate genes were selected during rice domestication. The results suggested that all the type I genes could not be domestication genes. However, two of five type II OsMC genes showed strong evidence for selective sweep, suggesting that these genes might be involved in cultivated rice domestication. These results provide a foundation for future functional genomic studies of this family in rice. PMID:24840826

Wang, Likai; Zhang, Hua

2014-04-01

204

Gene turnover and differential retention in the relaxin/insulin-like gene family in primates.  

PubMed

The relaxin/insulin-like gene family is related to the insulin gene family, and includes two separate types of peptides: relaxins (RLNs) and insulin-like peptides (INSLs) that perform a variety of physiological roles including testicular descent, growth and differentiation of the mammary glands, trophoblast development, and cell differentiation. In vertebrates, these genes are found on three separate genomic loci, and in mammals, variation in the number and nature of genes in this family is mostly restricted to the Relaxin Family Locus B. For example, this locus contains a single copy of RLN in platypus and opossum, whereas it contains copies of the INSL6, INSL4, RLN2 and RLN1 genes in human and chimp. The main objective of this research is to characterize changes in the size and membership composition of the RLN/INSL gene family in primates, reconstruct the history of the RLN/INSL genes of primates, and test competing evolutionary scenarios regarding the origin of INSL4 and of the duplicated copies of the RLN gene of apes. Our results show that the relaxin/INSL-like gene family of primates has had a more dynamic evolutionary history than previously thought, including several examples of gene duplications and losses which are consistent with the predictions of the birth-and-death model of gene family evolution. In particular, we found that the differential retention of relatively old paralogs played a key role in shaping the gene complement of this family in primates. Two examples of this phenomenon are the origin of the INSL4 gene of catarrhines (the group that includes Old World monkeys and apes), and of the duplicate RLN1 and RLN2 paralogs of apes. In the case of INSL4, comparative genomics and phylogenetic analyses indicate that the origin of this gene, which was thought to represent a catarrhine-specific evolutionary innovation, is as old as the split between carnivores and primates, which took place approximately 97 million years ago. In addition, in the case of the RLN1 and RLN2 genes of apes our phylogenetic trees and topology tests indicate that the duplication that gave rise to these two genes maps to the last common ancestor of anthropoid primates. All these genomic changes in gene complement, which are particularly prevalent among anthropoid primates, might be linked to the many physiological and anatomical changes found in this group. Given the various roles of members of the RLN/INSL-like gene family in reproductive biology, it might be that changes in this gene family are associated to changes in reproductive traits. PMID:22405815

Arroyo, José Ignacio; Hoffmann, Federico G; Opazo, Juan C

2012-06-01

205

Homologs of Breast Cancer Genes in Plants  

PubMed Central

Since the initial discovery of genes involved in hereditary breast cancer in humans, a vast wealth of information has been published. Breast cancer proteins were shown to work as tumor suppressors primarily through their involvement in DNA-damage repair. Surprisingly, homologs of these genes can be found in plant genomes, as well. Here, we want to give an overview of the identification and characterization of the biological roles of these proteins, in plants. In addition to the conservation of their function in DNA repair, new plant-specific characteristics have been revealed. BRCA1 is required for the efficient repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination in somatic cells of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that, whereas most homologs of key components of the different mammalian BRCA1 complexes are present in plant genomes, homologs of most factors involved in the recruitment of BRCA1 to the DSB cannot be identified. Thus, it is not clear at the moment whether differences exist between plants and animals at this important step. The most conserved region of BRCA1 and BARD1 homologs in plants is a PHD domain which is absent in mammals and which, in AtBARD1, might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant development. The presence of a plant-specific domain prompted us to reevaluate the current model for the evolution of BRCA1 homologs and to suggest a new hypothesis, in which we postulate that plant BRCA1 and BARD1 have one common predecessor that gained a PHD domain before duplication. Furthermore, work in Arabidopsis demonstrates that – as in animals – BRCA2 homologs are important for meiotic DNA recombination. Surprisingly, recent research has revealed that AtBRCA2 also has an important role in systemic acquired resistance. In Arabidopsis, BRCA2 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes via its interaction with the strand exchange protein RAD51.

Trapp, Oliver; Seeliger, Katharina; Puchta, Holger

2011-01-01

206

Genome-wide analysis of SAUR gene family in Solanaceae species.  

PubMed

The plant hormone auxin plays a vital role in regulating many aspects of plant growth and development. Small auxin up-regulated RNAs (SAURs) are primary auxin response genes hypothesized to be involved in auxin signaling pathway, but their functions remain unclear. Here, a genome-wide search for SAUR gene homologues in Solanaceae species identified 99 and 134 members of SAUR gene family from tomato and potato, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the SAUR proteins from Arabidopsis, rice, sorghum, tomato and potato were divided into four major groups with 16 subgroups. Among them, 25 histidine-rich SAURs genes with metal-binding characteristics were found in Arabidopsis, sorghum and Solanaceae species, but not in rice. Using tomato as a model, a comprehensive overview of SAUR gene family is presented, including the gene structures, phylogeny and chromosome locations. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that 11 randomly selected SlSAUR genes in tomato could be expressed at least in one of the tomato organs/tissues tested. However, different SlSAUR genes displayed distinctive expression levels. SlSAUR16 and SlSAUR71 exhibited highly tissue-specific expression patterns. Almost all of the detected SlSAURs showed an accumulating pattern of mRNA along tomato flower and fruit development. Some of them displayed differential response to exogenous IAA treatment. The abiotic (cold, salt and drought) stresses significantly modified transcript levels of SlSAURs genes. Most of them were down-regulated in response to abiotic stresses (drought, heat and salinity), but SlSAUR58, as a histidine-rich SAUR gene, was up-regulated after salt treatment, indicating that it may play a specific role in the salt signaling transduction pathway. Our comparative analysis provides some basic genomic information for the SAUR genes in the Solanaceae species and will pave the way for deciphering their function during plant development. PMID:22903030

Wu, Jian; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Guan, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Xiangfei; Cheng, Lin; Wang, Jie; Lu, Gang

2012-11-01

207

Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants  

PubMed Central

Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, we isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, we found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants. Images

Borkird, Chumpol; Choi, Jung H.; Jin, Zheng-Hua; Franz, Gerald; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis; Chorneau, Robert; Bonas, Ulla; Pelegri, Francisco; Sung, Z. Renee

1988-01-01

208

Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants  

SciTech Connect

Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

1988-09-01

209

Characterization of the Class IV Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper Gene Family in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome contains 16 genes belonging to the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper gene family. These include GLABRA2, ANTHOCYANINLESS2, FWA, ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM LAYER1 (ATML1), and PROTODERMAL FACTOR2 (PDF2). Our previous study revealed that atml1 pdf2 double mutants have severe defects in the shoot epidermal cell differentiation. Here, we have characterized additional members of this gene family, which we designated HOMEODOMAIN GLABROUS1 (HDG1) through HDG12. Analyses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying the gene-specific promoter fused to the bacterial ?-glucuronidase reporter gene revealed that some of the promoters have high activities in the epidermal layer of the shoot apical meristem and developing shoot organs, while others are temporarily active during reproductive organ development. Expression profiles of highly conserved paralogous gene pairs within the family were found to be not necessarily overlapping. Analyses of T-DNA insertion mutants of these HDG genes revealed that all mutants except hdg11 alleles exhibit no abnormal phenotypes. hdg11 mutants show excess branching of the trichome. This phenotype is enhanced in hdg11 hdg12 double mutants. Double mutants were constructed for other paralogous gene pairs and genes within the same subfamily. However, novel phenotypes were observed only for hdg3 atml1 and hdg3 pdf2 mutants that both exhibited defects in cotyledon development. These observations suggest that some of the class IV homeodomain-Leucine zipper members act redundantly with other members of the family during various aspects of cell differentiation. DNA-binding sites were determined for two of the family members using polymerase chain reaction-assisted DNA selection from random oligonucleotides with their recombinant proteins. The binding sites were found to be similar to those previously identified for ATML1 and PDF2, which correspond to the pseudopalindromic sequence 5?-GCATTAAATGC-3? as the preferential binding site.

Nakamura, Miyuki; Katsumata, Hiroshi; Abe, Mitsutomo; Yabe, Naoto; Komeda, Yoshibumi; Yamamoto, Kotaro T.; Takahashi, Taku

2006-01-01

210

The Rice B-Box Zinc Finger Gene Family: Genomic Identification, Characterization, Expression Profiling and Diurnal Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background The B-box (BBX) -containing proteins are a class of zinc finger proteins that contain one or two B-box domains and play important roles in plant growth and development. The Arabidopsis BBX gene family has recently been re-identified and renamed. However, there has not been a genome-wide survey of the rice BBX (OsBBX) gene family until now. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we identified 30 rice BBX genes through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. Each gene was assigned a uniform nomenclature. We described the chromosome localizations, gene structures, protein domains, phylogenetic relationship, whole life-cycle expression profile and diurnal expression patterns of the OsBBX family members. Based on the phylogeny and domain constitution, the OsBBX gene family was classified into five subfamilies. The gene duplication analysis revealed that only chromosomal segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the OsBBX gene family. The expression profile of the OsBBX genes was analyzed by Affymetrix GeneChip microarrays throughout the entire life-cycle of rice cultivar Zhenshan 97 (ZS97). In addition, microarray analysis was performed to obtain the expression patterns of these genes under light/dark conditions and after three phytohormone treatments. This analysis revealed that the expression patterns of the OsBBX genes could be classified into eight groups. Eight genes were regulated under the light/dark treatments, and eleven genes showed differential expression under at least one phytohormone treatment. Moreover, we verified the diurnal expression of the OsBBX genes using the data obtained from the Diurnal Project and qPCR analysis, and the results indicated that many of these genes had a diurnal expression pattern. Conclusions/Significance The combination of the genome-wide identification and the expression and diurnal analysis of the OsBBX gene family should facilitate additional functional studies of the OsBBX genes.

Huang, Jianyan; Zhao, Xiaobo; Weng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Lei; Xie, Weibo

2012-01-01

211

Review: the dominant flocculation genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae constitute a new subtelomeric gene family.  

PubMed

The quality of brewing strains is, in large part, determined by their flocculation properties. By classical genetics, several dominant, semidominant and recessive flocculation genes have been recognized. Recent results of experiments to localize the flocculation genes FLO5 and FLO8, combined with the in silicio analysis of the available sequence data of the yeast genome, have revealed that the flocculation genes belong to a family which comprises at least four genes and three pseudogenes. All members of this gene family are located near the end of chromosomes, just like the SUC, MEL and MAL genes, which are also important for good quality baking or brewing strains. Transcription of the flocculation genes is repressed by several regulatory genes. In addition, a number of genes have been found which cause cell aggregation upon disruption or overexpression in an as yet unknown manner. In total, 33 genes have been reported that are involved in flocculation or cell aggregation. PMID:7502576

Teunissen, A W; Steensma, H Y

1995-09-15

212

Analyses of the sucrose synthase gene family in cotton: structure, phylogeny and expression patterns  

PubMed Central

Background In plants, sucrose synthase (Sus) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, while limited information of Sus genes is available to date for cotton. Results Here, we report the molecular cloning, structural organization, phylogenetic evolution and expression profiles of seven Sus genes (GaSus1 to 7) identified from diploid fiber cotton (Gossypium arboreum). Comparisons between cDNA and genomic sequences revealed that the cotton GaSus genes were interrupted by multiple introns. Comparative screening of introns in homologous genes demonstrated that the number and position of Sus introns are highly conserved among Sus genes in cotton and other more distantly related plant species. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GaSus1, GaSus2, GaSus3, GaSus4 and GaSus5 could be clustered together into a dicot Sus group, while GaSus6 and GaSus7 were separated evenly into other two groups, with members from both dicot and monocot species. Expression profiles analyses of the seven Sus genes indicated that except GaSus2, of which the transcripts was undetectable in all tissues examined, and GaSus7, which was only expressed in stem and petal, the other five paralogues were differentially expressed in a wide ranges of tissues, and showed development-dependent expression profiles in cotton fiber cells. Conclusions This is a comprehensive study of the Sus gene family in cotton plant. The results presented in this work provide new insights into the evolutionary conservation and sub-functional divergence of the cotton Sus gene family in response to cotton fiber growth and development.

2012-01-01

213

Purifying selection and birth-and-death evolution in the histone H4 gene family.  

PubMed

Histones are small basic proteins encoded by a multigene family and are responsible for the nucleosomal organization of chromatin in eukaryotes. Because of the high degree of protein sequence conservation, it is generally believed that histone genes are subject to concerted evolution. However, purifying selection can also generate a high degree of sequence homogeneity. In this study, we examined the long-term evolution of histone H4 genes to determine whether concerted evolution or purifying selection was the major factor for maintaining sequence homogeneity. We analyzed the proportion (p(S)) of synonymous nucleotide differences between the H4 genes from 59 species of fungi, plants, animals, and protists and found that p(S) is generally very high and often close to the saturation level (p(S) ranging from 0.3 to 0.6) even though protein sequences are virtually identical for all H4 genes. A small proportion of genes showed a low level of p(S) values, but this appeared to be caused by recent gene duplication. Our findings suggest that the members of this gene family evolve according to the birth-and-death model of evolution under strong purifying selection. Using histone-like genes in archaebacteria as outgroups, we also showed that H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 histone genes in eukaryotes form separate clusters and that these classes of genes diverged nearly at the same time, before the eukaryotic kingdoms diverged. PMID:11961102

Piontkivska, Helen; Rooney, Alejandro P; Nei, Masatoshi

2002-05-01

214

The family 10 of plant pathogenesis-related proteins: Their structure, regulation, and function in response to biotic and abiotic stresses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to present the current state of our understanding on the structure, regulation, and function of plant pathogenesis-related protein family 10 (PR-10). This protein family consists of relatively diverse members subgrouped into classes that suggest different functions. It is believed that PR-10 proteins are involved in plant defense because their genes are usually induced upon

Jun-Jun Liu; Abul K. M. Ekramoddoullah

2006-01-01

215

Endo-(1,4)-?-Glucanase gene families in the grasses: temporal and spatial Co-transcription of orthologous genes1  

PubMed Central

Background Endo-(1,4)-?-glucanase (cellulase) glycosyl hydrolase GH9 enzymes have been implicated in several aspects of cell wall metabolism in higher plants, including cellulose biosynthesis and degradation, modification of other wall polysaccharides that contain contiguous (1,4)-?-glucosyl residues, and wall loosening during cell elongation. Results The endo-(1,4)-?-glucanase gene families from barley (Hordeum vulgare), maize (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), rice (Oryza sativa) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) range in size from 23 to 29 members. Phylogenetic analyses show variations in clade structure between the grasses and Arabidopsis, and indicate differential gene loss and gain during evolution. Map positions and comparative studies of gene structures allow orthologous genes in the five species to be identified and synteny between the grasses is found to be high. It is also possible to differentiate between homoeologues resulting from ancient polyploidizations of the maize genome. Transcript analyses using microarray, massively parallel signature sequencing and quantitative PCR data for barley, rice and maize indicate that certain members of the endo-(1,4)-?-glucanase gene family are transcribed across a wide range of tissues, while others are specifically transcribed in particular tissues. There are strong correlations between transcript levels of several members of the endo-(1,4)-?-glucanase family and the data suggest that evolutionary conservation of transcription exists between orthologues across the grass family. There are also strong correlations between certain members of the endo-(1,4)-?-glucanase family and other genes known to be involved in cell wall loosening and cell expansion, such as expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases. Conclusions The identification of these groups of genes will now allow us to test hypotheses regarding their functions and joint participation in wall synthesis, re-modelling and degradation, together with their potential role in lignocellulose conversion during biofuel production from grasses and cereal crop residues.

2012-01-01

216

Genomes, genes and junk: the large-scale organization of plant chromosomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants from wide taxonomic groupings have similar genes and ordering of genes along the chromosomes. However, the repetitive DNA, much of no known function and often constituting the majority of the genome, varies extensively from species to species in absolute amount, sequence and dispersion pattern. Despite this, it is known that families of repeated DNA motifs each have a characteristic

Thomas Schmidt; J. S. Heslop-Harrison

1998-01-01

217

Phylogenetic diversification of glycogen synthase kinase 3\\/SHAGGY-like kinase genes in plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3)\\/SHAGGY-like kinases (GSKs) are non-receptor serine\\/threonine protein kinases that are involved in a variety of biological processes. In contrast to the two members of the GSK3 family in mammals, plants appear to have a much larger set of divergent GSK genes. Plant GSKs are encoded by a multigene family; analysis of the Arabidopsis genome

Mi-Jeong Yoo; Victor A Albert; Pamela S Soltis; Douglas E Soltis

2006-01-01

218

Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22

M. Atiqur Rahman; Jaber S. Mossa; Mansour S. Al-Said; Mohammed A. Al-Yahya

2004-01-01

219

Evolution of the multifaceted eukaryotic akirin gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Akirins are nuclear proteins that form part of an innate immune response pathway conserved in Drosophila and mice. This studies aim was to characterise the evolution of akirin gene structure and protein function in the eukaryotes. RESULTS: akirin genes are present throughout the metazoa and arose before the separation of animal, plant and fungi lineages. Using comprehensive phylogenetic analysis,

Daniel J Macqueen; Ian A Johnston

2009-01-01

220

Identification and analysis of the germin-like gene family in soybean  

PubMed Central

Background Germin and germin-like proteins constitute a ubiquitous family of plant proteins. A role of some family members in defense against pathogen attack had been proposed based on gene regulation studies and transgenic approaches. Soybean (G. max L. Merr.) germin genes had not been characterized at the molecular and functional levels. Results In the present study, twenty-one germin gene members in soybean cultivar 'Maple Arrow' (partial resistance to Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean) were identified by in silico identification and RACE method (GmGER 1 to GmGER 21). A genome-wide analyses of these germin-like protein genes using a bioinformatics approach showed that the genes located on chromosomes 8, 1, 15, 20, 16, 19, 7, 3 and 10, on which more disease-resistant genes were located on. Sequence comparison revealed that the genes encoded three germin-like domains. The phylogenetic relationships and functional diversity of the germin gene family of soybean were analyzed among diverse genera. The expression of the GmGER genes treated with exogenous IAA suggested that GmGER genes might be regulated by auxin. Transgenic tobacco that expressed the GmGER 9 gene exhibited high tolerance to the salt stress. In addition, the GmGER mRNA increased transiently at darkness and peaked at a time that corresponded approximately to the critical night length. The mRNA did not accumulate significantly under the constant light condition, and did not change greatly under the SD and LD treatments. Conclusions This study provides a complex overview of the GmGER genes in soybean. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the germin and germin-like genes of the plant species that had been founded might be evolved by independent gene duplication events. The experiment indicated that germin genes exhibited diverse expression patterns during soybean development. The different time courses of the mRNAs accumulation of GmGER genes in soybean leaves appeared to have a regular photoperiodic reaction in darkness. Also the GmGER genes were proved to response to abiotic stress (such as auxin and salt), suggesting that these paralogous genes were likely involved in complex biological processes in soybean.

2010-01-01

221

Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MAPK and MAPKK Gene Families in Brachypodium distachyon  

PubMed Central

MAPK cascades are universal signal transduction modules and play important roles in plant growth, development and in response to a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. Although MAPKs and MAPKKs have been systematically investigated in several plant species including Arabidopsis, rice and poplar, no systematic analysis has been conducted in the emerging monocot model plant Brachypodium distachyon. In the present study, a total of 16 MAPK genes and 12 MAPKK genes were identified from B. distachyon. An analysis of the genomic evolution showed that both tandem and segment duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of MAPK and MAPKK families. Evolutionary relationships within subfamilies were supported by exon-intron organizations and the architectures of conserved protein motifs. Synteny analysis between B. distachyon and the other two plant species of rice and Arabidopsis showed that only one homolog of B. distachyon MAPKs was found in the corresponding syntenic blocks of Arabidopsis, while 13 homologs of B. distachyon MAPKs and MAPKKs were found in that of rice, which was consistent with the speciation process of the three species. In addition, several interactive protein pairs between the two families in B. distachyon were found through yeast two hybrid assay, whereas their orthologs of a pair in Arabidopsis and other plant species were not found to interact with each other. Finally, expression studies of closely related family members among B. distachyon, Arabidopsis and rice showed that even recently duplicated representatives may fulfill different functions and be involved in different signal pathways. Taken together, our data would provide a foundation for evolutionary and functional characterization of MAPK and MAPKK gene families in B. distachyon and other plant species to unravel their biological roles.

Tan, Shenglong; Wang, Min; Ma, Zhanbing; Zhou, Shiyi; Deng, Xiaomin; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chao; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

2012-01-01

222

Comparative Genome Analysis of Filamentous Fungi Reveals Gene Family Expansions Associated with Fungal Pathogenesis  

PubMed Central

Fungi and oomycetes are the causal agents of many of the most serious diseases of plants. Here we report a detailed comparative analysis of the genome sequences of thirty-six species of fungi and oomycetes, including seven plant pathogenic species, that aims to explore the common genetic features associated with plant disease-causing species. The predicted translational products of each genome have been clustered into groups of potential orthologues using Markov Chain Clustering and the data integrated into the e-Fungi object-oriented data warehouse (http://www.e-fungi.org.uk/). Analysis of the species distribution of members of these clusters has identified proteins that are specific to filamentous fungal species and a group of proteins found only in plant pathogens. By comparing the gene inventories of filamentous, ascomycetous phytopathogenic and free-living species of fungi, we have identified a set of gene families that appear to have expanded during the evolution of phytopathogens and may therefore serve important roles in plant disease. We have also characterised the predicted set of secreted proteins encoded by each genome and identified a set of protein families which are significantly over-represented in the secretomes of plant pathogenic fungi, including putative effector proteins that might perturb host cell biology during plant infection. The results demonstrate the potential of comparative genome analysis for exploring the evolution of eukaryotic microbial pathogenesis.

Soanes, Darren M.; Alam, Intikhab; Cornell, Mike; Wong, Han Min; Hedeler, Cornelia; Paton, Norman W.; Rattray, Magnus; Hubbard, Simon J.; Oliver, Stephen G.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

2008-01-01

223

Promoter methylation of candidate genes associated with familial testicular cancer  

PubMed Central

Recent genomic studies have identified risk SNPs in or near eight genes associated with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Mouse models suggest a role for Dnd1 epigenetics in TGCT susceptibility, and we have recently reported that transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic events may be associated with familial TGCT risk. We now investigate whether aberrant promoter methylation of selected candidate genes is associated with familial TGCT risk. Pyrosequencing assays were designed to evaluate CpG methylation in the promoters of selected genes in peripheral blood DNA from 153 TGCT affecteds and 116 healthy male relatives from 101 multiple-case families. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between promoter methylation and TGCT. We also quantified gene product expression of these genes, using quantitative PCR. We observed increased PDE11A, SPRY4 and BAK1 promoter methylation, and decreased KITLG promoter methylation, in familial TGCT cases versus healthy male family controls. A significant upward risk trend was observed for PDE11A when comparing the middle and highest tertiles of methylation to the lowest [odds ratio (OR) =1.55, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.82-2.93, and 1.94, 95% CI 1.03-3.66], respectively; P trend=0.042). A significant inverse association was observed for KITLG when comparing the middle and lowest tertiles to the highest (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.11, and 2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.14, respectively; P trend=0.031). There was a weak inverse correlation between promoter methylation and KITLG expression. Our results suggest that familial TGCT susceptibility may be associated with promoter methylation of previously-identified TGCT risk-modifying genes. Larger studies are warranted.

Mirabello, Lisa; Kratz, Christian P; Savage, Sharon A; Greene, Mark H

2012-01-01

224

Identification of the family of aquaporin genes and their expression in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is produced in over 30 countries and represents the most important natural fiber in the world. One of the primary factors affecting both the quantity and quality of cotton production is water. A major facilitator of water movement through cell membranes of cotton and other plants are the aquaporin proteins. Aquaporin proteins are present as diverse forms in plants, where they function as transport systems for water and other small molecules. The plant aquaporins belong to the large major intrinsic protein (MIP) family. In higher plants, they consist of five subfamilies including plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIP), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIP), NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIP), small basic intrinsic proteins (SIP), and the recently discovered X intrinsic proteins (XIP). Although a great deal is known about aquaporins in plants, very little is known in cotton. Results From a molecular cloning effort, together with a bioinformatic homology search, 71 upland cotton (G. hirsutum) aquaporin genes were identified. The cotton aquaporins consist of 28 PIP and 23 TIP members with high sequence similarity. We also identified 12 NIP and 7 SIP members that showed more divergence. In addition, one XIP member was identified that formed a distinct 5th subfamily. To explore the physiological roles of these aquaporin genes in cotton, expression analyses were performed for a select set of aquaporin genes from each subfamily using semi-quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Our results suggest that many cotton aquaporin genes have high sequence similarity and diverse roles as evidenced by analysis of sequences and their expression. Conclusion This study presents a comprehensive identification of 71 cotton aquaporin genes. Phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences divided the large and highly similar multi-gene family into the known 5 aquaporin subfamilies. Together with expression and bioinformatic analyses, our results support the idea that the genes identified in this study represent an important genetic resource providing potential targets to modify the water use properties of cotton.

2010-01-01

225

Virus-Induced Silencing of a Plant Cellulose Synthase Gene  

PubMed Central

Specific cDNA fragments corresponding to putative cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were inserted into potato virus X vectors for functional analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana by using virus-induced gene silencing. Plants infected with one group of cDNAs had much shorter internode lengths, small leaves, and a “dwarf” phenotype. Consistent with a loss of cell wall cellulose, abnormally large and in many cases spherical cells ballooned from the undersurfaces of leaves, particularly in regions adjacent to vascular tissues. Linkage analyses of wall polysaccharides prepared from infected leaves revealed a 25% decrease in cellulose content. Transcript levels for at least one member of the CesA cellulose synthase gene family were lower in infected plants. The decrease in cellulose content in cell walls was offset by an increase in homogalacturonan, in which the degree of esterification of carboxyl groups decreased from ?50 to ?33%. The results suggest that feedback loops interconnect the cellular machinery controlling cellulose and pectin biosynthesis. On the basis of the phenotypic features of the infected plants, changes in wall composition, and the reduced abundance of CesA mRNA, we concluded that the cDNA fragments silenced one or more cellulose synthase genes.

Burton, Rachel A.; Gibeaut, David M.; Bacic, Antony; Findlay, Kim; Roberts, Keith; Hamilton, Andrew; Baulcombe, David C.; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

2000-01-01

226

Virus-induced silencing of a plant cellulose synthase gene.  

PubMed

Specific cDNA fragments corresponding to putative cellulose synthase genes (CesA) were inserted into potato virus X vectors for functional analysis in Nicotiana benthamiana by using virus-induced gene silencing. Plants infected with one group of cDNAs had much shorter internode lengths, small leaves, and a "dwarf" phenotype. Consistent with a loss of cell wall cellulose, abnormally large and in many cases spherical cells ballooned from the undersurfaces of leaves, particularly in regions adjacent to vascular tissues. Linkage analyses of wall polysaccharides prepared from infected leaves revealed a 25% decrease in cellulose content. Transcript levels for at least one member of the CesA cellulose synthase gene family were lower in infected plants. The decrease in cellulose content in cell walls was offset by an increase in homogalacturonan, in which the degree of esterification of carboxyl groups decreased from approximately 50 to approximately 33%. The results suggest that feedback loops interconnect the cellular machinery controlling cellulose and pectin biosynthesis. On the basis of the phenotypic features of the infected plants, changes in wall composition, and the reduced abundance of CesA mRNA, we concluded that the cDNA fragments silenced one or more cellulose synthase genes. PMID:10810144

Burton, R A; Gibeaut, D M; Bacic, A; Findlay, K; Roberts, K; Hamilton, A; Baulcombe, D C; Fincher, G B

2000-05-01

227

DCEG Scientists Identify New Gene Mutation Related to Familial Melanoma  

Cancer.gov

Scientists have identified a rare inherited mutation in a gene that can increase the risk of familial melanoma, according to a study that appeared online in Nature Genetics on March 30, 2014. Although the finding does not offer immediate benefit to patients, variation in the Protection of Telomeres-1 (POT1) gene provides additional clues as to the origins of melanoma and may open new avenues in prevention and treatment research. Read the full NCI Benchmarks blog post about this study.

228

Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans synthesis gene family of Shigella flexneri  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (OPGs) of food- and water-borne enteropathogen Shigella flexneri were characterized. OPGs were composed of 100% glucose with 2-linked glucose as the most abundant residue with terminal glucose,\\u000a 2-linked and 2,6-linked glucose also present in high quantities. Most dominant backbone polymer chain length was seven glucose\\u000a residues. Individual genes from the opg gene family comprising of a bicistronic

Liu Liu; Mahesh Dharne; Porteen Kannan; Allen Smith; Jianghong Meng; Mingtao Fan; Tara L. Boren; Ryan T. Ranallo; Arvind A. Bhagwat

2010-01-01

229

Family size evolution in Drosophila chemosensory gene families: a comparative analysis with a critical appraisal of methods.  

PubMed

Gene turnover rates and the evolution of gene family sizes are important aspects of genome evolution. Here, we use curated sequence data of the major chemosensory gene families from Drosophila-the gustatory receptor, odorant receptor, ionotropic receptor, and odorant-binding protein families-to conduct a comparative analysis among families, exploring different methods to estimate gene birth and death rates, including an ad hoc simulation study. Remarkably, we found that the state-of-the-art methods may produce very different rate estimates, which may lead to disparate conclusions regarding the evolution of chemosensory gene family sizes in Drosophila. Among biological factors, we found that a peculiarity of D. sechellia's gene turnover rates was a major source of bias in global estimates, whereas gene conversion had negligible effects for the families analyzed herein. Turnover rates vary considerably among families, subfamilies, and ortholog groups although all analyzed families were quite dynamic in terms of gene turnover. Computer simulations showed that the methods that use ortholog group information appear to be the most accurate for the Drosophila chemosensory families. Most importantly, these results reveal the potential of rate heterogeneity among lineages to severely bias some turnover rate estimation methods and the need of further evaluating the performance of these methods in a more diverse sampling of gene families and phylogenetic contexts. Using branch-specific codon substitution models, we find further evidence of positive selection in recently duplicated genes, which attests to a nonneutral aspect of the gene birth-and-death process. PMID:24951565

Almeida, Francisca C; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Campos, Jose Luis; Rozas, Julio

2014-01-01

230

Plant chromatin: development and gene control.  

PubMed

It is increasingly clear that chromatin is not just a device for packing DNA within the nucleus but also a dynamic material that changes as cellular environments alter. The precise control of chromatin modification in response to developmental and environmental cues determines the correct spatial and temporal expression of genes. Here, we review exciting discoveries that reveal chromatin participation in many facets of plant development. These include: chromatin modification from embryonic and meristematic development to flowering and seed formation, the involvement of DNA methylation and chromatin in controlling invasive DNA and in maintenance of epigenetic states, and the function of chromatin modifying and remodeling complexes such as SWI/SNF and histone acetylases and deacetylases in gene control. Given the role chromatin structure plays in every facet of plant development, chromatin research will undoubtedly be integral in both basic and applied plant biology. PMID:11891760

Li, Guofu; Hall, Timothy C; Holmes-Davis, Rachel

2002-03-01

231

Molecular characterization and expression profiling of the protein disulfide isomerase gene family in Brachypodium distachyon L.  

PubMed

Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are involved in catalyzing protein disulfide bonding and isomerization in the endoplasmic reticulum and functions as a chaperone to inhibit the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Brachypodium distachyon is a widely used model plant for temperate grass species such as wheat and barley. In this work, we report the first molecular characterization, phylogenies, and expression profiles of PDI and PDI-like (PDIL) genes in B. distachyon in different tissues under various abiotic stresses. Eleven PDI and PDIL genes in the B. distachyon genome by in silico identification were evenly distributed across all five chromosomes. The plant PDI family has three conserved motifs that are involved in catalyzing protein disulfide bonding and isomerization, but a different exon/intron structural organization showed a high degree of structural differentiation. Two pairs of genes (BdPDIL4-1 and BdPDIL4-2; BdPDIL7-1 and BdPDIL7-2) contained segmental duplications, indicating each pair originated from one progenitor. Promoter analysis showed that Brachypodium PDI family members contained important cis-acting regulatory elements involved in seed storage protein synthesis and diverse stress response. All Brachypodium PDI genes investigated were ubiquitously expressed in different organs, but differentiation in expression levels among different genes and organs was clear. BdPDIL1-1 and BdPDIL5-1 were expressed abundantly in developing grains, suggesting that they have important roles in synthesis and accumulation of seed storage proteins. Diverse treatments (drought, salt, ABA, and H2O2) induced up- and down-regulated expression of Brachypodium PDI genes in seedling leaves. Interestingly, BdPDIL1-1 displayed significantly up-regulated expression following all abiotic stress treatments, indicating that it could be involved in multiple stress responses. Our results provide new insights into the structural and functional characteristics of the plant PDI gene family. PMID:24747843

Zhu, Chong; Luo, Nana; He, Miao; Chen, Guanxing; Zhu, Jiantang; Yin, Guangjun; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Li, Jiarui; Yan, Yueming

2014-01-01

232

Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiling of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon L  

PubMed Central

Protein disulfide isomerases (PDI) are involved in catalyzing protein disulfide bonding and isomerization in the endoplasmic reticulum and functions as a chaperone to inhibit the aggregation of misfolded proteins. Brachypodium distachyon is a widely used model plant for temperate grass species such as wheat and barley. In this work, we report the first molecular characterization, phylogenies, and expression profiles of PDI and PDI-like (PDIL) genes in B. distachyon in different tissues under various abiotic stresses. Eleven PDI and PDIL genes in the B. distachyon genome by in silico identification were evenly distributed across all five chromosomes. The plant PDI family has three conserved motifs that are involved in catalyzing protein disulfide bonding and isomerization, but a different exon/intron structural organization showed a high degree of structural differentiation. Two pairs of genes (BdPDIL4-1 and BdPDIL4-2; BdPDIL7-1 and BdPDIL7-2) contained segmental duplications, indicating each pair originated from one progenitor. Promoter analysis showed that Brachypodium PDI family members contained important cis-acting regulatory elements involved in seed storage protein synthesis and diverse stress response. All Brachypodium PDI genes investigated were ubiquitously expressed in different organs, but differentiation in expression levels among different genes and organs was clear. BdPDIL1-1 and BdPDIL5-1 were expressed abundantly in developing grains, suggesting that they have important roles in synthesis and accumulation of seed storage proteins. Diverse treatments (drought, salt, ABA, and H2O2) induced up- and down-regulated expression of Brachypodium PDI genes in seedling leaves. Interestingly, BdPDIL1-1 displayed significantly up-regulated expression following all abiotic stress treatments, indicating that it could be involved in multiple stress responses. Our results provide new insights into the structural and functional characteristics of the plant PDI gene family.

Zhu, Jiantang; Yin, Guangjun; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Li, Jiarui; Yan, Yueming

2014-01-01

233

Bacterial origin of a diverse family of UDP-glycosyltransferase genes in the Tetranychus urticae genome.  

PubMed

UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) catalyze the conjugation of a variety of small lipophilic molecules with uridine diphosphate (UDP) sugars, altering them into more water-soluble metabolites. Thereby, UGTs play an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the regulation of endobiotics. Recently, the genome sequence was reported for the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a polyphagous herbivore damaging a number of agricultural crops. Although various gene families implicated in xenobiotic metabolism have been documented in T. urticae, UGTs so far have not. We identified 80 UGT genes in the T. urticae genome, the largest number of UGT genes in a metazoan species reported so far. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that lineage-specific gene expansions increased the diversity of the T. urticae UGT repertoire. Genomic distribution, intron-exon structure and structural motifs in the T. urticae UGTs were also described. In addition, expression profiling after host-plant shifts and in acaricide resistant lines supported an important role for UGT genes in xenobiotic metabolism. Expanded searches of UGTs in other arachnid species (Subphylum Chelicerata), including a spider, a scorpion, two ticks and two predatory mites, unexpectedly revealed the complete absence of UGT genes. However, a centipede (Subphylum Myriapoda) and a water flea and a crayfish (Subphylum Crustacea) contain UGT genes in their genomes similar to insect UGTs, suggesting that the UGT gene family might have been lost early in the Chelicerata lineage and subsequently re-gained in the tetranychid mites. Sequence similarity of T. urticae UGTs and bacterial UGTs and their phylogenetic reconstruction suggest that spider mites acquired UGT genes from bacteria by horizontal gene transfer. Our findings show a unique evolutionary history of the T. urticae UGT gene family among other arthropods and provide important clues to its functions in relation to detoxification and thereby host adaptation. PMID:24727020

Ahn, Seung-Joon; Dermauw, Wannes; Wybouw, Nicky; Heckel, David G; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

2014-07-01

234

Genome-wide analysis and expression profile of the bZIP transcription factor gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera)  

PubMed Central

Background Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene family is one of the largest and most diverse families in plants. Current studies have shown that the bZIP proteins regulate numerous growth and developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress responses. Nonetheless, knowledge concerning the specific expression patterns and evolutionary history of plant bZIP family members remains very limited. Results We identified 55 bZIP transcription factor-encoding genes in the grapevine (Vitis vinifera) genome, and divided them into 10 groups according to the phylogenetic relationship with those in Arabidopsis. The chromosome distribution and the collinearity analyses suggest that expansion of the grapevine bZIP (VvbZIP) transcription factor family was greatly contributed by the segment/chromosomal duplications, which may be associated with the grapevine genome fusion events. Nine intron/exon structural patterns within the bZIP domain and the additional conserved motifs were identified among all VvbZIP proteins, and showed a high group-specificity. The predicted specificities on DNA-binding domains indicated that some highly conserved amino acid residues exist across each major group in the tree of land plant life. The expression patterns of VvbZIP genes across the grapevine gene expression atlas, based on microarray technology, suggest that VvbZIP genes are involved in grapevine organ development, especially seed development. Expression analysis based on qRT-PCR indicated that VvbZIP genes are extensively involved in drought- and heat-responses, with possibly different mechanisms. Conclusions The genome-wide identification, chromosome organization, gene structures, evolutionary and expression analyses of grapevine bZIP genes provide an overall insight of this gene family and their potential involvement in growth, development and stress responses. This will facilitate further research on the bZIP gene family regarding their evolutionary history and biological functions.

2014-01-01

235

A novel gene family NBPF: intricate structure generated by gene duplications during primate evolution.  

PubMed

Partial and complete genome duplications occurred during evolution and resulted in the creation of new genes and gene families. We identified a novel and intricate human gene family located primarily in regions of segmental duplications on human chromosome 1. We named it NBPF, for neuroblastoma breakpoint family, because one of its members is disrupted by a chromosomal translocation in a neuroblastoma patient. The NBPF genes have a repetitive structure with high intragenic and intergenic sequence similarity in both coding and noncoding regions. These similarities might expose these genomic regions to illegitimate recombination, resulting in structural variation in the NBPF genes. The encoded proteins contain a highly conserved domain of unknown function, which we have named the NBPF repeat. In silico analysis combined with the isolation of multiple full-length cDNA clones showed that several members of this gene family are abundantly expressed in a large variety of tissues and cell lines. Strikingly, no discernable orthologues could be identified in the completed genomes of fruit fly, nematode, mouse, or rat, but sequences with low homology could be isolated from the draft canine and bovine genomes. Interestingly, this gene family shows primate-specific duplications that result in species-specific arrays of NBPF homologous sequences. Overall, this novel NBPF family reflects the continuous evolution of primate genomes that resulted in large physiological differences, and its potential role in this process is discussed. PMID:16079250

Vandepoele, Karl; Van Roy, Nadine; Staes, Katrien; Speleman, Frank; van Roy, Frans

2005-11-01

236

The Vein Patterning 1 (VEP1) Gene Family Laterally Spread through an Ecological Network  

PubMed Central

Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a major evolutionary mechanism in prokaryotes. Knowledge about LGT— particularly, multicellular— eukaryotes has only recently started to accumulate. A widespread assumption sees the gene as the unit of LGT, largely because little is yet known about how LGT chances are affected by structural/functional features at the subgenic level. Here we trace the evolutionary trajectory of VEin Patterning 1, a novel gene family known to be essential for plant development and defense. At the subgenic level VEP1 encodes a dinucleotide-binding Rossmann-fold domain, in common with members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) protein family. We found: i) VEP1 likely originated in an aerobic, mesophilic and chemoorganotrophic ?-proteobacterium, and was laterally propagated through nets of ecological interactions, including multiple LGTs between phylogenetically distant green plant/fungi-associated bacteria, and five independent LGTs to eukaryotes. Of these latest five transfers, three are ancient LGTs, implicating an ancestral fungus, the last common ancestor of land plants and an ancestral trebouxiophyte green alga, and two are recent LGTs to modern embryophytes. ii) VEP1's rampant LGT behavior was enabled by the robustness and broad utility of the dinucleotide-binding Rossmann-fold, which provided a platform for the evolution of two unprecedented departures from the canonical SDR catalytic triad. iii) The fate of VEP1 in eukaryotes has been different in different lineages, being ubiquitous and highly conserved in land plants, whereas fungi underwent multiple losses. And iv) VEP1-harboring bacteria include non-phytopathogenic and phytopathogenic symbionts which are non-randomly distributed with respect to the type of harbored VEP1 gene. Our findings suggest that VEP1 may have been instrumental for the evolutionary transition of green plants to land, and point to a LGT-mediated ‘Trojan Horse’ mechanism for the evolution of bacterial pathogenesis against plants. VEP1 may serve as tool for revealing microbial interactions in plant/fungi-associated environments.

Tarrio, Rosa; Ayala, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Trelles, Francisco

2011-01-01

237

Evolutionary Dynamics of the wnt Gene Family: A Lophotrochozoan Perspective  

PubMed Central

The wnt gene family encodes a set of secreted glycoproteins involved in key developmental processes, including cell fate specification and regulation of posterior growth (Cadigan KM, Nusse R. 1997. Wnt signaling: a common theme in animal development. Genes Dev. 11:3286–3305.; Martin BL, Kimelman D. 2009. Wnt signaling and the evolution of embryonic posterior development. Curr Biol. 19:R215–R219.). As for many other gene families, evidence for expansion and/or contraction of the wnt family is available from deuterostomes (e.g., echinoderms and vertebrates [Nusse R, Varmus HE. 1992. Wnt genes. Cell. 69:1073–1087.; Schubert M, Holland LZ, Holland ND, Jacobs DK. 2000. A phylogenetic tree of the Wnt genes based on all available full-length sequences, including five from the cephalochordate amphioxus. Mol Biol Evol. 17:1896–1903.; Croce JC, Wu SY, Byrum C, Xu R, Duloquin L, Wikramanayake AH, Gache C, McClay DR. 2006. A genome-wide survey of the evolutionarily conserved Wnt pathways in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Dev Biol. 300:121–131.]) and ecdysozoans (e.g., arthropods and nematodes [Eisenmann DM. 2005. Wnt signaling. WormBook. 1–17.; Bolognesi R, Farzana L, Fischer TD, Brown SJ. 2008. Multiple Wnt genes are required for segmentation in the short-germ embryo of Tribolium castaneum. Curr Biol. 18:1624–1629.]), but little is known from the third major bilaterian group, the lophotrochozoans (e.g., mollusks and annelids [Prud'homme B, Lartillot N, Balavoine G, Adoutte A, Vervoort M. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis of the Wnt gene family. Insights from lophotrochozoan members. Curr Biol. 12:1395.]). To obtain a more comprehensive scenario of the evolutionary dynamics of this gene family, we exhaustively mined wnt gene sequences from the whole genome assemblies of a mollusk (Lottia gigantea) and two annelids (Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta) and examined them by phylogenetic, genetic linkage, intron–exon structure, and embryonic expression analyses. The 36 wnt genes obtained represent 11, 12, and 9 distinct wnt subfamilies in Lottia, Capitella, and Helobdella, respectively. Thus, two of the three analyzed lophotrochozoan genomes retained an almost complete ancestral complement of wnt genes emphasizing the importance and complexity of this gene family across metazoans. The genome of the leech Helobdella reflects significantly more dynamism than those of Lottia and Capitella, as judged by gene duplications and losses, branch length, and changes in genetic linkage. Finally, we performed a detailed expression analysis for all the Helobdella wnt genes during embryonic development. We find that, although the patterns show substantial overlap during early cleavage stages, each wnt gene has a unique expression pattern in the germinal plate and during tissue morphogenesis. Comparisons of the embryonic expression patterns of the duplicated wnt genes in Helobdella with their orthologs in Capitella reveal extensive regulatory diversification of the duplicated leech wnt genes.

Cho, Sung-Jin; Valles, Yvonne; Giani, Vincent C.; Seaver, Elaine C.; Weisblat, David A.

2010-01-01

238

Current Overview of Allergens of Plant Pathogenesis Related Protein Families  

PubMed Central

Pathogenesis related (PR) proteins are one of the major sources of plant derived allergens. These proteins are induced by the plants as a defense response system in stress conditions like microbial and insect infections, wounding, exposure to harsh chemicals, and atmospheric conditions. However, some plant tissues that are more exposed to environmental conditions like UV irradiation and insect or fungal attacks express these proteins constitutively. These proteins are mostly resistant to proteases and most of them show considerable stability at low pH. Many of these plant pathogenesis related proteins are found to act as food allergens, latex allergens, and pollen allergens. Proteins having similar amino acid sequences among the members of PR proteins may be responsible for cross-reactivity among allergens from diverse plants. This review analyzes the different pathogenesis related protein families that have been reported as allergens. Proteins of these families have been characterized in regard to their biological functions, amino acid sequence, and cross-reactivity. The three-dimensional structures of some of these allergens have also been evaluated to elucidate the antigenic determinants of these molecules and to explain the cross-reactivity among the various allergens.

Sinha, Mau; Singh, Rashmi Prabha; Kushwaha, Gajraj Singh; Iqbal, Naseer; Singh, Avinash; Kaushik, Sanket; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

2014-01-01

239

Functional characterization of the plastidic phosphate translocator gene family from the thermo-acidophilic red alga Galdieria sulphuraria reveals specific adaptations of primary carbon partitioning in green plants and red algae.  

PubMed

In chloroplasts of green plants and algae, CO(2) is assimilated into triose-phosphates (TPs); a large part of these TPs is exported to the cytosol by a TP/phosphate translocator (TPT), whereas some is stored in the plastid as starch. Plastidial phosphate translocators have evolved from transport proteins of the host endomembrane system shortly after the origin of chloroplasts by endosymbiosis. The red microalga Galdieria sulphuraria shares three conserved putative orthologous transport proteins with the distantly related seed plants and green algae. However, red algae, in contrast to green plants, store starch in their cytosol, not inside plastids. Hence, due to the lack of a plastidic starch pool, a larger share of recently assimilated CO(2) needs to be exported to the cytosol. We thus hypothesized that red algal transporters have distinct substrate specificity in comparison to their green orthologs. This hypothesis was tested by expression of the red algal genes in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and assessment of their substrate specificities and kinetic constants. Indeed, two of the three red algal phosphate translocator candidate orthologs have clearly distinct substrate specificities when compared to their green homologs. GsTPT (for G. sulphuraria TPT) displays very narrow substrate specificity and high affinity; in contrast to green plant TPTs, 3-phosphoglyceric acid is poorly transported and thus not able to serve as a TP/3-phosphoglyceric acid redox shuttle in vivo. Apparently, the specific features of red algal primary carbon metabolism promoted the evolution of a highly efficient export system with high affinities for its substrates. The low-affinity TPT of plants maintains TP levels sufficient for starch biosynthesis inside of chloroplasts, whereas the red algal TPT is optimized for efficient export of TP from the chloroplast. PMID:18799657

Linka, Marc; Jamai, Aziz; Weber, Andreas P M

2008-11-01

240

Expansive Evolution of the TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE PHOSPHATASE Gene Family in Arabidopsis1[W  

PubMed Central

Trehalose is a nonreducing sugar used as a reserve carbohydrate and stress protectant in a variety of organisms. While higher plants typically do not accumulate high levels of trehalose, they encode large families of putative trehalose biosynthesis genes. Trehalose biosynthesis in plants involves a two-step reaction in which trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P) is synthesized from UDP-glucose and glucose-6-phosphate (catalyzed by T6P synthase [TPS]), and subsequently dephosphorylated to produce the disaccharide trehalose (catalyzed by T6P phosphatase [TPP]). In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), 11 genes encode proteins with both TPS- and TPP-like domains but only one of these (AtTPS1) appears to be an active (TPS) enzyme. In addition, plants contain a large family of smaller proteins with a conserved TPP domain. Here, we present an in-depth analysis of the 10 TPP genes and gene products in Arabidopsis (TPPA-TPPJ). Collinearity analysis revealed that all of these genes originate from whole-genome duplication events. Heterologous expression in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) showed that all encode active TPP enzymes with an essential role for some conserved residues in the catalytic domain. These results suggest that the TPP genes function in the regulation of T6P levels, with T6P emerging as a novel key regulator of growth and development in higher plants. Extensive gene expression analyses using a complete set of promoter-?-glucuronidase/green fluorescent protein reporter lines further uncovered cell- and tissue-specific expression patterns, conferring spatiotemporal control of trehalose metabolism. Consistently, phenotypic characterization of knockdown and overexpression lines of a single TPP, AtTPPG, points to unique properties of individual TPPs in Arabidopsis, and underlines the intimate connection between trehalose metabolism and abscisic acid signaling.

Vandesteene, Lies; Lopez-Galvis, Lorena; Vanneste, Kevin; Feil, Regina; Maere, Steven; Lammens, Willem; Rolland, Filip; Lunn, John E.; Avonce, Nelson; Beeckman, Tom; Van Dijck, Patrick

2012-01-01

241

Members of the barley NAC transcription factor gene family show differential co-regulation with senescence-associated genes during senescence of flag leaves  

PubMed Central

The senescence process of plants is important for the completion of their life cycle, particularly for crop plants, it is essential for efficient nutrient remobilization during seed filling. It is a highly regulated process, and in order to address the regulatory aspect, the role of genes in the NAC transcription factor family during senescence of barley flag leaves was studied. Several members of the NAC transcription factor gene family were up-regulated during senescence in a microarray experiment, together with a large range of senescence-associated genes, reflecting the coordinated activation of degradation processes in senescing barley leaf tissues. This picture was confirmed in a detailed quantitative reverse transcription–PCR (qRT–PCR) experiment, which also showed distinct gene expression patterns for different members of the NAC gene family, suggesting a group of ~15 out of the 47 studied NAC genes to be important for signalling processes and for the execution of degradation processes during leaf senescence in barley. Seven models for DNA-binding motifs for NAC transcription factors were designed based on published motifs, and available promoter sequences of barley genes were screened for the motifs. Genes up-regulated during senescence showed a significant over-representation of the motifs, suggesting regulation by the NAC transcription factors. Furthermore, co-regulation studies showed that genes possessing the motifs in the promoter in general were highly co-expressed with members of the NAC gene family. In conclusion, a list of up to 15 NAC genes from barley that are strong candidates for being regulatory factors of importance for senescence and biotic stress-related traits affecting the productivity of cereal crop plants has been generated. Furthermore, a list of 71 senescence-associated genes that are potential target genes for these NAC transcription factors is presented.

Christiansen, Michael W.; Gregersen, Per L.

2014-01-01

242

Origin and evolution of laminin gene family diversity.  

PubMed

Laminins are a family of multidomain glycoproteins that are important contributors to the structure of metazoan extracellular matrices. To investigate the origin and evolution of the laminin family, we characterized the full complement of laminin-related genes in the genome of the sponge, Amphimedon queenslandica. As a representative of the Demospongiae, a group consistently placed within the earliest diverging branch of animals by molecular phylogenies, Amphimedon is uniquely placed to provide insight into early steps in the evolution of metazoan gene families. Five Amphimedon laminin-related genes possess the conserved molecular features, and most of the domains found in bilaterian laminins, but all display domain architectures distinct from those of the canonical laminin chain types known from model bilaterians. This finding prompted us to perform a comparative genomic analysis of laminins and related genes from a choanoflagellate and diverse metazoans and to conduct phylogenetic analyses using the conserved Laminin N-terminal domain in order to explore the relationships between genes with distinct architectures. Laminin-like genes appear to have originated in the holozoan lineage (choanoflagellates + metazoans + several other unicellular opisthokont taxa), with several laminin domains originating later and appearing only in metazoan (animal) or eumetazoan (placozoans + ctenophores + cnidarians + bilaterians) laminins. Typical bilaterian ?, ?, and ? laminin chain forms arose in the eumetazoan stem and another chain type that is conserved in Amphimedon, the cnidarian, Nematostella vectensis, and the echinoderm, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, appears to have been lost independently from the placozoan, Trichoplax adhaerens, and from multiple bilaterians. Phylogenetic analysis did not clearly reconstruct relationships between the distinct laminin chain types (with the exception of the ? chains) but did reveal how several members of the netrin family were generated independently from within the laminin family by duplication and domain shuffling and by domain loss. Together, our results suggest that gene duplication and loss and domain shuffling and loss all played a role in the evolution of the laminin family and contributed to the generation of lineage-specific diversity in the laminin gene complements of extant metazoans. PMID:22319142

Fahey, Bryony; Degnan, Bernard M

2012-07-01

243

Crystallin gene mutations in Indian families with inherited pediatric cataract  

PubMed Central

Purpose Pediatric cataract is the most common form of treatable childhood blindness and is both clinically and genetically heterogeneous. Autosomal dominant and recessive forms of cataract have been reported to be caused by mutations in 22 different genes so far. Of the cataract mutations reported to date, about half the mutations occur in crystallins, a quarter of the mutations in connexins, and the remainder is evenly divided between intrinsic membrane proteins, intermediate filament proteins, and transcription factors. This study is aimed at identification of the spectrum and frequency of crystallin gene mutations in cataractous patients in an Indian population. Methods Genetic analysis was extended to screen the entire coding region of the CRYAA, CRYAB, CRYBA1, CRYBA4, CRYBB1, CRYBB2, CRYBB3, CRYGC, CRYGD, and CRYGS genes using single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) analysis as a screening technique followed by direct sequencing of all subjects that displayed an electrophoretic shift. Results This report describes the first simultaneous mutation analysis of 10 crystallin genes in the same population, represented by 60 south Indian families. The analysis allowed the identification of causative mutations in 10 of the families (three novel and six reported). This includes six missense mutations (CRYAA-R12C, R21W, R54C, CRYAB- A171T, CRYGC-R168W, CRYGS- S39C), two nonsense mutations (CRYBB2- Q155X, CRYGD- R140X), and one splice mutation, which was identified in two families (CRYBA1-IVS3+1G>A). Conclusions Crystallin mutations are responsible for 16.6% of the inherited pediatric cataract in this population. As causative mutations have not been found in many of the families analyzed, this study suggests the presence of further novel genes or sequence elements involved in the pathogenesis of cataract in these families.

Devi, Ramachandran Ramya; Yao, Wenliang; Vijayalakshmi, Perumalsamy; Sergeev, Yuri V.; Sundaresan, Periasamy

2008-01-01

244

Root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis obtained Brassicaceae-specific strictosidine synthase-like genes by horizontal gene transfer  

PubMed Central

Background Besides gene duplication and de novo gene generation, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is another important way of acquiring new genes. HGT may endow the recipients with novel phenotypic traits that are important for species evolution and adaption to new ecological niches. Parasitic systems expectedly allow the occurrence of HGT at relatively high frequencies due to their long-term physical contact. In plants, a number of HGT events have been reported between the organelles of parasites and the hosts, but HGT between host and parasite nuclear genomes has rarely been found. Results A thorough transcriptome screening revealed that a strictosidine synthase-like (SSL) gene in the root parasitic plant Orobanche aegyptiaca and the shoot parasitic plant Cuscuta australis showed much higher sequence similarities with those in Brassicaceae than with those in their close relatives, suggesting independent gene horizontal transfer events from Brassicaceae to these parasites. These findings were strongly supported by phylogenetic analysis and their identical unique amino acid residues and deletions. Intriguingly, the nucleus-located SSL genes in Brassicaceae belonged to a new member of SSL gene family, which were originated from gene duplication. The presence of introns indicated that the transfer occurred directly by DNA integration in both parasites. Furthermore, positive selection was detected in the foreign SSL gene in O. aegyptiaca but not in C. australis. The expression of the foreign SSL genes in these two parasitic plants was detected in multiple development stages and tissues, and the foreign SSL gene was induced after wounding treatment in C. australis stems. These data imply that the foreign genes may still retain certain functions in the recipient species. Conclusions Our study strongly supports that parasitic plants can gain novel nuclear genes from distantly related host species by HGT and the foreign genes may execute certain functions in the new hosts.

2014-01-01

245

Population- and Family-Based Studies Associate the "MTHFR" Gene with Idiopathic Autism in Simplex Families  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene ("MTHFR") functional polymorphisms were studied in 205 North American simplex (SPX) and 307 multiplex (MPX) families having one or more children with an autism spectrum disorder. Case-control comparisons revealed a significantly higher frequency of the low-activity 677T allele, higher prevalence of the…

Liu, Xudong; Solehdin, Fatima; Cohen, Ira L.; Gonzalez, Maripaz G.; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne; Holden, Jeanette J. A.

2011-01-01

246

Effects of the Family Environment: Gene-Environment Interaction and Passive Gene-Environment Correlation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The classical twin study provides a useful resource for testing hypotheses about how the family environment influences children's development, including how genes can influence sensitivity to environmental effects. However, existing statistical models do not account for the possibility that children can inherit exposure to family environments…

Price, Thomas S.; Jaffee, Sara R.

2008-01-01

247

Gene conversions may obscure actin gene family relationships.  

PubMed

Phylogenetic hypotheses of muscle actin evolution are significantly different when a sea urchin is used as a representative echinoderm than when a sea star is used. While sea urchin muscle actins support an echinoderm-chordate sister relationship, sea star sequences suggest that echinoderm muscle actins are convergent with chordate muscle actins. Our results suggest that gene conversion in the sea star muscle actin may be responsible for these discordant results. PMID:10684350

White, M E; Crother, B I

2000-02-01

248

Divergent Evolution of Plant NBS-LRR Resistance Gene Homologues in Dicot and Cereal Genomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The majority of plant disease resistance genes are members of very large multigene families. They encode structurally related\\u000a proteins containing nucleotide binding site domains (NBS) and C-terminal leucine rich repeats (LRR). The N-terminal region\\u000a of some resistance genes contain a short sequence called TIR with homology to the animal innate immunity factors, Toll and interleukin receptor-like genes. Only a

Qilin Pan; Jonathan Wendel; Robert Fluhr

2000-01-01

249

MADS-Box gene diversity in seed plants 300 million years ago.  

PubMed

MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors which control diverse developmental processes in flowering plants ranging from root development to flower and fruit development. Through phylogeny reconstructions, most of these genes can be subdivided into defined monophyletic gene clades whose members share similar expression patterns and functions. Therefore, the establishment of the diversity of gene clades was probably an important event in land plant evolution. In order to determine when these clades originated, we isolated cDNAs of 19 different MADS-box genes from Gnetum gnemon, a gymnosperm model species and thus a representative of the sister group of the angiosperms. Phylogeny reconstructions involving all published MADS-box genes were then used to identify gene clades containing putative orthologs from both angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages. Thus, the minimal number of MADS-box genes that were already present in the last common ancestor of extant gymnosperms and angiosperms was determined. Comparative expression studies involving pairs of putatively orthologous genes revealed a diversity of patterns that has been largely conserved since the time when the angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages separated. Taken together, our data suggest that there were already at least seven different MADS-box genes present at the base of extant seed plants about 300 MYA. These genes were probably already quite diverse in terms of both sequence and function. In addition, our data demonstrate that the MADS-box gene families of extant gymnosperms and angiosperms are of similar complexities. PMID:11018150

Becker, A; Winter, K U; Meyer, B; Saedler, H; Theissen, G

2000-10-01

250

A large and functionally diverse family of Fad2 genes in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)  

PubMed Central

Background The application and nutritional value of vegetable oil is highly dependent on its fatty acid composition, especially the relative proportion of its two major fatty acids, i.e oleic acid and linoleic acid. Microsomal oleoyl phosphatidylcholine desaturase encoded by FAD2 gene is known to introduce a double bond at the ?12 position of an oleic acid on phosphatidylcholine and convert it to linoleic acid. The known plant FAD2 enzymes are encoded by small gene families consisting of 1-4 members. In addition to the classic oleate ?12-desaturation activity, functional variants of FAD2 that are capable of undertaking additional or alternative acyl modifications have also been reported in a limited number of plant species. In this study, our objective was to identify FAD2 genes from safflower and analyse their differential expression profile and potentially diversified functionality. Results We report here the characterization and functional expression of an exceptionally large FAD2 gene family from safflower, and the temporal and spatial expression profiles of these genes as revealed through Real-Time quantitative PCR. The diversified functionalities of some of the safflower FAD2 gene family members were demonstrated by ectopic expression in yeast and transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. CtFAD2-1 and CtFAD2-10 were demonstrated to be oleate desaturases specifically expressed in developing seeds and flower head, respectively, while CtFAD2-2 appears to have relatively low oleate desaturation activity throughout the plant. CtFAD2-5 and CtFAD2-8 are specifically expressed in root tissues, while CtFAD2-3, 4, 6, 7 are mostly expressed in the cotyledons and hypocotyls in young safflower seedlings. CtFAD2-9 was found to encode a novel desaturase operating on C16:1 substrate. CtFAD2-11 is a tri-functional enzyme able to introduce a carbon double bond in either cis or trans configuration, or a carbon triple (acetylenic) bond at the ?12 position. Conclusions In this study, we isolated an unusually large FAD2 gene family with 11 members from safflower. The seed expressed FAD2 oleate ?12 desaturase genes identified in this study will provide candidate targets to manipulate the oleic acid level in safflower seed oil. Further, the divergent FAD2 enzymes with novel functionality could be used to produce rare fatty acids, such as crepenynic acid, in genetically engineered crop plants that are precursors for economically important phytoalexins and oleochemical products.

2013-01-01

251

Genome-wide analysis of LIM gene family in Populus trichocarpa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa.  

PubMed

In Eukaryotes, LIM proteins act as developmental regulators in basic cellular processes such as regulating the transcription or organizing the cytoskeleton. The LIM domain protein family in plants has mainly been studied in sunflower and tobacco plants, where several of its members exhibit a specific pattern of expression in pollen. In this paper, we finely characterized in poplar six transcripts encoding these proteins. In Populus trichocarpa genome, the 12 LIM gene models identified all appear to be duplicated genes. In addition, we describe several new LIM domain proteins deduced from Arabidopsis and rice genomes, raising the number of LIM gene models to six for both species. Plant LIM genes have a core structure of four introns with highly conserved coding regions. We also identified new LIM domain proteins in several other species, and a phylogenetic analysis of plant LIM proteins reveals that they have undergone one or several duplication events during the evolution. We gathered several LIM protein members within new monophyletic groups. We propose to classify the plant LIM proteins into four groups: alphaLIM1, betaLIM1, gammaLIM2, and deltaLIM2, subdivided according to their specificity to a taxonomic class and/or to their tissue-specific expression. Our investigation of the structure of the LIM domain proteins revealed that they contain many conserved motifs potentially involved in their function. PMID:17573466

Arnaud, Dominique; Déjardin, Annabelle; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Lesage-Descauses, Marie-Claude; Pilate, Gilles

2007-06-30

252

Genome-Wide Analysis of LIM Gene Family in Populus trichocarpa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Oryza sativa  

PubMed Central

Abstract In Eukaryotes, LIM proteins act as developmental regulators in basic cellular processes such as regulating the transcription or organizing the cytoskeleton. The LIM domain protein family in plants has mainly been studied in sunflower and tobacco plants, where several of its members exhibit a specific pattern of expression in pollen. In this paper, we finely characterized in poplar six transcripts encoding these proteins. In Populus trichocarpa genome, the 12 LIM gene models identified all appear to be duplicated genes. In addition, we describe several new LIM domain proteins deduced from Arabidopsis and rice genomes, raising the number of LIM gene models to six for both species. Plant LIM genes have a core structure of four introns with highly conserved coding regions. We also identified new LIM domain proteins in several other species, and a phylogenetic analysis of plant LIM proteins reveals that they have undergone one or several duplication events during the evolution. We gathered several LIM protein members within new monophyletic groups. We propose to classify the plant LIM proteins into four groups: ?LIM1, ?LIM1, ?LIM2, and ?LIM2, subdivided according to their specificity to a taxonomic class and/or to their tissue-specific expression. Our investigation of the structure of the LIM domain proteins revealed that they contain many conserved motifs potentially involved in their function.

Arnaud, Dominique; Dejardin, Annabelle; Leple, Jean-Charles; Lesage-Descauses, Marie-Claude; Pilate, Gilles

2007-01-01

253

Structure of the amphioxus nebulin gene and evolution of the nebulin family genes.  

PubMed

Nebulin family genes are believed to have diverged from a single gene during the evolution of vertebrates. We determined the structure of the amphioxus nebulin gene and showed that in addition to the features of the human nebulin gene, this gene had a LIM domain, secondary super repeats and a giant exon with 98 nebulin repeats containing unique sequences. A transcript of this gene amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction had a LIM domain, three nebulin repeats and an SH3 domain. This transcript was similar to an isoform of human nebulette (Lasp-2). Phylogenetic analysis using the LIM and SH3 domains of the nebulin family proteins showed that amphioxus nebulin is located outside the vertebrate nebulin family group in the phylogenetic tree. These results indicated that the amphioxus nebulin gene had a unified structure among nebulin, nebulette, lasp-1 and N-RAP of vertebrates, and that these nebulin family genes diverged from the amphioxus nebulin gene during the course of vertebrate evolution. PMID:19406219

Hanashima, Akira; Kubokawa, Kaoru; Kimura, Sumiko

2009-08-15

254

Expression of a cytochrome P450 gene family in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maize seedlings, like seedlings of many other plants, are rich in cytochrome P450 (P450) enzyme activity. Four P450 genes (CYPzm1–4), isolated from a seedling-specific cDNA library, are characterised by a transient and seedling-specific expression pattern. The maximum steady state mRNA levels are reached at 3 days in root and at 7 days in shoot tissue, respectively. All four genes belong

Monika Frey; Ralf Kliem; Heinz Saedler; Alfons Gierl

1995-01-01

255

Overexpression of the Brassica napus BnLAS gene in Arabidopsis affects plant development and increases drought tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GRAS proteins are a family of transcription regulators found in plants and play diverse roles in plant growth and development.\\u000a To study the biological roles of GRAS family genes in Brassica napus, an Arabidopsis LAS homologous gene, BnLAS and its two homologs were cloned from B. napus and its two progenitor species, Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea. Relatively high

Minggui Yang; Qingyong Yang; Tingdong Fu; Yongming Zhou

2011-01-01

256

Genomic organization of the human PMS2 gene family  

SciTech Connect

The hPMS2 gene (GHMW-approved symbol PMS2) encodes a mutL homolog that causes hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC) when inherited in mutant form. We have here characterized the genomic structure of the hPMS2 gene to facilitate its analysis in HNPCC kindreds. The hPMS2 genomic locus was found to encompass 16 kb and consist of 15 exons. During its analysis, we identified a family of hPMS2-related genes located on chromosome 7 at bands 7p12-p13, 7q11, and 7q22. Exons 1 through 5 of these homologs shared a high degree of identity with hPMS2. We present the sequence of seven novel genes that represent the hPMSR (hPMS2-related) gene family. The similarity and number of these genes made specific amplification of hPMS2 problematic, but knowledge of them aided the successful design of oligonucleotides for this purpose. 23 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Nicolaides, N.C.; Papadopoulos, N.; Kinzler, K.W. [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others] [Johns Hopkins Oncology Center, Baltimore, MD (United States); and others

1995-11-20

257

The genetics of alcoholism: identifying specific genes through family studies.  

PubMed

Alcoholism is a complex disorder with both genetic and environmental risk factors. Studies in humans have begun to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of the risk for alcoholism. Here we briefly review strategies for identifying individual genes in which variations affect the risk for alcoholism and related phenotypes, in the context of one large study that has successfully identified such genes. The Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA) is a family-based study that has collected detailed phenotypic data on individuals in families with multiple alcoholic members. A genome-wide linkage approach led to the identification of chromosomal regions containing genes that influenced alcoholism risk and related phenotypes. Subsequently, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in positional candidate genes located within the linked chromosomal regions, and analyzed for association with these phenotypes. Using this sequential approach, COGA has detected association with GABRA2, CHRM2 and ADH4; these associations have all been replicated by other researchers. COGA has detected association to additional genes including GABRG3, TAS2R16, SNCA, OPRK1 and PDYN, results that are awaiting confirmation. These successes demonstrate that genes contributing to the risk for alcoholism can be reliably identified using human subjects. PMID:16961766

Edenberg, Howard J; Foroud, Tatiana

2006-09-01

258

Comprehensive Expression Analysis of Rice Armadillo Gene Family During Abiotic Stress and Development  

PubMed Central

Genes in the Armadillo (ARM)-repeat superfamily encode proteins with a range of developmental and physiological processes in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. These 42 amino acid, long tandem repeat-containing proteins have been abundantly recognized in many plant species. Previous studies have confirmed that Armadillo proteins constitute a multigene family in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed a computational analysis in the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica), and identified 158 genes of Armadillo superfamily. Phylogenetic study classified them into several arbitrary groups based on a varying number of non-conserved ARM repeats and accessory domain(s) associated with them. An in-depth analysis of gene expression through microarray and Q-PCR revealed a number of ARM proteins expressing differentially in abiotic stresses and developmental conditions, suggesting a potential roles of this superfamily in development and stress signalling. Comparative phylogenetic analysis between Arabidopsis and rice Armadillo genes revealed a high degree of evolutionary conservation between the orthologues in two plant species. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions per site ratios (Ka/Ks) of duplicated gene pairs indicate a purifying selection. This genome-wide identification and expression analysis provides a basis for further functional analysis of Armadillo genes under abiotic stress and reproductive developmental condition in the plant lineage.

Sharma, Manisha; Singh, Amarjeet; Shankar, Alka; Pandey, Amita; Baranwal, Vinay; Kapoor, Sanjay; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Pandey, Girdhar K.

2014-01-01

259

Comprehensive expression analysis of rice armadillo gene family during abiotic stress and development.  

PubMed

Genes in the Armadillo (ARM)-repeat superfamily encode proteins with a range of developmental and physiological processes in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. These 42 amino acid, long tandem repeat-containing proteins have been abundantly recognized in many plant species. Previous studies have confirmed that Armadillo proteins constitute a multigene family in Arabidopsis. In this study, we performed a computational analysis in the rice genome (Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica), and identified 158 genes of Armadillo superfamily. Phylogenetic study classified them into several arbitrary groups based on a varying number of non-conserved ARM repeats and accessory domain(s) associated with them. An in-depth analysis of gene expression through microarray and Q-PCR revealed a number of ARM proteins expressing differentially in abiotic stresses and developmental conditions, suggesting a potential roles of this superfamily in development and stress signalling. Comparative phylogenetic analysis between Arabidopsis and rice Armadillo genes revealed a high degree of evolutionary conservation between the orthologues in two plant species. The non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions per site ratios (Ka/Ks) of duplicated gene pairs indicate a purifying selection. This genome-wide identification and expression analysis provides a basis for further functional analysis of Armadillo genes under abiotic stress and reproductive developmental condition in the plant lineage. PMID:24398598

Sharma, Manisha; Singh, Amarjeet; Shankar, Alka; Pandey, Amita; Baranwal, Vinay; Kapoor, Sanjay; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Pandey, Girdhar K

2014-06-01

260

Gravity-Induced Gene Expression in Plants.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants sense changes in their orientation towards the vector of gravity and respond with directional growth. Several metabolites in the signal transduction cascade have been identified. However, very little is known about the interaction between these sensing and signal transduction events and even less is known about their role in the differential growth response. Gravity induced changes in transcript abundance have been identified in Arabidopsis whole seedlings and root apices (Moseyko et al. 2002; Kimbrough et al. 2004). Gravity induced transcript abundance changes can be observed within less than 1 min after stimulation (Salinas-Mondragon et al. 2005). Gene expression however requires not only transcription but also translation of the mRNA. Translation can only occur when mRNA is associated with ribosomes, even though not all mRNA associated with ribosomes is actively translated. To approximate translational capacity we quantified whole genome transcript abundances in corn stem pulvini during the first hour after gravity stimulation in total and poly-ribosomal fractions. As in Arabidopsis root apices, transcript abundances of several clusters of genes responded to gravity stimulation. The vast majority of these transcripts were also found to associate with polyribosomes in the same temporal and quantitative pattern. These genes are transcriptionally regulated by gravity stimulation, but do not exhibit translational regulation. However, a small group of genes showed increased transcriptional regulation after gravity stimulation, but no association with polysomes. These transcripts likely are translationally repressed. The mechanism of translational repression for these transcripts is unknown. Based on the hypothesis that the genes essential for gravitropic responses should be expressed in most or all species, we compared the temporal gravity induced expression pattern of all orthologs identified between maize and Arabidopsis. A small group of genes showed high sequence identity as well as a conserved pattern of transcript abundance changes after gravity stimulation between corn pulvinus tissue and Arabidopsis root apices. The functions of these genes in gravitropic responses are currently being analyzed and should give us important information about evolutionary conserved elements in plant gravity signal transduction. (This research was funded by NASA). Kimbrough, J. M., R. Salinas-Mondragon, et al. (2004). "The Fast and Transient Transcriptional Network of Gravity and Mechanical Stimulation in the Arabidopsis Root Apex." Plant Physiol. 136(1): 2790-2805. Moseyko, N., T. Zhu, et al. (2002). "Transcription profiling of the early gravitropic response in Arabidopsis using high-density oligonucleotide probe microarrays." Plant Physiol 130(2): 720-8. Salinas-Mondragon, R., A. Brogan, et al. (2005). "Gravity and light: integrating transcriptional regulation in roots." Gravit Space Biol Bull 18(2): 121-2.

Sederoff, Heike; Heber, Steffen; Howard, Brian; Myburg-Nichols, Henrietta; Hammond, Rebecca; Salinas-Mondragon, Raul; Brown, Christopher S.

261

Reproduction on orbit by plants in the Brassicaceae family  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous studies on growth and development during spaceflight had indicated that the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth was particularly difficult for plants. Our objective has been to study how the spaceflight environment impacts the different steps in plant reproduction. This goal has been pursued in two general ways: by using plants that had been pre-grown to the flowering stage on earth, and by using plants that developed completely on orbit. Our objectives have been met by a combination of experiments that required essentially no crew time on orbit, and those that required an extensive commitment of crew time. The plants chosen for the studies were closely related members of the family Brassicaceae: Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. In a series of short-duration experiments with Arabidopsis on the space shuttle we found that depletion of carbon dioxide in closed chambers resulted in aborted development of both the male and female reproductive apparatus in microgravity. Normal development was restored by addition of carbon dioxide or by providing air flow. A subsequent shuttle experiment with Brassica utilizing hardware that provides a vigorous air flow confirmed embryo development following pollination on orbit. Brassica plants grown from seed on the Mir space station produced seed that germinated and grew when replanted on orbit. Future experiments will determine effects of multiple generations in space.

Musgrave, Mary E.; Kuang, Anxiu; Xiao, Ying; Matthews, Sharon W.

1999-01-01

262

Plant sterol biosynthesis: identification of two distinct families of sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidases.  

PubMed Central

In plants, the conversion of cycloartenol into functional phytosterols requires the removal of the two methyl groups at C-4 by an enzymic complex including a sterol 4alpha-methyl oxidase (SMO). We report the cloning of candidate genes for SMOs in Arabidopsis thaliana, belonging to two distinct families termed SMO1 and SMO2 and containing three and two isoforms respectively. SMO1 and SMO2 shared low sequence identity with each other and were orthologous to the ERG25 gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae which encodes the SMO. The plant SMO amino acid sequences possess all the three histidine-rich motifs (HX3H, HX2HH and HX2HH), characteristic of the small family of membrane-bound non-haem iron oxygenases that are involved in lipid oxidation. To elucidate the precise functions of SMO1 and SMO2 gene families, we have reduced their expression by using a VIGS (virus-induced gene silencing) approach in Nicotiana benthamiana. SMO1 and SMO2 cDNA fragments were inserted into a viral vector and N. benthamiana inoculated with the viral transcripts. After silencing with SMO1, a substantial accumulation of 4,4-dimethyl-9beta,19-cyclopropylsterols (i.e. 24-methylenecycloartanol) was obtained, whereas qualitative and quantitative levels of 4alpha-methylsterols were not affected. In the case of silencing with SMO2, a large accumulation of 4alpha-methyl-Delta7-sterols (i.e. 24-ethylidenelophenol and 24-ethyllophenol) was found, with no change in the levels of 4,4-dimethylsterols. These clear and distinct biochemical phenotypes demonstrate that, in contrast with animals and fungi, in photosynthetic eukaryotes, these two novel families of cDNAs are coding two distinct types of C-4-methylsterol oxidases controlling the level of 4,4-dimethylsterol and 4alpha-methylsterol precursors respectively.

Darnet, Sylvain; Rahier, Alain

2004-01-01

263

Evolution of multigene families by gene duplication. A haploid model.  

PubMed Central

Evolution of multigene families by gene duplication and subsequent diversification is analyzed assuming a haploid model without interchromosomal crossing over. Chromosomes with more different genes are assumed to have higher fitness. Advantageous and deleterious mutations and duplication/deletion also affect the evolution, as in previous studies. In addition, negative selection on the total number of genes (copy number selection) is incorporated in the model. First, a Markov chain approximation is used to obtain formulas for the average numbers of different alleles, genes without pseudogene mutations, and pseudogenes assuming that mutation rates and duplication/deletion rates are all very small. Computer simulation shows that the approximation works well if the products of population size with mutation and duplication/deletion rates are all small compared to 1. However, as they become large, the approximation underestimates gene numbers, especially the number of pseudogenes. Based on the approximation, the following was found: (1) Gene redundancy measured by the average number of redundant genes decreases as advantageous selection becomes stronger. (2) The number of different genes can be approximately described by a linear pure-birth process and thus has a coefficient of variation around 1. (3) The birth rate is an increasing function of population size without copy number selection, but not necessarily so otherwise. (4) Copy number selection drastically decreases the number of pseudogenes. Available data of mutation rates and duplication/deletion rates suggest much faster increases of gene numbers than those observed in the evolution of currently existing multigene families. Various explanations for this discrepancy are discussed based on our approximate analysis.

Tachida, H; Kuboyama, T

1998-01-01

264

Deletion of the MGMT gene in familial melanoma.  

PubMed

The DNA repair gene MGMT (O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase) is important for maintaining normal cell physiology and genomic stability. Alterations in MGMT play a critical role in the development of several types of cancer, including glioblastoma, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the function of genetic alterations in MGMT and their connection with familial melanoma (FM). Using multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, we identified a deletion that included the MGMT gene in one of 64 families with a melanoma predisposition living in western Sweden. The mutation segregated with the disease as a heterozygous deletion in blood-derived DNA, but a homozygous deletion including the promoter region and exon 1 was seen in tumor tissue based on Affymetrix 500K and 6.0 arrays. By sequence analysis of the MGMT gene in the other 63 families with FM from western Sweden, we identified four common polymorphisms, nonfunctional, as predominantly described in previous studies. We conclude that inherited alterations in the MGMT gene might be a rare cause of FM, and we suggest that MGMT contributes to melanoma predisposition. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24801985

Appelqvist, Frida; Yhr, Maria; Erlandson, Anna; Martinsson, Tommy; Enerbäck, Charlotta

2014-08-01

265

A combinatorial approach to detecting gene-gene and gene-environment interactions in family studies.  

PubMed

Widespread multifactor interactions present a significant challenge in determining risk factors of complex diseases. Several combinatorial approaches, such as the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method, have emerged as a promising tool for better detecting gene-gene (G x G) and gene-environment (G x E) interactions. We recently developed a general combinatorial approach, namely the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) method, which can entertain both qualitative and quantitative phenotypes and allows for both discrete and continuous covariates to detect G x G and G x E interactions in a sample of unrelated individuals. In this article, we report the development of an algorithm that can be used to study G x G and G x E interactions for family-based designs, called pedigree-based GMDR (PGMDR). Compared to the available method, our proposed method has several major improvements, including allowing for covariate adjustments and being applicable to arbitrary phenotypes, arbitrary pedigree structures, and arbitrary patterns of missing marker genotypes. Our Monte Carlo simulations provide evidence that the PGMDR method is superior in performance to identify epistatic loci compared to the MDR-pedigree disequilibrium test (PDT). Finally, we applied our proposed approach to a genetic data set on tobacco dependence and found a significant interaction between two taste receptor genes (i.e., TAS2R16 and TAS2R38) in affecting nicotine dependence. PMID:18834969

Lou, Xiang-Yang; Chen, Guo-Bo; Yan, Lei; Ma, Jennie Z; Mangold, Jamie E; Zhu, Jun; Elston, Robert C; Li, Ming D

2008-10-01

266

Plant introductions, hybridization and gene flow.  

PubMed Central

Many regional floras contain a high proportion of recently introduced plant species. Occasionally, hybridization between an introduced species and another species (introduced or native) can result in interspecific gene flow. This may occur even in instances where the F(1) hybrid shows very high sterility, but occasionally produces a few viable gametes. We provide examples of gene flow occurring between some rhododendrons recently introduced to the British flora, and between an introduced and native Senecio species. Neutral molecular markers have normally been employed to obtain evidence of interspecific gene flow, but the challenge now is to isolate and characterize functional introgressed genes and to determine how they affect the fitness of introgressants and whether they improve adaptation to novel habitats allowing introgressants to expand the range of a species. We outline a candidate gene approach for isolating and characterizing an allele of the RAY gene in Senecio vulgaris, which is believed to have introgressed from S. squalidus, and which causes the production of ray florets in flower heads. We discuss the effects of this introgressed allele on individual fitness, including those that originate directly from the production of ray florets plus those that may arise from pleiotropy and/or linkage.

Abbott, Richard J; James, Juliet K; Milne, Richard I; Gillies, Amanda C M

2003-01-01

267

Phylogeny, gene structures, and expression patterns of the ERF gene family in soybean (Glycine max L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the ERF transcription factor family play important roles in regulating gene expression in re- sponse to biotic and abiotic stresses. In soybean (Glycine max L.), however, only a few ERF genes have been studied so far. In this study, 98 unigenes that contained a complete AP2\\/ERF domain were identified from 63 676 unique sequences in the DFCI Soybean

Gaiyun Zhang; Ming Chen; Xueping Chen; Zhaoshi Xu; Shan Guan; Lian-Cheng Li; Aili Li; Jiaming Guo; Long Mao; Youzhi Ma

2010-01-01

268

Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family  

PubMed Central

Background LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. Results We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. Conclusions The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. This pattern is consistent with a possible role in patterning the Nematostella nervous system. We propose a scenario in which Lhx genes play a homologous role in neural patterning across eumetazoans.

2010-01-01

269

Early evolution of the LIM homeobox gene family  

SciTech Connect

LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neuronal identity. Though genes of this family have been reported in a sponge and a cnidarian, the expression patterns and functions of the Lhx family during development in non-bilaterian phyla are not known. We identified Lhx genes in two cnidarians and a placozoan and report the expression of Lhx genes during embryonic development in Nematostella and the demosponge Amphimedon. Members of the six major LIM homeobox subfamilies are represented in the genomes of the starlet sea anemone, Nematostella vectensis, and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The hydrozoan cnidarian, Hydra magnipapillata, has retained four of the six Lhx subfamilies, but apparently lost two others. Only three subfamilies are represented in the haplosclerid demosponge Amphimedon queenslandica. A tandem cluster of three Lhx genes of different subfamilies and a gene containing two LIM domains in the genome of T. adhaerens (an animal without any neurons) indicates that Lhx subfamilies were generated by tandem duplication. This tandem cluster in Trichoplax is likely a remnant of the original chromosomal context in which Lhx subfamilies first appeared. Three of the six Trichoplax Lhx genes are expressed in animals in laboratory culture, as are all Lhx genes in Hydra. Expression patterns of Nematostella Lhx genes correlate with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. In the aneural demosponge, A. queenslandica, the three Lhx genes are expressed widely during development, including in cells that are associated with the larval photosensory ring. The Lhx family expanded and diversified early in animal evolution, with all six subfamilies already diverged prior to the cnidarian-placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. In Nematostella, Lhx gene expression is correlated with neural territories in larval and juvenile polyp stages. This pattern is consistent with a possible role in patterning the Nematostella nervous system. We propose a scenario in which Lhx genes play a homologous role in neural patterning across eumetazoans.

Srivastava, Mansi; Larroux, Claire; Lu, Daniel R; Mohanty, Kareshma; Chapman, Jarrod; Degnan, Bernard M; Rokhsar, Daniel S

2010-01-01

270

The mammalian PYHIN gene family: Phylogeny, evolution and expression  

PubMed Central

Background Proteins of the mammalian PYHIN (IFI200/HIN-200) family are involved in defence against infection through recognition of foreign DNA. The family member absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) binds cytosolic DNA via its HIN domain and initiates inflammasome formation via its pyrin domain. AIM2 lies within a cluster of related genes, many of which are uncharacterised in mouse. To better understand the evolution, orthology and function of these genes, we have documented the range of PYHIN genes present in representative mammalian species, and undertaken phylogenetic and expression analyses. Results No PYHIN genes are evident in non-mammals or monotremes, with a single member found in each of three marsupial genomes. Placental mammals show variable family expansions, from one gene in cow to four in human and 14 in mouse. A single HIN domain appears to have evolved in the common ancestor of marsupials and placental mammals, and duplicated to give rise to three distinct forms (HIN-A, -B and -C) in the placental mammal ancestor. Phylogenetic analyses showed that AIM2 HIN-C and pyrin domains clearly diverge from the rest of the family, and it is the only PYHIN protein with orthology across many species. Interestingly, although AIM2 is important in defence against some bacteria and viruses in mice, AIM2 is a pseudogene in cow, sheep, llama, dolphin, dog and elephant. The other 13 mouse genes have arisen by duplication and rearrangement within the lineage, which has allowed some diversification in expression patterns. Conclusions The role of AIM2 in forming the inflammasome is relatively well understood, but molecular interactions of other PYHIN proteins involved in defence against foreign DNA remain to be defined. The non-AIM2 PYHIN protein sequences are very distinct from AIM2, suggesting they vary in effector mechanism in response to foreign DNA, and may bind different DNA structures. The PYHIN family has highly varied gene composition between mammalian species due to lineage-specific duplication and loss, which probably indicates different adaptations for fighting infectious disease. Non-genomic DNA can indicate infection, or a mutagenic threat. We hypothesise that defence of the genome against endogenous retroelements has been an additional evolutionary driver for PYHIN proteins.

2012-01-01

271

The dynamics of functional classes of plant genes in rediploidized ancient polyploids  

PubMed Central

Background To understand the particular evolutionary patterns of plant genomes, there is a need to systematically survey the fate of the subgenomes of polyploids fixed as whole genome duplicates, including patterns of retention of duplicate, triplicate, etc. genes. Results We measure the simultaneous dynamics of duplicate orthologous gene loss in rosids, in asterids, and in monocots, as influenced by biological functional class. This pan-angiosperm view confirms common tendencies and consistency through time for both ancient and more recent whole genome polyploidization events. Conclusions The gene loss analysis represents an assessment of post-polyploidization evolution, at the level of individual gene families within and across sister genomes. Functional analysis confirms universal trends previously reported for more recent plant polyploidy events: genes involved with regulation and responses were retained in multiple copies, while genes involved with metabolic and catalytic processes tended to lose copies, across all three groups of plants.

2013-01-01

272

MORC Family ATPases Required for Heterochromatin Condensation and Gene Silencing#  

PubMed Central

Transposable elements (TEs) and DNA repeats are commonly targeted by DNA and histone methylation to achieve epigenetic gene silencing. We isolated mutations in two Arabidopsis genes, AtMORC1 and AtMORC6, which cause de-repression of DNA-methylated genes and TEs, but no losses of DNA or histone methylation. AtMORC1 and AtMORC6 are members of the conserved Microrchidia (MORC) adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) family, predicted to catalyze alterations in chromosome superstructure. The atmorc1 and atmorc6 mutants show decondensation of pericentromeric heterochromatin, increased interaction of pericentromeric regions with the rest of the genome, and transcriptional defects that are largely restricted to loci residing in pericentromeric regions. Knockdown of the single MORC homolog in Caenorhabditis elegans also impairs transgene silencing. We propose that the MORC ATPases are conserved regulators of gene silencing in eukaryotes.

Moissiard, Guillaume; Cokus, Shawn J.; Cary, Joshua; Feng, Suhua; Billi, Allison C.; Stroud, Hume; Husmann, Dylan; Zhan, Ye; Lajoie, Bryan R.; McCord, Rachel Patton; Hale, Christopher J.; Feng, Wei; Michaels, Scott D.; Frand, Alison R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Dekker, Job; Kim, John K.; Jacobsen, Steve

2012-01-01

273

Tracing the origin and evolution of plant TIR-encoding genes.  

PubMed

Toll-interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-encoding proteins represent one of the most important families of disease resistance genes in plants. Studies that have explored the functional details of these genes tended to focus on only a few limited groups; the origin and evolutionary history of these genes were therefore unclear. In this study, focusing on the four principal groups of TIR-encoding genes, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of 32 fully sequenced plant genomes and Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) from the gymnosperm Pinus taeda and explored the origins and evolution of these genes. Through the identification of the TIR-encoding genes, the analysis of chromosome positions, the identification and analysis of conserved motifs, and sequence alignment and phylogenetic reconstruction, our results showed that the genes of the TIR-X family (TXs) had an earlier origin and a wider distribution than the genes from the other three groups. TIR-encoding genes experienced large-scale gene duplications during evolution. A skeleton motif pattern of the TIR domain was present in all spermatophytes, and the genes with this skeleton pattern exhibited a conserved and independent evolutionary history in all spermatophytes, including monocots, that followed their gymnosperm origin. This study used comparative genomics to explore the origin and evolutionary history of the four main groups of TIR-encoding genes. Additionally, we unraveled the mechanism behind the uneven distribution of TIR-encoding genes in dicots and monocots. PMID:24786214

Sun, Xiaoqin; Pang, Hui; Li, Mimi; Chen, Jianqun; Hang, Yueyu

2014-08-10

274

The map-1 Gene Family in Root-Knot Nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.: A Set of Taxonomically Restricted Genes Specific to Clonal Species  

PubMed Central

Taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs), i.e., genes that are restricted to a limited subset of phylogenetically related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, TRG-encoded proteins are possible determinants of the specificity of host-parasite interactions. In the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, the map-1 gene family encodes expansin-like proteins that are secreted into plant tissues during parasitism, thought to act as effectors to promote successful root infection. MAP-1 proteins exhibit a modular architecture, with variable number and arrangement of 58 and 13-aa domains in their central part. Here, we address the evolutionary origins of this gene family using a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. Map-1 genes were solely identified in one single member of the phylum Nematoda, i.e., the genus Meloidogyne, and not detected in any other nematode, thus indicating that the map-1 gene family is indeed a TRG family. A phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of map-1 genes in RKNs further showed that these genes are specifically present in species that reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, with the exception of M. floridensis, and could not be detected in RKNs reproducing by either meiotic parthenogenesis or amphimixis. These results highlight the divergence between mitotic and meiotic RKN species as a critical transition in the evolutionary history of these parasites. Analysis of the sequence conservation and organization of repeated domains in map-1 genes suggests that gene duplication(s) together with domain loss/duplication have contributed to the evolution of the map-1 family, and that some strong selection mechanism may be acting upon these genes to maintain their functional role(s) in the specificity of the plant-RKN interactions.

Tomalova, Iva; Iachia, Cathy; Mulet, Karine; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe

2012-01-01

275

Multiple regulatory genes control expression of a gene family during development of Dictyostelium discoideum.  

PubMed Central

Mutant strains of Dictyostelium discoideum carrying dis mutations fail to transcribe specifically the family of developmentally regulated discoidin lectin genes during morphogenesis. The phenotypes of these mutants strongly suggested that the mutations reside in regulatory genes. Using these mutant strains, we showed that multiple regulatory genes are required for the expression of the lectin structural genes and that these regulatory genes (the dis+ alleles) act in trans to regulate this gene family. These regulatory genes fall into two complementation groups (disA and disB) and map to linkage groups II and III, respectively. A further regulatory locus was defined by the identification of an unlinked supressor gene, drsA (discoidin restoring), which is epistatic to disB, but not disA, and results in the restoration of lectin expression in cells carrying the disB mutation. Mutant cells carrying the drsA allele express the discoidin lectin gene family during growth and development, in contrast to wild-type cells which express it only during development. Therefore, the suppressor activity of the drsA allele appears to function by making the expression of the discoidin lectins constitutive and no longer strictly developmentally regulated. The data indicate that normal expression of the discoidin lectins is dependent on the sequential action of the disB+, drsA+, and disA+ gene products. Thus, we described an interacting network of regulatory genes which in turn controls the developmental expression of a family of genes during the morphogenesis of D. discoideum. Images

Alexander, S; Cibulsky, A M; Cuneo, S D

1986-01-01

276

Fuzzy clustering of CPP family in plants with evolution and interaction analyses  

PubMed Central

Background Transcription factors have been studied intensively because they play an important role in gene expression regulation. However, the transcription factors in the CPP family (cystein-rich polycomb-like protein), compared with other transcription factor families, have not received sufficient attention, despite their wide prevalence in a broad spectrum of species, from plants to animals. The total number of known CPP transcription factors in plants is 111 from 16 plants, but only 2 of them have been studied so far, namely TSO1 and CPP1 in Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean, respectively. Methods In this work, to study their functions, we applied the fuzzy clustering method to all plant CPP transcription factors. The feature vector of each protein sequence for the fuzzy clustering method is encoded by the short length peptides and the combination of functional domain models. Results and conclusions With the fuzzy clustering method, all plant CPP transcription factors are grouped into two subfamilies. A systems approach, including Expressed Sequence Tag analysis, evolutionary analysis, protein-protein interaction network analysis and co-expression analysis, is employed to validate the clustering results, the results of which also indicates that the transcription factors from different subfamilies show uncorrelated responses.

2013-01-01

277

Mutations in RNA Binding Protein Gene Cause Familial Dilated Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Objectives We sought to identify a novel gene for dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Background DCM is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder that remains idiopathic in a majority of patients. Familial cases provide an opportunity to discover unsuspected molecular bases of DCM, enabling preclinical risk detection. Methods Two large families with autosomal dominant DCM were studied. Genome-wide linkage analysis was used to identify a disease locus, followed by fine mapping and positional candidate gene sequencing. Mutation scanning was then performed in 278 unrelated subjects with idiopathic DCM, prospectively identified at the Mayo Clinic. Results Overlapping loci for DCM were independently mapped to chromosome 10q25-q26. DNA sequencing of affected individuals in each family revealed distinct heterozygous missense mutations in exon 9 of RBM20, encoding RNA binding motif protein 20. Comprehensive coding sequence analyses identified missense mutations clustered within this same exon in six additional DCM families. Mutations segregated with DCM (composite logarithm of the odds score >11.49), were absent in 480 control samples, and altered residues within a highly conserved arginine/serine (RS)-rich region. Expression of RBM20 messenger RNA was confirmed in human heart tissue. Conclusions Our findings establish RBM20 as a DCM gene and reveal a mutation hotspot in the RS domain. RBM20 is preferentially expressed in the heart and encodes motifs prototypical of spliceosome proteins that regulate alternative pre-mRNA splicing, thus implicating a functionally distinct gene in human cardiomyopathy. RBM20 mutations are associated with young age at diagnosis, end-stage heart failure, and high mortality.

Brauch, Katharine M.; Karst, Margaret L.; Herron, Kathleen J.; de Andrade, Mariza; Pellikka, Patricia A.; Rodeheffer, Richard J.; Michels, Virginia V.; Olson, Timothy M.

2009-01-01

278

Evolution of the MAGUK protein gene family in premetazoan lineages  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Cell-to-cell communication is a key process in multicellular organisms. In multicellular animals, scaffolding proteins belonging to the family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUK) are involved in the regulation and formation of cell junctions. These MAGUK proteins were believed to be exclusive to Metazoa. However, a MAGUK gene was recently identified in an EST survey of Capsaspora owczarzaki, an unicellular

Alex de Mendoza; Hiroshi Suga; Ińaki Ruiz-Trillo

2010-01-01

279

Complexity in the cattle CD94 \\/ NKG2 gene families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural killer cell responses are controlled to a large extent by the interaction of an array of inhibitory and activating\\u000a receptors with their ligands. The mostly nonpolymorphic CD94\\/NKG2 receptors in both humans and mice were shown to recognize\\u000a a single nonclassical MHC class I molecule in each case. In this paper, we describe the CD94\\/NKG2 gene family in cattle. NKG2

James Birch; Shirley A. Ellis

2007-01-01

280

Functional and structural diversity of the human Dickkopf gene family  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wnt proteins influence many aspects of embryonic development, and their activity is regulated by several secreted antagonists, including the Xenopus Dickkopf-1 (xDkk-1) protein. xDkk-1 inhibits Wnt activities in Xenopus embryos and may play a role in induction of head structures. Here, we characterize a family of human Dkk-related genes composed of Dkk-1, Dkk-2, Dkk-3, and Dkk-4, together with a unique

Valery E. Krupnik; John D. Sharp; Chian Jiang; Keith Robison; Troy W. Chickering; Lakshmi Amaravadi; Diane E. Brown; Deborah Guyot; Gail Mays; Kevin Leiby; Belle Chang; Thao Duong; Andrew D. J. Goodearl; David P. Gearing; Sergei Y. Sokol; Sean A. McCarthy

1999-01-01

281

Molecular study of the perforin gene in familial hematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

Perforin gene (PRF1) mutations have been identified in some patients diagnosed with the familial form of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and in patients with lymphoma. The aim of the present study was to determine whether patients with a familial aggregation of hematological malignancies harbor germline perforin gene mutations. For this purpose, 81 unrelated families from Tunisia and France with aggregated hematological malignancies were investigated. The variants detected in the PRF1 coding region amounted to 3.7% (3/81). Two of the three variants identified were previously described: the p.Ala91Val pathogenic mutation and the p.Asn252Ser polymorphism. A new p.Ala 211Val missense substitution was identified in two related Tunisian patients. In order to assess the pathogenicity of this new variation, bioinformatic tools were used to predict its effects on the perforin protein structure and at the mRNA level. The segregation of the mutant allele was studied in the family of interest and a control population was screened. The fact that this variant was not found to occur in 200 control chromosomes suggests that it may be pathogenic. However, overexpression of mutated PRF1 in rat basophilic leukemia cells did not affect the lytic function of perforin differently from the wild type protein.

2011-01-01

282

Genetics of the Tubulin Gene Families of Physarum  

PubMed Central

The organization of the ?- and ?-tubulin gene families in Physarum was investigated by Mendelian analysis. Restriction endonuclease-generated DNA fragments homologous to ?- and ?-tubulin show length polymorphisms that can be used as markers for genetic mapping. Analysis of meiotic assortment among progeny of heterozygotes allowed ?- and ?-tubulin sequence loci to be defined. There are four unlinked ?-tubulin sequence loci (altA, altB, altC and altD) and at least three unlinked ?-tubulin sequence loci (betA, betB and betC). The ?-tubulin loci are not linked to the ?-tubulin loci. — Segregation of tubulin sequence loci with respect to ben mutations that confer resistance to antitubulin benzimidazole drugs was used to investigate whether any members of the ?- or ?-tubulin gene families are allelic to ben loci. The ?-tubulin sequence locus betB is allelic to the resistance locus benD, the betA locus is probably allelic to benA and the ?-tubulin sequence locus altC may be allelic to benC. The molecular implications of benzimidazole resistance phenotypes when only one of the expressed ?-tubulin gene family members mutates to drug resistance are discussed in relation to tubulin function.

Schedl, Tim; Owens, Judi; Dove, William F.; Burland, Timothy G.

1984-01-01

283

Characterization of cytokinin signaling and homeostasis gene families in two hardwood tree species: Populus trichocarpa and Prunus persica  

PubMed Central

Background Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species. Results Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses. Conclusions In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.

2013-01-01

284

Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Carnivorous Plant Family Sarraceniaceae  

PubMed Central

The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44–53 million years ago (Mya) (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate?=?47 Mya). By 25–44 (HPD?=?35) Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America) had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America). This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14–32 (HPD?=?23) Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2–7, HPD?=?4 Mya); the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation, <3 Mya. Overall, these results suggest climatic change at different temporal and spatial scales in part shaped the distribution and diversity of this carnivorous plant clade.

Ellison, Aaron M.; Butler, Elena D.; Hicks, Emily Jean; Naczi, Robert F. C.; Calie, Patrick J.; Bell, Charles D.; Davis, Charles C.

2012-01-01

285

Application of the secondary structure model of rRNA for phylogeny: D2-D3 expansion segments of the LSU gene of plant-parasitic nematodes from the family Hoplolaimidae Filipjev, 1934.  

PubMed

Knowledge of rRNA structure is increasingly important to assist phylogenetic analysis through reconstructing optimal alignment, utilizing molecule features as an additional source of data and refining appropriate models of evolution of the molecule. We describe a procedure of optimization for alignment and a new coding method for nucleotide sequence data using secondary structure models of the D2 and D3 expansion fragments of the LSU-rRNA gene reconstructed for fifteen nematode species of the agriculturally important and diverse family Hoplolaimidae, order Tylenchida. Using secondary structure information we converted the original sequence data into twenty-eight symbol codes and submitted the transformed data to maximum parsimony analysis. We also applied the original sequence data set for Bayesian inference. This used the doublet model with sixteen states of nucleotide doublets for the stem region and the standard model of DNA substitution with four nucleotide states for loops and bulges. By this approach, we demonstrate that using structural information for phylogenetic analyses led to trees with lower resolved relationships between clades and likely eliminated some artefactual support for misinterpreted relationships, such as paraphyly of Helicotylenchus or Rotylenchus. This study as well as future phylogenetic analyses is herein supported by the development of an on-line database, NEMrRNA, for rRNA molecules in a structural format for nematodes. We also have developed a new computer program, RNAstat, for calculation of nucleotide statistics designed and proposed for phylogenetic studies. PMID:17101282

Subbotin, Sergei A; Sturhan, Dieter; Vovlas, Nicola; Castillo, Pablo; Tambe, James Tanyi; Moens, Maurice; Baldwin, James G

2007-06-01

286

Intron loss and gain during evolution of the catalase gene family in angiosperms.  

PubMed Central

Angiosperms (flowering plants), including both monocots and dicots, contain small catalase gene families. In the dicot, Arabidopsis thaliana, two catalase (CAT) genes, CAT1 and CAT3, are tightly linked on chromosome 1 and a third, CAT2, which is more similar to CAT1 than to CAT3, is unlinked on chromosome 4. Comparison of positions and numbers of introns among 13 angiosperm catalase genomic sequences indicates that intron positions are conserved, and suggests that an ancestral catalase gene common to monocots and dicots contained seven introns. Arabidopsis CAT2 has seven introns; both CAT1 and CAT3 have six introns in positions conserved with CAT2, but each has lost a different intron. We suggest the following sequence of events during the evolution of the Arabidopsis catalase gene family. An initial duplication of an ancestral catalase gene gave rise to CAT3 and CAT1. CAT1 then served as the template for a second duplication, yielding CAT2. Intron losses from CAT1 and CAT3 followed these duplications. One subclade of monocot catalases has lost all but the 5'-most and 3'-most introns, which is consistent with a mechanism of intron loss by replacement of an ancestral intron-containing gene with a reverse-transcribed DNA copy of a fully spliced mRNA. Following this event of concerted intron loss, the Oryza sativa (rice, a monocot) CAT1 lineage acquired an intron in a novel position, consistent with a mechanism of intron gain at proto-splice sites.

Frugoli, J A; McPeek, M A; Thomas, T L; McClung, C R

1998-01-01

287

The expression of leucine-rich repeat gene family members in colorectal cancer.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate the association of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) gene family with colorectal cancer (CRC). The expression of members of the LRR gene family were analyzed in 17 CRC specimens and in 59 healthy colorectal tissues by using Human Exon1.0ST microarray, and in 25 CRC specimens and 32 healthy colorectal tissues by U133Plus2.0 microarray. An association was found for 25 genes belonging to the plant-specific (PS) class of LRR genes (P = 0.05 for Exon1.0 ST and P = 0.04 for U133Plus2.0). In both data-sets, in CRC, we found down-regulation of SHOC2 (P < 0.00003) and LRRC28 (P < 0.01) and up-regulation of LRSAM1 (P < 0.000001), while up-regulation of MFHAS1 (P = 0.0005) and down-regulation of WDFY3 (P = 0.026) were found only in the Exon1.0 ST data-set. The PS LLR gene class encodes proteins that activate immune cells and might play a key role in programmed cell death and autophagy. SHOC2 and LRRC28 genes involved in RAS-mediated signaling, which hinders nutrient deprivation-induced autophagy, might be a possible link between the negative control of autophagy and tumorigenesis. PMID:23045723

Piepoli, Ada; Palmieri, Orazio; Maglietta, Rosalia; Panza, Anna; Cattaneo, Elisa; Latiano, Anna; Laczko, Endre; Gentile, Annamaria; Carella, Massimo; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Ancona, Nicola; Marra, Giancarlo; Andriulli, Angelo

2012-10-01

288

The Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase Gene Family in Raspberry. Structure, Expression, and Evolution1  

PubMed Central

In raspberry (Rubus idaeus), development of fruit color and flavor are critically dependent on products of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To determine how these metabolic functions are integrated with the fruit ripening program, we are examining the properties and expression of key genes in the pathway. Here, we report that l- phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is encoded in raspberry by a family of two genes (RiPAL1 and RiPAL2). RiPAL1 shares 88% amino acid sequence similarity to RiPAL2, but phylogenetic analysis places RiPAL1 and RiPAL2 in different clusters within the plant PAL gene family. The spatial and temporal expression patterns of the two genes were investigated in various vegetative and floral tissues using the reverse transcriptase competitor polymerase chain reaction assay. Although expression of both genes was detected in all tissues examined, RiPAL1 was associated with early fruit ripening events, whereas expression of RiPAL2 correlated more with later stages of flower and fruit development. Determination of the absolute levels of the two transcripts in various tissues showed that RiPAL1 transcripts were 3- to 10-fold more abundant than those of RiPAL2 in leaves, shoots, roots, young fruits, and ripe fruits. The two RiPAL genes therefore appear to be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms.

Kumar, Amrita; Ellis, Brian E.

2001-01-01

289

The potential of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction: an example from the Malvaceae.  

PubMed

The WRKY gene family of transcription factors is involved in several diverse pathways and includes components of plant-specific, ancient regulatory networks. WRKY genes contain one or two highly conserved DNA binding domains interrupted by an intron. We used partial sequences of five independent WRKY loci to assess their potential for phylogeny reconstruction. Loci were originally isolated from Theobroma cacao L. by PCR with a single pair of degenerate primers; loci-specific primers were subsequently designed. We tested those loci across the sister genera Herrania Goudot and Theobroma L., with Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. as the outgroup. Overall, the combined WRKY matrices performed as well or better than other genes in resolving the intrageneric phylogeny of Herrania and Theobroma. The ease of isolating numerous, independent WRKY loci from diverse plant species with a single pair of degenerate primers designed to the highly conserved WRKY domain, renders them extremely useful tools for generating multiple, single or low copy nuclear loci for molecular phylogenetic studies at lower taxonomic levels. This is the first demonstration of the potential for members of the WRKY gene family for phylogenetic reconstruction. PMID:17681475

Borrone, James W; Meerow, Alan W; Kuhn, David N; Whitlock, Barbara A; Schnell, Raymond J

2007-09-01

290

Probing the diversity of the Arabidopsis glutathione S-transferase gene family.  

PubMed

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) appear to be ubiquitous in plants and have defined roles in herbicide detoxification. In contrast, little is known about their roles in normal plant physiology and during responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Forty-seven members of the GST super-family were identified in the Arabidopsis genome, grouped into four classes, with amino acid sequence identity between classes being below 25%. The two small zeta (GSTZ) and theta (GSTT) classes have related GSTs in animals while the large phi (GSTF) and tau (GSTU) classes are plant specific. As a first step to functionally characterize this diverse super-family, 10 cDNAs representing all GST classes were cloned by RT-PCR and used to study AtGST expression in response to treatment with phytohormones, herbicides, oxidative stress and inoculation with virulent and avirulent strains of the downy mildew pathogen Peronospora parasitica. The abundance of transcripts encoding AtGSTF9, AtGSTF10, AtGSTU5, AtGSTU13 and AtGSTT1 were unaffected by any of the treatments. In contrast, AtGSTF6 was upregulated by all treatments while AtGSTF2, AtGSTF8, AtGSTU19 and AtGSTZ1 each showed a selective spectrum of inducibility to the different stresses indicating that regulation of gene expression in this super-family is controlled by multiple mechanisms. The respective cDNAs were over expressed in E. coli. All GSTs except AtGSTF10 formed soluble proteins which catalysed a specific range of glutathione conjugation or glutathione peroxidase activities. Our results give further insights into the complex regulation and enzymic functions of this plant gene super-family. PMID:12090627

Wagner, Ulrich; Edwards, Robert; Dixon, David P; Mauch, Felix

2002-07-01

291

Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily in plants: gene nomenclature and comparative genomics  

PubMed Central

In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the number of completely sequenced plant genomes. The comparison of fully sequenced genomes allows for identification of new gene family members, as well as comprehensive analysis of gene family evolution. The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) gene superfamily comprises a group of enzymes involved in the NAD+- or NADP+-dependent conversion of various aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. ALDH enzymes are involved in processing many aldehydes that serve as biogenic intermediates in a wide range of metabolic pathways. In addition, many of these enzymes function as ‘aldehyde scavengers’ by removing reactive aldehydes generated during the oxidative degradation of lipid membranes, also known as lipid peroxidation. Plants and animals share many ALDH families, and many genes are highly conserved between these two evolutionarily distinct groups. Conversely, both plants and animals also contain unique ALDH genes and families. Herein we carried outgenome-wide identification of ALDH genes in a number of plant species—including Arabidopsis thaliana (thale crest), Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular algae), Oryza sativa (rice), Physcomitrella patens (moss), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) and Zea mays (maize). These data were then combined with previous analysis of Populus trichocarpa (poplar tree), Selaginella moellindorffii (gemmiferous spikemoss), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Volvox carteri (colonial algae) for a comprehensive evolutionary comparison of the plant ALDH superfamily. As a result, newly identified genes can be more easily analyzed and gene names can be assigned according to current nomenclature guidelines; our goal is to clarify previously confusing and conflicting names and classifications that might confound results and prevent accurate comparisons between studies.

Brocker, Chad; Vasiliou, Melpomene; Carpenter, Sarah; Carpenter, Christopher; Zhang, Yucheng; Wang, Xiping; Kotchoni, Simeon O.; Wood, Andrew J.; Kirch, Hans-Hubert; Kopecny, David; Nebert, Daniel W.

2012-01-01

292

Evolutionary dynamism of the primate LRRC37 gene family  

PubMed Central

Core duplicons in the human genome represent ancestral duplication modules shared by the majority of intrachromosomal duplication blocks within a given chromosome. These cores are associated with the emergence of novel gene families in the hominoid lineage, but their genomic organization and gene characterization among other primates are largely unknown. Here, we investigate the genomic organization and expression of the core duplicon on chromosome 17 that led to the expansion of LRRC37 during primate evolution. A comparison of the LRRC37 gene family organization in human, orangutan, macaque, marmoset, and lemur genomes shows the presence of both orthologous and species-specific gene copies in all primate lineages. Expression profiling in mouse, macaque, and human tissues reveals that the ancestral expression of LRRC37 was restricted to the testis. In the hominid lineage, the pattern of LRRC37 became increasingly ubiquitous, with significantly higher levels of expression in the cerebellum and thymus, and showed a remarkable diversity of alternative splice forms. Transfection studies in HeLa cells indicate that the human FLAG-tagged recombinant LRRC37 protein is secreted after cleavage of a transmembrane precursor and its overexpression can induce filipodia formation.

Giannuzzi, Giuliana; Siswara, Priscillia; Malig, Maika; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Mullikin, James C.; Ventura, Mario; Eichler, Evan E.

2013-01-01

293

The NME gene family in zebrafish oogenesis and early development.  

PubMed

After the recent report of the expression of several nme genes in the zebrafish gonads, the present study aimed at further analyzing the expression of nme genes in the ovary with special attention for the nme transcripts that are maternally inherited and could thus participate in the determination of oocyte developmental competence. The expression levels of all groups I and II nme genes were characterized by QPCR in a panel of zebrafish tissues. The nme genes exhibiting an ovarian expression were subsequently monitored throughout oogenesis and early development, and their expression sites characterized using in situ hybridization. Here, we show that nme2b1, nme3, nme4, and nme6 are highly expressed in the ovary and present in the zebrafish oocyte throughout oogenesis. While the four transcripts are maternally inherited, nme3 and nme6 display a typical maternal profile and are detected in the zebrafish early embryo. In contrast to nme3, nme6, abundance exhibits a sharp decrease during early embryogenesis. After zygotic genome activation, we observed an increased expression of nme2b1, nme2b2, nme3, and nme6. The present study provides a comprehensive overview of the expression of nme family members during zebrafish oogenesis and early development. In addition, the maternal origin of two nme transcripts in the early embryo is reported here for the first time in any vertebrate species. Together, our observations suggest an important role of the nme family in oocyte and embryo development in vertebrates. PMID:21394481

Desvignes, T; Fauvel, C; Bobe, J

2011-10-01

294

The Evolution of Novelty in Conserved Gene Families  

PubMed Central

One of the major aims of contemporary evolutionary biology is the understanding of the current pattern of biological diversity. This involves, first, the description of character distribution at various nodes of the phylogenetic tree of life and, second, the functional explanation of such changes. The analysis of character distribution is a powerful tool at both the morphological and molecular levels. Recent high-throughput sequencing approaches provide new opportunities to study the genetic architecture of organisms at the genome-wide level. In eukaryotes, one overarching finding is the absence of simple correlations of gene count and biological complexity. Instead, the domain architecture of proteins is becoming a central focus for large-scale evolutionary innovations. Here, we review examples of the evolution of novelty in conserved gene families in insects and nematodes. We highlight how in the absence of whole-genome duplications molecular novelty can arise, how members of gene families have diversified at distinct mechanistic levels, and how gene expression can be maintained in the context of multiple innovations in regulatory mechanisms.

Markov, Gabriel V.; Sommer, Ralf J.

2012-01-01

295

The Phytocyanin Gene Family in Rice (Oryza sativa L.): Genome-Wide Identification, Classification and Transcriptional Analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Phytocyanins (PCs) are plant-specific blue copper proteins involved in electron transport, and a large number of known PCs are considered to be chimeric arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs). To date there has not been a genome-wide overview of the OsPC gene family. Therefore, as the first step and a useful strategy to elucidate the functions of OsPCs, there is an urgent need for a thorough genome-wide analysis of this gene family. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a total of 62 OsPC genes were identified through a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) genome. Based on phylogeny and motif constitution, the family of OsPCs was classified into three subclasses: uclacyanin-like proteins (OsUCLs), stellacyanin-like proteins (OsSCLs) and early nodulin-like proteins (OsENODLs). Structure and glycosylation prediction indicated that 46 OsPCs were glycosylphosphatigylinositol-anchored proteins and 38 OsPCs were chimeric AGPs. Gene duplication analysis revealed that chromosomal segment and tandem duplications contributed almost equally to the expansion of this gene family, and duplication events were mostly happened in the OsUCL subfamily. The expression profiles of OsPC genes were analyzed at different stages of vegetative and reproductive development and under abiotic stresses. It revealed that a large number of OsPC genes were abundantly expressed in the various stages of development. Moreover, 17 genes were regulated under the treatments of abiotic stresses. Conclusions/Significance The genome-wide identification and expression analysis of OsPC genes should facilitate research in this gene family and give new insights toward elucidating their functions in higher plants.

Ma, Haoli; Zhao, Heming; Liu, Zhi; Zhao, Jie

2011-01-01

296

MUSTANG is a novel family of domesticated transposase genes found in diverse angiosperms.  

PubMed

While transposons have traditionally been viewed as genomic parasites or "junk DNA," the discovery of transposon-derived host genes has fueled an ongoing debate over the evolutionary role of transposons. In particular, while mobility-related open reading frames have been known to acquire host functions, the contribution of these types of events to the evolution of genes is not well understood. Here we report that genome-wide searches for Mutator transposase-derived host genes in Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia-0) and Oryza sativa ssp. japonica (cv. Nipponbare) (domesticated rice) identified 121 sequences, including the taxonomically conserved MUSTANG1. Syntenic MUSTANG1 orthologs in such varied plant species as rice, poplar, Arabidopsis, and Medicago truncatula appear to be under purifying selection. However, despite the evidence of this pathway of gene evolution, MUSTANG1 belongs to one of only two Mutator-like gene families with members in both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants, suggesting that Mutator-like elements seldom evolve into taxonomically widespread host genes. PMID:15987878

Cowan, Rebecca K; Hoen, Douglas R; Schoen, Daniel J; Bureau, Thomas E

2005-10-01

297

The CBF gene family in hexaploid wheat and its relationship to the phylogenetic complexity of cereal CBF s  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most temperate plants tolerate both chilling and freezing temperatures whereas many species from tropical regions suffer chilling\\u000a injury when exposed to temperatures slightly above freezing. Cold acclimation induces the expression of cold-regulated genes\\u000a needed to protect plants against freezing stress. This induction is mediated, in part, by the CBF transcription factor family.\\u000a To understand the evolution and function of this

Mohamed Badawi; Jean Danyluk; Barbara Boucho; Mario Houde; Fathey Sarhan

2007-01-01

298

Transcript Profiling by 3?-Untranslated Region Sequencing Resolves Expression of Gene Families1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Differences in gene expression underlie central questions in plant biology extending from gene function to evolutionary mechanisms and quantitative traits. However, resolving expression of closely related genes (e.g. alleles and gene family members) is challenging on a genome-wide scale due to extensive sequence similarity and frequently incomplete genome sequence data. We present a new expression-profiling strategy that utilizes long-read, high-throughput sequencing to capture the information-rich 3?-untranslated region (UTR) of messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Resulting sequences resolve gene-specific transcripts independent of a sequenced genome. Analysis of approximately 229,000 3?-anchored sequences from maize (Zea mays) ovaries identified 14,822 unique transcripts represented by at least two sequence reads. Total RNA from ovaries of drought-stressed wild-type and viviparous-1 mutant plants was used to construct a multiplex cDNA library. Each sample was labeled by incorporating one of 16 unique three-base key codes into the 3?-cDNA fragments, and combined samples were sequenced using a GS 20 454 instrument. Transcript abundance was quantified by frequency of sequences identifying each unique mRNA. At least 202 unique transcripts showed highly significant differences in abundance between wild-type and mutant samples. For a subset of mRNAs, quantitative differences were validated by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The 3?-UTR profile resolved 12 unique cellulose synthase (CesA) transcripts in maize ovaries and identified previously uncharacterized members of a histone H1 gene family. In addition, this method resolved nearly identical paralogs, as illustrated by two auxin-repressed, dormancy-associated (Arda) transcripts, which showed reciprocal mRNA abundance in wild-type and mutant samples. Our results demonstrate the potential of 3?-UTR profiling for resolving gene- and allele-specific transcripts.

Eveland, Andrea L.; McCarty, Donald R.; Koch, Karen E.

2008-01-01

299

Pollen Tubes of Nicotiana alata Express Two Genes from Different ?-Glucan Synthase Families1  

PubMed Central

The walls deposited by growing pollen tubes contain two types of ?-glucan, the (1,3)-?-glucan callose and the (1,4)-?-glucan cellulose, as well as various ?-linked pectic polysaccharides. Pollen tubes of Nicotiana alata Link et Otto, an ornamental tobacco, were therefore used to identify genes potentially encoding catalytic subunits of the callose synthase and cellulose synthase enzymes. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR) with pollen-tube RNA and primers designed to conserved regions of bacterial and plant cellulose synthase (CesA) genes amplified a fragment that corresponded to an abundantly expressed cellulose-synthase-like gene named NaCslD1. A fragment from a true CesA gene (NaCesA1) was also amplified, but corresponding cDNAs could not be identified in a pollen-tube library, consistent with the very low level of expression of the NaCesA1 gene. RT-PCR with pollen-tube RNA and primers designed to regions conserved between the fungal FKS genes [that encode (1,3)-?-glucan synthases] and their presumed plant homologs (the Gsl or glucan-synthase-like genes) amplified a fragment that corresponded to an abundantly expressed gene named NaGsl1. A second Gsl gene detected by RT-PCR (NaGsl2) was expressed at low levels in immature floral organs. The structure of full-length cDNAs of NaCslD1, NaCesA1, and NaGsl1 are presented. Both NaCslD1 and NaGsl1 are predominantly expressed in the male gametophyte (developing and mature pollen and growing pollen tubes), and we propose that they encode the catalytic subunits of two ?-glucan synthases involved in pollen-tube wall synthesis. Different ?-glucans deposited in one cell type may therefore be synthesized by enzymes from different gene families.

Doblin, Monika S.; De Melis, Linda; Newbigin, Ed; Bacic, Antony; Read, Steve M.

2001-01-01

300

Gene targeting in plants: 25 years later.  

PubMed

Only five years after the initiation of transgenic research in plants, gene targeting (GT) was achieved for the first time in tobacco. Unfortunately, the frequency of targeted integration via homologous recombination (HR) was so low in comparison to random integration that GT could not be established as a feasible technique in higher plants. It took another 25 years and great effort to develop the knowledge and tools necessary to overcome this challenge, at least for some plant species. In some cases, the overexpression of proteins involved in HR or the use of negative selectable markers improved GT to a certain extent. An effective solution to this problem was developed in 1996, when a sequence-specific endonuclease was used to induce a double-strand break (DSB) at the target locus. Thus, GT frequencies were enhanced dramatically. Thereafter, the main limitation was the absence of tools needed to induce DSBs at specific sites in the genome. Such tools became available with the development of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), and a breakthrough was achieved in 2005 when ZFNs were used to target a marker gene in tobacco. Subsequently, endogenous loci were targeted in maize, tobacco and Arabidopsis. Recently, our toolbox for genetic engineering has expanded with the addition of more types of site-specific endonucleases, meganucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and the CRISPR/Cas system. We assume that targeted genome modifications will become routine in the near future in crop plants using these nucleases along with the newly developed in planta GT technique. PMID:24166445

Puchta, Holger; Fauser, Friedrich

2013-01-01

301

Functional genomic analysis of the AUXIN\\/INDOLE3ACETIC ACID gene family members in Arabidopsis thaliana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Auxin regulates various aspects of plant growth and development. The AUXIN\\/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux\\/IAA) genes encode short-lived transcriptional repressors that are targeted by the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1\\/AUXIN RECEPTOR F-BOX proteins. The Aux\\/IAA proteins regulate auxin-mediated gene expression by interacting with members of the AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR protein family. Aux\\/IAA function is poorly understood; herein, we report the identification and characterization of

Paul J. Overvoorde; Yoko Okushima; Jose M. Alonso

2005-01-01

302

Molecular analyses of the rice glutamate dehydrogenase gene family and their response to nitrogen and phosphorous deprivation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH, EC 1.4.1.2~4) are ubiquitous enzymes encoded by GDH genes. So far, at least two GDH members have been characterized in plants, but most members of this family in rice remains to be characterized. Here, we\\u000a show that four putative GDH genes (OsGDH1-4) are present in the rice genome. The GDH sequences from rice and other species can

Xuhua Qiu; Weibo Xie; Xingming Lian; Qifa Zhang

2009-01-01

303

Spectrum of perforin gene mutations in familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.  

PubMed

Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is an autosomal recessive disease of early childhood characterized by nonmalignant accumulation and multivisceral infiltration of activated T lymphocytes and histiocytes (macrophages). Cytotoxic T and natural killer (NK) cell activity is markedly reduced or absent in these patients, and mutations in a lytic granule constituent, perforin, were recently identified in a number of FHL individuals. Here, we report a comprehensive survey of 34 additional patients with FHL for mutations in the coding region of the perforin gene and the relative frequency of perforin mutations in FHL. Perforin mutations were identified in 7 of the 34 families investigated. Six children were homozygous for the mutations, and one patient was a compound heterozygote. Four novel mutations were detected: one nonsense, two missense, and one deletion of one amino acid. In four families, a previously reported mutation at codon 374, causing a premature stop codon, was identified, and, therefore, this is the most common perforin mutation identified so far in FHL patients. We found perforin mutations in 20% of all FHL patients investigated (7/34), with a somewhat higher prevalence, approximately 30% (6/20), in children whose parents originated from Turkey. No other correlation between the type of mutation and the phenotype of the patients was evident from the present study. Our combined results from mutational analysis of 34 families and linkage analysis of a subset of consanguineous families indicate that perforin mutations account for 20%-40% of the FHL cases and the FHL 1 locus on chromosome 9 for approximately 10%, whereas the major part of the FHL cases are caused by mutations in not-yet-identified genes. PMID:11179007

Göransdotter Ericson, K; Fadeel, B; Nilsson-Ardnor, S; Söderhäll, C; Samuelsson, A; Janka, G; Schneider, M; Gürgey, A; Yalman, N; Révész, T; Egeler, R; Jahnukainen, K; Storm-Mathiesen, I; Haraldsson, A; Poole, J; de Saint Basile, G; Nordenskjöld, M; Henter, J

2001-03-01

304

Multiple major increases and decreases in mitochondrial substitution rates in the plant family Geraniaceae  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes, and 50–100 times lower than in many animal mitochondrial genomes. Several cases of moderate variation in mitochondrial substitution rates have been reported in plants, but these mostly involve correlated changes in chloroplast and/or nuclear substitution rates and are therefore thought to reflect whole-organism forces rather than ones impinging directly on the mitochondrial mutation rate. Only a single case of extensive, mitochondrial-specific rate changes has been described, in the angiosperm genus Plantago. Results We explored a second potential case of highly accelerated mitochondrial sequence evolution in plants. This case was first suggested by relatively poor hybridization of mitochondrial gene probes to DNA of Pelargonium hortorum (the common geranium). We found that all eight mitochondrial genes sequenced from P. hortorum are exceptionally divergent, whereas chloroplast and nuclear divergence is unexceptional in P. hortorum. Two mitochondrial genes were sequenced from a broad range of taxa of variable relatedness to P. hortorum, and absolute rates of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions were calculated on each branch of a phylogenetic tree of these taxa. We infer one major, ~10-fold increase in the mitochondrial synonymous substitution rate at the base of the Pelargonium family Geraniaceae, and a subsequent ~10-fold rate increase early in the evolution of Pelargonium. We also infer several moderate to major rate decreases following these initial rate increases, such that the mitochondrial substitution rate has returned to normally low levels in many members of the Geraniaceae. Finally, we find unusually little RNA editing of Geraniaceae mitochondrial genes, suggesting high levels of retroprocessing in their history. Conclusion The existence of major, mitochondrial-specific changes in rates of synonymous substitutions in the Geraniaceae implies major and reversible underlying changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate in this family. Together with the recent report of a similar pattern of rate heterogeneity in Plantago, these findings indicate that the mitochondrial mutation rate is a more plastic character in plants than previously realized. Many molecular factors could be responsible for these dramatic changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate, including nuclear gene mutations affecting the fidelity and efficacy of mitochondrial DNA replication and/or repair and – consistent with the lack of RNA editing – exceptionally high levels of "mutagenic" retroprocessing. That the mitochondrial mutation rate has returned to normally low levels in many Geraniaceae raises the possibility that, akin to the ephemerality of mutator strains in bacteria, selection favors a low mutation rate in plant mitochondria.

Parkinson, Christopher L; Mower, Jeffrey P; Qiu, Yin-Long; Shirk, Andrew J; Song, Keming; Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

2005-01-01

305

Analyses of the NAC transcription factor gene family in Gossypium raimondii Ulbr.: chromosomal location, structure, phylogeny, and expression patterns.  

PubMed

NAC domain proteins are plant-specific transcription factors known to play diverse roles in various plant developmental processes. In the present study, we performed the first comprehensive study of the NAC gene family in Gossypium raimondii Ulbr., incorporating phylogenetic, chromosomal location, gene structure, conserved motif, and expression profiling analyses. We identified 145 NAC transcription factor (NAC-TF) genes that were phylogenetically clustered into 18 distinct subfamilies. Of these, 127 NAC-TF genes were distributed across the 13 chromosomes, 80 (55%) were preferentially retained duplicates located in both duplicated regions and six were located in triplicated chromosomal regions. The majority of NAC-TF genes showed temporal-, spatial-, and tissue-specific expression patterns based on transcriptomic and qRT-PCR analyses. However, the expression patterns of several duplicate genes were partially redundant, suggesting the occurrence of sub-functionalization during their evolution. Based on their genomic organization, we concluded that genomic duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the NAC-TF gene family in G. raimondii. Comprehensive analysis of their expression profiles could provide novel insights into the functional divergence among members of the NAC gene family in G. raimondii. PMID:23756542

Shang, Haihong; Li, Wei; Zou, Changsong; Yuan, Youlu

2013-07-01

306

[Orthologs of arabidopsis CLAVATA 1 gene in cultivated Brassicaceae plants].  

PubMed

In arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the CLAVATA1 (CLV1) gene is involved in maintaining the balance between the stem cells in the central zone of the stem apical meristem and the determined cells at its periphery. However, CLV1 has not been previously characterized in other Brassicaceae. Using the direct amplification of genomic DNA, we obtained a full-length CLV1 ortholog from canola plants (Brassica napus), and also three CLV1 fragments from rape (B. rapa), canola (B. napus), and false flax (Camelina sativa), which corresponded to the transmembrane domain and a part of the kinase domain of the CLAVATA1 protein. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the full-size CLV1 ortholog from B. napus were similar by 81 and 87% to the prototype gene from arabidopsis; in the case of shorter gene fragments, the similarity was as high as 91-93 and 98%, respectively. By their primary structure, the CLV1 genes in the Brassicaceae considerably differ from its putative structural homologs beyond this family. PMID:15027212

Martynov, V V; Tsvetkov, I L; Khavkin, E E

2004-01-01

307

Expansion Mechanisms and Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Family in Sorghum and Other Higher Plants  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) exist in various eukaryotes and function in detoxification of xenobiotics and in response to abiotic and biotic stresses. We have carried out a genome-wide survey of this gene family in 10 plant genomes. Our data show that tandem duplication has been regarded as the major expansion mechanism and both monocot and dicot plants may have practiced different expansion and evolutionary history. Non-synonymous substitutions per site (Ka) and synonymous substitutions per site (Ks) analyses showed that N- and C-terminal functional domains of GSTs (GST_N and GST_C) seem to have evolved under a strong purifying selection (Ka/Ks < 1) under different selective pressures. Differential evolutionary rates between GST_N and GST_C and high degree of expression divergence have been regarded as the major drivers for the retention of duplicated genes and the adaptability to various stresses. Expression profiling also indicated that the gene family plays a role not only in stress-related biological processes but also in the sugar-signalling pathway. Our survey provides additional annotation of the plant GST gene family and advance the understanding of plant GSTs in lineage-specific expansion and species diversification.

Chi, Yunhua; Cheng, Yansong; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Kumar, Nadimuthu; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Jiang, Shu-Ye

2011-01-01

308

Another Story of MADS-Box Genes – their Potential in Plant Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors, which control developmental processes in flowering plants ranging from flower to root development. During the last few years increasing evidence point to more general roles of these factors not only in the control of flowering time, but also in other reproductive processes. However, they are also expressed in roots, stems and leaves.

Chenna Reddy Aswath; Sun Hyung Kim

2005-01-01

309

Evolutionary rate variation among vertebrate beta globin genes: implications for dating gene family duplication events.  

PubMed

A comprehensive dataset of 62 beta globin gene sequences from various vertebrates was compiled to test the molecular clock and to estimate dates of gene duplications. We found that evolution of the beta globin family of genes is not clock-like, a result that is at odds with the common use of this family as an example of a constant rate of evolution over time. Divergence dates were estimated either with or without assuming the molecular clock, and both analyses produced similar date estimates, which are also in general agreement with estimates reported previously. In addition we report date estimates for seven previously unexamined duplication events within the beta globin family. Despite multiple sources of rate variation, the average rate across the beta globin phylogeny yielded reasonable estimates of divergence dates in most cases. Exceptions were cases of gene conversion, where it appears to have led to underestimates of divergence dates. Our results suggest (i) the major duplications giving rise to the paralogous beta globin genes are associated with significant evolutionary rate variation among gene lineages; and (ii) genes arising from more recent gene duplications (e.g., tandem duplications within lineages) do not appear to differ greatly in rate. We believe this pattern reflects a complex interplay of evolutionary forces where natural selection for diversifying paralogous functions and lineage-specific effects contribute to rate variation on a long-term basis, while gene conversion tends to increase sequence similarity. Gene conversion effects appear to be stronger on recent gene duplicates, as their sequences are highly similar. Lastly, phylogenetic analyses do not support a previous report that avian globins are members of a relic lineage of omega globins. PMID:16843621

Aguileta, Gabriela; Bielawski, Joseph P; Yang, Ziheng

2006-09-15

310

On the Incidence of Intron Loss and Gain in Paralogous Gene Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding gene duplication and gene structure evolution are fundamental goals of molecular evolutionary biology. A previous study by Babenko et al. (2004. Prevalence of intron gain over intron loss in the evolution of paralogous gene families. Nucleic Acids Res. 32:3724-3733) employed Dollo parsimony to infer spliceosomal intron losses and gains in paralogous gene families and concluded that there was a

Scott William Roy; David Penny

2007-01-01

311

A Family of Potassium Channel Genes Related to eag in Drosophila and Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified a conserved family of genes related to Drosophila eag, which encodes a distinct type of voltage-activated K^+ channel. Three related genes were recovered in screens of cDNA libraries from Drosophila, mouse, and human tissues. One gene is the mouse counterpart of eag; the other two represent additional subfamilies. The human gene maps to chromosome 7. Family members

Jeffrey W. Warmke; Barry Ganetzky

1994-01-01

312

Evolutionary History of Chordate PAX Genes: Dynamics of Change in a Complex Gene Family  

PubMed Central

Paired box (PAX) genes are transcription factors that play important roles in embryonic development. Although the PAX gene family occurs in animals only, it is widely distributed. Among the vertebrates, its 9 genes appear to be the product of complete duplication of an original set of 4 genes, followed by an additional partial duplication. Although some studies of PAX genes have been conducted, no comprehensive survey of these genes across the entire taxonomic unit has yet been attempted. In this study, we conducted a detailed comparison of PAX sequences from 188 chordates, which revealed restricted variation. The absence of PAX4 and PAX8 among some species of reptiles and birds was notable; however, all 9 genes were present in all 74 mammalian genomes investigated. A search for signatures of selection indicated that all genes are subject to purifying selection, with a possible constraint relaxation in PAX4, PAX7, and PAX8. This result indicates asymmetric evolution of PAX family genes, which can be associated with the emergence of adaptive novelties in the chordate evolutionary trajectory.

Paixao-Cortes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco Mauro; Bortolini, Maria Catira

2013-01-01

313

Genome-Wide Analysis of the Dof Transcription Factor Gene Family Reveals Soybean-Specific Duplicable and Functional Characteristics  

PubMed Central

The Dof domain protein family is a classic plant-specific zinc-finger transcription factor family involved in a variety of biological processes. There is great diversity in the number of Dof genes in different plants. However, there are only very limited reports on the characterization of Dof transcription factors in soybean (Glycine max). In the present study, 78 putative Dof genes were identified from the whole-genome sequence of soybean. The predicted GmDof genes were non-randomly distributed within and across 19 out of 20 chromosomes and 97.4% (38 pairs) were preferentially retained duplicate paralogous genes located in duplicated regions of the genome. Soybean-specific segmental duplications contributed significantly to the expansion of the soybean Dof gene family. These Dof proteins were phylogenetically clustered into nine distinct subgroups among which the gene structure and motif compositions were considerably conserved. Comparative phylogenetic analysis of these Dof proteins revealed four major groups, similar to those reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Most of the GmDofs showed specific expression patterns based on RNA-seq data analyses. The expression patterns of some duplicate genes were partially redundant while others showed functional diversity, suggesting the occurrence of sub-functionalization during subsequent evolution. Comprehensive expression profile analysis also provided insights into the soybean-specific functional divergence among members of the Dof gene family. Cis-regulatory element analysis of these GmDof genes suggested diverse functions associated with different processes. Taken together, our results provide useful information for the functional characterization of soybean Dof genes by combining phylogenetic analysis with global gene-expression profiling.

Guo, Yong; Qiu, Li-Juan

2013-01-01

314

FoxO gene family evolution in vertebrates  

PubMed Central

Background Forkhead box, class O (FoxO) belongs to the large family of forkhead transcription factors that are characterized by a conserved forkhead box DNA-binding domain. To date, the FoxO group has four mammalian members: FoxO1, FoxO3a, FoxO4 and FoxO6, which are orthologs of DAF16, an insulin-responsive transcription factor involved in regulating longevity of worms and flies. The degree of homology between these four members is high, especially in the forkhead domain, which contains the DNA-binding interface. Yet, mouse FoxO knockouts have revealed that each FoxO gene has its unique role in the physiological process. Whether the functional divergences are primarily due to adaptive selection pressure or relaxed selective constraint remains an open question. As such, this study aims to address the evolutionary mode of FoxO, which may lead to the functional divergence. Results Sequence similarity searches have performed in genome and scaffold data to identify homologues of FoxO in vertebrates. Phylogenetic analysis was used to characterize the family evolutionary history by identifying two duplications early in vertebrate evolution. To determine the mode of evolution in vertebrates, we performed a rigorous statistical analysis with FoxO gene sequences, including relative rate ratio tests, branch-specific dN/dS ratio tests, site-specific dN/dS ratio tests, branch-site dN/dS ratio tests and clade level amino acid conservation/variation patterns analysis. Our results suggest that FoxO is constrained by strong purifying selection except four sites in FoxO6, which have undergone positive Darwinian selection. The functional divergence in this family is best explained by either relaxed purifying selection or positive selection. Conclusion We present a phylogeny describing the evolutionary history of the FoxO gene family and show that the genes have evolved through duplications followed by purifying selection except for four sites in FoxO6 fixed by positive selection lie mostly within the non-conserved optimal PKB motif in the C-terminal part. Relaxed selection may play important roles in the process of functional differentiation evolved through gene duplications as well.

Wang, Minghui; Zhang, Xiangzhe; Zhao, Hongbo; Wang, Qishan; Pan, Yuchun

2009-01-01

315

Constitutive Expression Exposes Functional Redundancy between the Arabidopsis Histone H2A Gene HTA1 and Other H2A Gene Family Members[OA  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis thaliana histone H2A gene HTA1 is essential for efficient transformation of Arabidopsis roots by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Disruption of this gene in the rat5 mutant results in decreased transformation. In Arabidopsis, histone H2A proteins are encoded by a 13-member gene family. RNA encoded by these genes accumulates to differing levels in roots and whole plants; HTA1 transcripts accumulate to levels up to 1000-fold lower than do transcripts of other HTA genes. We examined the extent to which other HTA genes or cDNAs could compensate for loss of HTA1 activity when overexpressed in rat5 mutant plants. Overexpression of all tested HTA cDNAs restored transformation competence to the rat5 mutant. However, only the HTA1 gene, but not other HTA genes, could phenotypically complement rat5 mutant plants when expressed from their native promoters. Expression analysis of HTA promoters indicated that they had distinct but somewhat overlapping patterns of expression in mature plants. However, only the HTA1 promoter was induced by wounding or by Agrobacterium infection of root segments. Our data suggest that, with respect to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, all tested histone H2A proteins are functionally redundant. However, this functional redundancy is not normally evidenced because of the different expression patterns of the HTA genes.

Yi, HoChul; Sardesai, Nagesh; Fujinuma, Toshinori; Chan, Chien-Wei; Veena; Gelvin, Stanton B.

2006-01-01

316

Over-expression of a novel JAZ family gene from Glycine soja, increases salt and alkali stress tolerance  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from Glycine soja. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of GsJAZ2 enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The transcriptions of stress marker genes were higher in GsJAZ2 overexpression lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GsJAZ2 was localized to nucleus. -- Abstract: Salt and alkali stress are two of the main environmental factors limiting crop production. Recent discoveries show that the JAZ family encodes plant-specific genes involved in jasmonate signaling. However, there is only limited information about this gene family in abiotic stress response, and in wild soybean (Glycine soja), which is a species noted for its tolerance to alkali and salinity. Here, we isolated and characterized a novel JAZ family gene, GsJAZ2, from G. soja. Transcript abundance of GsJAZ2 increased following exposure to salt, alkali, cold and drought. Over-expression of GsJAZ2 in Arabidopsis resulted in enhanced plant tolerance to salt and alkali stress. The expression levels of some alkali stress response and stress-inducible marker genes were significantly higher in the GsJAZ2 overexpression lines as compared to wild-type plants. Subcellular localization studies using a GFP fusion protein showed that GsJAZ2 was localized to the nucleus. These results suggest that the newly isolated wild soybean GsJAZ2 is a positive regulator of plant salt and alkali stress tolerance.

Zhu, Dan; Cai, Hua; Luo, Xiao; Bai, Xi [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Deyholos, Michael K. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada)] [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Chen, Qin [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)] [Lethbridge Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 5403-1 Ave., South P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, AB, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Chen, Chao; Ji, Wei [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China); Zhu, Yanming, E-mail: ymzhu@neau.edu.cn [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)] [Plant Bioengineering Laboratory, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030 (China)

2012-09-21

317

The AE gene family of Cl/HCO3- exchangers.  

PubMed

Tubular acid-base transport regulates systemic acid-base balance. Transepithelial acid-base transport across nephron segments requires the coordinated control of intracellular pH and cellular volume by transporters of protons and bicarbonate. Bicarbonate transporter polypeptides are encoded by at least two gene families, SLC4 and SLC26. The SLC4 gene family includes at least three Na()+)-independent chloride-bicarbonate exchanger genes and multiple Na(+)-bicarbonate cotransporter and Na(+)-dependent anion exchanger genes. The most extensively studied among them are the Na(+)-independent anion exchangers, AE1, AE2, and AE3, all of which are expressed in kidney. The AE1 gene encodes eAE1 (band 3), the major intrinsic protein of the erythrocyte, as well as kAE1, the basolateral Cl/HCO3 exchanger of the acid-secreting Type A intercalated cell. Mutations in AE1 are responsible for some forms of heritable distal renal tubular acidosis. The widely expressed AE2 anion exchanger participates in recovery from alkaline load and in regulatory cell volume increase following shrinkage. AE2 can also be regulated by ammonium ion. These properties are not shared by the closely related AE1 anion exchanger. Less is known about AE3 in kidney. Structure-function studies of recombinant proteins involving chimeras, deletions, and point mutations have delineated regions of AE2 which are important in exhibition of the regulatory properties absent from AE1. These include regions of the transmembrane domain and the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain. Noncontiguous regions in the middle of the N-terminal cytoplasmic domain are of particular importance for acute regulation by several types of stimulus. PMID:12027221

Alper, Seth L; Darman, Rachel B; Chernova, Marina N; Dahl, Neera K

2002-01-01

318

Plant inositol monophosphatase is a lithium-sensitive enzyme encoded by a multigene family.  

PubMed Central

myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is a soluble, Li(+)-sensitive protein that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate from myo-inositol phosphate substrates. IMP is required for de novo inositol synthesis from glucose 6-phosphate and for breakdown of inositol trisphosphate, a second messenger generated by the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway. We cloned the IMP gene from tomato (LeIMP) and show that the plant enzyme is encoded by a small gene family. Three different LeIMP cDNAs encode distinct but highly conserved IMP enzymes that are catalytically active in vitro. Similar to the single IMP from animals, the activities of all three LeIMPs are inhibited by low concentrations of LiCl. LeIMP mRNA levels are developmentally regulated in seedlings and fruit and in response to light. Immunoblot analysis detected three proteins of distinct molecular masses (30, 29, and 28 kD) in tomato; these correspond to the predicted molecular masses of the LeIMPs encoded by the genes. Immunoreactive proteins in the same size range are also present in several other plants. Immunolocalization studies indicated that many cell types within seedlings accumulate LeIMP proteins. In particular, cells associated with the vasculature express high levels of LeIMP protein; this may indicate a coordinate regulation between phloem transport and synthesis of inositol. The presence of three distinct enzymes in tomato most likely reflects the complexity of inositol utilization in higher plants.

Gillaspy, G E; Keddie, J S; Oda, K; Gruissem, W

1995-01-01

319

Evidence for a Conserved Polydnavirus Gene Family: Ichnovirus Homologs of the CsIV Repeat Element Genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Campoletis sonorensis Ichnovirus (CsIV), the repeat element genes constitute a gene family of 28 members. In the present work, we document the presence of members of this gene family in two additional ichnoviruses, Hyposoter didymator Ichnovirus (HdIV) and Tranosema rostrale Ichnovirus (TrIV). Two repeat element genes, representing at least one functional gene, were identified in TrIV, whereas HdIV was

A.-N. Volkoff; C. Béliveau; J. Rocher; R. Hilgarth; A. Levasseur; M. Duonor-Cérutti; M. Cusson; B. A. Webb

2002-01-01

320

Expression of a truncated tomato polygalacturonase gene inhibits expression of the endogenous gene in transgenic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tomato plants were transformed with a chimaeric polygalacturonase (PG) gene, designed to produce a truncated PG transcript constitutively. In these plants expression of the endogenous PG gene was inhibited during ripening, resulting in a substantial reduction in PG mRNA and enzyme accumulation. This inhibition was comparable to that achieved previously using antisense genes. The expression of the truncated gene in

C. J. S. Smith; C. F. Watson; C. R. Bird; J. Ray; W. Schuch; D. Grierson

1990-01-01

321

Living With Her Genes Early Onset Familial Alzheimer's Disease  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When a 30-year-old genetic counselor learns that her 38-year-old sister has developed early onset familial Alzheimer’s disease (EOFAD), a dominantly inherited disorder that led to their father's death at age 42, she struggles with whether to undergo genetic testing and whether to have children. This interrupted case study examines the impact of genetic testing on people and their families when there is no treatment or cure for a disease. It covers principles of Mendelian inheritance as well as genetic and reproductive technologies ,such as gene tests, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis, and in vitro fertilization. It can be used in introductory biology courses for both majors and non-majors or adapted for more advanced courses in genetics and molecular biology.

Gildensoph, Lynne H.; Stanford, Alice M.; Wygal, Deborah D.

2008-01-01

322

Identification of a Novel SCD Gene and Expression of the SCD Gene Family in Mouse Skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have refined the position of asebia locus by genotyping DNA from more than 600 backcross mice derived from asebia mouse and a genetically unrelated strain. One of the candidate genes in the locus is stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD). Previously two members of this gene family, namely SCD1 and SCD2, have been described. We have found, for the first time, that

Satish Parimoo; Ying Zheng; Ken Eilertsen; Lan Ge; Stephen Prouty; John Sundberg; Kurt Stenn; Sathish Parimmo

1999-01-01

323

Genome-wide identification, functional analysis and expression profiling of the Aux/IAA gene family in tomato.  

PubMed

Auxin is a central hormone that exerts pleiotropic effects on plant growth including the development of roots, shoots, flowers and fruit. The perception and signaling of the plant hormone auxin rely on the cooperative action of several components, among which auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) proteins play a pivotal role. In this study, we identified and comprehensively analyzed the entire Aux/IAA gene family in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), a reference species for Solanaceae plants, and the model plant for fleshy fruit development. Functional characterization using a dedicated single cell system revealed that tomato Aux/IAA proteins function as active repressors of auxin-dependent gene transcription, with, however, different Aux/IAA members displaying varying levels of repression. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the Aux/IAA gene family is slightly contracted in tomato compared with Arabidopsis, with a lower representation of non-canonical proteins. Sl-IAA genes display distinctive expression pattern in different tomato organs and tissues, and some of them display differential responses to auxin and ethylene, suggesting that Aux/IAAs may play a role in linking both hormone signaling pathways. The data presented here shed more light on Sl-IAA genes and provides new leads towards the elucidation of their function during plant development and in mediating hormone cross-talk. PMID:22368074

Audran-Delalande, Corinne; Bassa, Carole; Mila, Isabelle; Regad, Farid; Zouine, Mohamed; Bouzayen, Mondher

2012-04-01

324

Regulation of floral patterning and organ identity by Arabidopsis ERECTA-family receptor kinase genes.  

PubMed

Due to the lack of cell migration, plant organogenesis relies on coordinated cell proliferation, cell growth, and differentiation. A flower possesses a complex structure, with sepals and petals constituting the perianth, and stamens and pistils where male and female gametophytes differentiate. While advances have been made in our understanding of gene regulatory networks controlling flower development, relatively little is known of how cell-cell coordination influences floral organ specification. The Arabidopsis ERECTA (ER)-family receptor kinases, ER, ER-LIKE1 (ERL1), and ERL2, regulate inflorescence architecture, organ shape, and epidermal stomatal patterning. Here it is reported that ER-family genes together regulate floral meristem organization and floral organ identity. The stem cell marker CLAVATA3 exhibits misplaced expression in the floral meristems of the er erl1 erl2 mutant. Strikingly, homeotic conversion of sepals to carpels was observed in er erl1 erl2 flowers. Consistently, ectopic expression of AGAMOUS, which determines carpel identity, was detected in er erl1 erl2 flower primordia. Among the known downstream components of ER-family receptor kinases in stomatal patterning, YODA (YDA) is also required for proper floral patterning. YDA and the ER-family show complex, synergistic genetic interactions: er erl1 erl2 yda quadruple mutant plants become extremely small, callus-like masses. While a constitutively active YDA fully rescues stomatal clustering in er erl1 erl2, it only partially rescues er erl1 erl2 flower defects. The study suggests that ER-family signalling is crucial for ensuring proper expression domains of floral meristem and floral organ identity determinants, and further implies the existence of a non-canonical downstream pathway. PMID:24006425

Bemis, Shannon M; Lee, Jin Suk; Shpak, Elena D; Torii, Keiko U

2013-12-01

325

An Expression and Bioinformatics Analysis of the Arabidopsis Serine Carboxypeptidase-Like Gene Family1[w  

PubMed Central

The Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) genome encodes a family of 51 proteins that are homologous to known serine carboxypeptidases. Based on their sequences, these serine carboxypeptidase-like (SCPL) proteins can be divided into several major clades. The first group consists of 21 proteins which, despite the function implied by their annotation, includes two that have been shown to function as acyltransferases in plant secondary metabolism: sinapoylglucose:malate sinapoyltransferase and sinapoylglucose:choline sinapoyltransferase. A second group comprises 25 SCPL proteins whose biochemical functions have not been clearly defined. Genes encoding representatives from both of these clades can be found in many plants, but have not yet been identified in other phyla. In contrast, the remaining SCPL proteins include five members that are similar to serine carboxypeptidases from a variety of organisms, including fungi and animals. Reverse transcription PCR results suggest that some SCPL genes are expressed in a highly tissue-specific fashion, whereas others are transcribed in a wide range of tissue types. Taken together, these data suggest that the Arabidopsis SCPL gene family encodes a diverse group of enzymes whose functions are likely to extend beyond protein degradation and processing to include activities such as the production of secondary metabolites.

Fraser, Christopher M.; Rider, Lance W.; Chapple, Clint

2005-01-01

326

Horizontal gene transfer from genus agrobacterium to the plant linaria in nature.  

PubMed

Genes can be transferred horizontally between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in nature. The best-studied examples occur between Agrobacterium rhizogenes and certain Nicotiana spp. To investigate possible additional cases of horizontal gene transfer in nature between Agrobacterium and plants, a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based approach was employed to screen 127 plant species, belonging to 38 families of Dicotyledones, for the presence of oncogenes homologous to the transfer DNA fragments (T-DNA) from both A. tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes. Among all of the analyzed plant species, we found that only Linaria vulgaris contained sequences homologous to the T-DNA of A. rhizogenes. All screened L. vulgaris plants from various parts of Russia contained the same homologous sequences, including rolB, rolC, ORF13, ORF14, and mis genes. The same opine gene is found in the species of Nicotiana which contain genes of A. rhizogenes. In L. vulgaris, there are two copies of T-DNA organized as a single tandem imperfect direct repeat. The plant DNA sequence of the site of integration shows similarity to a retrotransposon. This site is most likely silent, suggesting that the T-DNA is not expressed. Attempts to demonstrate expression of the T-DNA genes were negative. Our study indicates that the frequency of gene transfer and fixation in the germline from Agrobacterium to plant hosts is rare in the natural environment. PMID:23134518

Matveeva, Tatiana V; Bogomaz, Denis I; Pavlova, Olga A; Nester, Eugene W; Lutova, Ludmila A

2012-12-01

327

Evolution and expression analysis of the grape (Vitis vinifera L.) WRKY gene family  

PubMed Central

WRKY proteins comprise a large family of transcription factors that play important roles in plant defence regulatory networks, including responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. To date, no large-scale study of WRKY genes has been undertaken in grape (Vitis vinifera L.). In this study, a total of 59 putative grape WRKY genes (VvWRKY) were identified and renamed on the basis of their respective chromosome distribution. A multiple sequence alignment analysis using all predicted grape WRKY genes coding sequences, together with those from Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), indicated that the 59 VvWRKY genes can be classified into three main groups (I–III). An evaluation of the duplication events suggested that several WRKY genes arose before the divergence of the grape and Arabidopsis lineages. Moreover, expression profiles derived from semiquantitative PCR and real-time quantitative PCR analyses showed distinct expression patterns in various tissues and in response to different treatments. Four VvWRKY genes showed a significantly higher expression in roots or leaves, 55 responded to varying degrees to at least one abiotic stress treatment, and the expression of 38 were altered following powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator) infection. Most VvWRKY genes were downregulated in response to abscisic acid or salicylic acid treatments, while the expression of a subset was upregulated by methyl jasmonate or ethylene treatments.

Guo, Chunlei; Guo, Rongrong; Wang, Xiping

2014-01-01

328

Differential expression within the glutamine synthetase gene family of the model legume Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed Central

The glutamine synthetase (GS) gene family of Medicago truncatula Gaertn. contains three genes related to cytosolic GS (MtGSa, MtGSb, and MtGSc), although one of these (MtGSc) appears not to be expressed. Sequence analysis suggests that the genes are more highly conserved interspecifically rather than intraspecifically: MtGSa and MtGSb are more similar to their homologs in Medicago sativa and Pisum sativum than to each other. Studies in which gene-specific probes are used show that both MtGSa and MtGSb are induced during symbiotic root nodule development, although not coordinately. MtGSa is the most highly expressed GS gene in nodules but is also expressed to lower extents in a variety of other organs. MtGSb shows higher levels of expression in roots and the photosynthetic cotyledons of seedlings than in nodules or other organs. In roots, both genes are expressed in the absence of an exogenous nitrogen source. However the addition of nitrate leads to a short-term, 2- to 3-fold increase in the abundance of both mRNAs, and the addition of ammonium leads to a 2-fold increase in MtGSb mRNA. The nitrogen supply, therefore, influences the expression of the two genes in roots, but it is clearly not the major effector of their expression. In the discussion section, the expression of the GS gene family of the model legume M. truncatula is compared to those of other leguminous plants.

Stanford, A C; Larsen, K; Barker, D G; Cullimore, J V

1993-01-01

329

Silencing of the N family of resistance genes in Nicotiana edwardsonii compromises the hypersensitive response to tombusviruses.  

PubMed

The nontarget effects associated with silencing of the N gene in Nicotiana edwardsonii, an amphidiploid species derived from N. glutinosa and N. clevelandii, have been characterized in this study. The N protein confers resistance to Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), and is representative of a family of nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat proteins present in N. glutinosa. Previous studies have shown that silencing of the N gene or of other plant genes associated with N-mediated defenses abolishes host resistance to TMV, and this effect can be measured through enhancements in movement or replication of TMV in the N-silenced plants. However, the nontarget effects of gene silencing have not been investigated thoroughly. Notably, are the functions of other resistance (R) genes also affected in experiments designed to silence the N gene? To investigate whether heterologous sequences could silence the N gene, we selected an R gene homolog from N. glutinosa that differed from the N gene by approximately 17%, created a hairpin transgene, and developed transgenic N. edwardsonii plants. Expression of this hairpin in the transgenic N. edwardsonii plants compromised the hypersensitive response to TMV, demonstrating that a single hairpin transgene could silence a block of R genes related by sequence similarity. We then investigated whether the response of N-silenced plants to other viruses would be altered, and found that the hypersensitive response triggered against the tombusviruses Tomato bushy stunt virus and Cymbidium ringspot virus also was compromised. This study indicates that a Tombusvirus R gene shares some homology with the N gene, which could facilitate the cloning of this gene. PMID:17918628

Balaji, Boovaraghan; Cawly, John; Angel, Carlos; Zhang, Zhanyuan; Palanichelvam, Karuppaiah; Cole, Anthony; Schoelz, James

2007-10-01

330

Genome-Wide Identification of MAPKK and MAPKKK Gene Families in Tomato and Transcriptional Profiling Analysis during Development and Stress Response  

PubMed Central

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have important functions in plant growth, development, and response to various stresses. The MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato have never been systematically analyzed. In this study, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato and identified 5 MAPKK genes and 89 MAPKKK genes. Phylogenetic analyses of the MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families showed that all the MAPKK genes formed four groups (groups A, B, C, and D), whereas all the MAPKKK genes were classified into three subfamilies, namely, MEKK, RAF, and ZIK. Evolutionary analysis showed that whole genome or chromosomal segment duplications were the main factors responsible for the expansion of the MAPKK and MAPKKK gene families in tomato. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed that the majority of MAPKK and MAPKKK genes were expressed in all tested organs with considerable differences in transcript levels indicating that they might be constitutively expressed. However, the expression level of most of these genes changed significantly under heat, cold, drought, salt, and Pseudomonas syringae treatment. Furthermore, their expression levels exhibited significant changes in response to salicylic acid and indole-3-acetic acid treatment, implying that these genes might have important roles in the plant hormone network. Our comparative analysis of the MAPKK and MAPKKK families would improve our understanding of the evolution and functional characterization of MAPK cascades in tomato.

Pan, Changtian; Guan, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yan; Liu, Songyu; He, Yanjun; Chen, Jingli; Chen, Lifei; Lu, Gang

2014-01-01

331

Higher plant mitochondrial DNA: Genomes, genes, mutants, transcription, translation  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains brief summaries of 63 presentations given at the International Workshop on Higher Plant Mitochondrial DNA. The presentations are organized into topical discussions addressing plant genomes, mitochondrial genes, cytoplasmic male sterility, transcription, translation, plasmids and tissue culture. (DT)

Not Available

1986-01-01

332

Genome-wide identification and expression profile of homeodomain-leucine zipper Class I gene family in Cucumis sativus.  

PubMed

The HD-Zip proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. HD-Zip genes have been grouped into four different classes: HD-Zip I to IV. In this study, we described the identification and structural characterization of Class I HD-Zip genes in cucumber. A complete set of 13 HD-Zip I genes were identified in the cucumber genome using Blast search tools and phylogeny. The cucumber HD-Zip I family contained a smaller number of identified genes compared to other higher plants such as Arabidopsis and maize due to the absence of recent gene duplication events. Chromosomal location of these genes revealed that they are distributed unevenly across 5 of 7 chromosomes. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that 13 cucumber HD-Zip I genes were expressed in at least one of the tissues, which suggested that cucumber HD-Zip I genes took part in many cellular processes. The transcript abundance level analysis during abiotic stress conditions (NaCl, ABA and low temperature treatments) identified a group of HD-Zip I genes that responded to one or more treatments. PMID:24013079

Liu, Wei; Fu, Rao; Li, Qiang; Li, Jing; Wang, Lina; Ren, Zhonghai

2013-12-01

333

Characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans septin (asp) gene family.  

PubMed Central

Members of the septin gene family are involved in cytokinesis and the organization of new growth in organisms as diverse as yeast, fruit fly, worm, mouse, and human. Five septin genes have been cloned and sequenced from the model filamentous fungus A. nidulans. As expected, the A. nidulans septins contain the highly conserved GTP binding and coiled-coil domains seen in other septins. On the basis of hybridization of clones to a chromosome-specific library and correlation with an A. nidulans physical map, the septins are not clustered but are scattered throughout the genome. In phylogenetic analysis most fungal septins could be grouped with one of the prototypical S. cerevisiae septins, Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11, and Cdc12. Intron-exon structure was conserved within septin classes. The results of this study suggest that most fungal septins belong to one of four orthologous classes.

Momany, M; Zhao, J; Lindsey, R; Westfall, P J

2001-01-01

334

Associations between family history of cancer and genes coding for metabolizing enzymes (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Family history of cancer has been a useful tool to identify highly penetrant genes. However, the association between family history and low-penetrance genes that are prevalent in the population is less well understood. While epidemiologists have studied low-penetrance genes in association studies at the population level, geneticists have often favored family studies to identify low-penetrance genes in the same manner

Martha L. Slattery; Sandra L. Edwards; Wade Samowitz; John Potter

2000-01-01

335

The major clades of MADS-box genes and their role in the development and evolution of flowering plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

MADS-box genes encode a family of transcription factors which control diverse developmental processes in flowering plants ranging from root to flower and fruit development. Sequencing of (almost) the complete Arabidopsis genome enabled the identification of (almost) all of the Arabidopsis MADS-box genes. MADS-box genes have been divided in two large groups, termed type I and type II genes. The type

Annette Becker; Günter Theißen

2003-01-01

336

Arabidopsis Gene Family Profiler (aGFP) - user-oriented transcriptomic database with easy-to-use graphic interface  

PubMed Central

Background Microarray technologies now belong to the standard functional genomics toolbox and have undergone massive development leading to increased genome coverage, accuracy and reliability. The number of experiments exploiting microarray technology has markedly increased in recent years. In parallel with the rapid accumulation of transcriptomic data, on-line analysis tools are being introduced to simplify their use. Global statistical data analysis methods contribute to the development of overall concepts about gene expression patterns and to query and compose working hypotheses. More recently, these applications are being supplemented with more specialized products offering visualization and specific data mining tools. We present a curated gene family-oriented gene expression database, Arabidopsis Gene Family Profiler (aGFP; ), which gives the user access to a large collection of normalised Affymetrix ATH1 microarray datasets. The database currently contains NASC Array and AtGenExpress transcriptomic datasets for various tissues at different developmental stages of wild type plants gathered from nearly 350 gene chips. Results The Arabidopsis GFP database has been designed as an easy-to-use tool for users needing an easily accessible resource for expression data of single genes, pre-defined gene families or custom gene sets, with the further possibility of keyword search. Arabidopsis Gene Family Profiler presents a user-friendly web interface using both graphic and text output. Data are stored at the MySQL server and individual queries are created in PHP script. The most distinguishable features of Arabidopsis Gene Family Profiler database are: 1) the presentation of normalized datasets (Affymetrix MAS algorithm and calculation of model-based gene-expression values based on the Perfect Match-only model); 2) the choice between two different normalization algorithms (Affymetrix MAS4 or MAS5 algorithms); 3) an intuitive interface; 4) an interactive "virtual plant" visualizing the spatial and developmental expression profiles of both gene families and individual genes. Conclusion Arabidopsis GFP gives users the possibility to analyze current Arabidopsis developmental transcriptomic data starting with simple global queries that can be expanded and further refined to visualize comparative and highly selective gene expression profiles.

Dupl'akova, Nikoleta; Renak, David; Hovanec, Patrik; Honysova, Barbora; Twell, David; Honys, David

2007-01-01

337

Phylogenetic analyses of DNA and allozyme data suggest that Gonioctena leaf beetles (Coleoptera; Chrysomelidae) experienced convergent evolution in their history of host-plant family shifts.  

PubMed

A phylogenetic analysis of the genus Gonioctena (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) based on allozyme data (17 loci) and mitochondrial DNA sequence data (three gene fragments, 1,391 sites) was performed to study the evolutionary history of host-plant shifts among these leaf beetles. This chrysomelid genus is characteristically associated with a high number of different plant families. The diverse molecular data gathered in this study are to a large extent congruent, and the analyses provide a well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis to address questions about the evolution of host-plant shifts in the genus Gonioctena. The most-parsimonious reconstruction of the ancestral host-plant associations, based on the estimated phylogeny, suggests that the Fabaceae was the ancestral host-plant family of the genus. Although most of the host-plant shifts (between different host species) in Gonioctena have occurred within the same plant family or within the same plant genus, at least eight shifts have occurred between hosts belonging to distantly related and chemically dissimilar plant families. In these cases, host shifts may have been simply directed toward plant species available in the environment. Yet, given that two Gonioctena lineages have independently colonized the same three new plant families (Salicaceae, Betulaceae, Rosaceae), including four of the same new genera (Salix, Alnus, Prunus, Sorbus), some constraints are likely to have limited the different possibilities of interfamilial host-plant shifts. PMID:11975339

Mardulyn, P; Milinkovitch, M C; Pasteels, J M

1997-12-01

338

A gene family derived from transposable elements during early angiosperm evolution has reproductive fitness benefits in Arabidopsis thaliana.  

PubMed

The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG), identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes. PMID:22969437

Joly-Lopez, Zoé; Forczek, Ewa; Hoen, Douglas R; Juretic, Nikoleta; Bureau, Thomas E

2012-09-01

339

A Gene Family Derived from Transposable Elements during Early Angiosperm Evolution Has Reproductive Fitness Benefits in Arabidopsis thaliana  

PubMed Central

The benefits of ever-growing numbers of sequenced eukaryotic genomes will not be fully realized until we learn to decipher vast stretches of noncoding DNA, largely composed of transposable elements. Transposable elements persist through self-replication, but some genes once encoded by transposable elements have, through a process called molecular domestication, evolved new functions that increase fitness. Although they have conferred numerous adaptations, the number of such domesticated transposable element genes remains unknown, so their evolutionary and functional impact cannot be fully assessed. Systematic searches that exploit genomic signatures of natural selection have been employed to identify potential domesticated genes, but their predictions have yet to be experimentally verified. To this end, we investigated a family of domesticated genes called MUSTANG (MUG), identified in a previous bioinformatic search of plant genomes. We show that MUG genes are functional. Mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana MUG genes yield phenotypes with severely reduced plant fitness through decreased plant size, delayed flowering, abnormal development of floral organs, and markedly reduced fertility. MUG genes are present in all flowering plants, but not in any non-flowering plant lineages, such as gymnosperms, suggesting that the molecular domestication of MUG may have been an integral part of early angiosperm evolution. This study shows that systematic searches can be successful at identifying functional genetic elements in noncoding regions and demonstrates how to combine systematic searches with reverse genetics in a fruitful way to decipher eukaryotic genomes.

Juretic, Nikoleta; Bureau, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

340

Use of NAP gene to manipulate leaf senescence in plants  

DOEpatents

The present invention discloses transgenic plants having an altered level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-transgenic plant, where the transgenic plants display an altered leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-transgenic plant, as well as mutant plants comprising an inactivated NAP gene, where mutant plants display a delayed leaf senescence phenotype compared to that of a non-mutant plant. The present invention also discloses methods for delaying leaf senescence in a plant, as well as methods of making a mutant plant having a decreased level of NAP protein compared to that of a non-mutant plant, where the mutant plant displays a delayed leaf senescence phenotype relative to a non-mutant plant. Methods for causing precocious leaf senescence or promoting leaf senescence in a plant are also disclosed. Also disclosed are methods of identifying a candidate plant suitable for breeding that displays a delayed leaf senescence and/or enhanced yield phenotype.

Gan, Susheng; Guo, Yongfeng

2013-04-16

341

Databases of homologous gene families for comparative genomics  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics is a central step in many sequence analysis studies, from gene annotation and the identification of new functional regions in genomes, to the study of evolutionary processes at the molecular level (speciation, single gene or whole genome duplications, etc.) and phylogenetics. In that context, databases providing users high quality homologous families and sequence alignments as well as phylogenetic trees based on state of the art algorithms are becoming indispensable. Methods We developed an automated procedure allowing massive all-against-all similarity searches, gene clustering, multiple alignments computation, and phylogenetic trees construction and reconciliation. The application of this procedure to a very large set of sequences is possible through parallel computing on a large computer cluster. Results Three databases were developed using this procedure: HOVERGEN, HOGENOM and HOMOLENS. These databases share the same architecture but differ in their content. HOVERGEN contains sequences from vertebrates, HOGENOM is mainly devoted to completely sequenced microbial organisms, and HOMOLENS is devoted to metazoan genomes from Ensembl. Access to the databases is provided through Web query forms, a general retrieval system and a client-server graphical interface. The later can be used to perform tree-pattern based searches allowing, among other uses, to retrieve sets of orthologous genes. The three databases, as well as the software required to build and query them, can be used or downloaded from the PBIL (Pôle Bioinformatique Lyonnais) site at .

Penel, Simon; Arigon, Anne-Muriel; Dufayard, Jean-Francois; Sertier, Anne-Sophie; Daubin, Vincent; Duret, Laurent; Gouy, Manolo; Perriere, Guy

2009-01-01

342

Common Familial Mediterranean Fever gene mutations in a Turkish cohort.  

PubMed

Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) is an autosomal recessive autoinflammatory disorder with the responsible gene of MEFV which primarily affects Jewish, Armenian, Turkish and Arab populations. The FMF gene (MEFV) has recently been cloned to chromosome 16 p, which encodes pyrin. In the present study, we enrolled 2,067 unrelated patients with the suspicion of FMF in Middle Anatolia between the years 2006-2009 and identified the 12 MEFV mutations. DNA was amplified by PCR and subjected to reverse hybridization for the detection of MEFV gene mutations. Among the 2,067 patients, 866 (41.9%) were males and 1,201 (58.1%) were females. The mutations were homozygous in 176 (16.85%) patients, compound heterozygous in 314 (30.1%) patients, heterozygous in 546 (52.25%) patients and the other forms of mutations were found in 8 patients (0.76%). No mutation was detected in 1,023 (49.5%) patients. The most frequent mutations were M694V, M680I (G/C), E148Q and V726A. We could not find any significant differences between the two common mutations according to the gender. The high incidence of MEFV gene mutations in the Turkish population indicated that newborn screening may be discussed in the future. Because of the ethnic origin of Anatolia, larger serial analyses are necessary to investigate the rate and coexistence of these mutations. PMID:21153919

Dundar, Munis; Emirogullari, Elif Funda; Kiraz, Aslihan; Taheri, Serpil; Baskol, Mevlut

2011-11-01

343

Mechanisms of functional and physical genome reduction in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic parasitic plants of the broomrape family.  

PubMed

Nonphotosynthetic plants possess strongly reconfigured plastomes attributable to convergent losses of photosynthesis and housekeeping genes, making them excellent systems for studying genome evolution under relaxed selective pressures. We report the complete plastomes of 10 photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic parasites plus their nonparasitic sister from the broomrape family (Orobanchaceae). By reconstructing the history of gene losses and genome reconfigurations, we find that the establishment of obligate parasitism triggers the relaxation of selective constraints. Partly because of independent losses of one inverted repeat region, Orobanchaceae plastomes vary 3.5-fold in size, with 45 kb in American squawroot (Conopholis americana) representing the smallest plastome reported from land plants. Of the 42 to 74 retained unique genes, only 16 protein genes, 15 tRNAs, and four rRNAs are commonly found. Several holoparasites retain ATP synthase genes with intact open reading frames, suggesting a prolonged function in these plants. The loss of photosynthesis alters the chromosomal architecture in that recombinogenic factors accumulate, fostering large-scale chromosomal rearrangements as functional reduction proceeds. The retention of DNA fragments is strongly influenced by both their proximity to genes under selection and the co-occurrence with those in operons, indicating complex constraints beyond gene function that determine the evolutionary survival time of plastid regions in nonphotosynthetic plants. PMID:24143802

Wicke, Susann; Müller, Kai F; de Pamphilis, Claude W; Quandt, Dietmar; Wickett, Norman J; Zhang, Yan; Renner, Susanne S; Schneeweiss, Gerald M

2013-10-01

344

GFam: a platform for automatic annotation of gene families  

PubMed Central

We have developed GFam, a platform for automatic annotation of gene/protein families. GFam provides a framework for genome initiatives and model organism resources to build domain-based families, derive meaningful functional labels and offers a seamless approach to propagate functional annotation across periodic genome updates. GFam is a hybrid approach that uses a greedy algorithm to chain component domains from InterPro annotation provided by its 12 member resources followed by a sequence-based connected component analysis of un-annotated sequence regions to derive consensus domain architecture for each sequence and subsequently generate families based on common architectures. Our integrated approach increases sequence coverage by 7.2 percentage points and residue coverage by 14.6 percentage points higher than the coverage relative to the best single-constituent database within InterPro for the proteome of Arabidopsis. The true power of GFam lies in maximizing annotation provided by the different InterPro data sources that offer resource-specific coverage for different regions of a sequence. GFam’s capability to capture higher sequence and residue coverage can be useful for genome annotation, comparative genomics and functional studies. GFam is a general-purpose software and can be used for any collection of protein sequences. The software is open source and can be obtained from http://www.paccanarolab.org/software/gfam/.

Sasidharan, Rajkumar; Nepusz, Tamas; Swarbreck, David; Huala, Eva; Paccanaro, Alberto

2012-01-01

345

Candidate genes for oral-facial clefts in Guatemalan families.  

PubMed

Nonsyndromic cleft lip +/- cleft palate (CL/P) is a complex trait of unknown etiology. Most genetic studies of CL/P define affection status in a way that ignores subtle subclinical manifestations, resulting in a potential loss of statistical power. This study investigated 10 candidate genes in 155 individuals from 25 Guatemalan CL/P families. High-resolution ultrasound images of the orbicularis oris (OO) muscle were obtained. CL/P was present in 28 family members; an additional 10 had subcutaneous OO muscle defects. Family-based association studies were performed for both narrow (CL/P only) and broad (CL/P plus OO muscle defects) definitions of affection status. PVRL1 was significantly associated under both definitions (P = 0.04, narrow; P = 0.02, broad). Association with JAG2 improved from P = 0.09 under the narrow definition to P = 0.04 under the broad definition. Broadening the oral-facial cleft phenotype to include subclinical variants may improve power in genetic studies. PMID:16641627

Neiswanger, Katherine; Deleyiannis, Frederic W B; Avila, Joseph R; Cooper, Margaret E; Brandon, Carla A; Vieira, Alexandre R; Noorchashm, Negin; Weinberg, Seth M; Bardi, Kathleen M; Murray, Jeffrey C; Marazita, Mary L

2006-05-01

346

Functional characterization of the rice kaurene synthase-like gene family.  

PubMed

The rice (Oryza sativa) genome contains a family of kaurene synthase-like genes (OsKSL) presumably involved in diterpenoid biosynthesis. While a number of OsKSL enzymes have been functionally characterized, several have not been previously investigated, and the gene family has not been broadly analyzed. Here we report cloning of several OsKSL genes and functional characterization of the encoded enzymes. In particular, we have verified the expected production of ent-kaur-16-ene by the gibberellin phytohormone biosynthesis associated OsKS1 and demonstrated that OsKSL3 is a pseudo-gene, while OsKSL5 and OsKSL6 produce ent-(iso)kaur-15-ene. Similar to previous reports, we found that our sub-species variant of OsKSL7 produces ent-cassa-12,15-diene, OsKSL10 produces ent-(sandaraco)pimar-8(14),15-diene, and OsKSL8 largely syn-stemar-13-ene, although we also identified syn-stemod-12-ene as an alternative product formed in approximately 20% of the reactions catalyzed by OsKSL8. Along with our previous reports identifying OsKSL4 as a syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase and OsKSL11 as a syn-stemod-13(17)-ene synthase, this essentially completes biochemical characterization of the OsKSL gene family, enabling broader analyses. For example, because several OsKSL enzymes are involved in phytoalexin biosynthesis and their gene transcription is inducible, promoter analysis was used to identify a pair of specifically conserved motifs that may be involved in transcriptional up-regulation during the rice plant defense response. Also examined is the continuing process of gene evolution in the OsKSL gene family, which is particularly interesting in the context of very recently reported data indicating that a japonica sub-species variant of OsKSL5 produces ent-pimara-8(14),15-diene, rather than the ent-(iso)kaur-15-ene produced by the indica sub-species variant analyzed here. PMID:17141283

Xu, Meimei; Wilderman, P Ross; Morrone, Dana; Xu, Jianjun; Roy, Arnab; Margis-Pinheiro, Marcia; Upadhyaya, Narayana M; Coates, Robert M; Peters, Reuben J

2007-02-01

347

Discovery of Gene Families and Alternatively Spliced Variants by RecA-Mediated Cloning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probing the functional complexity of the human genome will require new gene cloning techniques, not only to discover intraspecies gene homologs and interspecies gene orthologs, but also to identify alternatively spliced gene variants. We report homologous cDNA cloning methods that allow cloning of gene family members, genes from different species, and alternatively spliced gene variants. We cloned human 14-3-3 gene

Hong Zeng; Elizabeth Allen; Chris W. Lehman; R. Geoffrey Sargent; Sushma Pati; David A. Zarling

2002-01-01

348

Identification of candidate genes for the familial malignant melanoma tumor suppressor gene on 9p21  

SciTech Connect

Recently the p16 gene has been localized to a region approximately 500 kb proximal to the IFN gene cluster on chromosome 9p21 that is frequently deleted in tumor cell lines. This gene has been put forth as a candidate for the familial melanoma locus. However as yet mutations in this gene have not been demonstrated in kindreds carrying the familial melanoma trait. We have identified a region of homozygous deletion in melanomas proximal to and independent of the region surrounding p16. We have constructed a YAC contig that extends 2-3 MB distal from D9S126 through D9S171 on chromosome 9p21. Utilizing markers generated from this contig, we have identified a distinct region of homozygous loss on 9p21 in melanoma tumors and cell lines. The deleted region spans approximately 300 to 600 kb, and is located >2 Mb proximal to the p16 gene on 9p21. It is entirely encompassed by two overlapping YACs. A cosmid contig comprising over 110 cosmids has been constructed from the YACs spanning the deletion, and these cosmids have been screened using exon trapping. Seventeen independent exon-trapped products have been identified from this novel region. STSs generated from the exons are currently being used to screen for deletions or mutations in melanoma cell line and tumor DNAs, as well as in melanoma kindreds demonstrating linkage of the trait to chromosome 9p21. The exons are expressed in various tissues, and cDNA clones containing them have been isolated and are presently being analyzed. The genes identified by this approach, by virtue of their deletion in melanoma samples independent of the more distally-localized p16 gene, are candidates for the familial malignant melanoma gene.

Flores, J.F.; Glendening, J.M.; Fountain, J.W. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

349

Repeated Evolution of Chimeric Fusion Genes in the ?-Globin Gene Family of Laurasiatherian Mammals  

PubMed Central

The evolutionary fate of chimeric fusion genes may be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin and the nature of functional divergence between the parental genes. In the ?-globin gene family of placental mammals, the two postnatally expressed ?- and ?-globin genes (HBD and HBB, respectively) have a propensity for recombinational exchange via gene conversion and unequal crossing-over. In the latter case, there are good reasons to expect differences in retention rates for the reciprocal HBB/HBD and HBD/HBB fusion genes due to thalassemia pathologies associated with the HBD/HBB “Lepore” deletion mutant in humans. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the mammalian ?-globin gene cluster, which revealed that chimeric HBB/HBD fusion genes originated independently in four separate lineages of laurasiatherian mammals: Eulipotyphlans (shrews, moles, and hedgehogs), carnivores, microchiropteran bats, and cetaceans. In cases where an independently derived “anti-Lepore” duplication mutant has become fixed, the parental HBD and/or HBB genes have typically been inactivated or deleted, so that the newly created HBB/HBD fusion gene is primarily responsible for synthesizing the ?-type subunits of adult and fetal hemoglobin (Hb). Contrary to conventional wisdom that the HBD gene is a vestigial relict that is typically inactivated or expressed at negligible levels, we show that HBD-like genes often encode a substantial fraction (20–100%) of ?-chain Hbs in laurasiatherian taxa. Our results indicate that the ascendancy or resuscitation of genes with HBD-like coding sequence requires the secondary acquisition of HBB-like promoter sequence via unequal crossing-over or interparalog gene conversion.

Gaudry, Michael J.; Storz, Jay F.; Butts, Gary Tyler; Campbell, Kevin L.; Hoffmann, Federico G.

2014-01-01

350

Repeated evolution of chimeric fusion genes in the ?-globin gene family of laurasiatherian mammals.  

PubMed

The evolutionary fate of chimeric fusion genes may be strongly influenced by their recombinational mode of origin and the nature of functional divergence between the parental genes. In the ?-globin gene family of placental mammals, the two postnatally expressed ?- and ?-globin genes (HBD and HBB, respectively) have a propensity for recombinational exchange via gene conversion and unequal crossing-over. In the latter case, there are good reasons to expect differences in retention rates for the reciprocal HBB/HBD and HBD/HBB fusion genes due to thalassemia pathologies associated with the HBD/HBB "Lepore" deletion mutant in humans. Here, we report a comparative genomic analysis of the mammalian ?-globin gene cluster, which revealed that chimeric HBB/HBD fusion genes originated independently in four separate lineages of laurasiatherian mammals: Eulipotyphlans (shrews, moles, and hedgehogs), carnivores, microchiropteran bats, and cetaceans. In cases where an independently derived "anti-Lepore" duplication mutant has become fixed, the parental HBD and/or HBB genes have typically been inactivated or deleted, so that the newly created HBB/HBD fusion gene is primarily responsible for synthesizing the ?-type subunits of adult and fetal hemoglobin (Hb). Contrary to conventional wisdom that the HBD gene is a vestigial relict that is typically inactivated or expressed at negligible levels, we show that HBD-like genes often encode a substantial fraction (20-100%) of ?-chain Hbs in laurasiatherian taxa. Our results indicate that the ascendancy or resuscitation of genes with HBD-like coding sequence requires the secondary acquisition of HBB-like promoter sequence via unequal crossing-over or interparalog gene conversion. PMID:24814285

Gaudry, Michael J; Storz, Jay F; Butts, Gary Tyler; Campbell, Kevin L; Hoffmann, Federico G

2014-05-01

351

The gene space in wheat: the complete ?-gliadin gene family from the wheat cultivar Chinese Spring.  

PubMed

The complete set of unique ?-gliadin genes is described for the wheat cultivar Chinese Spring using a combination of expressed sequence tag (EST) and Roche 454 DNA sequences. Assemblies of Chinese Spring ESTs yielded 11 different ?-gliadin gene sequences. Two of the sequences encode identical polypeptides and are assumed to be the result of a recent gene duplication. One gene has a 3' coding mutation that changes the reading frame in the final eight codons. A second assembly of Chinese Spring ?-gliadin sequences was generated using Roche 454 total genomic DNA sequences. The 454 assembly confirmed the same 11 active genes as the EST assembly plus two pseudogenes not represented by ESTs. These 13 ?-gliadin sequences represent the complete unique set of ?-gliadin genes for cv Chinese Spring, although not ruled out are additional genes that are exact duplications of these 13 genes. A comparison with the ESTs of two other hexaploid cultivars (Butte 86 and Recital) finds that the most active genes are present in all three cultivars, with exceptions likely due to too few ESTs for detection in Butte 86 and Recital. A comparison of the numbers of ESTs per gene indicates differential levels of expression within the ?-gliadin gene family. Genome assignments were made for 6 of the 13 Chinese Spring ?-gliadin genes, i.e., one assignment from a match to two ?-gliadin genes found within a tetraploid wheat A genome BAC and four genes that match four distinct ?-gliadin sequences assembled from Roche 454 sequences from Aegilops tauschii, the hexaploid wheat D-genome ancestor. PMID:23564033

Anderson, Olin D; Huo, Naxin; Gu, Yong Q

2013-06-01

352

The Plant Mitochondrial Carrier Family: Functional and Evolutionary Aspects  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria play a key role in respiration and energy production and are involved in multiple eukaryotic but also in several plant specific metabolic pathways. Solute carriers in the inner mitochondrial membrane connect the internal metabolism with that of the surrounding cell. Because of their common basic structure, these transport proteins affiliate to the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF). Generally, MCF proteins consist of six membrane spanning helices, exhibit typical conserved domains and appear as homodimers in the native membrane. Although structurally related, MCF proteins catalyze the specific transport of various substrates, such as nucleotides, amino acids, dicarboxylates, cofactors, phosphate or H+. Recent investigations identified MCF proteins also in several other cellular compartments and therefore their localization and physiological function is not only restricted to mitochondria. MCF proteins are a characteristic feature of eukaryotes and bacterial genomes lack corresponding sequences. Therefore, the evolutionary origin of MCF proteins is most likely associated with the establishment of mitochondria. It is not clear whether the host cell, the symbiont, or the chimerical organism invented the ancient MCF sequence. Here, we try to explain the establishment of different MCF proteins and focus on the characteristics of members from plants, in particular from Arabidopsis thaliana.

Haferkamp, Ilka; Schmitz-Esser, Stephan

2012-01-01

353

Differential roles of TGIF family genes in mammalian reproduction  

PubMed Central

Background TG-interacting factors (TGIFs) belong to a family of TALE-homeodomain proteins including TGIF1, TGIF2 and TGIFLX/Y in human. Both TGIF1 and TGIF2 act as transcription factors repressing TGF-? signalling. Human TGIFLX and its orthologue, Tex1 in the mouse, are X-linked genes that are only expressed in the adult testis. TGIF2 arose from TGIF1 by duplication, whereas TGIFLX arose by retrotransposition to the X-chromosome. These genes have not been characterised in any non-eutherian mammals. We therefore studied the TGIF family in the tammar wallaby (a marsupial mammal) to investigate their roles in reproduction and how and when these genes may have evolved their functions and chromosomal locations. Results Both TGIF1 and TGIF2 were present in the tammar genome on autosomes but TGIFLX was absent. Tammar TGIF1 shared a similar expression pattern during embryogenesis, sexual differentiation and in adult tissues to that of TGIF1 in eutherian mammals, suggesting it has been functionally conserved. Tammar TGIF2 was ubiquitously expressed throughout early development as in the human and mouse, but in the adult, it was expressed only in the gonads and spleen, more like the expression pattern of human TGIFLX and mouse Tex1. Tammar TGIF2 mRNA was specifically detected in round and elongated spermatids. There was no mRNA detected in mature spermatozoa. TGIF2 protein was specifically located in the cytoplasm of spermatids, and in the residual body and the mid-piece of the mature sperm tail. These data suggest that tammar TGIF2 may participate in spermiogenesis, like TGIFLX does in eutherians. TGIF2 was detected for the first time in the ovary with mRNA produced in the granulosa and theca cells, suggesting it may also play a role in folliculogenesis. Conclusions The restricted and very similar expression of tammar TGIF2 to X-linked paralogues in eutherians suggests that the evolution of TGIF1, TGIF2 and TGIFLX in eutherians was accompanied by a change from ubiquitous to tissue-specific expression. The distribution and localization of TGIF2 in tammar adult gonads suggest that there has been an ultra-conserved function for the TGIF family in fertility and that TGIF2 already functioned in spermatogenesis and potentially folliculogenesis long before its retrotransposition to the X-chromosome of eutherian mammals. These results also provide further evidence that the eutherian X-chromosome has actively recruited sex and reproductive-related genes during mammalian evolution.

2011-01-01

354

Identification and expression analysis of primary auxin-responsive Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber (Cucumis sativus).  

PubMed

Aux/IAA is an important gene family involved in many aspects of growth and development. Aux/IAA proteins are short-lived nuclear proteins that are induced primarily by various phytohormones. In this study, 29 Aux/IAA family genes (CsIAA01-CsIAA29) were identified and characterized in cucumber, including gene structures, phylogenetic relationships, conserved protein motifs and chromosomal locations. These genes show distinct organizational patterns of their putative motifs. The distributions of the genes vary: except for five CsIAA genes in cucumber that were not located, seven CsIAA genes were found on scaffold, while the other 17 CsIAA genes were distributed on seven other chromosomes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis of the Aux/IAA protein sequences from cucumber, Arabidopsis and other plants, the Aux/IAA genes in cucumber were categorized into seven subfamilies. To investigate whether the expression of CsIAA genes is associated with auxin induction, their transcript levels were monitored in seedlings treated with IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), and their expression patterns were analysed by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results showed that 11/29 CsIAA genes were expressed in leaves whether treated with IAA or not and the time course of processing and compared with the control, five CsIAA genes showed low expression only after 60 min treatment with IAA, while 11 genes showed no expression. These results provide useful information for further functional analysis of Aux/IAA gene family in cucumber. PMID:24371172

Gan, Defang; Zhuang, Dan; Ding, Fei; Yu, Zhenzhou; Zhao, Yang

2013-12-01