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Sample records for plant gene family

  1. Evolutionary analyses of non-family genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu; Li, Ting; Yin, Hengfu; Weston, David; Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yang, Xiaohan

    2013-03-01

    There are a large number of non-family (NF) genes that do not cluster into families with three or more members per genome. While gene families have been extensively studied, a systematic analysis of NF genes has not been reported. We performed comparative studies on NF genes in 14 plant species. Based on the clustering of protein sequences, we identified ~94,000 NF genes across these species that were divided into five evolutionary groups: Viridiplantae-wide, angiosperm-specific, monocot-specific, dicot-specific, and those that were species-specific. Our analysis revealed that the NF genes resulted largely from less frequent gene duplications and/or a higher rate of gene loss after segmental duplication relative to genes in both low-copy-number families (LF; 3 10 copies per genome) and high-copy-number families (HF; >10 copies). Furthermore, we identified functions enriched in the NF gene set as compared with the HF genes. We found that NF genes were involved in essential biological processes shared by all plant lineages (e.g., photosynthesis and translation), as well as gene regulation and stress responses associated with phylogenetic diversification. In particular, our analysis of an Arabidopsis protein-protein interaction network revealed that hub proteins with the top 10% most connections were over-represented in the NF set relative to the HF set. This research highlights the roles that NF genes may play in evolutionary and functional genomics research.

  2. Evolutionary analyses of non-family genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ye, Chuyu; Li, Ting; Yin, Hengfu; Weston, David; Tuskan, Gerald A; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Yang, Xiaohan

    2013-01-01

    There are a large number of non-family (NF) genes that do not cluster into families with three or more members per genome. While gene families have been extensively studied, a systematic analysis of NF genes has not been reported. We performed comparative studies on NF genes in 14 plant species. Based on the clustering of protein sequences, we identified ~94 000 NF genes across these species that were divided into five evolutionary groups: Viridiplantae wide, angiosperm specific, monocot specific, dicot specific, and those that were species specific. Our analysis revealed that the NF genes resulted largely from less frequent gene duplications and/or a higher rate of gene loss after segmental duplication relative to genes in both lowcopy- number families (LF; 3 10 copies per genome) and high-copy-number families (HF; >10 copies). Furthermore, we identified functions enriched in the NF gene set as compared with the HF genes. We found that NF genes were involved in essential biological processes shared by all plant lineages (e.g. photosynthesis and translation), as well as gene regulation and stress responses associated with phylogenetic diversification. In particular, our analysis of an Arabidopsis protein protein interaction network revealed that hub proteins with the top 10% most connections were over-represented in the NF set relative to the HF set. This research highlights the roles that NF genes may play in evolutionary and functional genomics research.

  3. Evolution of the YABBY gene family in seed plants.

    PubMed

    Finet, Cédric; Floyd, Sandra K; Conway, Stephanie J; Zhong, Bojian; Scutt, Charles P; Bowman, John L

    2016-01-01

    Members of the YABBY gene family of transcription factors in angiosperms have been shown to be involved in the initiation of outgrowth of the lamina, the maintenance of polarity, and establishment of the leaf margin. Although most of the dorsal-ventral polarity genes in seed plants have homologs in non-spermatophyte lineages, the presence of YABBY genes is restricted to seed plants. To gain insight into the origin and diversification of this gene family, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of YABBY gene lineages in seed plants. Our findings suggest that either one or two YABBY genes were present in the last common ancestor of extant seed plants. We also examined the expression of YABBY genes in the gymnosperms Ephedra distachya (Gnetales), Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgoales), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Coniferales). Our data indicate that some YABBY genes are expressed in a polar (abaxial) manner in leaves and female cones in gymnosperms. We propose that YABBY genes already acted as polarity genes in the last common ancestor of extant seed plants. PMID:26763689

  4. Plant Ion Channels: Gene Families, Physiology, and Functional Genomics Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ward, John M.; Mäser, Pascal; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2016-01-01

    Distinct potassium, anion, and calcium channels in the plasma membrane and vacuolar membrane of plant cells have been identified and characterized by patch clamping. Primarily owing to advances in Arabidopsis genetics and genomics, and yeast functional complementation, many of the corresponding genes have been identified. Recent advances in our understanding of ion channel genes that mediate signal transduction and ion transport are discussed here. Some plant ion channels, for example, ALMT and SLAC anion channel subunits, are unique. The majority of plant ion channel families exhibit homology to animal genes; such families include both hyperpolarization-and depolarization-activated Shaker-type potassium channels, CLC chloride transporters/channels, cyclic nucleotide–gated channels, and ionotropic glutamate receptor homologs. These plant ion channels offer unique opportunities to analyze the structural mechanisms and functions of ion channels. Here we review gene families of selected plant ion channel classes and discuss unique structure-function aspects and their physiological roles in plant cell signaling and transport. PMID:18842100

  5. Biofuel Potential of Plants Transformed Genetically with NAC Family Genes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sadhana; Grover, Atul; Nasim, M.

    2016-01-01

    NAC genes contribute to enhance survivability of plants under conditions of environmental stress and in secondary growth of the plants, thereby building biomass. Thus, genetic transformation of plants using NAC genes provides a possibility to tailor biofuel plants. Over-expression studies have indicated that NAC family genes can provide tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, either by physiological or biochemical changes at the cellular level, or by affecting visible morphological and anatomical changes, for example, by development of lateral roots in a number of plants. Over-expression of these genes also work as triggers for development of secondary cell walls. In our laboratory, we have observed a NAC gene from Lepidium latifolium contributing to both enhanced biomass as well as cold stress tolerance of model plants tobacco. Thus, we have reviewed all the developments of genetic engineering using NAC genes which could enhance the traits required for biofuel plants, either by enhancing the stress tolerance or by enhancing the biomass of the plants. PMID:26858739

  6. Biofuel Potential of Plants Transformed Genetically with NAC Family Genes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sadhana; Grover, Atul; Nasim, M

    2016-01-01

    NAC genes contribute to enhance survivability of plants under conditions of environmental stress and in secondary growth of the plants, thereby building biomass. Thus, genetic transformation of plants using NAC genes provides a possibility to tailor biofuel plants. Over-expression studies have indicated that NAC family genes can provide tolerance to various biotic and abiotic stresses, either by physiological or biochemical changes at the cellular level, or by affecting visible morphological and anatomical changes, for example, by development of lateral roots in a number of plants. Over-expression of these genes also work as triggers for development of secondary cell walls. In our laboratory, we have observed a NAC gene from Lepidium latifolium contributing to both enhanced biomass as well as cold stress tolerance of model plants tobacco. Thus, we have reviewed all the developments of genetic engineering using NAC genes which could enhance the traits required for biofuel plants, either by enhancing the stress tolerance or by enhancing the biomass of the plants. PMID:26858739

  7. Analysis of the Prefoldin Gene Family in 14 Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Prefoldin is a hexameric molecular chaperone complex present in all eukaryotes and archaea. The evolution of this gene family in plants is unknown. Here, I identified 140 prefoldin genes in 14 plant species. These prefoldin proteins were divided into nine groups through phylogenetic analysis. Highly conserved gene organization and motif distribution exist in each prefoldin group, implying their functional conservation. I also observed the segmental duplication of maize prefoldin gene family. Moreover, a few functional divergence sites were identified within each group pairs. Functional network analyses identified 78 co-expressed genes, and most of them were involved in carrying, binding and kinase activity. Divergent expression profiles of the maize prefoldin genes were further investigated in different tissues and development periods and under auxin and some abiotic stresses. I also found a few cis-elements responding to abiotic stress and phytohormone in the upstream sequences of the maize prefoldin genes. The results provided a foundation for exploring the characterization of the prefoldin genes in plants and will offer insights for additional functional studies. PMID:27014333

  8. Diverse roles of ERECTA family genes in plant development.

    PubMed

    Shpak, Elena D

    2013-12-01

    Multiple receptor-like kinases (RLKs) enable intercellular communication that coordinates growth and development of plant tissues. ERECTA family receptors (ERfs) are an ancient family of leucine-rich repeat RLKs that in Arabidopsis consists of three genes: ERECTA, ERL1, and ERL2. ERfs sense secreted cysteine-rich peptides from the EPF/EPFL family and transmit the signal through a MAP kinase cascade. This review discusses the functions of ERfs in stomata development, in regulation of longitudinal growth of aboveground organs, during reproductive development, and in the shoot apical meristem. In addition the role of ERECTA in plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors is examined. Elena D. Shpak (Corresponding author). PMID:24016315

  9. Caspases in plants: metacaspase gene family in plant stress responses.

    PubMed

    Fagundes, David; Bohn, Bianca; Cabreira, Caroline; Leipelt, Fábio; Dias, Nathalia; Bodanese-Zanettini, Maria H; Cagliari, Alexandro

    2015-11-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an ordered cell suicide that removes unwanted or damaged cells, playing a role in defense to environmental stresses and pathogen invasion. PCD is component of the life cycle of plants, occurring throughout development from embryogenesis to the death. Metacaspases are cysteine proteases present in plants, fungi, and protists. In certain plant-pathogen interactions, the PCD seems to be mediated by metacaspases. We adopted a comparative genomic approach to identify genes coding for the metacaspases in Viridiplantae. We observed that the metacaspase was divided into types I and II, based on their protein structure. The type I has a metacaspase domain at the C-terminus region, presenting or not a zinc finger motif in the N-terminus region and a prodomain rich in proline. Metacaspase type II does not feature the prodomain and the zinc finger, but has a linker between caspase-like catalytic domains of 20 kDa (p20) and 10 kDa (p10). A high conservation was observed in the zinc finger domain (type I proteins) and in p20 and p10 subunits (types I and II proteins). The phylogeny showed that the metacaspases are divided into three principal groups: type I with and without zinc finger domain and type II metacaspases. The algae and moss are presented as outgroup, suggesting that these three classes of metacaspases originated in the early stages of Viridiplantae, being the absence of the zinc finger domain the ancient condition. The study of metacaspase can clarify their assignment and involvement in plant PCD mechanisms. PMID:26277721

  10. Tandem repeat distribution of gene transcripts in three plant families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Tandem repeats (microsatellites or SSRs) are molecular markers with great potential for plant genetic studies. Modern strategies include the transfer of these markers among widely studied and orphan species. In silico analyses allow for studying distribution patterns of microsatellites and predicting which motifs would be more amenable to interspecies transfer. Transcribed sequences (Unigene) from ten species of three plant families were surveyed for the occurrence of micro and minisatellites. Transcripts from different species displayed different rates of tandem repeat occurrence, ranging from 1.47% to 11.28%. Both similar and different patterns were found within and among plant families. The results also indicate a lack of association between genome size and tandem repeat fractions in expressed regions. The conservation of motifs among species and its implication on genome evolution and dynamics are discussed. PMID:21637460

  11. Conservation and diversity of gene families explored using the CODEHOP strategy in higher plants

    PubMed Central

    Morant, Marc; Hehn, Alain; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2002-01-01

    Background Availability of genomewide information on an increasing but still limited number of plants offers the possibility of identifying orthologues, or related genes, in species with major economical impact and complex genomes. In this paper we exploit the recently described CODEHOP primer design and PCR strategy for targeted isolation of homologues in large gene families. Results The method was tested with two different objectives. The first was to analyze the evolution of the CYP98 family of cytochrome P450 genes involved in 3-hydroxylation of phenolic compounds and lignification in a broad range of plant species. The second was to isolate an orthologue of the sorghum glucosyl transferase UGT85B1 and to determine the complexity of the UGT85 family in wheat. P450s of the CYP98 family or closely related sequences were found in all vascular plants. No related sequence was found in moss. Neither extensive duplication of the CYP98 genes nor an orthologue of UGT85B1 were found in wheat. The UGT85A subfamily was however found to be highly variable in wheat. Conclusions Our data are in agreement with the implication of CYP98s in lignification and the evolution of 3-hydroxylation of lignin precursors with vascular plants. High conservation of the CYP98 family strongly argues in favour of an essential function in plant development. Conversely, high duplication and diversification of the UGT85A gene family in wheat suggests its involvement in adaptative response and provides a valuable pool of genes for biotechnological applications. This work demonstrates the high potential of the CODEHOP strategy for the exploration of large gene families in plants. PMID:12153706

  12. Comparative genome analysis of lignin biosynthesis gene families across the plant kingdom

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background As a major component of plant cell wall, lignin plays important roles in mechanical support, water transport, and stress responses. As the main cause for the recalcitrance of plant cell wall, lignin modification has been a major task for bioenergy feedstock improvement. The study of the evolution and function of lignin biosynthesis genes thus has two-fold implications. First, the lignin biosynthesis pathway provides an excellent model to study the coordinative evolution of a biochemical pathway in plants. Second, understanding the function and evolution of lignin biosynthesis genes will guide us to develop better strategies for bioenergy feedstock improvement. Results We analyzed lignin biosynthesis genes from fourteen plant species and one symbiotic fungal species. Comprehensive comparative genome analysis was carried out to study the distribution, relatedness, and family expansion of the lignin biosynthesis genes across the plant kingdom. In addition, we also analyzed the comparative synteny map between rice and sorghum to study the evolution of lignin biosynthesis genes within the Poaceae family and the chromosome evolution between the two species. Comprehensive lignin biosynthesis gene expression analysis was performed in rice, poplar and Arabidopsis. The representative data from rice indicates that different fates of gene duplications exist for lignin biosynthesis genes. In addition, we also carried out the biomass composition analysis of nine Arabidopsis mutants with both MBMS analysis and traditional wet chemistry methods. The results were analyzed together with the genomics analysis. Conclusion The research revealed that, among the species analyzed, the complete lignin biosynthesis pathway first appeared in moss; the pathway is absent in green algae. The expansion of lignin biosynthesis gene families correlates with substrate diversity. In addition, we found that the expansion of the gene families mostly occurred after the divergence of monocots

  13. Genome-Wide Analysis of the NADK Gene Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Yan; Wang, Xiang; Li, Ri; Li, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background NAD(H) kinase (NADK) is the key enzyme that catalyzes de novo synthesis of NADP(H) from NAD(H) for NADP(H)-based metabolic pathways. In plants, NADKs form functional subfamilies. Studies of these families in Arabidopsis thaliana indicate that they have undergone considerable evolutionary selection; however, the detailed evolutionary history and functions of the various NADKs in plants are not clearly understood. Principal Findings We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 74 NADK gene homologs from 24 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots and eudicots. Phylogenetic and structural analysis classified these NADK genes into four well-conserved subfamilies with considerable variety in the domain organization and gene structure among subfamily members. In addition to the typical NAD_kinase domain, additional domains, such as adenylate kinase, dual-specificity phosphatase, and protein tyrosine phosphatase catalytic domains, were found in subfamily II. Interestingly, NADKs in subfamily III exhibited low sequence similarity (∼30%) in the kinase domain within the subfamily and with the other subfamilies. These observations suggest that gene fusion and exon shuffling may have occurred after gene duplication, leading to specific domain organization seen in subfamilies II and III, respectively. Further analysis of the exon/intron structures showed that single intron loss and gain had occurred, yielding the diversified gene structures, during the process of structural evolution of NADK family genes. Finally, both available global microarray data analysis and qRT-RCR experiments revealed that the NADK genes in Arabidopsis and Oryza sativa show different expression patterns in different developmental stages and under several different abiotic/biotic stresses and hormone treatments, underscoring the functional diversity

  14. The polyphenol oxidase gene family in land plants: Lineage-specific duplication and expansion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant polyphenol oxidases (PPOs) are enzymes that typically use molecular oxygen to oxidize ortho-diphenols to ortho-quinones. These commonly cause browning reactions following tissue damage, and may be important in plant defense. Some PPOs function as hydroxylases or in cross-linking reactions, but in most plants their physiological roles are not known. To better understand the importance of PPOs in the plant kingdom, we surveyed PPO gene families in 25 sequenced genomes from chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, and flowering plants. The PPO genes were then analyzed in silico for gene structure, phylogenetic relationships, and targeting signals. Results Many previously uncharacterized PPO genes were uncovered. The moss, Physcomitrella patens, contained 13 PPO genes and Selaginella moellendorffii (spike moss) and Glycine max (soybean) each had 11 genes. Populus trichocarpa (poplar) contained a highly diversified gene family with 11 PPO genes, but several flowering plants had only a single PPO gene. By contrast, no PPO-like sequences were identified in several chlorophyte (green algae) genomes or Arabidopsis (A. lyrata and A. thaliana). We found that many PPOs contained one or two introns often near the 3’ terminus. Furthermore, N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis using ChloroP and TargetP 1.1 predicted that several putative PPOs are synthesized via the secretory pathway, a unique finding as most PPOs are predicted to be chloroplast proteins. Phylogenetic reconstruction of these sequences revealed that large PPO gene repertoires in some species are mostly a consequence of independent bursts of gene duplication, while the lineage leading to Arabidopsis must have lost all PPO genes. Conclusion Our survey identified PPOs in gene families of varying sizes in all land plants except in the genus Arabidopsis. While we found variation in intron numbers and positions, overall PPO gene structure is congruent with the phylogenetic relationships based on

  15. F-box gene family is expanded in herbaceous annual plants Arabidopsis and rice relative to woody perennial plant Populus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Kalluri, Udaya C; Jawdy, Sara; Gunter, Lee E; Yin, Tongming; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Weston, David; Ranjan, Priya; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2008-01-01

    F-box proteins are generally responsible for substrate recognition in the Skp1-Cullin-F-box complexes that are involved in protein degradation via the ubiquitin-26S proteosome pathway. In plants, F-box genes influence a variety of biological processes such as leaf senescence, branching, self-incompatibility and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. The number of F-box genes in Populus (~320) is less than half that found in Arabidopsis (~660) or rice (~680), even though the total number of genes in Populus is equivalent to that in rice and 1.5 times that in Arabidopsis. We performed comparative genomic analysis between the woody perennial plant Populus and the herbaceous annual plants Arabidopsis and rice in order to explicate the functional implications of this large gene family. Our analyses reveal interspecific differences in genomic distribution, orthologous relationship, intron evolution, protein domain structure and gene expression. The set of F-box genes shared by these three species appear to be involved in core biological processes essential for plant growth and development; lineage-specific differences primarily occurred because of an expansion of the F-box genes via tandem duplications in Arabidopsis and rice. The present study provides insights into the relationship between the structure and composition of the F-box gene family in herbaceous and woody species and their associated developmental and physiological features.

  16. Expression, Splicing, and Evolution of the Myosin Gene Family in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Mockler, Todd C.; Filichkin, Sergei A.; Fox, Samuel E.; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Makarova, Kira S.; Koonin, Eugene V.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2011-01-01

    Plants possess two myosin classes, VIII and XI. The myosins XI are implicated in organelle transport, filamentous actin organization, and cell and plant growth. Due to the large size of myosin gene families, knowledge of these molecular motors remains patchy. Using deep transcriptome sequencing and bioinformatics, we systematically investigated myosin genes in two model plants, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon). We improved myosin gene models and found that myosin genes undergo alternative splicing. We experimentally validated the gene models for Arabidopsis myosin XI-K, which plays the principal role in cell interior dynamics, as well as for its Brachypodium ortholog. We showed that the Arabidopsis gene dubbed HDK (for headless derivative of myosin XI-K), which emerged through a partial duplication of the XI-K gene, is developmentally regulated. A gene with similar architecture was also found in Brachypodium. Our analyses revealed two predominant patterns of myosin gene expression, namely pollen/stamen-specific and ubiquitous expression throughout the plant. We also found that several myosins XI can be rhythmically expressed. Phylogenetic reconstructions indicate that the last common ancestor of the angiosperms possessed two myosins VIII and five myosins XI, many of which underwent additional lineage-specific duplications. PMID:21233331

  17. Functional Divergence of the Glutathione S-Transferase Supergene Family in Physcomitrella patens Reveals Complex Patterns of Large Gene Family Evolution in Land Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Jing; Han, Xue-Min; Ren, Lin-Ling; Yang, Hai-Ling; Zeng, Qing-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Plant glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are multifunctional proteins encoded by a large gene family that play major roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and oxidative stress metabolism. To date, studies on the GST gene family have focused mainly on vascular plants (particularly agricultural plants). In contrast, little information is available on the molecular characteristics of this large gene family in nonvascular plants. In addition, the evolutionary patterns of this family in land plants remain unclear. In this study, we identified 37 GST genes from the whole genome of the moss Physcomitrella patens, a nonvascular representative of early land plants. The 37 P. patens GSTs were divided into 10 classes, including two new classes (hemerythrin and iota). However, no tau GSTs were identified, which represent the largest class among vascular plants. P. patens GST gene family members showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, gene expression responses to abiotic stressors, enzymatic characteristics, and the subcellular locations of the encoded proteins. A joint phylogenetic analysis of GSTs from P. patens and other higher vascular plants showed that different class GSTs had distinct duplication patterns during the evolution of land plants. By examining multiple characteristics, this study revealed complex patterns of evolutionary divergence among the GST gene family in land plants. PMID:23188805

  18. Conserved and Diversified Gene Families of Monovalent Cation/H+ Antiporters from Algae to Flowering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chanroj, Salil; Wang, Guoying; Venema, Kees; Zhang, Muren Warren; Delwiche, Charles F.; Sze, Heven

    2012-01-01

    All organisms have evolved strategies to regulate ion and pH homeostasis in response to developmental and environmental cues. One strategy is mediated by monovalent cation–proton antiporters (CPA) that are classified in two superfamilies. Many CPA1 genes from bacteria, fungi, metazoa, and plants have been functionally characterized; though roles of plant CPA2 genes encoding K+-efflux antiporter (KEA) and cation/H+ exchanger (CHX) families are largely unknown. Phylogenetic analysis showed that three clades of the CPA1 Na+–H+ exchanger (NHX) family have been conserved from single-celled algae to Arabidopsis. These are (i) plasma membrane-bound SOS1/AtNHX7 that share ancestry with prokaryote NhaP, (ii) endosomal AtNHX5/6 that is part of the eukaryote Intracellular-NHE clade, and (iii) a vacuolar NHX clade (AtNHX1–4) specific to plants. Early diversification of KEA genes possibly from an ancestral cyanobacterium gene is suggested by three types seen in all plants. Intriguingly, CHX genes diversified from three to four members in one subclade of early land plants to 28 genes in eight subclades of Arabidopsis. Homologs from Spirogyra or Physcomitrella share high similarity with AtCHX20, suggesting that guard cell-specific AtCHX20 and its closest relatives are founders of the family, and pollen-expressed CHX genes appeared later in monocots and early eudicots. AtCHX proteins mediate K+ transport and pH homeostasis, and have been localized to intracellular and plasma membrane. Thus KEA genes are conserved from green algae to angiosperms, and their presence in red algae and secondary endosymbionts suggest a role in plastids. In contrast, AtNHX1–4 subtype evolved in plant cells to handle ion homeostasis of vacuoles. The great diversity of CHX genes in land plants compared to metazoa, fungi, or algae would imply a significant role of ion and pH homeostasis at dynamic endomembranes in the vegetative and reproductive success of flowering plants. PMID:22639643

  19. High Gene Family Turnover Rates and Gene Space Adaptation in the Compact Genome of the Carnivorous Plant Utricularia gibba.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Librado, Pablo; Chang, Tien-Hao; Ibarra-Laclette, Enrique; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rozas, Julio; Albert, Victor A

    2015-05-01

    Utricularia gibba is an aquatic carnivorous plant with highly specialized morphology, featuring fibrous floating networks of branches and leaf-like organs, no recognizable roots, and bladder traps that capture and digest prey. We recently described the compressed genome of U. gibba as sufficient to control the development and reproduction of a complex organism. We hypothesized intense deletion pressure as a mechanism whereby most noncoding DNA was deleted, despite evidence for three independent whole-genome duplications (WGDs). Here, we explore the impact of intense genome fractionation in the evolutionary dynamics of U. gibba's functional gene space. We analyze U. gibba gene family turnover by modeling gene gain/death rates under a maximum-likelihood statistical framework. In accord with our deletion pressure hypothesis, we show that the U. gibba gene death rate is significantly higher than those of four other eudicot species. Interestingly, the gene gain rate is also significantly higher, likely reflecting the occurrence of multiple WGDs and possibly also small-scale genome duplications. Gene ontology enrichment analyses of U. gibba-specific two-gene orthogroups, multigene orthogroups, and singletons highlight functions that may represent adaptations in an aquatic carnivorous plant. We further discuss two homeodomain transcription factor gene families (WOX and HDG/HDZIP-IV) showing conspicuous differential expansions and contractions in U. gibba. Our results 1) reconcile the compactness of the U. gibba genome with its accommodation of a typical number of genes for a plant genome, and 2) highlight the role of high gene family turnover in the evolutionary diversification of U. gibba's functional gene space and adaptations to its unique lifestyle and highly specialized body plan. PMID:25637935

  20. Unraveling the evolution and regulation of the alternative oxidase gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiao-jun; Lv, Xin; Lin, Hong-hui

    2015-11-01

    Alternative oxidase (AOX) is a diiron carboxylate protein present in all plants examined to date that couples the oxidation of ubiquinol with the reduction of oxygen to water. The predominant structure of AOX genes is four exons interrupted by three introns. In this study, by analyzing the genomic sequences of genes from different plant species, we deduced that intron/exon loss/gain and deletion of fragments are the major mechanisms responsible for the generation and evolution of AOX paralogous genes. Integrating gene duplication and structural information with expression profiles for various AOXs revealed that tandem duplication/block duplication contributed greatly to the generation and maintenance of the AOX gene family. Notably, the expression profiles based on public microarray database showed highly diverse expression patterns among AOX members in different developmental stages and tissues and that both orthologous and paralogous genes did not have the same expression profiles due to their divergence in regulatory regions. Comparative analysis of genes in six plant species under various perturbations indicated a large number of protein kinases, transcription factors and antioxidant enzymes are co-expressed with AOX. Of these, four sets of transcription factors--WRKY, NAC, bZIP and MYB--are likely involved in the regulating the differential responses of AOX1 genes to specific stresses. Furthermore, divergence of AOX1 and AOX2 subfamilies in regulation might be the main reason for their differential stress responses. PMID:26438244

  1. Comparative analysis of the phytocyanin gene family in 10 plant species: a focus on Zea mays

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jun; Li, Xiang; Lv, Yueqing; Ding, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Phytocyanins (PCs) are plant-specific blue copper proteins, which play essential roles in electron transport. While the origin and expansion of this gene family is not well-investigated in plants. Here, we investigated their evolution by undertaking a genome-wide identification and comparison in 10 plants: Arabidopsis, rice, poplar, tomato, soybean, grape, maize, Selaginella moellendorffii, Physcomitrella patens, and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We found an expansion process of this gene family in evolution. Except PCs in Arabidopsis and rice, which have described in previous researches, a structural analysis of PCs in other eight plants indicated that 292 PCs contained N-terminal secretion signals and 217 PCs were expected to have glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor signals. Moreover, 281 PCs had putative arabinogalactan glycomodules and might be AGPs. Chromosomal distribution and duplication patterns indicated that tandem and segmental duplication played dominant roles for the expansion of PC genes. In addition, gene organization and motif compositions are highly conserved in each clade. Furthermore, expression profiles of maize PC genes revealed diversity in various stages of development. Moreover, all nine detected maize PC genes (ZmUC10, ZmUC16, ZmUC19, ZmSC2, ZmUC21, ZmENODL10, ZmUC22, ZmENODL13, and ZmENODL15) were down-regulated under salt treatment, and five PCs (ZmUC19, ZmSC2, ZmENODL10, ZmUC22, and ZmENODL13) were down-regulated under drought treatment. ZmUC16 was strongly expressed after drought treatment. This study will provide a basis for future understanding the characterization of this family. PMID:26217366

  2. Major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) in plants: a complex gene family with major impacts on plant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Kerrie L; Bhave, Mrinal

    2007-10-01

    The ubiquitous cell membrane proteins called aquaporins are now firmly established as channel proteins that control the specific transport of water molecules across cell membranes in all living organisms. The aquaporins are thus likely to be of fundamental significance to all facets of plant growth and development affected by plant-water relations. A majority of plant aquaporins have been found to share essential structural features with the human aquaporin and exhibit water-transporting ability in various functional assays, and some have been shown experimentally to be of critical importance to plant survival. Furthermore, substantial evidence is now available from a number of plant species that shows differential gene expression of aquaporins in response to abiotic stresses such as salinity, drought, or cold and clearly establishes the aquaporins as major players in the response of plants to conditions that affect water availability. This review summarizes the function and regulation of these genes to develop a greater understanding of the response of plants to water insufficiency, and particularly, to identify tolerant genotypes of major crop species including wheat and rice and plants that are important in agroforestry. PMID:17562090

  3. Evolution of the PEBP Gene Family in Plants: Functional Diversification in Seed Plant Evolution1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Karlgren, Anna; Gyllenstrand, Niclas; Källman, Thomas; Sundström, Jens F.; Moore, David; Lascoux, Martin; Lagercrantz, Ulf

    2011-01-01

    The phosphatidyl ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family is present in all eukaryote kingdoms, with three subfamilies identified in angiosperms (FLOWERING LOCUS T [FT], MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 [MFT], and TERMINAL FLOWER1 [TFL1] like). In angiosperms, PEBP genes have been shown to function both as promoters and suppressors of flowering and to control plant architecture. In this study, we focus on previously uncharacterized PEBP genes from gymnosperms. Extensive database searches suggest that gymnosperms possess only two types of PEBP genes, MFT-like and a group that occupies an intermediate phylogenetic position between the FT-like and TFL1-like (FT/TFL1-like). Overexpression of Picea abies PEBP genes in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggests that the FT/TFL1-like genes (PaFTL1 and PaFTL2) code for proteins with a TFL1-like function. However, PaFTL1 and PaFTL2 also show highly divergent expression patterns. While the expression of PaFTL2 is correlated with annual growth rhythm and mainly confined to needles and vegetative and reproductive buds, the expression of PaFTL1 is largely restricted to microsporophylls of male cones. The P. abies MFT-like genes (PaMFT1 and PaMFT2) show a predominant expression during embryo development, a pattern that is also found for many MFT-like genes from angiosperms. P. abies PEBP gene expression is primarily detected in tissues undergoing physiological changes related to growth arrest and dormancy. A first duplication event resulting in two families of plant PEBP genes (MFT-like and FT/TFL1-like) seems to coincide with the evolution of seed plants, in which independent control of bud and seed dormancy was required, and the second duplication resulting in the FT-like and TFL1-like clades probably coincided with the evolution of angiosperms. PMID:21642442

  4. Functional Analysis of the Arabidopsis TETRASPANIN Gene Family in Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Muto, Antonella; Van de Velde, Jan; Neyt, Pia; Himanen, Kristiina; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2015-11-01

    TETRASPANIN (TET) genes encode conserved integral membrane proteins that are known in animals to function in cellular communication during gamete fusion, immunity reaction, and pathogen recognition. In plants, functional information is limited to one of the 17 members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TET gene family and to expression data in reproductive stages. Here, the promoter activity of all 17 Arabidopsis TET genes was investigated by pAtTET::NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL-GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN/β-GLUCURONIDASE reporter lines throughout the life cycle, which predicted functional divergence in the paralogous genes per clade. However, partial overlap was observed for many TET genes across the clades, correlating with few phenotypes in single mutants and, therefore, requiring double mutant combinations for functional investigation. Mutational analysis showed a role for TET13 in primary root growth and lateral root development and redundant roles for TET5 and TET6 in leaf and root growth through negative regulation of cell proliferation. Strikingly, a number of TET genes were expressed in embryonic and seedling progenitor cells and remained expressed until the differentiation state in the mature plant, suggesting a dynamic function over developmental stages. The cis-regulatory elements together with transcription factor-binding data provided molecular insight into the sites, conditions, and perturbations that affect TET gene expression and positioned the TET genes in different molecular pathways; the data represent a hypothesis-generating resource for further functional analyses. PMID:26417009

  5. Functional Analysis of the Arabidopsis TETRASPANIN Gene Family in Plant Growth and Development1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Muto, Antonella; Van de Velde, Jan; Neyt, Pia; Himanen, Kristiina; Vandepoele, Klaas; Van Lijsebettens, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    TETRASPANIN (TET) genes encode conserved integral membrane proteins that are known in animals to function in cellular communication during gamete fusion, immunity reaction, and pathogen recognition. In plants, functional information is limited to one of the 17 members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) TET gene family and to expression data in reproductive stages. Here, the promoter activity of all 17 Arabidopsis TET genes was investigated by pAtTET::NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL-GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN/β-GLUCURONIDASE reporter lines throughout the life cycle, which predicted functional divergence in the paralogous genes per clade. However, partial overlap was observed for many TET genes across the clades, correlating with few phenotypes in single mutants and, therefore, requiring double mutant combinations for functional investigation. Mutational analysis showed a role for TET13 in primary root growth and lateral root development and redundant roles for TET5 and TET6 in leaf and root growth through negative regulation of cell proliferation. Strikingly, a number of TET genes were expressed in embryonic and seedling progenitor cells and remained expressed until the differentiation state in the mature plant, suggesting a dynamic function over developmental stages. The cis-regulatory elements together with transcription factor-binding data provided molecular insight into the sites, conditions, and perturbations that affect TET gene expression and positioned the TET genes in different molecular pathways; the data represent a hypothesis-generating resource for further functional analyses. PMID:26417009

  6. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Hai-Ling; Li, Yue; Kang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Yang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants. PMID:26684301

  7. Molecular Properties and Functional Divergence of the Dehydroascorbate Reductase Gene Family in Lower and Higher Plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan-Jie; Wang, Wei; Yang, Hai-Ling; Li, Yue; Kang, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Yang, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), which reduces oxidized ascorbate, is important for maintaining an appropriate ascorbate redox state in plant cells. To date, genome-wide molecular characterization of DHARs has only been conducted in bryophytes (Physcomitrella patens) and eudicots (e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana). In this study, to gain a general understanding of the molecular properties and functional divergence of the DHARs in land plants, we further conducted a comprehensive analysis of DHARs from the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii, gymnosperm Picea abies and monocot Zea mays. DHARs were present as a small gene family in all of the land plants we examined, with gene numbers ranging from two to four. All the plants contained cytosolic and chloroplastic DHARs, indicating dehydroascorbate (DHA) can be directly reduced in the cytoplasm and chloroplast by DHARs in all the plants. A novel vacuolar DHAR was found in Z. mays, indicating DHA may also be reduced in the vacuole by DHARs in Z. mays. The DHARs within each species showed extensive functional divergence in their gene structures, subcellular localizations, and enzymatic characteristics. This study provides new insights into the molecular characteristics and functional divergence of DHARs in land plants. PMID:26684301

  8. Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast.

    PubMed

    Clemens, S; Kim, E J; Neumann, D; Schroeder, J I

    1999-06-15

    Phytochelatins play major roles in metal detoxification in plants and fungi. However, genes encoding phytochelatin synthases have not yet been identified. By screening for plant genes mediating metal tolerance we identified a wheat cDNA, TaPCS1, whose expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a dramatic increase in cadmium tolerance. TaPCS1 encodes a protein of approximately 55 kDa with no similarity to proteins of known function. We identified homologs of this new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and interestingly also Caenorhabditis elegans. The Arabidopsis and S.pombe genes were also demonstrated to confer substantial increases in metal tolerance in yeast. PCS-expressing cells accumulate more Cd2+ than controls. PCS expression mediates Cd2+ tolerance even in yeast mutants that are either deficient in vacuolar acidification or impaired in vacuolar biogenesis. PCS-induced metal resistance is lost upon exposure to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, a process necessary for phytochelatin formation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells disrupted in the PCS gene exhibit hypersensitivity to Cd2+ and Cu2+ and are unable to synthesize phytochelatins upon Cd2+ exposure as determined by HPLC analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing PCS produce phytochelatins. Moreover, the recombinant purified S.pombe PCS protein displays phytochelatin synthase activity. These data demonstrate that PCS genes encode phytochelatin synthases and mediate metal detoxification in eukaryotes. PMID:10369673

  9. Evolution of the KCS gene family in plants: the history of gene duplication, sub/neofunctionalization and redundancy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hai-Song; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Sun, Xiao-Qin; Li, Mi-Mi; Hang, Yue-Yu; Xue, Jia-Yu

    2016-04-01

    Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) play an important role in the survival and development of plants, and VLCFA synthesis is regulated by β-ketoacyl-CoA synthases (KCSs), which catalyze the condensation of an acyl-CoA with malonyl-CoA. Here, we present a genome-wide survey of the genes encoding these enzymes, KCS genes, in 28 species (26 genomes and two transcriptomes), which represents a large phylogenetic scale, and also reconstruct the evolutionary history of this gene family. KCS genes were initially single-copy genes in the green plant lineage; duplication resulted in five ancestral copies in land plants, forming five fundamental monophyletic groups in the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, KCS genes duplicated to generate 11 genes of angiosperm origin, expanding up to 20-30 members in further-diverged angiosperm species. During this process, tandem duplications had only a small contribution, whereas polyploidy events and large-scale segmental duplications appear to be the main driving force. Accompanying this expansion were variations that led to the sub- and neofunctionalization of different members, resulting in specificity that is likely determined by the 3-D protein structure. Novel functions involved in other physiological processes emerged as well, though redundancy is also observed, largely among recent duplications. Conserved sites and variable sites of KCS proteins are also identified by statistical analysis. The variable sites are likely to be involved in the emergence of product specificity and catalytic power, and conserved sites are possibly responsible for the preservation of fundamental function. PMID:26563433

  10. Evolution of the ARF gene family in land plants: old domains, new tricks.

    PubMed

    Finet, Cédric; Berne-Dedieu, Annick; Scutt, Charles P; Marlétaz, Ferdinand

    2013-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARF) are key players in plant development. They mediate the cellular response to the plant hormone auxin by activating or repressing the expression of downstream developmental genes. The pivotal activation function of ARF proteins is enabled by their four-domain architecture, which includes both DNA-binding and protein dimerization motifs. To determine the evolutionary origin of this characteristic architecture, we built a comprehensive data set of 224 ARF-related protein sequences that represents all major living divisions of land plants, except hornworts. We found that ARFs are split into three subfamilies that could be traced back to the origin of the land plants. We also show that repeated events of extensive gene duplication contributed to the expansion of those three original subfamilies. Further examination of our data set uncovered a broad diversity in the structure of ARF transcripts and allowed us to identify an additional conserved motif in ARF proteins. We found that additional structural diversity in ARF proteins is mainly generated by two mechanisms: genomic truncation and alternative splicing. We propose that the loss of domains from the canonical, four-domain ARF structure has promoted functional shifts within the ARF family by disrupting either dimerization or DNA-binding capabilities. For instance, the loss of dimerization domains in some ARFs from moss and spikemoss genomes leads to proteins that are reminiscent of Aux/IAA proteins, possibly providing a clue on the evolution of these modulators of ARF function. We also assessed the functional impact of alternative splicing in the case of ARF4, for which we have identified a novel isoform in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genetic analysis showed that these two transcripts exhibit markedly different developmental roles in A. thaliana. Gene duplications, domain rearrangement, and post-transcriptional regulation have thus enabled a subtle control of auxin signaling through ARF proteins

  11. Identification of Novel Peptidyl Serine α-Galactosyltransferase Gene Family in Plants*♦

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Fumie; Suyama, Akiko; Oka, Takuji; Yoko-o, Takehiko; Matsuoka, Ken; Jigami, Yoshifumi; Shimma, Yoh-ichi

    2014-01-01

    In plants, serine residues in extensin, a cell wall protein, are glycosylated with O-linked galactose. However, the enzyme that is involved in the galactosylation of serine had not yet been identified. To identify the peptidyl serine O-α-galactosyltransferase (SGT), we chose Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model. We established an assay system for SGT activity using C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana cell extracts. SGT protein was partially purified from cell extracts of C. reinhardtii and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry to determine its amino acid sequence. The sequence matched the open reading frame XP_001696927 in the C. reinhardtii proteome database, and a corresponding DNA fragment encoding 748 amino acids (BAL63043) was cloned from a C. reinhardtii cDNA library. The 748-amino acid protein (CrSGT1) was produced using a yeast expression system, and the SGT activity was examined. Hydroxylation of proline residues adjacent to a serine in acceptor peptides was required for SGT activity. Genes for proteins containing conserved domains were found in various plant genomes, including A. thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum. The AtSGT1 and NtSGT1 proteins also showed SGT activity when expressed in yeast. In addition, knock-out lines of AtSGT1 and knockdown lines of NtSGT1 showed no or reduced SGT activity. The SGT1 sequence, which contains a conserved DXD motif and a C-terminal membrane spanning region, is the first example of a glycosyltransferase with type I membrane protein topology, and it showed no homology with known glycosyltransferases, indicating that SGT1 belongs to a novel glycosyltransferase gene family existing only in the plant kingdom. PMID:24914209

  12. Comprehensive Genomic Analysis and Expression Profiling of the NOX Gene Families under Abiotic Stresses and Hormones in Plants.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-Li; Li, Wen-Yan; Miao, Hai; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Li, Ri; Wang, Xiang; Li, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2016-03-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are key producers of reactive oxygen species under both normal and stress conditions in plants and they form functional subfamilies. Studies of these subfamilies indicated that they show considerable evolutionary selection. We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 50 ferric reduction oxidases (FRO) and 77 NOX gene homologs from 20 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, and eudicots. Phylogenetic and structural analysis classified these FRO and NOX genes into four well-conserved groups represented as NOX, FRO I, FRO II, and FRO III. Further analysis of NOXs of phylogenetic and exon/intron structures showed that single intron loss and gain had occurred, yielding the diversified gene structures during the evolution of NOXs family genes and which were classified into four conserved subfamilies which are represented as Sub.I, Sub.II, Sub.III, and Sub.IV. Additionally, both available global microarray data analysis and quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed that the NOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) have different expression patterns in different developmental stages, various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. Finally, coexpression network analysis of NOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice revealed that NOXs have significantly correlated expression profiles with genes which are involved in plants metabolic and resistance progresses. All these results suggest that NOX family underscores the functional diversity and divergence in plants. This finding will facilitate further studies of the NOX family and provide valuable information for functional validation of this family in plants. PMID:26907500

  13. Comprehensive Genomic Analysis and Expression Profiling of the NOX Gene Families under Abiotic Stresses and Hormones in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yan-Li; Li, Wen-Yan; Miao, Hai; Yang, Shuai-Qi; Li, Ri; Wang, Xiang; Li, Wen-Qiang; Chen, Kun-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Plasma membrane NADPH oxidases (NOXs) are key producers of reactive oxygen species under both normal and stress conditions in plants and they form functional subfamilies. Studies of these subfamilies indicated that they show considerable evolutionary selection. We performed a comparative genomic analysis that identified 50 ferric reduction oxidases (FRO) and 77 NOX gene homologs from 20 species representing the eight major plant lineages within the supergroup Plantae: glaucophytes, rhodophytes, chlorophytes, bryophytes, lycophytes, gymnosperms, monocots, and eudicots. Phylogenetic and structural analysis classified these FRO and NOX genes into four well-conserved groups represented as NOX, FRO I, FRO II, and FRO III. Further analysis of NOXs of phylogenetic and exon/intron structures showed that single intron loss and gain had occurred, yielding the diversified gene structures during the evolution of NOXs family genes and which were classified into four conserved subfamilies which are represented as Sub.I, Sub.II, Sub.III, and Sub.IV. Additionally, both available global microarray data analysis and quantitative real-time PCR experiments revealed that the NOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) have different expression patterns in different developmental stages, various abiotic stresses and hormone treatments. Finally, coexpression network analysis of NOX genes in Arabidopsis and rice revealed that NOXs have significantly correlated expression profiles with genes which are involved in plants metabolic and resistance progresses. All these results suggest that NOX family underscores the functional diversity and divergence in plants. This finding will facilitate further studies of the NOX family and provide valuable information for functional validation of this family in plants. PMID:26907500

  14. The monosaccharide transporter gene family in land plants is ancient and shows differential subfamily expression and expansion across lineages

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Deborah A; Hill, Jeffrey P; Thomas, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    Background In plants, tandem, segmental and whole-genome duplications are prevalent, resulting in large numbers of duplicate loci. Recent studies suggest that duplicate genes diverge predominantly through the partitioning of expression and that breadth of gene expression is related to the rate of gene duplication and protein sequence evolution. Here, we utilize expressed sequence tag (EST) data to study gene duplication and expression patterns in the monosaccharide transporter (MST) gene family across the land plants. In Arabidopsis, there are 53 MST genes that form seven distinct subfamilies. We created profile hidden Markov models of each subfamily and searched EST databases representing diverse land plant lineages to address the following questions: 1) Are homologs of each Arabidopsis subfamily present in the earliest land plants? 2) Do expression patterns among subfamilies and individual genes within subfamilies differ across lineages? 3) Has gene duplication within each lineage resulted in lineage-specific expansion patterns? We also looked for correlations between relative EST database representation in Arabidopsis and similarity to orthologs in early lineages. Results Homologs of all seven MST subfamilies were present in land plants at least 400 million years ago. Subfamily expression levels vary across lineages with greater relative expression of the STP, ERD6-like, INT and PLT subfamilies in the vascular plants. In the large EST databases of the moss, gymnosperm, monocot and eudicot lineages, EST contig construction reveals that MST subfamilies have experienced lineage-specific expansions. Large subfamily expansions appear to be due to multiple gene duplications arising from single ancestral genes. In Arabidopsis, one or a few genes within most subfamilies have much higher EST database representation than others. Most highly represented (broadly expressed) genes in Arabidopsis have best match orthologs in early divergent lineages. Conclusion The seven

  15. Molecular and expression analysis of a LIM protein gene family from flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, A; Gass, N; Mundel, C; Baltz, R; Kräuter, R; Evrard, J L; Steinmetz, A

    2000-10-01

    LIM-domain proteins participate in important cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gene transcription and actin cytoskeleton organization. They are predominantly found in animals, but have also been identified in yeast and plants. Following the characterization ofa LIM-domain protein in sunflower pollen, we carried out an extensive search for these proteins in flowering plants. We have isolated and studied cDNAs and/or genomic sequences for two novel LIM-domain proteins from sunflower, three from tobacco, and one from Arabidopsis. The plant proteins are structurally related to the cytoskeleton-associated CRP class of LIM proteins in animals, but show several distinctive features, including a second, atypical, LIM domain. We have performed comparative expression studies of these genes, as well as of one other gene from tobacco and two additional Arabidopsis genes whose sequences are available from databases. These studies, carried out by RT-PCR in the presence of gene-specific primers, showed that, in sunflower and tobacco, pollen grains and sporophytic tissues express different sets of LIM proteins. With the exception of one Arabidopsis gene--which has two introns--all the genes analyzed contain four introns at conserved positions, indicating that the ancestral gene from which the various copies evolved in higher plants allready had this split structure. PMID:11085265

  16. Comparative study of the P2X gene family in animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Hou, Zhuoran; Cao, Jun

    2016-06-01

    P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that can bind with the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and have diverse functional roles in neuropathic pain, inflammation, special sense, and so on. In this study, 180 putative P2X genes, including 176 members in 32 animal species and 4 members in 3 species of lower plants, were identified. These genes were divided into 13 groups, including 7 groups in vertebrates and 6 groups in invertebrates and lower plants, through phylogenetic analysis. Their gene organization and motif composition are conserved in most predicted P2X members, while group-specific features were also found. Moreover, synteny relationships of the putative P2X genes in vertebrates are conserved while simultaneously experiencing a series of gene insertion, inversion, and transposition. Recombination signals were detected in almost all of the vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting that intragenic recombination may play a significant role in the evolution of P2X genes. Selection analysis also identified some positively selected sites that acted on the evolution of most of the predicted P2X proteins. The phenomenon of alternative splicing occurred commonly in the putative P2X genes of vertebrates. This article explored in depth the evolutional relationship among different subtypes of P2X genes in animal and plants and might serve as a solid foundation for deciphering their functions in further studies. PMID:26874702

  17. Global Analysis of Ankyrin Repeat Domain C3HC4-Type RING Finger Gene Family in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiyang; Yu, Mingli; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat (ANK) C3HC4-type RING finger (RF) genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa) XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families. PMID:23516424

  18. Global analysis of ankyrin repeat domain C3HC4-type RING finger gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shizhong; Liu, Shiyang; Yu, Mingli; Su, Hongyan; Shu, Huairui; Li, Xinzheng

    2013-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat (ANK) C3HC4-type RING finger (RF) genes comprise a large family in plants and play important roles in various physiological processes of plant life. In this study, we identified 187 ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins from 29 species with complete genomes and named the ANK C3HC4-type RF proteins the XB3-like proteins because they are structurally related to the rice (Oryza sativa) XB3. A phylogenetic relationship analysis suggested that the XB3-like genes originated from ferns, and the encoded proteins fell into 3 major groups. Among these groups, we found that the spacing between the metal ligand position 6 and 7, and the conserved residues, which was in addition to the metal ligand amino acids, in the C3HC4-type RF were different. Using a wide range of protein structural analyses, protein models were established, and all XB3-like proteins were found to contain two to seven ANKs and a C3HC4-type RF. The microarray data for the XB3-like genes of Arabidopsis, Oryza sative, Zea mays and Glycine max revealed that the expression of XB3-like genes was in different tissues and during different life stages. The preferential expression of XB3-like genes in specified tissues and the response to phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments of Arabidopsis and Zea mays not only confirmed the microarray analysis data but also demonstrated that the XB3-like proteins play roles in plant growth and development as well as in stress responses. Our data provide a very useful reference for the identification and functional analysis of members of this gene family and also provide a new method for the genome-wide analysis of gene families. PMID:23516424

  19. Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants.

    PubMed

    Socha, Amanda L; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:24744764

  20. Mn-euvering manganese: the role of transporter gene family members in manganese uptake and mobilization in plants

    PubMed Central

    Socha, Amanda L.; Guerinot, Mary Lou

    2014-01-01

    Manganese (Mn), an essential trace element, is important for plant health. In plants, Mn serves as a cofactor in essential processes such as photosynthesis, lipid biosynthesis and oxidative stress. Mn deficient plants exhibit decreased growth and yield and are more susceptible to pathogens and damage at freezing temperatures. Mn deficiency is most prominent on alkaline soils with approximately one third of the world's soils being too alkaline for optimal crop production. Despite the importance of Mn in plant development, relatively little is known about how it traffics between plant tissues and into and out of organelles. Several gene transporter families have been implicated in Mn transport in plants. These transporter families include NRAMP (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), YSL (yellow stripe-like), ZIP (zinc regulated transporter/iron-regulated transporter [ZRT/IRT1]-related protein), CAX (cation exchanger), CCX (calcium cation exchangers), CDF/MTP (cation diffusion facilitator/metal tolerance protein), P-type ATPases and VIT (vacuolar iron transporter). A combination of techniques including mutant analysis and Synchrotron X-ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy can assist in identifying essential transporters of Mn. Such knowledge would vastly improve our understanding of plant Mn homeostasis. PMID:24744764

  1. Chloroplast division in higher plants requires members of two functionally divergent gene families with homology to bacterial ftsZ.

    PubMed Central

    Osteryoung, K W; Stokes, K D; Rutherford, S M; Percival, A L; Lee, W Y

    1998-01-01

    The division of plastids is critical for viability in photosynthetic eukaryotes, but the mechanisms associated with this process are still poorly understood. We previously identified a nuclear gene from Arabidopsis encoding a chloroplast-localized homolog of the bacterial cell division protein FtsZ, an essential cytoskeletal component of the prokaryotic cell division apparatus. Here, we report the identification of a second nuclear-encoded FtsZ-type protein from Arabidopsis that does not contain a chloroplast targeting sequence or other obvious sorting signals and is not imported into isolated chloroplasts, which strongly suggests that it is localized in the cytosol. We further demonstrate using antisense technology that inhibiting expression of either Arabidopsis FtsZ gene (AtFtsZ1-1 or AtFtsZ2-1) in transgenic plants reduces the number of chloroplasts in mature leaf cells from 100 to one, indicating that both genes are essential for division of higher plant chloroplasts but that each plays a distinct role in the process. Analysis of currently available plant FtsZ sequences further suggests that two functionally divergent FtsZ gene families encoding differentially localized products participate in chloroplast division. Our results provide evidence that both chloroplastic and cytosolic forms of FtsZ are involved in chloroplast division in higher plants and imply that important differences exist between chloroplasts and prokaryotes with regard to the roles played by FtsZ proteins in the division process. PMID:9836740

  2. Species-specific expansion and molecular evolution of the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene family in plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Liu, Wei; Wei, Hengling; He, Qiuling; Chen, Jinhong; Zhang, Baohong; Zhu, Shuijin

    2014-01-01

    The terpene compounds represent the largest and most diverse class of plant secondary metabolites which are important in plant growth and development. The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR; EC 1.1.1.34) is one of the key enzymes contributed to terpene biosynthesis. To better understand the basic characteristics and evolutionary history of the HMGR gene family in plants, a genome-wide analysis of HMGR genes from 20 representative species was carried out. A total of 56 HMGR genes in the 14 land plant genomes were identified, but no genes were found in all 6 algal genomes. The gene structure and protein architecture of all plant HMGR genes were highly conserved. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the plant HMGRs were derived from one ancestor gene and finally developed into four distinct groups, two in the monocot plants and two in dicot plants. Species-specific gene duplications, caused mainly by segmental duplication, led to the limited expansion of HMGR genes in Zea mays, Gossypium raimondii, Populus trichocarpa and Glycine max after the species diverged. The analysis of Ka/Ks ratios and expression profiles indicated that functional divergence after the gene duplications was restricted. The results suggested that the function and evolution of HMGR gene family were dramatically conserved throughout the plant kingdom. PMID:24722776

  3. Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor gene family members in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin response factors (ARFs) can function as transcriptional activators or repressors to regulate the expression of auxin response genes by specifically binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) during plant development. Based on a genome-wide strategy using the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, 25 S. miltiorrhiza ARF (SmARF) gene family members in four classes (class Ia, IIa, IIb and III) were comprehensively analyzed to identify characteristics including gene structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns. In a hybrid analysis of the phylogenetic tree, microRNA targets, and expression patterns of SmARFs in different organs, root tissues, and methyl jasmonate or indole-3-acetic acid treatment conditions, we screened for candidate SmARFs involved in various developmental processes of S. miltiorrhiza Based on this analysis, we predicted that SmARF25, SmARF7, SmARF16 and SmARF20 are involved in flower, leaf, stem and root development, respectively. With the further insight into the targets of miR160 and miR167, specific SmARF genes in S. miltiorrhiza might encode products that participate in biological processes as described for ARF genes in Arabidopsis Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of SmARFs in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27230647

  4. Genome-wide analysis of auxin response factor gene family members in medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhichao; Ji, Aijia; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Auxin response factors (ARFs) can function as transcriptional activators or repressors to regulate the expression of auxin response genes by specifically binding to auxin response elements (AuxREs) during plant development. Based on a genome-wide strategy using the medicinal model plant Salvia miltiorrhiza, 25 S. miltiorrhiza ARF (SmARF) gene family members in four classes (class Ia, IIa, IIb and III) were comprehensively analyzed to identify characteristics including gene structures, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns. In a hybrid analysis of the phylogenetic tree, microRNA targets, and expression patterns of SmARFs in different organs, root tissues, and methyl jasmonate or indole-3-acetic acid treatment conditions, we screened for candidate SmARFs involved in various developmental processes of S. miltiorrhiza. Based on this analysis, we predicted that SmARF25, SmARF7, SmARF16 and SmARF20 are involved in flower, leaf, stem and root development, respectively. With the further insight into the targets of miR160 and miR167, specific SmARF genes in S. miltiorrhiza might encode products that participate in biological processes as described for ARF genes in Arabidopsis. Our results provide a foundation for understanding the molecular basis and regulatory mechanisms of SmARFs in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27230647

  5. Differential regulation of a hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein gene family in wounded and infected plants.

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, D R; Sauer, N; Lamb, C J

    1987-01-01

    We have characterized three different transcripts induced by fungal elicitor, wounding, or infection which encode apoproteins of cell wall hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins involved in plant defense against infection. The proteins encoded by two of these transcripts contain a proline-rich domain involving tandem repetition of the 16-amino-acid unit Tyr3-Lys-Ser-Pro4-Ser-Pro-Ser-Pro4. The third transcript encodes a protein with a proline-rich domain involving a variant of this 16-mer canonical repeat: Tyr3-His-Ser-Pro4-Lys-His-Ser-Pro4. Each transcript is encoded by a separate gene present at single or low copy number in the haploid genome. These transcripts exhibit markedly different patterns of accumulation in different stress conditions, indicating the operation of several distinct intercellular stress signal systems in higher plants. Images PMID:3437892

  6. The root knot nematode resistance gene Mi from tomato is a member of the leucine zipper, nucleotide binding, leucine-rich repeat family of plant genes.

    PubMed Central

    Milligan, S B; Bodeau, J; Yaghoobi, J; Kaloshian, I; Zabel, P; Williamson, V M

    1998-01-01

    The Mi locus of tomato confers resistance to root knot nematodes. Tomato DNA spanning the locus was isolated as bacterial artificial chromosome clones, and 52 kb of contiguous DNA was sequenced. Three open reading frames were identified with similarity to cloned plant disease resistance genes. Two of them, Mi-1.1 and Mi-1.2, appear to be intact genes; the third is a pseudogene. A 4-kb mRNA hybridizing with these genes is present in tomato roots. Complementation studies using cloned copies of Mi-1.1 and Mi-1.2 indicated that Mi-1.2, but not Mi-1.1, is sufficient to confer resistance to a susceptible tomato line with the progeny of transformants segregating for resistance. The cloned gene most similar to Mi-1.2 is Prf, a tomato gene required for resistance to Pseudomonas syringae. Prf and Mi-1.2 share several structural motifs, including a nucleotide binding site and a leucine-rich repeat region, that are characteristic of a family of plant proteins, including several that are required for resistance against viruses, bacteria, fungi, and now, nematodes. PMID:9707531

  7. Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses

    PubMed Central

    Parrent, Jeri Lynn; James, Timothy Y; Vasaitis, Rimvydas; Taylor, Andrew FS

    2009-01-01

    Background Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32) into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. Results We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0–12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. Conclusion We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi exhibit a wide range of ability

  8. Genome Wide Analysis of the Apple MYB Transcription Factor Family Allows the Identification of MdoMYB121 Gene Confering Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Zhang, Rui-Fen; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2013-01-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors (TFs) in plants. Although several MYB genes have been characterized to play roles in secondary metabolism, the MYB family has not yet been identified in apple. In this study, 229 apple MYB genes were identified through a genome-wide analysis and divided into 45 subgroups. A computational analysis was conducted using the apple genomic database to yield a complete overview of the MYB family, including the intron-exon organizations, the sequence features of the MYB DNA-binding domains, the carboxy-terminal motifs, and the chromosomal locations. Subsequently, the expression of 18 MYB genes, including 12 were chosen from stress-related subgroups, while another 6 ones from other subgroups, in response to various abiotic stresses was examined. It was found that several of these MYB genes, particularly MdoMYB121, were induced by multiple stresses. The MdoMYB121 was then further functionally characterized. Its predicted protein was found to be localized in the nucleus. A transgenic analysis indicated that the overexpression of the MdoMYB121 gene remarkably enhanced the tolerance to high salinity, drought, and cold stresses in transgenic tomato and apple plants. Our results indicate that the MYB genes are highly conserved in plant species and that MdoMYB121 can be used as a target gene in genetic engineering approaches to improve the tolerance of plants to multiple abiotic stresses. PMID:23950843

  9. Diverse roles of SERK family genes in plant growth, development and defense response.

    PubMed

    Fan, Min; Wang, Minmin; Bai, Ming-Yi

    2016-09-01

    Plant receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are transmembrane proteins with an extracellular domain and an intracellular kinase domain, which enable plant perceiving diverse extracellular stimuli to trigger the intracellular signal transduction. The somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs) code the leucine-rich-repeat receptor-like kinase (LRR-RLK), and have been demonstrated to associate with multiple ligand-binding receptors to regulate plant growth, root development, male fertility, stomatal development and movement, and immune responses. Here, we focus on the progress made in recent years in understanding the versatile functions of Arabidopsis SERK proteins, and review SERK proteins as co-receptor to perceive different endogenous and environmental cues in different signaling pathway, and discuss how the kinase activity of SERKs is regulated by various modification. PMID:27525989

  10. Characterization of the serine acetyltransferase gene family of Vitis vinifera uncovers differences in regulation of OAS synthesis in woody plants

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Sílvia; Wirtz, Markus; Beier, Marcel P.; Bogs, Jochen; Hell, Rüdiger; Amâncio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In higher plants cysteine biosynthesis is catalyzed by O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase (OASTL) and represents the last step of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway. It is mainly regulated by provision of O-acetylserine (OAS), the nitrogen/carbon containing backbone for fixation of reduced sulfur. OAS is synthesized by Serine acetyltransferase (SERAT), which reversibly interacts with OASTL in the cysteine synthase complex (CSC). In this study we identify and characterize the SERAT gene family of the crop plant Vitis vinifera. The identified four members of the VvSERAT protein family are assigned to three distinct groups upon their sequence similarities to Arabidopsis SERATs. Expression of fluorescently labeled VvSERAT proteins uncover that the sub-cellular localization of VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT3;1 is the cytosol and that VvSERAT2;1 and VvSERAT2;2 localize in addition in plastids and mitochondria, respectively. The purified VvSERATs of group 1 and 2 have higher enzymatic activity than VvSERAT3;1, which display a characteristic C-terminal extension also present in AtSERAT3;1. VvSERAT1;1 and VvSERAT2;2 are evidenced to form the CSC. CSC formation activates VvSERAT2;2, by releasing CSC-associated VvSERAT2;2 from cysteine inhibition. Thus, subcellular distribution of SERAT isoforms and CSC formation in cytosol and mitochondria is conserved between Arabidopsis and grapevine. Surprisingly, VvSERAT2;1 lack the canonical C-terminal tail of plant SERATs, does not form the CSC and is almost insensitive to cysteine inhibition (IC50 = 1.9 mM cysteine). Upon sulfate depletion VvSERAT2;1 is strongly induced at the transcriptional level, while transcription of other VvSERATs is almost unaffected in sulfate deprived grapevine cell suspension cultures. Application of abiotic stresses to soil grown grapevine plants revealed isoform-specific induction of VvSERAT2;1 in leaves upon drought, whereas high light- or temperature- stress hardly trigger VvSERAT2;1 transcription. PMID:25741355

  11. Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolase (XTH) is encoded by a multi-gene family in the primitive vascular land plant Selaginella kraussiana.

    PubMed

    Van Sandt, V S T; Guisez, Y; Verbelen, J-P; Vissenberg, K

    2007-01-01

    Xyloglucan endotransglycosylase/hydrolases (XTHs) are enzymes that cleave and rejoin xyloglucan chains. To trace the evolutionary origin of XTHs, we used Selaginella kraussiana, a representative of the most primitive land plants (Lycopodiophyta). A Southern blot with a digoxigenin-labeled probe, designed on the conserved catalytic site of XTHs, indicated nine genes. The presence of at least seven functional XTHs was detected by isoelectric focusing (IEF) followed by overlaying the gel with a XET-test paper. Together, these results indicate that XTHs are encoded by a multi-gene family that originated during or even before the colonization of land by plants. PMID:17099842

  12. MGFD: the maize gene families database.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Lei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Xiaoyu; Lin, Yongxiang; Ye, Hui; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-01-01

    Most gene families are transcription factor (TF) families, which have fundamental roles in almost all biological processes (development, growth and response to environmental factors) and have been employed to manipulate various types of metabolic, developmental and stress response pathways in plants. Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world due its importance to human nutrition and health. Thus, identifying and annotating all the gene families in maize is an important primary step in defining their functions and understanding their roles in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In this study, we identified 96 predicted maize gene families and systematically characterized all 5826 of the genes in those families. We have also developed a comprehensive database of maize gene families (the MGFD). To further explore the functions of these gene families, we extensively annotated the genes, including such basic information as protein sequence features, gene structure, Gene Ontology classifications, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The MGFD has a user-friendly web interface with multiple browse and search functions, as well as data downloading. The MGFD is freely available to users at http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/. Database URL: http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/. PMID:26896848

  13. MGFD: the maize gene families database

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Lei; Jiang, Haiyang; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Xiaoyu; Lin, Yongxiang; Ye, Hui; Cheng, Beijiu

    2016-01-01

    Most gene families are transcription factor (TF) families, which have fundamental roles in almost all biological processes (development, growth and response to environmental factors) and have been employed to manipulate various types of metabolic, developmental and stress response pathways in plants. Maize (Zea mays) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world due its importance to human nutrition and health. Thus, identifying and annotating all the gene families in maize is an important primary step in defining their functions and understanding their roles in the regulation of diverse biological processes. In this study, we identified 96 predicted maize gene families and systematically characterized all 5826 of the genes in those families. We have also developed a comprehensive database of maize gene families (the MGFD). To further explore the functions of these gene families, we extensively annotated the genes, including such basic information as protein sequence features, gene structure, Gene Ontology classifications, phylogenetic relationships and expression profiles. The MGFD has a user-friendly web interface with multiple browse and search functions, as well as data downloading. The MGFD is freely available to users at http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/. Database URL: http://mgfd.ahau.edu.cn/ PMID:26896848

  14. Phylogeny and evolution of plant cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) gene family and functional analyses of tomato CNGCs

    PubMed Central

    Saand, Mumtaz Ali; Xu, You-Ping; Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xuan-Rui; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are calcium-permeable channels that are involved in various biological functions. Nevertheless, phylogeny and function of plant CNGCs are not well understood. In this study, 333 CNGC genes from 15 plant species were identified using comprehensive bioinformatics approaches. Extensive bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that CNGCs of Group IVa were distinct to those of other groups in gene structure and amino acid sequence of cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. A CNGC-specific motif that recognizes all identified plant CNGCs was generated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CNGC proteins of flowering plant species formed five groups. However, CNGCs of the non-vascular plant Physcomitrella patens clustered only in two groups (IVa and IVb), while those of the vascular non-flowering plant Selaginella moellendorffii gathered in four (IVa, IVb, I and II). These data suggest that Group IV CNGCs are most ancient and Group III CNGCs are most recently evolved in flowering plants. Furthermore, silencing analyses revealed that a set of CNGC genes might be involved in disease resistance and abiotic stress responses in tomato and function of SlCNGCs does not correlate with the group that they are belonging to. Our results indicate that Group IVa CNGCs are structurally but not functionally unique among plant CNGCs. PMID:26546226

  15. Phylogeny and evolution of plant cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channel (CNGC) gene family and functional analyses of tomato CNGCs.

    PubMed

    Saand, Mumtaz Ali; Xu, You-Ping; Munyampundu, Jean-Pierre; Li, Wen; Zhang, Xuan-Rui; Cai, Xin-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs) are calcium-permeable channels that are involved in various biological functions. Nevertheless, phylogeny and function of plant CNGCs are not well understood. In this study, 333 CNGC genes from 15 plant species were identified using comprehensive bioinformatics approaches. Extensive bioinformatics analyses demonstrated that CNGCs of Group IVa were distinct to those of other groups in gene structure and amino acid sequence of cyclic nucleotide-binding domain. A CNGC-specific motif that recognizes all identified plant CNGCs was generated. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CNGC proteins of flowering plant species formed five groups. However, CNGCs of the non-vascular plant Physcomitrella patens clustered only in two groups (IVa and IVb), while those of the vascular non-flowering plant Selaginella moellendorffii gathered in four (IVa, IVb, I and II). These data suggest that Group IV CNGCs are most ancient and Group III CNGCs are most recently evolved in flowering plants. Furthermore, silencing analyses revealed that a set of CNGC genes might be involved in disease resistance and abiotic stress responses in tomato and function of SlCNGCs does not correlate with the group that they are belonging to. Our results indicate that Group IVa CNGCs are structurally but not functionally unique among plant CNGCs. PMID:26546226

  16. Functional Genomic Analysis Supports Conservation of Function Among Cellulose Synthase-Like A Gene Family Members and Suggests Diverse Roles of Mannans in Plants1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liepman, Aaron H.; Nairn, C. Joseph; Willats, William G.T.; Sørensen, Iben; Roberts, Alison W.; Keegstra, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Mannan polysaccharides are widespread among plants, where they serve as structural elements in cell walls, as carbohydrate reserves, and potentially perform other important functions. Previous work has demonstrated that members of the cellulose synthase-like A (CslA) family of glycosyltransferases from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), guar (Cyamopsis tetragonolobus), and Populus trichocarpa catalyze β-1,4-mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Mannan polysaccharides and homologs of CslA genes appear to be present in all lineages of land plants analyzed to date. In many plants, the CslA genes are members of extended multigene families; however, it is not known whether all CslA proteins are glucomannan synthases. CslA proteins from diverse land plant species, including representatives of the mono- and dicotyledonous angiosperms, gymnosperms, and bryophytes, were produced in insect cells, and each CslA protein catalyzed mannan and glucomannan synthase reactions in vitro. Microarray mining and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that transcripts of Arabidopsis and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) CslA genes display tissue-specific expression patterns in vegetative and floral tissues. Glycan microarray analysis of Arabidopsis indicated that mannans are present throughout the plant and are especially abundant in flowers, siliques, and stems. Mannans are also present in chloronemal and caulonemal filaments of Physcomitrella patens, where they are prevalent at cell junctions and in buds. Taken together, these results demonstrate that members of the CslA gene family from diverse plant species encode glucomannan synthases and support the hypothesis that mannans function in metabolic networks devoted to other cellular processes in addition to cell wall structure and carbohydrate storage. PMID:17307900

  17. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Eunyoung; Kim, Seungill; Yeom, Seon-In; Choi, Doil

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267, 443, and 755 NLR-encoding genes in tomato, potato, and pepper genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and classification of Solanaceae NLRs revealed that the majority of NLR super family members fell into 14 subgroups, including a TIR-NLR (TNL) subgroup and 13 non-TNL subgroups. Specific subgroups have expanded in each genome, with the expansion in pepper showing subgroup-specific physical clusters. Comparative analysis of duplications showed distinct duplication patterns within pepper and among Solanaceae plants suggesting subgroup- or species-specific gene duplication events after speciation, resulting in divergent evolution. Taken together, genome-wide analysis of NLR family members provide insights into their evolutionary history in Solanaceae. These findings also provide important foundational knowledge for understanding NLR evolution and will empower broader characterization of disease resistance genes to be used for crop breeding. PMID:27559340

  18. Genome-Wide Comparative Analyses Reveal the Dynamic Evolution of Nucleotide-Binding Leucine-Rich Repeat Gene Family among Solanaceae Plants.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunyoung; Kim, Seungill; Yeom, Seon-In; Choi, Doil

    2016-01-01

    Plants have evolved an elaborate innate immune system against invading pathogens. Within this system, intracellular nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors are known play critical roles in effector-triggered immunity (ETI) plant defense. We performed genome-wide identification and classification of NLR-coding sequences from the genomes of pepper, tomato, and potato using fixed criteria. We then compared genomic duplication and evolution features. We identified intact 267, 443, and 755 NLR-encoding genes in tomato, potato, and pepper genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis and classification of Solanaceae NLRs revealed that the majority of NLR super family members fell into 14 subgroups, including a TIR-NLR (TNL) subgroup and 13 non-TNL subgroups. Specific subgroups have expanded in each genome, with the expansion in pepper showing subgroup-specific physical clusters. Comparative analysis of duplications showed distinct duplication patterns within pepper and among Solanaceae plants suggesting subgroup- or species-specific gene duplication events after speciation, resulting in divergent evolution. Taken together, genome-wide analysis of NLR family members provide insights into their evolutionary history in Solanaceae. These findings also provide important foundational knowledge for understanding NLR evolution and will empower broader characterization of disease resistance genes to be used for crop breeding. PMID:27559340

  19. Overexpression of a CYP94 family gene CYP94C2b increases internode length and plant height in rice

    PubMed Central

    Kurotani, Ken-Ich; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth is controlled by intrinsic developmental programmes and environmental cues. Jasmonate (JA) has important roles in both processes, by regulating cell division and differentiation, as well as in defense responses and senescence. We report an increase in rice plant height caused by overexpression of a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP94C2b, which promoted deactivation of JA-Ile. The height increase occurred through enhanced elongation of internodes in the absence of concomitant cell elongation, unlike previous findings with coi1 knock-down plants. Thus, modulating JA metabolism can increase the number of elongated cells in an internode. Based on these and previous findings, we discuss the difference in the effects of CYP94C2b overexpression vs. coi1 knock-down. PMID:26251886

  20. Numbers of Genes in the NBS and RLK Families Vary by More than Four-Fold Within a Plant Species and are Regulated by Multiple Factors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many genes exist in the form of families; however, little is known about their size variation, evolution and biology. Here, we present the size variation and evolution of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS)- encoding gene family and receptor-like kinase (RLK) gene family in Oryza, Glycine and Gossypiu...

  1. [Imprinted genes in plants].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Geng; Yang, Ruo-Fei; Fu, Feng-Ling; Li, Wan-Chen

    2010-12-01

    The expression of imprinted genes is regulated by epigenetic mechanism. In plant endosperm, the allele of imprinted genes is expressed in a pattern of parent-of-origin-dependent. The expression of imprinted genes plays essential roles in the development of embryos and their annexe structures, as well as seed size, reproductive barriers and apomixis. Along with the progress of plant epigenetic research, the exploration of imprinted genes is becoming hotspot in epigenetic research. This review focused on the parental conflict theory about the origin of imprinted genes, and the latest research advances in expression regulation mechanism of plant imprinted genes, using the examples of the important imprinted genes MEA, FIS2, FWA, MPC, and PHE1 in Arabidopsis, and FIEI and FIE2 in maize. PMID:21513148

  2. Identification and characterization of plant-specific NAC gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) reveal novel members involved in cell death.

    PubMed

    Wang, Boya; Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jieyu; Niu, Fangfang; Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liang, Wanwan; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. However, to date, little is known about the NAC genes in canola (or oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.). In this study, a total of 60 NAC genes were identified from canola through a systematical analysis and mining of expressed sequence tags. Among these, the cDNA sequences of 41 NAC genes were successfully cloned. The translated protein sequences of canola NAC genes with the NAC genes from representative species were phylogenetically clustered into three major groups and multiple subgroups. The transcriptional activities of these BnaNAC proteins were assayed in yeast. In addition, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we further observed that some of these BnaNACs were regulated by different hormone stimuli or abiotic stresses. Interestingly, we successfully identified two novel BnaNACs, BnaNAC19 and BnaNAC82, which could elicit hypersensitive response-like cell death when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was mediated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, our work has laid a solid foundation for further characterization of this important NAC gene family in canola. PMID:25616736

  3. Testing Times for Plant Family Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Geoffrey E.

    2010-01-01

    Plant families are the level of the taxonomic hierarchy that many biologists use to organise their understanding of plant diversity. Consequently, from many perspectives, it is very useful to be able to recognise the major plant families "on sight". To this end numerous books and web sites have described and illustrated plant families, but few…

  4. The Zebrafish Annexin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Steven A.; De Rose, Robert A.; Olson, Eric S.; Halpern, Marnie E.

    2003-01-01

    The Annexins (ANXs) are a family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins that have been implicated in many cellular processes, including channel formation, membrane fusion, vesicle transport, and regulation of phospholipase A2 activity. As a first step toward understanding in vivo function, we have cloned 11 zebrafish anx genes. Four genes (anx1a, anx2a, anx5,and anx11a) were identified by screening a zebrafish cDNA library with a Xenopus anx2 fragment. For these genes, full-length cDNA sequences were used to cluster 212 EST sequences generated by the Zebrafish Genome Resources Project. The EST analysis revealed seven additional anx genes that were subsequently cloned. The genetic map positions of all 11 genes were determined by using a zebrafish radiation hybrid panel. Sequence and syntenic relationships between zebrafish and human genes indicate that the 11 genes represent orthologs of human anx1,2,4,5,6,11,13,and suggest that several zebrafish anx genes resulted from duplications that arose after divergence of the zebrafish and mammalian genomes. Zebrafish anx genes are expressed in a wide range of tissues during embryonic and larval stages. Analysis of the expression patterns of duplicated genes revealed both redundancy and divergence, with the most similar genes having almost identical tissue-specific patterns of expression and with less similar duplicates showing no overlap. The differences in gene expression of recently duplicated anx genes could explain why highly related paralogs were maintained in the genome and did not rapidly become pseudogenes. PMID:12799347

  5. The CBF gene family in apple (malus x domestica Borkh.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many vascular plants have evolved mechanisms for protecting themselves from freeze damage. One of the key pathways controlling higher plant responses to low temperature involves a family of genes which belong to the AP2 domain class of transcription factors. The promoters of many genes involved in...

  6. Characterization of the multigene family TaHKT 2;1 in bread wheat and the role of gene members in plant Na+ and K+ status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A member of the TaHKT2;1 multigene family was previously identified as a Na+ transporter with a possible role in root Na+ uptake. In the present study, the existing full-length cDNA of this member was used as a basis to query the International Wheat Genome Survey Sequence to identify all members of the TaHKT2;1 family. Individual TaHKT2;1 genes were subsequently studied for gene and predicted protein structures, promoter variability, tissue expression and their role in Na+ and K+ status of wheat. Results Six TaHKT2;1 genes were characterized which included four functional genes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7DL-1) and two pseudogenes (TaHKT2;1 7AL-2 and TaHKT2;1 7AL-3), on chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D of hexaploid wheat. Variability in protein domains for cation specificity and in cis-regulatory elements for salt response in gene promoters, were identified amongst the functional TaHKT2;1 members. The functional genes were expressed under low and high NaCl conditions in roots and leaf sheaths, but were down regulated in leaf blades. Alternative splicing events were evident in TaHKT2;1 7AL-1. Aneuploid lines null for each functional gene were grown in high NaCl nutrient solution culture to identify potential role of each TaHKT2;1 member. Aneuploid lines null for TaHKT2;1 7AL-1, TaHKT2;1 7BL-1 and TaHKT2;1 7BL-2 showed no difference in Na+ concentration between Chinese Spring except for higher Na+ in sheaths. The same aneuploid lines had lower K+ in roots, sheath and youngest fully expanded leaf but only under high (200 mM) NaCl in the external solution. There was no difference in Na+ or K+ concentration for any treatment between aneuploid line null for the TaHKT2;1 7DL-1 gene and Chinese Spring. Conclusions TaHKT2;1 is a complex family consisting of pseudogenes and functional members. TaHKT2;1 genes do not have an apparent role in controlling root Na+ uptake in bread wheat seedlings under experimental conditions in this study

  7. MicroRNAs as master regulators of the plant NB-LRR defense gene family via the production of phased, trans-acting siRNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Jixian; Jeong, Dong-Hoon; De Paoli, Emanuele; Park, Sunhee; Rosen, Benjamin D; Li, Yupeng; González, Alvaro J; Yan, Zhe; Kitto, Sherry L; Grusak, Michael A; Jackson, Scott A; Stacey, Gary; Cook, Douglas R; Green, Pamela J; Sherrier, D Janine; Meyers, Blake C

    2011-12-01

    Legumes and many nonleguminous plants enter symbiotic interactions with microbes, and it is poorly understood how host plants respond to promote beneficial, symbiotic microbial interactions while suppressing those that are deleterious or pathogenic. Trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) negatively regulate target transcripts and are characterized by siRNAs spaced in 21-nucleotide (nt) "phased" intervals, a pattern formed by DICER-LIKE 4 (DCL4) processing. A search for phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs) found at least 114 Medicago loci, the majority of which were defense-related NB-LRR-encoding genes. We identified three highly abundant 22-nt microRNA (miRNA) families that target conserved domains in these NB-LRRs and trigger the production of trans-acting siRNAs. High levels of small RNAs were matched to >60% of all ∼540 encoded Medicago NB-LRRs; in the potato, a model for mycorrhizal interactions, phasiRNAs were also produced from NB-LRRs. DCL2 and SGS3 transcripts were also cleaved by these 22-nt miRNAs, generating phasiRNAs, suggesting synchronization between silencing and pathogen defense pathways. In addition, a new example of apparent "two-hit" phasiRNA processing was identified. Our data reveal complex tasiRNA-based regulation of NB-LRRs that potentially evolved to facilitate symbiotic interactions and demonstrate miRNAs as master regulators of a large gene family via the targeting of highly conserved, protein-coding motifs, a new paradigm for miRNA function. PMID:22156213

  8. The CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Yang, Nan; Lv, Yanting; Pan, Lixia; Lv, Shuo; Han, Huibin; Wang, Guodong

    2016-06-01

    The CLE (CLAVATA3/Embryo Surrounding Region-related) peptides are small secreted signaling peptides that are primarily involved in the regulation of stem cell homeostasis in different plant meristems. Particularly, the characterization of the CLE41-PXY/TDR signaling pathway has greatly advanced our understanding on the potential roles of CLE peptides in vascular development and wood formation. Nevertheless, our knowledge on this gene family in a tree species is limited. In a recent study, we reported on a systematically investigation of the CLE gene family in Populus trichocarpa. The potential roles of PtCLE genes were studied by comparative analysis and transcriptional profiling. Among fifty PtCLE members, many PtCLE proteins share identical CLE motifs or contain the same CLE motif as that of AtCLEs, while PtCLE genes exhibited either comparable or distinct expression patterns comparing to their Arabidopsis counterparts. These findings indicate the existence of both functional conservation and functional divergence between PtCLEs and their AtCLE orthologues. Our results provide valuable resources for future functional investigations of these critical signaling molecules in woody plants. PMID:27232947

  9. Structure and expression of the maize (Zea mays L.) SUN-domain protein gene family: evidence for the existence of two divergent classes of SUN proteins in plants

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The nuclear envelope that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm provides a surface for chromatin attachment and organization of the cortical nucleoplasm. Proteins associated with it have been well characterized in many eukaryotes but not in plants. SUN (Sad1p/Unc-84) domain proteins reside in the inner nuclear membrane and function with other proteins to form a physical link between the nucleoskeleton and the cytoskeleton. These bridges transfer forces across the nuclear envelope and are increasingly recognized to play roles in nuclear positioning, nuclear migration, cell cycle-dependent breakdown and reformation of the nuclear envelope, telomere-led nuclear reorganization during meiosis, and karyogamy. Results We found and characterized a family of maize SUN-domain proteins, starting with a screen of maize genomic sequence data. We characterized five different maize ZmSUN genes (ZmSUN1-5), which fell into two classes (probably of ancient origin, as they are also found in other monocots, eudicots, and even mosses). The first (ZmSUN1, 2), here designated canonical C-terminal SUN-domain (CCSD), includes structural homologs of the animal and fungal SUN-domain protein genes. The second (ZmSUN3, 4, 5), here designated plant-prevalent mid-SUN 3 transmembrane (PM3), includes a novel but conserved structural variant SUN-domain protein gene class. Mircroarray-based expression analyses revealed an intriguing pollen-preferred expression for ZmSUN5 mRNA but low-level expression (50-200 parts per ten million) in multiple tissues for all the others. Cloning and characterization of a full-length cDNA for a PM3-type maize gene, ZmSUN4, is described. Peptide antibodies to ZmSUN3, 4 were used in western-blot and cell-staining assays to show that they are expressed and show concentrated staining at the nuclear periphery. Conclusions The maize genome encodes and expresses at least five different SUN-domain proteins, of which the PM3 subfamily may

  10. Molecular characterization of the reniform nematode C-type lectin gene family reveals a likely role in mitigating environmental stresses during plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Satish; Jenkins, Johnie N; Wubben, Martin J

    2014-03-10

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is a damaging semi-endoparasitic pathogen of more than 300 plant species. Transcriptome sequencing of R. reniformis parasitic females revealed an enrichment for sequences homologous to C-type lectins (CTLs), an evolutionarily ancient family of Ca(+2)-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in the innate immune response. To gain further insight as to the potential role of CTLs in facilitating plant parasitism by R. reniformis, we performed a comprehensive assessment of the CTL gene family. 5'- and 3'-RACE experiments identified a total of 11 R. reniformis CTL transcripts (Rr-ctl-1 through Rr-ctl-11) that ranged in length from 1083 to 1,194 bp and showed 93-99% identity with one another. An alignment of cDNA and genomic sequences revealed three introns with the first intron residing within the 5'-untranslated region. BLAST analyses showed the closest homologs belonging to the parasitic nematodes Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Heterodera glycines. Rr-ctl-1, -2, and -3 were expressed throughout the R. reniformis life cycle; whereas, the remaining Rr-ctl genes showed life stage-specific expression. Quantitative real time RT-PCR determined that Rr-ctl transcripts were 839-fold higher in sedentary female nematodes than the next most abundant life stage. Predicted Rr-CTL peptides ranged from 301 to 338 amino acids long, possessed an N-terminal signal peptide for secretion, and contained a conserved CLECT domain, including the mannose-binding motifs EPN and EPD and the conserved WND motif that is required for binding Ca(+2). In addition, Rr-CTL peptides harbored repeats of a novel 17-mer motif within their C-terminus that showed similarity to motifs associated with bacterial ice nucleation proteins. In situ hybridization of Rr-ctl transcripts within sedentary females showed specific accumulation within the hypodermis of the body regions exposed to the soil environment; those structures embedded within the

  11. The tomato terpene synthase gene family.

    PubMed

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A; Nguyen, Thuong T H; Spyropoulou, Eleni A; Bleeker, Petra M; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Last, Robert L; Schuurink, Robert C; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-10-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  12. Genome-Wide Identification of Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase Gene Family in Plant Lineage Shows Presence of Novel D-x-D and D-E-L Motifs in EF-Hand Domain

    PubMed Central

    Mohanta, Tapan K.; Mohanta, Nibedita; Mohanta, Yugal K.; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Calcium ions are considered ubiquitous second messengers in eukaryotic signal transduction pathways. Intracellular Ca2+ concentration are modulated by various signals such as hormones and biotic and abiotic stresses. Modulation of Ca2+ ion leads to stimulation of calcium dependent protein kinase genes (CPKs), which results in regulation of gene expression and therefore mediates plant growth and development as well as biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we reported the CPK gene family of 40 different plant species (950 CPK genes) and provided a unified nomenclature system for all of them. In addition, we analyzed their genomic, biochemical and structural conserved features. Multiple sequence alignment revealed that the kinase domain, auto-inhibitory domain and EF-hands regions of regulatory domains are highly conserved in nature. Additionally, the EF-hand domains of higher plants were found to contain four D-x-D and two D-E-L motifs, while lower eukaryotic plants had two D-x-D and one D-x-E motifs in their EF-hands. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CPK genes are clustered into four different groups. By studying the CPK gene family across the plant lineage, we provide the first evidence of the presence of D-x-D motif in the calcium binding EF-hand domain of CPK proteins. PMID:26734045

  13. The insect SNMP gene family.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Richard G; Miller, Natalie E; Litvack, Rachel; Fandino, Richard A; Sparks, Jackson; Staples, Jon; Friedman, Robert; Dickens, Joseph C

    2009-07-01

    SNMPs are membrane proteins observed to associate with chemosensory neurons in insects; in Drosophila melanogaster, SNMP1 has been shown to be essential for the detection of the pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (CVA). SNMPs are one of three insect gene clades related to the human fatty acid transporter CD36. We previously characterized the CD36 gene family in 4 insect Orders that effectively cover the Holometabola, or some 80% of known insect species and the 300 million years of evolution since this lineage emerged: Lepidoptera (e.g. Bombyx mori, Antheraea polyphemus, Manduca sexta, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa assulta, Helicoverpa armigera, Mamestra brassicae); Diptera (D. melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae, Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus); Hymenoptera (Apis mellifera); and Coleoptera (Tribolium castaneum). This previous study suggested a complex topography within the SNMP clade including a strongly supported SNMP1 sub-clade plus additional SNMP genes. To further resolve the SNMP clade here, we used cDNA sequences of SNMP1 and SNMP2 from various Lepidoptera species, D. melanogaster and Ae. aegypti, as well as BAC derived genomic sequences from Ae. aegypti as models for proposing corrected sequences of orthologues in the D. pseudoobscura and An. gambiae genomes, and for identifying orthologues in the B. mori and C. pipiens q. genomes. We then used these sequences to analyze the SNMP clade of the insect CD36 gene family, supporting the existence of two well supported sub-clades, SNMP1 and SNMP2, throughout the dipteran and lepidopteran lineages, and plausibly throughout the Holometabola and across a broad evolutionary time scale. We present indirect evidence based on evolutionary selection (dN/dS) that the dipteran SNMPs are expressed as functional proteins. We observed expansions of the SNMP1 sub-clade in C. pipiens q. and T. castaneum suggesting that the SNMP1s may have an expanded functional role in these species. PMID

  14. Resistance gene enrichment sequencing (RenSeq) enables reannotation of the NB-LRR gene family from sequenced plant genomes and rapid mapping of resistance loci in segregating populations.

    PubMed

    Jupe, Florian; Witek, Kamil; Verweij, Walter; Sliwka, Jadwiga; Pritchard, Leighton; Etherington, Graham J; Maclean, Dan; Cock, Peter J; Leggett, Richard M; Bryan, Glenn J; Cardle, Linda; Hein, Ingo; Jones, Jonathan D G

    2013-11-01

    RenSeq is a NB-LRR (nucleotide binding-site leucine-rich repeat) gene-targeted, Resistance gene enrichment and sequencing method that enables discovery and annotation of pathogen resistance gene family members in plant genome sequences. We successfully applied RenSeq to the sequenced potato Solanum tuberosum clone DM, and increased the number of identified NB-LRRs from 438 to 755. The majority of these identified R gene loci reside in poorly or previously unannotated regions of the genome. Sequence and positional details on the 12 chromosomes have been established for 704 NB-LRRs and can be accessed through a genome browser that we provide. We compared these NB-LRR genes and the corresponding oligonucleotide baits with the highest sequence similarity and demonstrated that ~80% sequence identity is sufficient for enrichment. Analysis of the sequenced tomato S. lycopersicum 'Heinz 1706' extended the NB-LRR complement to 394 loci. We further describe a methodology that applies RenSeq to rapidly identify molecular markers that co-segregate with a pathogen resistance trait of interest. In two independent segregating populations involving the wild Solanum species S. berthaultii (Rpi-ber2) and S. ruiz-ceballosii (Rpi-rzc1), we were able to apply RenSeq successfully to identify markers that co-segregate with resistance towards the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. These SNP identification workflows were designed as easy-to-adapt Galaxy pipelines. PMID:23937694

  15. The MDM2 gene family.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Michael; Mandani, Garni; Momand, Jamil

    2014-03-01

    MDM2 is an oncoprotein that blocks p53 tumor suppressor-mediated transcriptional transactivation, escorts p53 from the cell nucleus to the cytoplasm, and polyubiquitylates p53. Polyubiquitylated p53 is rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm by the 26S proteasome. MDM2 is abnormally upregulated in several types of cancers, especially those of mesenchymal origin. MDM4 is a homolog of MDM2 that also inhibits p53 by blocking p53-mediated transactivation. MDM4 is required for MDM2-mediated polyubiquitylated of p53 and is abnormally upregulated in several cancer types. MDM2 and MDM4 genes have been detected in all vertebrates to date and only a single gene homolog, named MDM, has been detected in some invertebrates. MDM2, MDM4, and MDM have similar gene structures, suggesting that MDM2 and MDM4 arose through a duplication event more than 440 million years ago. All members of this small MDM2 gene family contain a single really interesting new gene (RING) domain (with the possible exception of lancelet MDM) which places them in the RING-domain superfamily. Similar to MDM2, the vast majority of proteins with RING domains are E3 ubiquitin ligases. Other RING domain E3 ubiquitin ligases that target p53 are COP1, Pirh2, and MSL2. In this report, we present evidence that COP1, Pirh2, and MSL2 evolved independently of MDM2 and MDM4. We also show, through structure homology models of invertebrate MDM RING domains, that MDM2 is more evolutionarily conserved than MDM4. PMID:25372739

  16. Differential expression of myrosinase gene families.

    PubMed Central

    Lenman, M; Falk, A; Rödin, J; Höglund, A S; Ek, B; Rask, L

    1993-01-01

    In mature seeds of Brassica napus three major and three minor myrosinase isoenzymes were identified earlier. These myrosinases are known to be encoded by at least two different families of myrosinase genes, denoted MA and MB. In the work described in this paper the presence of different myrosinase isoenzymes in embryos, seedlings, and vegetative mature tissues of B. napus was studied and related to the expression of myrosinase MA and MB genes in the same tissues to facilitate future functional studies of these enzymes. In developing seeds, myrosinases of 75, 73, 70, 68, 66, and 65 kD were present. During seedling development there was a turnover of the myrosinase pool such that in 5-d-old seedlings the 75-, 70-, 66-, and 65-kD myrosinases were present, with the 70- and 75-kD myrosinases predominating. In 21-d-old seedlings the same myrosinases were present, but the 66- and 65-kD myrosinase species were most abundant. At flowering the mature organs of the plant contained only a 72-kD myrosinase. MA genes were expressed only in developing seeds, whereas MB genes were most highly expressed in seeds, seedling cotyledons, young leaves, and to a lesser extent other organs of the mature plant. During embryogenesis of B. napus, myrosinase MA and MB gene transcripts started to accumulate approximately 20 d after pollination and reached their highest level approximately 15 d later. MB transcripts accumulated to about 3 times the amount of MA transcripts. In situ hybridization analysis of B. napus embryos showed that MA transcripts were present predominatly in myrosin cells in the axis, whereas MB genes were expressed in myrosin cells of the entire embryo. The embryo axiz contained 75-, 70-, and 65-kD myrosinases, whereas the cotyledons contained mainly 70- and 65-kD myrosinases. Amino acid sequencing revealed the 75-kD myrosinase to be encoded by the MA gene family. The high degree of cell and tissue specificity of the expression of myrosinase genes suggests that studies of

  17. Gene family matters: expanding the HGNC resource.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, Louise C; Seal, Ruth L; Wright, Mathew W; Bruford, Elspeth A

    2012-01-01

    The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) assigns approved gene symbols to human loci. There are currently over 33,000 approved gene symbols, the majority of which represent protein-coding genes, but we also name other locus types such as non-coding RNAs, pseudogenes and phenotypic loci. Where relevant, the HGNC organise these genes into gene families and groups. The HGNC website http://www.genenames.org/ is an online repository of HGNC-approved gene nomenclature and associated resources for human genes, and includes links to genomic, proteomic and phenotypic information. In addition to this, we also have dedicated gene family web pages and are currently expanding and generating more of these pages using data curated by the HGNC and from information derived from external resources that focus on particular gene families. Here, we review our current online resources with a particular focus on our gene family data, using it to highlight our new Gene Symbol Report and gene family data downloads. PMID:23245209

  18. Gene family matters: expanding the HGNC resource

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) assigns approved gene symbols to human loci. There are currently over 33,000 approved gene symbols, the majority of which represent protein-coding genes, but we also name other locus types such as non-coding RNAs, pseudogenes and phenotypic loci. Where relevant, the HGNC organise these genes into gene families and groups. The HGNC website http://www.genenames.org/ is an online repository of HGNC-approved gene nomenclature and associated resources for human genes, and includes links to genomic, proteomic and phenotypic information. In addition to this, we also have dedicated gene family web pages and are currently expanding and generating more of these pages using data curated by the HGNC and from information derived from external resources that focus on particular gene families. Here, we review our current online resources with a particular focus on our gene family data, using it to highlight our new Gene Symbol Report and gene family data downloads. PMID:23245209

  19. Out of the Water: Origin and Diversification of the LBD Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Chanderbali, Andre S.; He, Fengmei; Soltis, Pamela S.; Soltis, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    LBD (LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN) genes are essential to the developmental programs of many fundamental plant organs and function in some of the basic metabolic pathways of plants. However, our historical perspective on the roles of LBD genes during plant evolution has, heretofore, been fragmentary. Here, we show that the LBD gene family underwent an initial radiation that established five gene lineages in the ancestral genome of most charophyte algae and land plants. By inference, the LBD gene family originated after the emergence of the green plants (Viridiplantae), but prior to the diversification of most extant streptophytes. After this initial radiation, we find limited instances of gene family diversification in land plants until successive rounds of expansion in the ancestors of seed plants and flowering plants. The most dynamic phases of LBD gene evolution, therefore, trace to the aquatic ancestors of embryophytes followed by relatively recent lineage-specific expansions on land. PMID:25839188

  20. Out of the Water: Origin and Diversification of the LBD Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Chanderbali, Andre S; He, Fengmei; Soltis, Pamela S; Soltis, Douglas E

    2015-08-01

    LBD (lateral organ boundaries domain) genes are essential to the developmental programs of many fundamental plant organs and function in some of the basic metabolic pathways of plants. However, our historical perspective on the roles of LBD genes during plant evolution has, heretofore, been fragmentary. Here, we show that the LBD gene family underwent an initial radiation that established five gene lineages in the ancestral genome of most charophyte algae and land plants. By inference, the LBD gene family originated after the emergence of the green plants (Viridiplantae), but prior to the diversification of most extant streptophytes. After this initial radiation, we find limited instances of gene family diversification in land plants until successive rounds of expansion in the ancestors of seed plants and flowering plants. The most dynamic phases of LBD gene evolution, therefore, trace to the aquatic ancestors of embryophytes followed by relatively recent lineage-specific expansions on land. PMID:25839188

  1. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Tsai, Fong-Ying

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  2. Multiple Inter-Kingdom Horizontal Gene Transfers in the Evolution of the Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  3. Multiple inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfers in the evolution of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase gene family.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yingmei; Cai, Jing; Wang, Wen; Su, Bing

    2012-01-01

    Pepcase is a gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase that exists in bacteria, archaea and plants,playing an important role in plant metabolism and development. Most plants have two or more pepcase genes belonging to two gene sub-families, while only one gene exists in other organisms. Previous research categorized one plant pepcase gene as plant-type pepcase (PTPC) while the other as bacteria-type pepcase (BTPC) because of its similarity with the pepcase gene found in bacteria. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that PTPC is the ancestral lineage of plant pepcase, and that all bacteria, protistpepcase and BTPC in plants are derived from a lineage of pepcase closely related with PTPC in algae. However, their phylogeny contradicts the species tree and traditional chronology of organism evolution. Because the diversification of bacteria occurred much earlier than the origin of plants, presumably all bacterialpepcase derived from the ancestral PTPC of algal plants after divergingfrom the ancestor of vascular plant PTPC. To solve this contradiction, we reconstructed the phylogeny of pepcase gene family. Our result showed that both PTPC and BTPC are derived from an ancestral lineage of gamma-proteobacteriapepcases, possibly via an ancient inter-kingdom horizontal gene transfer (HGT) from bacteria to the eukaryotic common ancestor of plants, protists and cellular slime mold. Our phylogenetic analysis also found 48other pepcase genes originated from inter-kingdom HGTs. These results imply that inter-kingdom HGTs played important roles in the evolution of the pepcase gene family and furthermore that HGTsare a more frequent evolutionary event than previouslythought. PMID:23251445

  4. Lineage-specific expansion of IFIT gene family: an insight into coevolution with IFN gene family.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system. PMID:23818968

  5. Lineage-Specific Expansion of IFIT Gene Family: An Insight into Coevolution with IFN Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yi-Bing; Liu, Ting-Kai; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, IFIT (Interferon [IFN]-induced proteins with Tetratricopeptide Repeat [TPR] motifs) family genes are involved in many cellular and viral processes, which are tightly related to mammalian IFN response. However, little is known about non-mammalian IFIT genes. In the present study, IFIT genes are identified in the genome databases from the jawed vertebrates including the cartilaginous elephant shark but not from non-vertebrates such as lancelet, sea squirt and acorn worm, suggesting that IFIT gene family originates from a vertebrate ancestor about 450 million years ago. IFIT family genes show conserved gene structure and gene arrangements. Phylogenetic analyses reveal that this gene family has expanded through lineage-specific and species-specific gene duplication. Interestingly, IFN gene family seem to share a common ancestor and a similar evolutionary mechanism; the function link of IFIT genes to IFN response is present early since the origin of both gene families, as evidenced by the finding that zebrafish IFIT genes are upregulated by fish IFNs, poly(I:C) and two transcription factors IRF3/IRF7, likely via the IFN-stimulated response elements (ISRE) within the promoters of vertebrate IFIT family genes. These coevolution features creates functional association of both family genes to fulfill a common biological process, which is likely selected by viral infection during evolution of vertebrates. Our results are helpful for understanding of evolution of vertebrate IFN system. PMID:23818968

  6. JGI Plant Genomics Gene Annotation Pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, Shengqiang; Rokhsar, Dan; Goodstein, David; Hayes, David; Mitros, Therese

    2014-07-14

    Plant genomes vary in size and are highly complex with a high amount of repeats, genome duplication and tandem duplication. Gene encodes a wealth of information useful in studying organism and it is critical to have high quality and stable gene annotation. Thanks to advancement of sequencing technology, many plant species genomes have been sequenced and transcriptomes are also sequenced. To use these vastly large amounts of sequence data to make gene annotation or re-annotation in a timely fashion, an automatic pipeline is needed. JGI plant genomics gene annotation pipeline, called integrated gene call (IGC), is our effort toward this aim with aid of a RNA-seq transcriptome assembly pipeline. It utilizes several gene predictors based on homolog peptides and transcript ORFs. See Methods for detail. Here we present genome annotation of JGI flagship green plants produced by this pipeline plus Arabidopsis and rice except for chlamy which is done by a third party. The genome annotations of these species and others are used in our gene family build pipeline and accessible via JGI Phytozome portal whose URL and front page snapshot are shown below.

  7. Plant sulfate assimilation genes: redundancy versus specialization.

    PubMed

    Kopriva, Stanislav; Mugford, Sarah G; Matthewman, Colette; Koprivova, Anna

    2009-12-01

    Sulfur is an essential nutrient present in the amino acids cysteine and methionine, co-enzymes and vitamins. Plants and many microorganisms are able to utilize inorganic sulfate and assimilate it into these compounds. Sulfate assimilation in plants has been extensively studied because of the many functions of sulfur in plant metabolism and stress defense. The pathway is highly regulated in a demand-driven manner. A characteristic feature of this pathway is that most of its components are encoded by small multigene families. This may not be surprising, as several steps of sulfate assimilation occur in multiple cellular compartments, but the composition of the gene families is more complex than simply organellar versus cytosolic forms. Recently, several of these gene families have been investigated in a systematic manner utilizing Arabidopsis reverse genetics tools. In this review, we will assess how far the individual isoforms of sulfate assimilation enzymes possess specific functions and what level of genetic redundancy is retained. We will also compare the genomic organization of sulfate assimilation in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana with other plant species to find common and species-specific features of the pathway. PMID:19876632

  8. Dynamic actin gene family evolution in primates.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liucun; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Yijun; Wen, Tieqiao; Wang, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Actin is one of the most highly conserved proteins and plays crucial roles in many vital cellular functions. In most eukaryotes, it is encoded by a multigene family. Although the actin gene family has been studied a lot, few investigators focus on the comparison of actin gene family in relative species. Here, the purpose of our study is to systematically investigate characteristics and evolutionary pattern of actin gene family in primates. We identified 233 actin genes in human, chimpanzee, gorilla, orangutan, gibbon, rhesus monkey, and marmoset genomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that actin genes in the seven species could be divided into two major types of clades: orthologous group versus complex group. Codon usages and gene expression patterns of actin gene copies were highly consistent among the groups because of basic functions needed by the organisms, but much diverged within species due to functional diversification. Besides, many great potential pseudogenes were found with incomplete open reading frames due to frameshifts or early stop codons. These results implied that actin gene family in primates went through "birth and death" model of evolution process. Under this model, actin genes experienced strong negative selection and increased the functional complexity by reproducing themselves. PMID:23841080

  9. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NBS-LRR GENES IN THE MODEL PLANT MEDICAGO TRUNCATULA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NBS-LRR gene family accounts for the largest number of known disease resistance genes, and is one of the largest gene families in plant genomes. We describe this gene family in the model legume genome Medicago truncatula (“Medicago”). The current public draft genome sequence (Mt1.0) is estima...

  10. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) Gene Family Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  11. Tomato ABSCISIC ACID STRESS RIPENING (ASR) gene family revisited.

    PubMed

    Golan, Ido; Dominguez, Pia Guadalupe; Konrad, Zvia; Shkolnik-Inbar, Doron; Carrari, Fernando; Bar-Zvi, Dudy

    2014-01-01

    Tomato ABSCISIC ACID RIPENING 1 (ASR1) was the first cloned plant ASR gene. ASR orthologs were then cloned from a large number of monocot, dicot and gymnosperm plants, where they are mostly involved in response to abiotic (drought and salinity) stress and fruit ripening. The tomato genome encodes five ASR genes: ASR1, 2, 3 and 5 encode low-molecular-weight proteins (ca. 110 amino acid residues each), whereas ASR4 encodes a 297-residue polypeptide. Information on the expression of the tomato ASR gene family is scarce. We used quantitative RT-PCR to assay the expression of this gene family in plant development and in response to salt and osmotic stresses. ASR1 and ASR4 were the main expressed genes in all tested organs and conditions, whereas ASR2 and ASR3/5 expression was two to three orders of magnitude lower (with the exception of cotyledons). ASR1 is expressed in all plant tissues tested whereas ASR4 expression is limited to photosynthetic organs and stamens. Essentially, ASR1 accounted for most of ASR gene expression in roots, stems and fruits at all developmental stages, whereas ASR4 was the major gene expressed in cotyledons and young and fully developed leaves. Both ASR1 and ASR4 were expressed in flower organs, with ASR1 expression dominating in stamens and pistils, ASR4 in sepals and petals. Steady-state levels of ASR1 and ASR4 were upregulated in plant vegetative organs following exposure to salt stress, osmotic stress or the plant abiotic stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA). Tomato plants overexpressing ASR1 displayed enhanced survival rates under conditions of water stress, whereas ASR1-antisense plants displayed marginal hypersensitivity to water withholding. PMID:25310287

  12. A review of the new HGNC gene family resource.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kristian A; Seal, Ruth L; Tweedie, Susan; Wright, Mathew W; Bruford, Elspeth A

    2016-01-01

    The HUGO Gene Nomenclature Committee (HGNC) approves unique gene symbols and names for human loci. As well as naming genomic loci, we manually curate genes into family sets based on shared characteristics such as function, homology or phenotype. Each HGNC gene family has its own dedicated gene family report on our website, www.genenames.org . We have recently redesigned these reports to support the visualisation and browsing of complex relationships between families and to provide extra curated information such as family descriptions, protein domain graphics and gene family aliases. Here, we review how our gene families are curated and explain how to view, search and download the gene family data. PMID:26842383

  13. GmCYP82A3, a Soybean Cytochrome P450 Family Gene Involved in the Jasmonic Acid and Ethylene Signaling Pathway, Enhances Plant Resistance to Biotic and Abiotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiang; Cui, Xiaoxia; Lin, Shuai; Gan, Shuping; Xing, Han; Dou, Daolong

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) represent a large and important enzyme superfamily in plants. They catalyze numerous monooxygenation/hydroxylation reactions in biochemical pathways, P450s are involved in a variety of metabolic pathways and participate in the homeostasis of phytohormones. The CYP82 family genes specifically reside in dicots and are usually induced by distinct environmental stresses. However, their functions are largely unknown, especially in soybean (Glycine max L.). Here, we report the function of GmCYP82A3, a gene from soybean CYP82 family. Its expression was induced by Phytophthora sojae infection, salinity and drought stresses, and treatment with methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or ethephon (ETH). Its expression levels were consistently high in resistant cultivars. Transgenic Nicotiana benthamiana plants overexpressing GmCYP82A3 exhibited strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea and Phytophthora parasitica, and enhanced tolerance to salinity and drought stresses. Furthermore, transgenic plants were less sensitive to jasmonic acid (JA), and the enhanced resistance was accompanied with increased expression of the JA/ET signaling pathway-related genes. PMID:27588421

  14. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  15. Evolution of the Vertebrate Resistin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qingda; Tan, Huanran; Irwin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Resistin (encoded by Retn) was previously identified in rodents as a hormone associated with diabetes; however human resistin is instead linked to inflammation. Resistin is a member of a small gene family that includes the resistin-like peptides (encoded by Retnl genes) in mammals. Genomic searches of available genome sequences of diverse vertebrates and phylogenetic analyses were conducted to determine the size and origin of the resistin-like gene family. Genes encoding peptides similar to resistin were found in Mammalia, Sauria, Amphibia, and Actinistia (coelacanth, a lobe-finned fish), but not in Aves or fish from Actinopterygii, Chondrichthyes, or Agnatha. Retnl originated by duplication and transposition from Retn on the early mammalian lineage after divergence of the platypus, but before the placental and marsupial mammal divergence. The resistin-like gene family illustrates an instance where the locus of origin of duplicated genes can be identified, with Retn continuing to reside at this location. Mammalian species typically have a single copy Retn gene, but are much more variable in their numbers of Retnl genes, ranging from 0 to 9. Since Retn is located at the locus of origin, thus likely retained the ancestral expression pattern, largely maintained its copy number, and did not display accelerated evolution, we suggest that it is more likely to have maintained an ancestral function, while Retnl, which transposed to a new location, displays accelerated evolution, and shows greater variability in gene number, including gene loss, likely evolved new, but potentially lineage-specific, functions. PMID:26076481

  16. Heterochronic genes in plant evolution and development

    PubMed Central

    Geuten, Koen; Coenen, Heleen

    2013-01-01

    Evolution of morphology includes evolutionary shifts of developmental processes in space or in time. Heterochronic evolution is defined as a temporal shift. The concept of heterochrony has been very rewarding to investigators of both animal and plant developmental evolution, because it has strong explanatory power when trying to understand morphological diversity. While for animals, extensive literature on heterochrony developed along with the field of evolution of development, in plants the concept has been applied less often and is less elaborately developed. Yet novel genetic findings highlight heterochrony as a developmental and evolutionary process in plants. Similar to what has been found for the worm Caenorhabditis, a heterochronic gene pathway controlling developmental timing has been elucidated in flowering plants. Two antagonistic microRNA’s miR156 and miR172 target two gene families of transcription factors, SQUAMOSA PROMOTOR BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE and APETALA2-like, respectively. Here, we propose that this finding now allows the molecular investigation of cases of heterochronic evolution in plants. We illustrate this point by examining microRNA expression patterns in the Antirrhinum majus incomposita and choripetala heterochronic mutants. Some of the more beautiful putative cases of heterochronic evolution can be found outside flowering plants, but little is known about the extent of conservation of this flowering plant pathway in other land plants. We show that the expression of an APETALA2-like gene decreases with age in a fern species. This contributes to the idea that ferns share some heterochronic gene functions with flowering plants. PMID:24093023

  17. Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Christophides, George K; Zdobnov, Evgeny; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Birney, Ewan; Blandin, Stephanie; Blass, Claudia; Brey, Paul T; Collins, Frank H; Danielli, Alberto; Dimopoulos, George; Hetru, Charles; Hoa, Ngo T; Hoffmann, Jules A; Kanzok, Stefan M; Letunic, Ivica; Levashina, Elena A; Loukeris, Thanasis G; Lycett, Gareth; Meister, Stephan; Michel, Kristin; Moita, Luis F; Müller, Hans-Michael; Osta, Mike A; Paskewitz, Susan M; Reichhart, Jean-Marc; Rzhetsky, Andrey; Troxler, Laurent; Vernick, Kenneth D; Vlachou, Dina; Volz, Jennifer; von Mering, Christian; Xu, Jiannong; Zheng, Liangbiao; Bork, Peer; Kafatos, Fotis C

    2002-10-01

    We have identified 242 Anopheles gambiae genes from 18 gene families implicated in innate immunity and have detected marked diversification relative to Drosophila melanogaster. Immune-related gene families involved in recognition, signal modulation, and effector systems show a marked deficit of orthologs and excessive gene expansions, possibly reflecting selection pressures from different pathogens encountered in these insects' very different life-styles. In contrast, the multifunctional Toll signal transduction pathway is substantially conserved, presumably because of counterselection for developmental stability. Representative expression profiles confirm that sequence diversification is accompanied by specific responses to different immune challenges. Alternative RNA splicing may also contribute to expansion of the immune repertoire. PMID:12364793

  18. Metazoan Gene Families from Metazome

    DOE Data Explorer

    Metazome is a joint project of the Department of Energy's Joint Genome Institute and the Center for Integrative Genomics to facilitate comparative genomic studies amongst metazoans. Clusters of orthologous and paralogous genes that represent the modern descendents of ancestral gene sets are constructed at key phylogenetic nodes. These clusters allow easy access to clade specific orthology/paralogy relationships as well as clade specific genes and gene expansions. As of version 2.0.4, Metazome provides access to twenty-four sequenced and annotated metazoan genomes, clustered at nine evolutionarily significant nodes. Where possible, each gene has been annotated with PFAM, KOG, KEGG, and PANTHER assignments, and publicly available annotations from RefSeq, UniProt, Ensembl, and JGI are hyper-linked and searchable. The included organisms (by common name) are: Human, Mouse, Rat, Dog, Opossum, Chicken, Frog, Stickleback, Medaka, Fugu pufferfish; Zebrafish, Seasquirt - savignyi, Seasquirt - intestinalis, Amphioxus, Sea Urchin, Fruitfly, Mosquite, Yellow Fever Mosquito, Silkworm, Red Flour Beetle, Worm, Briggsae Worm, Owl limpet (snail), and Sea anemone. [Copied from Metazome Overview at http://www.metazome.net/Metazome_info.php

  19. The ubiquilin gene family: evolutionary patterns and functional insights

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ubiquilins are proteins that function as ubiquitin receptors in eukaryotes. Mutations in two ubiquilin-encoding genes have been linked to the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases. However, ubiquilin functions are still poorly understood. Results In this study, evolutionary and functional data are combined to determine the origin and diversification of the ubiquilin gene family and to characterize novel potential roles of ubiquilins in mammalian species, including humans. The analysis of more than six hundred sequences allowed characterizing ubiquilin diversity in all the main eukaryotic groups. Many organisms (e. g. fungi, many animals) have single ubiquilin genes, but duplications in animal, plant, alveolate and excavate species are described. Seven different ubiquilins have been detected in vertebrates. Two of them, here called UBQLN5 and UBQLN6, had not been hitherto described. Significantly, marsupial and eutherian mammals have the most complex ubiquilin gene families, composed of up to 6 genes. This exceptional mammalian-specific expansion is the result of the recent emergence of four new genes, three of them (UBQLN3, UBQLN5 and UBQLNL) with precise testis-specific expression patterns that indicate roles in the postmeiotic stages of spermatogenesis. A gene with related features has independently arisen in species of the Drosophila genus. Positive selection acting on some mammalian ubiquilins has been detected. Conclusions The ubiquilin gene family is highly conserved in eukaryotes. The infrequent lineage-specific amplifications observed may be linked to the emergence of novel functions in particular tissues. PMID:24674348

  20. On the origin of family 1 plant glycosyltransferases.

    PubMed

    Paquette, Suzanne; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Bak, Søren

    2003-02-01

    The phylogeny of highly divergent multigene families is often difficult to validate but can be substantiated by inclusion of data outside of the phylogeny, such as signature motifs, intron splice site conservation, unique substitutions of conserved residues, similar gene functions, and out groups. The Family 1 Glycosyltransferases (UGTs) comprises such a highly divergent, polyphyletic multigene family. Phylogenetic comparisons of UGTs from plants, animals, fungi, bacteria, and viruses reveal that plant UGTs represent three distinct clades. The majority of the plant sequences appears to be monophyletic and have diverged after the bifurcation of the animal/fungi/plant kingdoms. The two minor clades contain the sterol and lipid glycosyltransferases and each show more homology to non-plant sequences. The lipid glycosyltransferase clade is homologous to bacterial lipid glycosyltransferases and reflects the bacterial origin of chloroplasts. The fully sequenced Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains 120 UGTs including 8 apparent pseudogenes. The phylogeny of plant glycosyltransferases is substantiated with complete phylogenetic analysis of the A. thaliana UGT multigene family, including intron-exon organization and chromosomal localization. PMID:12620353

  1. Phylogenomic analysis of transferrin family from animals and plants.

    PubMed

    Bai, Lina; Qiao, Mu; Zheng, Rong; Deng, Changyan; Mei, Shuqi; Chen, Wanping

    2016-03-01

    Transferrins have been identified in animals and green algae, and they consist of a family of evolutionarily related proteins that play a central role in iron transport, immunity, growth and differentiation. This study assessed the transferrin genes among 100 genomes from a wide range of animal and plant kingdoms. The results showed that putative transferrins were widespread in animals, but their gene quantity and type differ greatly between animal groups. Generally, Mammalia possess abundant transferrin genes, whereas Trematoda contain few ones. Melanotransferrin and serotransferrin are widely distributed in vertebrates, while melanotransferrin-like and transferrin-like 1 are frequent in invertebrates. However, only a few plant species detected putative transferrins, and a novel transferrin member was first uncovered in Angiospermae and Pteridophyta. The structural comparison among transferrin family members revealed seven very well-repeated and conserved characteristic motifs, despite a considerable variation in the overall sequences. The phylogenetic analysis suggested that gene duplication, gene loss and horizontal transfer contributed to the diversification of transferrin family members, and their inferred evolutionary scenario was proposed. These findings help to the understanding of transferrin distribution, characteristic motifs and residues, and evolutionary process. PMID:26655280

  2. Significance of galactinol and raffinose family oligosaccharide synthesis in plants

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Sonali; Mukherjee, Sritama; Basak, Papri; Majumder, Arun L.

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic stress induces differential expression of genes responsible for the synthesis of raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs) in plants. RFOs are described as the most widespread D-galactose containing oligosaccharides in higher plants. Biosynthesis of RFOs begin with the activity of galactinol synthase (GolS; EC 2.4.1.123), a GT8 family glycosyltransferase that galactosylates myo-inositol to produce galactinol. Raffinose and the subsequent higher molecular weight RFOs (Stachyose, Verbascose, and Ajugose) are synthesized from sucrose by the subsequent addition of activated galactose moieties donated by Galactinol. Interestingly, GolS, the key enzyme of this pathway is functional only in the flowering plants. It is thus assumed that RFO synthesis is a specialized metabolic event in higher plants; although it is not known whether lower plant groups synthesize any galactinol or RFOs. In higher plants, several functional importance of RFOs have been reported, e.g., RFOs protect the embryo from maturation associated desiccation, are predominant transport carbohydrates in some plant families, act as signaling molecule following pathogen attack and wounding and accumulate in vegetative tissues in response to a range of abiotic stresses. However, the loss-of-function mutants reported so far fail to show any perturbation in those biological functions. The role of RFOs in biotic and abiotic stress is therefore still in debate and their specificity and related components remains to be demonstrated. The present review discusses the biology and stress-linked regulation of this less studied extension of inositol metabolic pathway. PMID:26379684

  3. PIECE: A database for plant gene structure comparison and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene families often show degrees of differences in terms of exon-intron structures depending on their distinct evolutionary histories. Comparative analysis of gene structures is important for understanding their evolutionary and functional relationships within plant species. Here, we present a com...

  4. Legumes as a Model Plant Family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The human population derives the majority of its nutrition either directly or indirectly (via animal protein) from two plant families: the grasses and the legumes. Grain legumes alone supply approximately 33% of human protein nutrition. Thus, it is critical for genetic improvement of legume crop spe...

  5. The Dynein Gene Family in Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    PubMed Central

    Porter, M. E.; Knott, J. A.; Myster, S. H.; Farlow, S. J.

    1996-01-01

    To correlate dynein heavy chain (Dhc) genes with flagellar mutations and gain insight into the function of specific dynein isoforms, we placed eight members of the Dhc gene family on the genetic map of Chlamydomonas. Using a PCR-based strategy, we cloned 11 Dhc genes from Chlamydomonas. Comparisons with other Dhc genes indicate that two clones correspond to genes encoding the alpha and beta heavy chains of the outer dynein arm. Alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences spanning the nucleotide binding site indicates that the remaining nine clones can be subdivided into three groups that are likely to include representatives of the inner-arm Dhc isoforms. Gene-specific probes reveal that each clone represents a single-copy gene that is expressed as a transcript of the appropriate size (>13 kb) sufficient to encode a high molecular weight Dhc polypeptide. The expression of all nine genes is upregulated in response to deflagellation, suggesting a role in axoneme assembly or motility. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms between divergent C. reinhardtii strains have been used to place each Dhc gene on the genetic map of Chlamydomonas. These studies lay the groundwork for correlating defects in different Dhc genes with specific flagellar mutations. PMID:8889521

  6. Sucrose metabolism gene families and their biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Chi, Yun-Hua; Wang, Ji-Zhou; Zhou, Jun-Xia; Cheng, Yan-Song; Zhang, Bao-Lan; Ma, Ali; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose, as the main product of photosynthesis, plays crucial roles in plant development. Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions. We focused on four sucrose metabolism related gene families including sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. These gene families exhibited different expansion and evolutionary history as their host genomes experienced differentiated rates of the whole genome duplication, tandem and segmental duplication, or mobile element mediated gene gain and loss. They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion. However, we have detected recent positive selection during intra-species divergence. Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses. Our studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms of gene expansion and evolution and also provided new insight into the role of positive selection in intra-species divergence. Overexpression data revealed novel biological functions of these genes in flowering time control and seed germination under normal and stress conditions. PMID:26616172

  7. Secreted Metalloprotease Gene Family of Microsporum canis

    PubMed Central

    Brouta, Frédéric; Descamps, Frédéric; Monod, Michel; Vermout, Sandy; Losson, Bertrand; Mignon, Bernard

    2002-01-01

    Keratinolytic proteases secreted by dermatophytes are likely to be virulence-related factors. Microsporum canis, the main agent of dermatophytosis in dogs and cats, causes a zoonosis that is frequently reported. Using Aspergillus fumigatus metalloprotease genomic sequence (MEP) as a probe, three genes (MEP1, MEP2, and MEP3) were isolated from an M. canis genomic library. They presented a quite-high percentage of identity with both A. fumigatus MEP and Aspergillus oryzae neutral protease I genes. At the amino acid level, they all contained an HEXXH consensus sequence, confirming that these M. canis genes (MEP genes) encode a zinc-containing metalloprotease gene family. Furthermore, MEP3 was found to be the gene encoding a previously isolated M. canis 43.5-kDa keratinolytic metalloprotease, and was successfully expressed as an active recombinant enzyme in Pichia pastoris. Reverse transcriptase nested PCR performed on total RNA extracted from the hair of M. canis-infected guinea pigs showed that at least MEP2 and MEP3 are produced during the infection process. This is the first report describing the isolation of a gene family encoding potential virulence-related factors in dermatophytes. PMID:12228297

  8. Comprehensive analysis of plant rapid alkalization factor (RALF) genes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Arti; Hussain, Adil; Mun, Bong-Gyu; Imran, Qari Muhammad; Falak, Noreen; Lee, Sang-Uk; Kim, Jae Young; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Loake, Gary John; Ali, Asad; Yun, Byung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Receptor mediated signal carriers play a critical role in the regulation of plant defense and development. Rapid alkalization factor (RALF) proteins potentially comprise important signaling components which may have a key role in plant biology. The RALF gene family contains large number of genes in several plant species, however, only a few RALF genes have been characterized to date. In this study, an extensive database search identified 39, 43, 34 and 18 RALF genes in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and soybean, respectively. These RALF genes were found to be highly conserved across the 4 plant species. A comprehensive analysis including the chromosomal location, gene structure, subcellular location, conserved motifs, protein structure, protein-ligand interaction and promoter analysis was performed. RALF genes from four plant species were divided into 7 groups based on phylogenetic analysis. In silico expression analysis of these genes, using microarray and EST data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Furthermore, RALF genes showed distinct expression patterns of transcript accumulation in vivo following nitrosative and oxidative stresses in Arabidopsis. Predicted interaction between RALF and heme ligand also showed that RALF proteins may contribute towards transporting or scavenging oxygen moieties. This suggests a possible role for RALF genes during changes in cellular redox status. Collectively, our data provides a valuable resource to prime future research in the role of RALF genes in plant growth and development. PMID:27155375

  9. Genome-wide identification, classification and expression analysis in fungal-plant interactions of cutinase gene family and functional analysis of a putative ClCUT7 in Curvularia lunata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tong; Hou, Jumei; Wang, Yuying; Jin, Yazhong; Borth, Wayne; Zhao, Fengzhou; Liu, Zheng; Hu, John; Zuo, Yuhu

    2016-06-01

    Cutinase is described as playing various roles in fungal-plant pathogen interactions, such as eliciting host-derived signals, fungal spore attachment and carbon acquisition during saprophytic growth. However, the characteristics of the cutinase genes, their expression in compatible interactions and their roles in pathogenesis have not been reported in Curvularia lunata, an important leaf spot pathogen of maize in China. Therefore, a cutinase gene family analysis could have profound significance. In this study, we identified 13 cutinase genes (ClCUT1 to ClCUT13) in the C. lunata genome. Multiple sequence alignment showed that most fungal cutinase proteins had one highly conserved GYSQG motif and a similar DxVCxG[ST]-[LIVMF](3)-x(3)H motif. Gene structure analyses of the cutinases revealed a complex intron-exon pattern with differences in the position and number of introns and exons. Based on phylogenetic relationship analysis, C. lunata cutinases and 78 known cutinase proteins from other fungi were classified into four groups with subgroups, but the C. lunata cutinases clustered in only three of the four groups. Motif analyses showed that each group of cutinases from C. lunata had a common motif. Real-time PCR indicated that transcript levels of the cutinase genes in a compatible interaction between pathogen and host had varied expression patterns. Interestingly, the transcript levels of ClCUT7 gradually increased during early pathogenesis with the most significant up-regulation at 3 h post-inoculation. When ClCUT7 was deleted, pathogenicity of the mutant decreased on unwounded maize (Zea mays) leaves. On wounded maize leaves, however, the mutant caused symptoms similar to the wild-type strain. Moreover, the ClCUT7 mutant had an approximately 10 % reduction in growth rate when cutin was the sole carbon source. In conclusion, we identified and characterized the cutinase family genes of C. lunata, analyzed their expression patterns in a compatible host

  10. Structure and Evolution of the Actin Gene Family in Arabidopsis Thaliana

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, J. M.; Huang, S.; McKinney, E. C.; An, Y. Q.; Meagher, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    Higher plants contain families of actin-encoding genes that are divergent and differentially expressed. Progress in understanding the functions and evolution of plant actins has been hindered by the large size of the actin gene families. In this study, we characterized the structure and evolution of the actin gene family in Arabidopsis thaliana. DNA blot analyses with gene-specific probes suggested that all 10 of the Arabidopsis actin gene family members have been isolated and established that Arabidopsis has a much simpler actin gene family than other plants that have been examined. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that the Arabidopsis gene family contains at least two ancient classes of genes that diverged early in land plant evolution and may have separated vegetative from reproductive actins. Subsequent divergence produced a total of six distinct subclasses of actin, and five showed a distinct pattern of tissue specific expression. The concordance of expression patterns with the phylogenetic structure is discussed. These subclasses appear to be evolving independently, as no evidence of gene conversion was found. The Arabidopsis actin proteins have an unusually large number of nonconservative amino acid substitutions, which mapped to the surface of the actin molecule, and should effect protein-protein interactions. PMID:8852856

  11. A novel family of small proteins that affect plant development

    SciTech Connect

    John Charles Walker

    2011-04-29

    The DVL genes represent a new group of plant proteins that influence plant growth and development. Overexpression of DVL1, and other members of the DVL family, causes striking phenotypic changes. The DVL proteins share sequence homology in their C-terminal half. Point mutations in the C-terminal domain show it is necessary and deletion studies demonstrate the C-terminal domain is sufficient to confer the overexpression phenotypes. The phenotypes observed, and the conservation of the protein sequence in the plant kingdom, does suggest the DVL proteins have a role in modulating plant growth and development. Our working hypothesis is the DVL proteins function as regulators of cellular signaling pathways that control growth and development.

  12. Genome-Wide Analysis Reveals Diverged Patterns of Codon Bias, Gene Expression, and Rates of Sequence Evolution in Picea Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    De La Torre, Amanda R.; Lin, Yao-Cheng; Van de Peer, Yves; Ingvarsson, Pär K.

    2015-01-01

    The recent sequencing of several gymnosperm genomes has greatly facilitated studying the evolution of their genes and gene families. In this study, we examine the evidence for expression-mediated selection in the first two fully sequenced representatives of the gymnosperm plant clade (Picea abies and Picea glauca). We use genome-wide estimates of gene expression (>50,000 expressed genes) to study the relationship between gene expression, codon bias, rates of sequence divergence, protein length, and gene duplication. We found that gene expression is correlated with rates of sequence divergence and codon bias, suggesting that natural selection is acting on Picea protein-coding genes for translational efficiency. Gene expression, rates of sequence divergence, and codon bias are correlated with the size of gene families, with large multicopy gene families having, on average, a lower expression level and breadth, lower codon bias, and higher rates of sequence divergence than single-copy gene families. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were more common in large gene families with large gene expression divergence than in single-copy families. Recent family expansions combined with large gene expression variation in paralogs and increased rates of sequence evolution suggest that some Picea gene families are rapidly evolving to cope with biotic and abiotic stress. Our study highlights the importance of gene expression and natural selection in shaping the evolution of protein-coding genes in Picea species, and sets the ground for further studies investigating the evolution of individual gene families in gymnosperms. PMID:25747252

  13. Identification and distribution of the NBS-LRR gene family in the cassava genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant resistance genes (R genes) exist in large families and usually contain both a nucleotide-binding site domain and a leucine-rich repeat domain, denoted NBS-LRR. The genome sequence of cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a valuable resource for analyzing the genomic organization of resistance genes i...

  14. The Maize PIN Gene Family of Auxin Transporters.

    PubMed

    Forestan, Cristian; Farinati, Silvia; Varotto, Serena

    2012-01-01

    Auxin is a key regulator of plant development and its differential distribution in plant tissues, established by a polar cell to cell transport, can trigger a wide range of developmental processes. A few members of the two families of auxin efflux transport proteins, PIN-formed (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB/PGP), have so far been characterized in maize. Nine new Zea mays auxin efflux carriers PIN family members and two maize PIN-like genes have now been identified. Four members of PIN1 (named ZmPIN1a-d) cluster, one gene homologous to AtPIN2 (ZmPIN2), three orthologs of PIN5 (ZmPIN5a-c), one gene paired with AtPIN8 (ZmPIN8), and three monocot-specific PINs (ZmPIN9, ZmPIN10a, and ZmPIN10b) were cloned and the phylogenetic relationships between early-land plants, monocots, and eudicots PIN proteins investigated, including the new maize PIN proteins. Tissue-specific expression patterns of the 12 maize PIN genes, 2 PIN-like genes and ZmABCB1, an ABCB auxin efflux carrier, were analyzed together with protein localization and auxin accumulation patterns in normal conditions and in response to drug applications. ZmPIN gene transcripts have overlapping expression domains in the root apex, during male and female inflorescence differentiation and kernel development. However, some PIN family members have specific tissue localization: ZmPIN1d transcript marks the L1 layer of the shoot apical meristem and inflorescence meristem during the flowering transition and the monocot-specific ZmPIN9 is expressed in the root endodermis and pericycle. The phylogenetic and gene structure analyses together with the expression pattern of the ZmPIN gene family indicate that subfunctionalization of some maize PINs can be associated to the differentiation and development of monocot-specific organs and tissues and might have occurred after the divergence between dicots and monocots. PMID:22639639

  15. Distinct evolutionary strategies in the GGPPS family from plants

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Diana; Altenhoff, Adrian; Zoller, Stefan; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vranová, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Multiple geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases (GGPPS) for biosynthesis of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) exist in plants. GGPP is produced in the isoprenoid pathway and is a central precursor for various primary and specialized plant metabolites. Therefore, its biosynthesis is an essential regulatory point in the isoprenoid pathway. We selected 119 GGPPSs from 48 species representing all major plant lineages, based on stringent homology criteria. After the diversification of land plants, the number of GGPPS paralogs per species increases. Already in the moss Physcomitrella patens, GGPPS appears to be encoded by multiple paralogous genes. In gymnosperms, neofunctionalization of GGPPS may have enabled optimized biosynthesis of primary and specialized metabolites. Notably, lineage-specific expansion of GGPPS occurred in land plants. As a representative species we focused here on Arabidopsis thaliana, which retained the highest number of GGPPS paralogs (twelve) among the 48 species we considered in this study. Our results show that the A. thaliana GGPPS gene family is an example of evolution involving neo- and subfunctionalization as well as pseudogenization. We propose subfunctionalization as one of the main mechanisms allowing the maintenance of multiple GGPPS paralogs in A. thaliana genome. Accordingly, the changes in the expression patterns of the GGPPS paralogs occurring after gene duplication led to developmental and/or condition specific functional evolution. PMID:24904625

  16. NFAT Gene Family in Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pan, M.-G.; Xiong, Y.; Chen, F.

    2013-01-01

    Calcineurin-NFAT signaling is critical for numerous aspects of vertebrate function during and after embryonic development. Initially discovered in T cells, the NFAT gene family, consisting of five members, regulates immune system, inflammatory response, angiogenesis, cardiac valve formation, myocardial development, axonal guidance, skeletal muscle development, bone homeostasis, development and metastasis of cancer, and many other biological processes. In this review we will focus on the NFAT literature relevant to the two closely related pathological systems: inflammation and cancer. PMID:22950383

  17. The Nitrate Transporter (NRT) Gene Family in Poplar

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Hua; Euring, Dejuan; Volmer, Katharina; Janz, Dennis; Polle, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Nitrate is an important nutrient required for plant growth. It also acts as a signal regulating plant development. Nitrate is actively taken up and transported by nitrate transporters (NRT), which form a large family with many members and distinct functions. In contrast to Arabidopsis and rice there is little information about the NRT family in woody plants such as Populus. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus NRT family was performed. Sixty-eight PtNRT1/PTR, 6 PtNRT2, and 5 PtNRT3 genes were identified in the P. trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genes of the NRT family are divided into three clades: NRT1/PTR with four subclades, NRT2, and NRT3. Topological analysis indicated that all members of PtNRT1/PTR and PtNRT2 have 8 to 12 trans-membrane domains, whereas the PtNRT3 proteins have no or up to two trans-membrane domains. Four PtNRT3 members were predicted as secreted proteins. Microarray analyses revealed tissue-specific expression patterns of PtNRT genes with distinct clusters of NRTs for roots, for the elongation zone of the apical stem segment and the developing xylem and a further cluster for leaves, bark and wood. A comparison of different poplar species (P. trichocarpa, P. tremula, P. euphratica, P. fremontii x P. angustifolia, and P. x canescens) showed that the tissue-specific patterns of the NRT genes varied to some extent with species. Bioinformatic analysis of putative cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions of PtNRT family retrieved motifs suggesting the regulation of the NRT genes by N metabolism, by energy and carbon metabolism, and by phytohormones and stress. Multivariate analysis suggested that the combination and abundance of motifs in distinct promoters may lead to tissue-specificity. Our genome wide analysis of the PtNRT genes provides a valuable basis for functional analysis towards understanding the role of nitrate transporters for tree growth. PMID:23977227

  18. Genome-wide analysis suggests divergent evolution of lipid phosphotases/phosphotransferase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Zhenxi; Kasimu, Rena; Chen, Yinhua; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Gai, Jiangtao

    2016-08-01

    Genes of the LPPT (lipid phosphatase/phosphotransferase) family play important roles in lipid phosphorous transfer and triacylglycerol accumulation in plants. To provide overviews of the plant LPPT family and their overall relationships, here we carried out genome-wide identifications and analyses of plant LPPT family members. A total of 643 putative LPPT genes were identified from 48 sequenced plant genomes, among which 205 genes from 14 plants were chosen for further analyses. Plant LPPT genes belonged to three distinctive groups, namely the LPT (lipid phosphotransfease), LPP (lipid phosphatase), and pLPP (plastidic lipid phosphotransfease) groups. Genes of the LPT group could be further partitioned into three groups, two of which were only identified in terrestrial plants. Genes in the LPP and pLPP groups experienced duplications in early stages of plant evolution. Among 17 Zea mays LPPT genes, divergence of temporal-spatial expression patterns was revealed based on microarray data analysis. Peptide sequences of plant LPPT genes harbored different conserved motifs. A test of Branch Model versus One-ratio Model did not support significant selective pressures acting on different groups of LPPT genes, although quite different nonsynonymous evolutionary rates and selective pressures were observed. The complete picture of the plant LPPT family provided here should facilitate further investigations of plant LPPT genes and offer a better understanding of lipid biosynthesis in plants. PMID:27501416

  19. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the SBP-box family genes in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SQUAMOSA promoter binding protein (SBP)-box genes encode a family of plant-specific transcription factors and play many crucial roles in plant development. In this study, 27 SBP-box gene family members were identified in the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) genome, 15 of which were suggested to be ...

  20. Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPKKK Family Genes in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Xu, Hanyun; Liu, Ying; Song, Lili; Guo, Changhong; Shu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) is a component of the MAPK cascade pathway that plays an important role in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress, the functions of which have been well characterized in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, we performed genome-wide and systemic bioinformatics analysis of MAPKKK family genes in Medicago truncatula. In total, there were 73 MAPKKK family members identified by search of homologs, and they were classified into three subfamilies, MEKK, ZIK, and RAF. Based on the genomic duplication function, 72 MtMAPKKK genes were located throughout all chromosomes, but they cluster in different chromosomes. Using microarray data and high-throughput sequencing-data, we assessed their expression profiles in growth and development processes; these results provided evidence for exploring their important functions in developmental regulation, especially in the nodulation process. Furthermore, we investigated their expression in abiotic stresses by RNA-seq, which confirmed their critical roles in signal transduction and regulation processes under stress. In summary, our genome-wide, systemic characterization and expressional analysis of MtMAPKKK genes will provide insights that will be useful for characterizing the molecular functions of these genes in M. truncatula. PMID:27049397

  1. Bioinformatics Analysis of MAPKKK Family Genes in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Hanyun; Liu, Ying; Song, Lili; Guo, Changhong; Shu, Yongjun

    2016-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAPKKK) is a component of the MAPK cascade pathway that plays an important role in plant growth, development, and response to abiotic stress, the functions of which have been well characterized in several plant species, such as Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, we performed genome-wide and systemic bioinformatics analysis of MAPKKK family genes in Medicago truncatula. In total, there were 73 MAPKKK family members identified by search of homologs, and they were classified into three subfamilies, MEKK, ZIK, and RAF. Based on the genomic duplication function, 72 MtMAPKKK genes were located throughout all chromosomes, but they cluster in different chromosomes. Using microarray data and high-throughput sequencing-data, we assessed their expression profiles in growth and development processes; these results provided evidence for exploring their important functions in developmental regulation, especially in the nodulation process. Furthermore, we investigated their expression in abiotic stresses by RNA-seq, which confirmed their critical roles in signal transduction and regulation processes under stress. In summary, our genome-wide, systemic characterization and expressional analysis of MtMAPKKK genes will provide insights that will be useful for characterizing the molecular functions of these genes in M. truncatula. PMID:27049397

  2. The DMRT gene family in amphioxus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yu, Yang; Ji, Dongrui; Li, Hongyan

    2012-01-01

    Doublesex and Mab-3-related transcription factor (DMRT) gene family is widely known for its involvement in sex determination and/or differentiation among different phyla. In this study, we identify eight DMRT genes in the cephalochordate amphioxus, a protochordate holding a key phylogenetic position. The eight DMRTs can be divided into two groups based on the conserved domain: BfDM044, BfDM045, BfDM55.1, BfDM115.1, and BfDM17.1 belong to the first group which have both DM and DMA domains, while BfDM246.1, BfDM084, and BfDM175 belong to the second group which have only DM domain. Most of the first group members have same genomic structure except BfDM17.1, while no regular pattern exists in the second group. Phylogenetic analysis of the DM domain sequences shows that DMRT genes in vertebrates form seven different independent clusters, and some even contain genes from invertebrates with high bootstrap. Notably, the first group members of amphioxus cluster with vertebrate DMRTs; while the second group members cluster into a single branch, which diverge from the vertebrate classes. The results suggest that several DMRT genes in vertebrates may evolve from homologous genes in invertebrates. As in nematode, drosophila, fish, and vertebrates, DMRT genes cluster is also found in amphioxus, which may be the result of gene duplication. Interspecific differences in the amphioxus DMRTs and sea squirt DMRTs may suggest post-speciation duplication of some DMRT genes. PMID:22702730

  3. Plant nitrogen regulatory P-PII genes

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Lam, Hon-Ming; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to plant nitrogen regulatory PII gene (hereinafter P-PII gene), a gene involved in regulating plant nitrogen metabolism. The invention provides P-PII nucleotide sequences, expression constructs comprising said nucleotide sequences, and host cells and plants having said constructs and, optionally expressing the P-PII gene from said constructs. The invention also provides substantially pure P-PII proteins. The P-PII nucleotide sequences and constructs of the

  4. Horizontal gene transfer in plants.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caihua; Ren, Xiaodong; Mason, Annaliese S; Liu, Honglei; Xiao, Meili; Li, Jiana; Fu, Donghui

    2014-03-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries. HGT often occurs in microbic and eukaryotic genomes. However, the pathways by which HGTs occur in multicellular eukaryotes, especially in plants, are not well understood. We systematically summarized more than ten possible pathways for HGT. The intimate contact which frequently occurs in parasitism, symbiosis, pathogen, epiphyte, entophyte, and grafting interactions could promote HGTs between two species. Besides these direct transfer methods, genes can be exchanged with a vector as a bridge: possible vectors include pollen, fungi, bacteria, viruses, viroids, plasmids, transposons, and insects. HGT, especially when involving horizontal transfer of transposable elements, is recognized as a significant force propelling genomic variation and biological innovation, playing an important functional and evolutionary role in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. We proposed possible mechanisms by which HGTs can occur, which is useful in understanding the genetic information exchange among distant species or distant cellular components. PMID:24132513

  5. Applications and advantages of virus-induced gene silencing for gene function studies in plants.

    PubMed

    Burch-Smith, Tessa M; Anderson, Jeffrey C; Martin, Gregory B; Dinesh-Kumar, S P

    2004-09-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed gene transcript suppression technique for characterizing the function of plant genes. The approach involves cloning a short sequence of a targeted plant gene into a viral delivery vector. The vector is used to infect a young plant, and in a few weeks natural defense mechanisms of the plant directed at suppressing virus replication also result in specific degradation of mRNAs from the endogenous plant gene that is targeted for silencing. VIGS is rapid (3-4 weeks from infection to silencing), does not require development of stable transformants, allows characterization of phenotypes that might be lethal in stable lines, and offers the potential to silence either individual or multiple members of a gene family. Here we briefly review the discoveries that led to the development of VIGS and what is known about the experimental requirements for effective silencing. We describe the methodology of VIGS and how it can be optimized and used for both forward and reverse genetics studies. Advantages and disadvantages of VIGS compared with other loss-of-function approaches available for plants are discussed, along with how the limitations of VIGS might be overcome. Examples are reviewed where VIGS has been used to provide important new insights into the roles of specific genes in plant development and plant defense responses. Finally, we examine the future prospects for VIGS as a powerful tool for assessing and characterizing the function of plant genes. PMID:15315635

  6. Role and structural characterization of plant aldehyde dehydrogenases from family 2 and family 7.

    PubMed

    Končitíková, Radka; Vigouroux, Armelle; Kopečná, Martina; Andree, Tomáš; Bartoš, Jan; Šebela, Marek; Moréra, Solange; Kopečný, David

    2015-05-15

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) are responsible for oxidation of biogenic aldehyde intermediates as well as for cell detoxification of aldehydes generated during lipid peroxidation. So far, 13 ALDH families have been described in plants. In the present study, we provide a detailed biochemical characterization of plant ALDH2 and ALDH7 families by analysing maize and pea ALDH7 (ZmALDH7 and PsALDH7) and four maize cytosolic ALDH(cALDH)2 isoforms RF2C, RF2D, RF2E and RF2F [the first maize ALDH2 was discovered as a fertility restorer (RF2A)]. We report the crystal structures of ZmALDH7, RF2C and RF2F at high resolution. The ZmALDH7 structure shows that the three conserved residues Glu(120), Arg(300) and Thr(302) in the ALDH7 family are located in the substrate-binding site and are specific to this family. Our kinetic analysis demonstrates that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde, a lysine catabolism intermediate, is the preferred substrate for plant ALDH7. In contrast, aromatic aldehydes including benzaldehyde, anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde are the best substrates for cALDH2. In line with these results, the crystal structures of RF2C and RF2F reveal that their substrate-binding sites are similar and are formed by an aromatic cluster mainly composed of phenylalanine residues and several nonpolar residues. Gene expression studies indicate that the RF2C gene, which is strongly expressed in all organs, appears essential, suggesting that the crucial role of the enzyme would certainly be linked to the cell wall formation using aldehydes from phenylpropanoid pathway as substrates. Finally, plant ALDH7 may significantly contribute to osmoprotection because it oxidizes several aminoaldehydes leading to products known as osmolytes. PMID:25734422

  7. Enhancing Plant Disease Resistance without R Genes.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur; Fernando, Dilantha; Silva, Roberto Nascimento; Gupta, Vijai Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Crop plants encounter constant biotic challenges, and these challenges have historically been best managed with resistance (R) genes. However, the rapid evolution of new pathogenic strains along with the nonavailability or nonidentification of R genes in cultivated crop species against a large number of plant pathogens have led researchers to think beyond R genes. Biotechnological tools have shown promise in dealing with such challenges. Technologies such as transgenerational plant immunity, interspecies transfer of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), pathogen-derived resistance (PDR), gene regulation, and expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in host plants from other plant species have led to enhanced disease resistance and increased food security. PMID:27113633

  8. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus 6domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden...

  9. MicroSyn: a user friendly tool for detection of microsynteny in a gene family

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Bin; Yang, Xiaohan; Tuskan, Gerald A; Cheng, Zong-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Background: The traditional phylogeny analysis within gene family is mainly based on DNA or amino acid sequence homologies. However, these phylogenetic tree analyses are not suitable for those non-traditional gene families like microRNA with very short sequences. For the normal protein-coding gene families, low bootstrap values are frequently encountered in some nodes, suggesting low confidence or likely inappropriateness of placement of those members in those nodes. Results: We introduce MicroSyn software as a means of detecting microsynteny in adjacent genomic regions surrounding genes in gene families. MicroSyn searches for conserved, flanking colinear homologous gene pairs between two genomic fragments to determine the relationship between two members in a gene family. The colinearity of homologous pairs is controlled by a statistical distance function. As a result, gene duplication history can be inferred from the output independent of gene sequences. MicroSyn was designed for both experienced and non-expert users with a user-friendly graphical-user interface. MicroSyn is available from: http://fcsb.njau.edu. cn/microsyn/. Conclusions: Case studies of the microRNA167 genes in plants and Xyloglucan ndotransglycosylase/Hydrolase family in Populus trichocarpa were presented to show the utility of the software. The easy using of MicroSyn in these examples suggests that the software is an additional valuable means to address the problem intrinsic in the computational methods and sequence qualities themselves in gene family analysis.

  10. The Tomato Terpene Synthase Gene Family1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Falara, Vasiliki; Akhtar, Tariq A.; Nguyen, Thuong T.H.; Spyropoulou, Eleni A.; Bleeker, Petra M.; Schauvinhold, Ines; Matsuba, Yuki; Bonini, Megan E.; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Last, Robert L.; Schuurink, Robert C.; Pichersky, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Compounds of the terpenoid class play numerous roles in the interactions of plants with their environment, such as attracting pollinators and defending the plant against pests. We show here that the genome of cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) contains 44 terpene synthase (TPS) genes, including 29 that are functional or potentially functional. Of these 29 TPS genes, 26 were expressed in at least some organs or tissues of the plant. The enzymatic functions of eight of the TPS proteins were previously reported, and here we report the specific in vitro catalytic activity of 10 additional tomato terpene synthases. Many of the tomato TPS genes are found in clusters, notably on chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, and 10. All TPS family clades previously identified in angiosperms are also present in tomato. The largest clade of functional TPS genes found in tomato, with 12 members, is the TPS-a clade, and it appears to encode only sesquiterpene synthases, one of which is localized to the mitochondria, while the rest are likely cytosolic. A few additional sesquiterpene synthases are encoded by TPS-b clade genes. Some of the tomato sesquiterpene synthases use z,z-farnesyl diphosphate in vitro as well, or more efficiently than, the e,e-farnesyl diphosphate substrate. Genes encoding monoterpene synthases are also prevalent, and they fall into three clades: TPS-b, TPS-g, and TPS-e/f. With the exception of two enzymes involved in the synthesis of ent-kaurene, the precursor of gibberellins, no other tomato TPS genes could be demonstrated to encode diterpene synthases so far. PMID:21813655

  11. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Major Peanut Allergen Gene Families

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaparkhe, Milind B.; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K.; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O.; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

  12. Comparative and evolutionary analysis of major peanut allergen gene families.

    PubMed

    Ratnaparkhe, Milind B; Lee, Tae-Ho; Tan, Xu; Wang, Xiyin; Li, Jingping; Kim, Changsoo; Rainville, Lisa K; Lemke, Cornelia; Compton, Rosana O; Robertson, Jon; Gallo, Maria; Bertioli, David J; Paterson, Andrew H

    2014-09-01

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) causes one of the most serious food allergies. Peanut seed proteins, Arah1, Arah2, and Arah3, are considered to be among the most important peanut allergens. To gain insights into genome organization and evolution of allergen-encoding genes, approximately 617 kb from the genome of cultivated peanut and 215 kb from a wild relative were sequenced including three Arah1, one Arah2, eight Arah3, and two Arah6 gene family members. To assign polarity to differences between homoeologous regions in peanut, we used as outgroups the single orthologous regions in Medicago, Lotus, common bean, chickpea, and pigeonpea, which diverged from peanut about 50 Ma and have not undergone subsequent polyploidy. These regions were also compared with orthologs in many additional dicot plant species to help clarify the timing of evolutionary events. The lack of conservation of allergenic epitopes between species, and the fact that many different proteins can be allergenic, makes the identification of allergens across species by comparative studies difficult. The peanut allergen genes are interspersed with low-copy genes and transposable elements. Phylogenetic analyses revealed lineage-specific expansion and loss of low-copy genes between species and homoeologs. Arah1 syntenic regions are conserved in soybean, pigeonpea, tomato, grape, Lotus, and Arabidopsis, whereas Arah3 syntenic regions show genome rearrangements. We infer that tandem and segmental duplications led to the establishment of the Arah3 gene family. Our analysis indicates differences in conserved motifs in allergen proteins and in the promoter regions of the allergen-encoding genes. Phylogenetic analysis and genomic organization studies provide new insights into the evolution of the major peanut allergen-encoding genes. PMID:25193311

  13. Widespread impact of horizontal gene transfer on plant colonization of land

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jipei; Hu, Xiangyang; Sun, Hang; Yang, Yongping; Huang, Jinling

    2012-01-01

    In complex multicellular eukaryotes such as animals and plants, horizontal gene transfer is commonly considered rare with very limited evolutionary significance. Here we show that horizontal gene transfer is a dynamic process occurring frequently in the early evolution of land plants. Our genome analyses of the moss Physcomitrella patens identified 57 families of nuclear genes that were acquired from prokaryotes, fungi or viruses. Many of these gene families were transferred to the ancestors of green or land plants. Available experimental evidence shows that these anciently acquired genes are involved in some essential or plant-specific activities such as xylem formation, plant defence, nitrogen recycling as well as the biosynthesis of starch, polyamines, hormones and glutathione. These findings suggest that horizontal gene transfer had a critical role in the transition of plants from aquatic to terrestrial environments. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model of horizontal gene transfer mechanism in nonvascular and seedless vascular plants. PMID:23093189

  14. MicroRNAs as master regulators of the plant NB-LRR defense gene family via the production of phased, trans-acting siRNAs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Legumes and many nonleguminous plants enter symbiotic interactions with microbes, and it is poorly understood how host plants respond to promote beneficial, symbiotic microbial interactions while suppressing those that are deleterious or pathogenic. Trans-acting siRNAs (tasiRNAs) negatively regulate...

  15. Serial Dissection of Parasite Gene Families.

    PubMed

    Bzik, David J

    2016-05-01

    Calcium ion signaling regulates central aspects of the biology controlling stage and life cycle transitions of apicomplexan parasites. In the current issue of Infection and Immunity, Long and coworkers (S. Long, Q. Wang, and L. D. Sibley, Infect Immun 84:1262-1273, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01173-15) describe a powerful genetic system enabling reliable serial genetic dissection of a large gene family encoding novel calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) that provides new insights into the roles of CDPKs during Toxoplasma gondii infection. PMID:26953326

  16. The IQD Gene Family in Soybean: Structure, Phylogeny, Evolution and Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Hui; Chen, Xue; Li, Yuan; Wang, Yiyi; Xiang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Members of the plant-specific IQ67-domain (IQD) protein family are involved in plant development and the basal defense response. Although systematic characterization of this family has been carried out in Arabidopsis, tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Brachypodium distachyon and rice (Oryza sativa), systematic analysis and expression profiling of this gene family in soybean (Glycine max) have not previously been reported. In this study, we identified and structurally characterized IQD genes in the soybean genome. A complete set of 67 soybean IQD genes (GmIQD1–67) was identified using Blast search tools, and the genes were clustered into four subfamilies (IQD I–IV) based on phylogeny. These soybean IQD genes are distributed unevenly across all 20 chromosomes, with 30 segmental duplication events, suggesting that segmental duplication has played a major role in the expansion of the soybean IQD gene family. Analysis of the Ka/Ks ratios showed that the duplicated genes of the GmIQD family primarily underwent purifying selection. Microsynteny was detected in most pairs: genes in clade 1–3 might be present in genome regions that were inverted, expanded or contracted after the divergence; most gene pairs in clade 4 showed high conservation with little rearrangement among these gene-residing regions. Of the soybean IQD genes examined, six were most highly expressed in young leaves, six in flowers, one in roots and two in nodules. Our qRT-PCR analysis of 24 soybean IQD III genes confirmed that these genes are regulated by MeJA stress. Our findings present a comprehensive overview of the soybean IQD gene family and provide insights into the evolution of this family. In addition, this work lays a solid foundation for further experiments aimed at determining the biological functions of soybean IQD genes in growth and development. PMID:25343341

  17. The SLEEPER genes: a transposase-derived angiosperm-specific gene family

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background DAYSLEEPER encodes a domesticated transposase from the hAT-superfamily, which is essential for development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Little is known about the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in other species, or how and when it was domesticated. We studied the presence of DAYSLEEPER orthologs in plants and propose a model for the domestication of the ancestral DAYSLEEPER gene in angiosperms. Results Using specific BLAST searches in genomic and EST libraries, we found that DAYSLEEPER-like genes (hereafter called SLEEPER genes) are unique to angiosperms. Basal angiosperms as well as grasses (Poaceae) and dicotyledonous plants possess such putative orthologous genes, but SLEEPER-family genes were not found in gymnosperms, mosses and algae. Most species contain more than one SLEEPER gene. All SLEEPERs contain a C2H2 type BED-zinc finger domain and a hATC dimerization domain. We designated 3 motifs, partly overlapping the BED-zinc finger and dimerization domain, which are hallmark features in the SLEEPER family. Although SLEEPER genes are structurally conserved between species, constructs with SLEEPER genes from grapevine and rice did not complement the daysleeper phenotype in Arabidopsis, when expressed under control of the DAYSLEEPER promoter. However these constructs did cause a dominant phenotype when expressed in Arabidopsis. Rice plant lines with an insertion in the RICESLEEPER1 or 2 locus displayed phenotypic abnormalities, indicating that these genes are functional and important for normal development in rice. We suggest a model in which we hypothesize that an ancestral hAT transposase was retrocopied and stably integrated in the genome during early angiosperm evolution. Evidence is also presented for more recent retroposition events of SLEEPER genes, such as an event in the rice genome, which gave rise to the RICESLEEPER1 and 2 genes. Conclusions We propose the ancestral SLEEPER gene was formed after a process of retro-transposition during the

  18. Impact of recurrent gene duplication on adaptation of plant genomes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent gene duplication and retention played an important role in angiosperm genome evolution. It has been hypothesized that these processes contribute significantly to plant adaptation but so far this hypothesis has not been tested at the genome scale. Results We studied available sequenced angiosperm genomes to assess the frequency of positive selection footprints in lineage specific expanded (LSE) gene families compared to single-copy genes using a dN/dS-based test in a phylogenetic framework. We found 5.38% of alignments in LSE genes with codons under positive selection. In contrast, we found no evidence for codons under positive selection in the single-copy reference set. An analysis at the branch level shows that purifying selection acted more strongly on single-copy genes than on LSE gene clusters. Moreover we detect significantly more branches indicating evolution under positive selection and/or relaxed constraint in LSE genes than in single-copy genes. Conclusions In this – to our knowledge –first genome-scale study we provide strong empirical support for the hypothesis that LSE genes fuel adaptation in angiosperms. Our conservative approach for detecting selection footprints as well as our results can be of interest for further studies on (plant) gene family evolution. PMID:24884640

  19. Cloning and expression analysis of novel Aux/IAA family genes in Gossypium hirsutum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family encode proteins to mediate the responses of auxin gene expression and to regulate various aspects of plant morphological development. In this paper, we report the identification of nine cDNAs that contain complete open reading frame (OR...

  20. The Signatures of Selection for Translational Accuracy in Plant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Porceddu, Andrea; Zenoni, Sara; Camiolo, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the natural selection of synonymous codons within the coding sequences of plant genes. We analyzed the distribution of synonymous codons within plant coding sequences and found that preferred codons tend to encode the more conserved and functionally important residues of plant proteins. This was consistent among several synonymous codon families and applied to genes with different expression profiles and functions. Most of the randomly chosen alternative sets of codons scored weaker associations than the actual sets of preferred codons, suggesting that codon position within plant genes and codon usage bias have coevolved to maximize translational accuracy. All these findings are consistent with the mistranslation-induced protein misfolding theory, which predicts the natural selection of highly preferred codons more frequently at sites where translation errors could compromise protein folding or functionality. Our results will provide an important insight in future studies of protein folding, molecular evolution, and transgene design for optimal expression. PMID:23695187

  1. Inferring Gene Family Histories in Yeast Identifies Lineage Specific Expansions

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Ryan M.; Money, Daniel; Lovell, Simon C.

    2014-01-01

    The complement of genes found in the genome is a balance between gene gain and gene loss. Knowledge of the specific genes that are gained and lost over evolutionary time allows an understanding of the evolution of biological functions. Here we use new evolutionary models to infer gene family histories across complete yeast genomes; these models allow us to estimate the relative genome-wide rates of gene birth, death, innovation and extinction (loss of an entire family) for the first time. We show that the rates of gene family evolution vary both between gene families and between species. We are also able to identify those families that have experienced rapid lineage specific expansion/contraction and show that these families are enriched for specific functions. Moreover, we find that families with specific functions are repeatedly expanded in multiple species, suggesting the presence of common adaptations and that these family expansions/contractions are not random. Additionally, we identify potential specialisations, unique to specific species, in the functions of lineage specific expanded families. These results suggest that an important mechanism in the evolution of genome content is the presence of lineage-specific gene family changes. PMID:24921666

  2. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  3. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I–III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants. PMID:26849139

  4. Gene Body Methylation Patterns in Daphnia Are Associated with Gene Family Size

    PubMed Central

    Asselman, Jana; De Coninck, Dieter I. M.; Pfrender, Michael E.; De Schamphelaere, Karel A. C.

    2016-01-01

    The relation between gene body methylation and gene function remains elusive. Yet, our understanding of this relationship can contribute significant knowledge on how and why organisms target specific gene bodies for methylation. Here, we studied gene body methylation patterns in two Daphnia species. We observed both highly methylated genes and genes devoid of methylation in a background of low global methylation levels. A small but highly significant number of genes was highly methylated in both species. Remarkably, functional analyses indicate that variation in methylation within and between Daphnia species is primarily targeted to small gene families whereas large gene families tend to lack variation. The degree of sequence similarity could not explain the observed pattern. Furthermore, a significant negative correlation between gene family size and the degree of methylation suggests that gene body methylation may help regulate gene family expansion and functional diversification of gene families leading to phenotypic variation. PMID:27017526

  5. Identification, Phylogeny, and Transcript of Chitinase Family Genes in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yachun; Xu, Liping; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Zhuqing; Yang, Yuting; Chen, Yun; Que, Youxiong

    2015-01-01

    Chitinases are pathogensis-related proteins, which play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. The role of the sugarcane chitinase family genes remains unclear due to the highly heterozygous and aneuploidy chromosome genetic background of sugarcane. Ten differentially expressed chitinase genes (belonging to class I~VII) were obtained from RNA-seq analysis of both incompatible and compatible sugarcane genotypes during Sporisorium scitamineum challenge. Their structural properties and expression patterns were analyzed. Seven chitinases (ScChiI1, ScChiI2, ScChiI3, ScChiIII1, ScChiIII2, ScChiIV1 and ScChiVI1) showed more positive with early response and maintained increased transcripts in the incompatible interaction than those in the compatible one. Three (ScChiII1, ScChiV1 and ScChiVII1) seemed to have no significant difference in expression patterns between incompatible and compatible interactions. The ten chitinases were expressed differentially in response to hormone treatment as well as having distinct tissue specificity. ScChiI1, ScChiIV1 and ScChiVII1 were induced by various abiotic stresses (NaCl, CuCl2, PEG and 4 °C) and their involvement in plant immunity was demonstrated by over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. The results suggest that sugarcane chitinase family exhibit differential responses to biotic and abiotic stress, providing new insights into their function. PMID:26035173

  6. The yeast ubiquitin genes: a family of natural gene fusions.

    PubMed

    Ozkaynak, E; Finley, D; Solomon, M J; Varshavsky, A

    1987-05-01

    Ubiquitin is a 76-residue protein highly conserved among eukaryotes. Conjugation of ubiquitin to intracellular proteins mediates their selective degradation in vivo. We describe a family of four ubiquitin-coding loci in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. UB11, UB12 and UB13 encode hybrid proteins in which ubiquitin is fused to unrelated ('tail') amino acid sequences. The ubiquitin coding elements of UB11 and UB12 are interrupted at identical positions by non-homologous introns. UB11 and UB12 encode identical 52-residue tails, whereas UB13 encodes a different 76-residue tail. The tail amino acid sequences are highly conserved between yeast and mammals. Each tail contains a putative metal-binding, nucleic acid-binding domain of the form Cys-X2-4-Cys-X2-15-Cys-X2-4-Cys, suggesting that these proteins may function by binding to DNA. The fourth gene, UB14, encodes a polyubiquitin precursor protein containing five ubiquitin repeats in a head-to-tail, spacerless arrangement. All four ubiquitin genes are expressed in exponentially growing cells, while in stationary-phase cells the expression of UB11 and UB12 is repressed. The UB14 gene, which is strongly inducible by starvation, high temperatures and other stresses, contains in its upstream region strong homologies to the consensus 'heat shock box' nucleotide sequence. Elsewhere we show that the essential function of the UB14 gene is to provide ubiquitin to cells under stress. PMID:3038523

  7. Evolution of Gene Duplication in Plants.

    PubMed

    Panchy, Nicholas; Lehti-Shiu, Melissa; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2016-08-01

    Ancient duplication events and a high rate of retention of extant pairs of duplicate genes have contributed to an abundance of duplicate genes in plant genomes. These duplicates have contributed to the evolution of novel functions, such as the production of floral structures, induction of disease resistance, and adaptation to stress. Additionally, recent whole-genome duplications that have occurred in the lineages of several domesticated crop species, including wheat (Triticum aestivum), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and soybean (Glycine max), have contributed to important agronomic traits, such as grain quality, fruit shape, and flowering time. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms and impacts of gene duplication will be important to future studies of plants in general and of agronomically important crops in particular. In this review, we survey the current knowledge about gene duplication, including gene duplication mechanisms, the potential fates of duplicate genes, models explaining duplicate gene retention, the properties that distinguish duplicate from singleton genes, and the evolutionary impact of gene duplication. PMID:27288366

  8. Structure and evolution of the plant cation diffusion facilitator family of ion transporters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Members of the cation diffusion facilitator (CDF) family are integral membrane divalent cation transporters that transport metal ions out of the cytoplasm either into the extracellular space or into internal compartments such as the vacuole. The spectrum of cations known to be transported by proteins of the CDF family include Zn, Fe, Co, Cd, and Mn. Members of this family have been identified in prokaryotes, eukaryotes, and archaea, and in sequenced plant genomes. CDF families range in size from nine members in Selaginella moellendorffii to 19 members in Populus trichocarpa. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the CDF family has expanded within plants, but a definitive plant CDF family phylogeny has not been constructed. Results Representative CDF members were annotated from diverse genomes across the Viridiplantae and Rhodophyta lineages and used to identify phylogenetic relationships within the CDF family. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of CDF amino acid sequence data supports organizing land plant CDF family sequences into 7 groups. The origin of the 7 groups predates the emergence of land plants. Among these, 5 of the 7 groups are likely to have originated at the base of the tree of life, and 2 of 7 groups appear to be derived from a duplication event prior to or coincident with land plant evolution. Within land plants, local expansion continues within select groups, while several groups are strictly maintained as one gene copy per genome. Conclusions Defining the CDF gene family phylogeny contributes to our understanding of this family in several ways. First, when embarking upon functional studies of the members, defining primary groups improves the predictive power of functional assignment of orthologous/paralogous genes and aids in hypothesis generation. Second, defining groups will allow a group-specific sequence motif to be generated that will help define future CDF family sequences and aid in functional motif identification, which currently is

  9. Evolutionarily Dynamic, but Robust, Targeting of Resistance Genes by the miR482/2118 Gene Family in the Solanaceae

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Sophie; Kloesges, Thorsten; Rose, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Plants are exposed to pathogens around the clock. A common resistance response in plants upon pathogen detection is localized cell death. Given the irreversible nature of this response, multiple layers of negative regulation are present to prevent the untimely or misexpression of resistance genes. One layer of negative regulation is provided by a recently discovered microRNA (miRNA) gene family, miR482/2118. This family targets the transcripts of resistance genes in plants. We investigated the evolutionary history and specificity of this miRNA gene family within the Solanaceae. This plant family includes many important crop species, providing a set of well-defined resistance gene repertoires. Across 14 species from the Solanaceae, we identified eight distinct miR482/2118 gene family members. Our studies show conservation of miRNA type and number in the group of wild tomatoes and, to a lesser extent, throughout the Solanaceae. The eight orthologous miRNA gene clusters evolved under different evolutionary constraints, allowing for individual subfunctionalization of the miRNAs. Despite differences in the predicted targeting behavior of each miRNA, the miRNA–R-gene network is robust due to its high degree of interconnectivity and redundant targeting. Our data suggest that the miR482/2118 gene family acts as an evolutionary buffer for R-gene sequence diversity. PMID:26590211

  10. PLEXdb: gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sudhansu; Van Hemert, John; Hong, Lu; Wise, Roger P; Dickerson, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    PLEXdb (http://www.plexdb.org), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facilitate the interpretation of structure, function and regulation of genes in economically important plants. A list of Gene Atlas experiments highlights data sets that give responses across different developmental stages, conditions and tissues. Tools at PLEXdb allow users to perform complex analyses quickly and easily. The Model Genome Interrogator (MGI) tool supports mapping gene lists onto corresponding genes from model plant organisms, including rice and Arabidopsis. MGI predicts homologies, displays gene structures and supporting information for annotated genes and full-length cDNAs. The gene list-processing wizard guides users through PLEXdb functions for creating, analyzing, annotating and managing gene lists. Users can upload their own lists or create them from the output of PLEXdb tools, and then apply diverse higher level analyses, such as ANOVA and clustering. PLEXdb also provides methods for users to track how gene expression changes across many different experiments using the Gene OscilloScope. This tool can identify interesting expression patterns, such as up-regulation under diverse conditions or checking any gene's suitability as a steady-state control. PMID:22084198

  11. Emerging Use of Gene Expression Microarrays in Plant Physiology

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wullschleger, Stan D.; Difazio, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    Microarrays have become an important technology for the global analysis of gene expression in humans, animals, plants, and microbes. Implemented in the context of a well-designed experiment, cDNA and oligonucleotide arrays can provide highthroughput, simultaneous analysis of transcript abundance for hundreds, if not thousands, of genes. However, despite widespread acceptance, the use of microarrays as a tool to better understand processes of interest to the plant physiologist is still being explored. To help illustrate current uses of microarrays in the plant sciences, several case studies that we believe demonstrate the emerging application of gene expression arrays in plant physiology weremore » selected from among the many posters and presentations at the 2003 Plant and Animal Genome XI Conference. Based on this survey, microarrays are being used to assess gene expression in plants exposed to the experimental manipulation of air temperature, soil water content and aluminium concentration in the root zone. Analysis often includes characterizing transcript profiles for multiple post-treatment sampling periods and categorizing genes with common patterns of response using hierarchical clustering techniques. In addition, microarrays are also providing insights into developmental changes in gene expression associated with fibre and root elongation in cotton and maize, respectively. Technical and analytical limitations of microarrays are discussed and projects attempting to advance areas of microarray design and data analysis are highlighted. Finally, although much work remains, we conclude that microarrays are a valuable tool for the plant physiologist interested in the characterization and identification of individual genes and gene families with potential application in the fields of agriculture, horticulture and forestry.« less

  12. 3. LOOKING EAST OVER GENE PUMP PLANT AND CAMP; PARKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. LOOKING EAST OVER GENE PUMP PLANT AND CAMP; PARKER DAM VILLAGE IN BACKGROUND. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-12 Miscellaneous plant families. Kinds of seed by family: Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot,...

  14. 7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-12 Miscellaneous plant families. Kinds of seed by family: Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot,...

  15. 7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-12 Miscellaneous plant families. Kinds of seed by family: Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot,...

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-12 Miscellaneous plant families. Kinds of seed by family: Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot,...

  17. 7 CFR 201.56-12 - Miscellaneous plant families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-12 Miscellaneous plant families. Kinds of seed by family: Carrot family, Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)—carrot,...

  18. The power-law distribution of gene family size is driven by the pseudogenisation rate's heterogeneity between gene families.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Timothy; Liberles, David A

    2008-05-15

    Genome sequencing has shown that the number of homologous gene families of a given size declines rapidly with family size. A power-law has been shown to provide the best mathematical description of this relationship. However, it remains unclear what evolutionary forces drive this observation. We use models of gene duplication, pseudogenisation and accumulation of replacement substitutions, which have been validated and parameterised using genomic data, to build a model of homologous gene evolution. We use this model to simulate the evolution of the distribution of gene family size and show that the power-law distribution is driven by the pseudogenisation rate's heterogeneity across gene families and its correlation within families. Moreover, we show that gene duplication and pseudogenisation are necessary and sufficient for the emergence of the power-law. PMID:18378100

  19. Gene structure, phylogeny and expression profile of the sucrose synthase gene family in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Fupeng; Hao, Chaoyun; Yan, Lin; Wu, Baoduo; Qin, Xiaowei; Lai, Jianxiong; Song, Yinghui

    2015-09-01

    In higher plants, sucrose synthase (Sus, EC 2.4.1.13) is widely considered as a key enzyme involved in sucrose metabolism. Although, several paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of Sus have been identified and characterized in multiple plant genomes, to date detailed information about the Sus genes is lacking for cacao. This study reports the identification of six novel Sus genes from economically important cacao tree. Analyses of the gene structure and phylogeny of the Sus genes demonstrated evolutionary conservation in the Sus family across cacao and other plant species. The expression of cacao Sus genes was investigated via real-time PCR in various tissues, different developmental phases of leaf, flower bud and pod. The Sus genes exhibited distinct but partially redundant expression profiles in cacao, with TcSus1, TcSus5 and TcSus6, being the predominant genes in the bark with phloem, TcSus2 predominantly expressing in the seed during the stereotype stage. TcSus3 and TcSus4 were significantly detected more in the pod husk and seed coat along the pod development, and showed development dependent expression profiles in the cacao pod. These results provide new insights into the evolution, and basic information that will assist in elucidating the functions of cacao Sus gene family. PMID:26440085

  20. Disruption of Individual Members of Arabidopsis Syntaxin Gene Families Indicates Each Has Essential Functions

    PubMed Central

    Sanderfoot, Anton A.; Pilgrim, Marsha; Adam, Luc; Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2001-01-01

    Syntaxins are a large group of proteins found in all eukaryotes involved in the fusion of transport vesicles to target membranes. Twenty-four syntaxins grouped into 10 gene families are found in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, each group containing one to five paralogous members. The Arabidopsis SYP2 and SYP4 gene families contain three members each that share 60 to 80% protein sequence identity. Gene disruptions of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) orthologs of the SYP2 and SYP4 gene families (Pep12p and Tlg2p, respectively) indicate that these syntaxins are not essential for growth in yeast. However, we have isolated and characterized gene disruptions in two genes from each family, finding that disruption of individual syntaxins from these families is lethal in the male gametophyte of Arabidopsis. Complementation of the syp21-1 gene disruption with its cognate transgene indicated that the lethality is linked to the loss of the single syntaxin gene. Thus, it is clear that each syntaxin in the SYP2 and SYP4 families serves an essential nonredundant function. PMID:11251103

  1. Duplication of OsHAP family genes and their association with heading date in rice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiuping; Yan, Wenhao; Chen, Huaxia; Tan, Cong; Han, Zhongmin; Yao, Wen; Li, Guangwei; Yuan, Mengqi; Xing, Yongzhong

    2016-01-01

    Heterotrimeric Heme Activator Protein (HAP) family genes are involved in the regulation of flowering in plants. It is not clear how many HAP genes regulate heading date in rice. In this study, we identified 35 HAP genes, including seven newly identified genes, and performed gene duplication and candidate gene-based association analyses. Analyses showed that segmental duplication and tandem duplication are the main mechanisms of HAP gene duplication. Expression profiling and functional identification indicated that duplication probably diversifies the functions of HAP genes. A nucleotide diversity analysis revealed that 13 HAP genes underwent selection. A candidate gene-based association analysis detected four HAP genes related to heading date. An investigation of transgenic plants or mutants of 23 HAP genes confirmed that overexpression of at least four genes delayed heading date under long-day conditions, including the previously cloned Ghd8/OsHAP3H. Our results indicate that the large number of HAP genes in rice was mainly produced by gene duplication, and a few HAP genes function to regulate heading date. Selection of HAP genes is probably caused by their diverse functions rather than regulation of heading. PMID:26798026

  2. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  3. The SOD Gene Family in Tomato: Identification, Phylogenetic Relationships, and Expression Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Kun; Yu, Jiahong; Cheng, Yuan; Ruan, Meiying; Wang, Rongqing; Ye, Qingjing; Zhou, Guozhi; Li, Zhimiao; Yao, Zhuping; Yang, Yuejian; Zheng, Qingsong; Wan, Hongjian

    2016-01-01

    Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants. PMID:27625661

  4. Complexity of the MSG gene family of Pneumocystis carinii

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Scott P; Stringer, James R

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship between the parasitic fungus Pneumocystis carinii and its host, the laboratory rat, presumably involves features that allow the fungus to circumvent attacks by the immune system. It is hypothesized that the major surface glycoprotein (MSG) gene family endows Pneumocystis with the capacity to vary its surface. This gene family is comprised of approximately 80 genes, which each are approximately 3 kb long. Expression of the MSG gene family is regulated by a cis-dependent mechanism that involves a unique telomeric site in the genome called the expression site. Only the MSG gene adjacent to the expression site is represented by messenger RNA. Several P. carinii MSG genes have been sequenced, which showed that genes in the family can encode distinct isoforms of MSG. The vast majority of family members have not been characterized at the sequence level. Results The first 300 basepairs of MSG genes were subjected to analysis herein. Analysis of 581 MSG sequence reads from P. carinii genomic DNA yielded 281 different sequences. However, many of the sequence reads differed from others at only one site, a degree of variation consistent with that expected to be caused by error. Accounting for error reduced the number of truly distinct sequences observed to 158, roughly twice the number expected if the gene family contains 80 members. The size of the gene family was verified by PCR. The excess of distinct sequences appeared to be due to allelic variation. Discounting alleles, there were 73 different MSG genes observed. The 73 genes differed by 19% on average. Variable regions were rich in nucleotide differences that changed the encoded protein. The genes shared three regions in which at least 16 consecutive basepairs were invariant. There were numerous cases where two different genes were identical within a region that was variable among family members as a whole, suggesting recombination among family members. Conclusion A set of sequences that

  5. Sequence and expression analysis of the AMT gene family in poplar.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyu; Yang, Han; Qu, Chunpu; Xu, Zhiru; Li, Wei; Hao, Bingqing; Yang, Chuanping; Sun, Guangyu; Liu, Guanjun

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are plasma membrane proteins that exclusively transport ammonium/ammonia. These proteins are encoded by an ancient gene family with many members. The molecular characteristics and evolutionary history of AMTs in woody plants are still poorly understood. We comprehensively evaluated the AMT gene family in the latest release of the Populus trichocarpa genome (version 3.0; Phytozome 9.0), and identified 16 AMT genes. These genes formed four clusters; AMT1 (7 genes), AMT2 (2 genes), AMT3 (2 genes), and AMT4 (5 genes). Evolutionary analyses suggested that the Populus AMT gene family has expanded via whole-genome duplication events. Among the 16 AMT genes, 15 genes are located on 11 chromosomes of Populus. Expression analyses showed that 14 AMT genes were vegetative organs expressed; AMT1;1/1;3/1;6/3;2 and AMT1;1/1;2/2;2/3;1 had high transcript accumulation level in the leaves and roots, respectively and strongly changes under the nitrogen-dependent experiments. The results imply the functional roles of AMT genes in ammonium absorption in poplar. PMID:26052331

  6. Sequence and expression analysis of the AMT gene family in poplar

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangyu; Yang, Han; Qu, Chunpu; Xu, Zhiru; Li, Wei; Hao, Bingqing; Yang, Chuanping; Sun, Guangyu; Liu, Guanjun

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) are plasma membrane proteins that exclusively transport ammonium/ammonia. These proteins are encoded by an ancient gene family with many members. The molecular characteristics and evolutionary history of AMTs in woody plants are still poorly understood. We comprehensively evaluated the AMT gene family in the latest release of the Populus trichocarpa genome (version 3.0; Phytozome 9.0), and identified 16 AMT genes. These genes formed four clusters; AMT1 (7 genes), AMT2 (2 genes), AMT3 (2 genes), and AMT4 (5 genes). Evolutionary analyses suggested that the Populus AMT gene family has expanded via whole-genome duplication events. Among the 16 AMT genes, 15 genes are located on 11 chromosomes of Populus. Expression analyses showed that 14 AMT genes were vegetative organs expressed; AMT1;1/1;3/1;6/3;2 and AMT1;1/1;2/2;2/3;1 had high transcript accumulation level in the leaves and roots, respectively and strongly changes under the nitrogen-dependent experiments. The results imply the functional roles of AMT genes in ammonium absorption in poplar. PMID:26052331

  7. Impact of gene family evolutionary histories on phylogenetic species tree inference by gene tree parsimony.

    PubMed

    Shi, Tao

    2016-03-01

    Complicated history of gene duplication and loss brings challenge to molecular phylogenetic inference, especially in deep phylogenies. However, phylogenomic approaches, such as gene tree parsimony (GTP), show advantage over some other approaches in its ability to use gene families with duplications. GTP searches the 'optimal' species tree by minimizing the total cost of biological events such as duplications, but accuracy of GTP and phylogenetic signal in the context of different gene families with distinct histories of duplication and loss are unclear. To evaluate how different evolutionary properties of different gene families can impact on species tree inference, 3900 gene families from seven angiosperms encompassing a wide range of gene content, lineage-specific expansions and contractions were analyzed. It was found that the gene content and total duplication number in a gene family strongly influence species tree inference accuracy, with the highest accuracy achieved at either very low or very high gene content (or duplication number) and lowest accuracy centered in intermediate gene content (or duplication number), as the relationship can fit a binomial regression. Besides, for gene families of similar level of average gene content, those with relatively higher lineage-specific expansion or duplication rates tend to show lower accuracy. Additional correlation tests support that high accuracy for those gene families with large gene content may rely on abundant ancestral copies to provide many subtrees to resolve conflicts, whereas high accuracy for single or low copy gene families are just subject to sequence substitution per se. Very low accuracy reached by gene families of intermediate gene content or duplication number can be due to insufficient subtrees to resolve the conflicts from loss of alternative copies. As these evolutionary properties can significantly influence species tree accuracy, I discussed the potential weighting of the duplication cost by

  8. Genome-wide analysis of Aux/IAA and ARF gene families in Populus trichocarpa

    SciTech Connect

    Kalluri, Udaya C; DiFazio, Stephen P; Brunner, A.; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2007-01-01

    Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) and Auxin Response Factor (ARF) transcription factors are key regulators of auxin responses in plants. A total of 35 Aux/IAA and 39 ARF genes were identified in the Populus genome. Comparative phylogenetic analysis revealed that the subgroups PoptrARF2, 6, 9 and 16 and PoptrIAA3, 16, 27 and 29 have differentially expanded in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Activator ARFs were found to be two fold-overrepresented in the Populus genome. PoptrIAA and PoptrARF gene families appear to have expanded due to high segmental and low tandem duplication events. Furthermore, expression studies showed that genes in the expanded PoptrIAA3 subgroup display differential expression. The gene-family analysis reported here will be useful in conducting future functional genomics studies to understand how the molecular roles of these large gene families translate into a diversity of biologically meaningful auxin effects.

  9. Genome-Wide Evolutionary Characterization and Expression Analyses of WRKY Family Genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Zhu, Hong; Li, Peng; Jiang, Min; Mao, Wenqing; Ong, Chermaine; Chu, Zhaoqing

    2014-01-01

    Members of plant WRKY gene family are ancient transcription factors that function in plant growth and development and respond to biotic and abiotic stresses. In our present study, we have investigated WRKY family genes in Brachypodium distachyon, a new model plant of family Poaceae. We identified a total of 86 WRKY genes from B. distachyon and explored their chromosomal distribution and evolution, domain alignment, promoter cis-elements, and expression profiles. Combining the analysis of phylogenetic tree of BdWRKY genes and the result of expression profiling, results showed that most of clustered gene pairs had higher similarities in the WRKY domain, suggesting that they might be functionally redundant. Neighbour-joining analysis of 301 WRKY domains from Oryza sativa, Arabidopsis thaliana, and B. distachyon suggested that BdWRKY domains are evolutionarily more closely related to O. sativa WRKY domains than those of A. thaliana. Moreover, tissue-specific expression profile of BdWRKY genes and their responses to phytohormones and several biotic or abiotic stresses were analysed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of BdWRKY genes was rapidly regulated by stresses and phytohormones, and there was a strong correlation between promoter cis-elements and the phytohormones-induced BdWRKY gene expression. PMID:24453041

  10. PLEXdb: Gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facili...

  11. Disease Resistance Gene Analogs (RGAs) in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sekhwal, Manoj Kumar; Li, Pingchuan; Lam, Irene; Wang, Xiue; Cloutier, Sylvie; You, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have developed effective mechanisms to recognize and respond to infections caused by pathogens. Plant resistance gene analogs (RGAs), as resistance (R) gene candidates, have conserved domains and motifs that play specific roles in pathogens’ resistance. Well-known RGAs are nucleotide binding site leucine rich repeats, receptor like kinases, and receptor like proteins. Others include pentatricopeptide repeats and apoplastic peroxidases. RGAs can be detected using bioinformatics tools based on their conserved structural features. Thousands of RGAs have been identified from sequenced plant genomes. High-density genome-wide RGA genetic maps are useful for designing diagnostic markers and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) or markers associated with plant disease resistance. This review focuses on recent advances in structures and mechanisms of RGAs, and their identification from sequenced genomes using bioinformatics tools. Applications in enhancing fine mapping and cloning of plant disease resistance genes are also discussed. PMID:26287177

  12. SLC9/NHE gene family, a plasma membrane and organellar family of Na+/H+ exchangers *

    PubMed Central

    Donowitz, Mark; Tse, C. Ming; Fuster, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This brief review of the human Na/H exchanger gene family introduces a new classification with three subgroups to the SLC9 gene family. Progress in the structure and function of this gene family is reviewed with structure based on homology to the bacterial Na/H exchanger NhaA. Human diseases which result from genetic abnormalities of the SLC9 family are discussed although the exact role of these transporters in causing any disease is not established, other than poorly functioning NHE3 in congenital Na diarrhea PMID:23506868

  13. The Phaseolus vulgaris ZIP gene family: identification, characterization, mapping, and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Carolina; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Blair, Matthew W.; Cichy, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc is an essential mineral for humans and plants and is involved in many physiological and biochemical processes. In humans, Zn deficiency has been associated with retarded growth and reduction of immune response. In plants, Zn is an essential component of more than 300 enzymes including RNA polymerase, alkaline phosphatase, alcohol dehydrogenase, Cu/Zn superoxidase dismutase, and carbonic anhydrase. The accumulation of Zn in plants involves many genes and characterization of the role of these genes will be useful in biofortification. Here we report the identification and phlyogenetic and sequence characterization of the 23 members of the ZIP (ZRT, IRT like protein) family of metal transporters and three transcription factors of the bZIP family in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Expression patterns of seven of these genes were characterized in two bean genotypes (G19833 and DOR364) under two Zn treatments. Tissue analyzed included roots and leaves at vegetative and flowering stages, and pods at 20 days after flowering. Four of the genes, PvZIP12, PvZIP13, PvZIP16, and Pv bZIP1, showed differential expression based on tissue, Zn treatment, and/or genotype. PvZIP12 and PvZIP13 were both more highly expressed in G19833 than DOR364. PvZIP12 was most highly expressed in vegetative leaves under the Zn (−) treatment. PvZIP16 was highly expressed in leaf tissue, especially leaf tissue at flowering stage grown in the Zn (−) treatment. Pv bZIP1 was most highly expressed in leaf and pod tissue. The 23 PvZIP genes and three bZIP genes were mapped on the DOR364 × G19833 linkage map. PvZIP12, PvZIP13, and PvZIP18, Pv bZIP2, and Pv bZIP3 were located near QTLs for Zn accumulation in the seed. Based on the expression and mapping results, PvZIP12 is a good candidate gene for increasing seed Zn concentration and increase understanding of the role of ZIP genes in metal uptake, distribution, and accumulation of zinc in P. vulgaris. PMID:23908661

  14. Gene expression from plants grown on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimpson, Alexander; Pereira, Rhea; Kiss, John Z.; Correll, Melanie

    Three experiments were performed on the International Space Station (ISS) in 2006 as part of the TROPI experiments. These experiments were performed to study graviTROPIsm and photoTROPIsm responses of Arabidopsis in microgravity (µg). Seedlings were grown with a variety of light and gravitational treatments for approximately five days. The frozen samples were returned to Earth during three space shuttle missions in 2007 and stored at -80° C. Due to the limited amount of plant biomass returned, new protocols were developed to minimize the amount of material needed for RNA extraction as a preparation for microarray analysis. Using these new protocols, RNA was extracted from several sets of seedlings grown in red light followed by blue light with one sample from 1.0g treatment and the other at µg. Using a 2-fold change criterion, microarray (Affymetrix, GeneChip) results showed that 613 genes were upregulated in the µg sample while 757 genes were downregulated. Upregulated genes in response to µg included transcription factors from the WRKY (15 genes), MYB (3) and ZF (8) families as well as those that are involved in auxin responses (10). Downregulated genes also included transcription factors such as MYB (5) and Zinc finger (10) but interestingly only two WRKY family genes were down-regulated during the µg treatment. Studies are underway to compare these results with other samples to identify the genes involved in the gravity and light signal transduction pathways (this project is Supported By: NASA NCC2-1200).

  15. Classification and evolution of alpha-amylase genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, N; Stebbins, G L; Rodriguez, R L

    1992-08-15

    The DNA sequences for 17 plant genes for alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) were analyzed to determine their phylogenetic relationship. A phylogeny for these genes was obtained using two separate approaches, one based on molecular clock assumptions and the other based on a comparison of sequence polymorphisms (i.e., small and localized insertions) in the alpha-amylase genes. These polymorphisms are called "alpha-amylase signatures" because they are diagnostic of the gene subfamily to which a particular alpha-amylase gene belongs. Results indicate that the cereal alpha-amylase genes fall into two major classes: AmyA and AmyB. The AmyA class is subdivided into the Amy1 and Amy2 subfamilies previously used to classify alpha-amylase genes in barley and wheat. The AmyB class includes the Amy3 subfamily to which most of the alpha-amylase genes of rice belong. Using polymerase chain reaction and oligonucleotide primers that flank one of the two signature regions, we show that the AmyA and AmyB gene classes are present in approximately equal amounts in all grass species examined except barley. The AmyB (Amy3 subfamily) genes in the latter case are comparatively underrepresented. Additional evidence suggests that the AmyA genes appeared recently and may be confined to the grass family. PMID:1502164

  16. Potential phylogenetic utility of WRKY gene family members

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single and low copy nuclear genes represent a source of multiple, unlinked and independently-evolving loci, the ideal data set for molecular phylogenetic inference due to their high rate of synonymous substitution compared to chloroplast or mitochondrial genes. The WRKY gene family of transcription ...

  17. Structural, Functional, and Evolutionary Analysis of the Unusually Large Stilbene Synthase Gene Family in Grapevine1[W

    PubMed Central

    Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Réty, Stéphane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphaël; Marais, Gabriel A.B.; Aubourg, Sébastien; Hugueney, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed. PMID:22961129

  18. Heterelogous Expression of Plant Genes

    PubMed Central

    Yesilirmak, Filiz; Sayers, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    Heterologous expression allows the production of plant proteins in an organism which is simpler than the natural source. This technology is widely used for large-scale purification of plant proteins from microorganisms for biochemical and biophysical analyses. Additionally expression in well-defined model organisms provides insights into the functions of proteins in complex pathways. The present review gives an overview of recombinant plant protein production methods using bacteria, yeast, insect cells, and Xenopus laevis oocytes and discusses the advantages of each system for functional studies and protein characterization. PMID:19672459

  19. Genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage).

    PubMed

    Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Liu, Tongkun; Huang, Zhinan; Ren, Jun; Hou, Xilin; Li, Ying

    2015-02-01

    The MADS-box gene family is an ancient and well-studied transcription factor family that functions in almost every developmental process in plants. There are a number of reports about the MADS-box family in different plant species, but systematic analysis of the MADS-box transcription factor family in Brassica rapa (Chinese cabbage) is still lacking. In this study, 160 MADS-box transcription factors were identified from the entire Chinese cabbage genome and compared with the MADS-box factors from 21 other representative plant species. A detailed list of MADS proteins from these 22 species was sorted. Phylogenetic analysis of the BrMADS genes, together with their Arabidopsis and rice counterparts, showed that the BrMADS genes were categorised into type I (Mα, Mβ, Mγ) and type II (MIKC(C), MIKC*) groups, and the MIKC(C) proteins were further divided into 13 subfamilies. The Chinese cabbage type II group has 95 members, which is twice as much as the Arabidopsis type II group, indicating that the Chinese cabbage type II genes have been retained more frequently than the type I genes. Finally, RNA-seq transcriptome data and quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that BrMADS genes are expressed in a tissue-specific manner similar to Arabidopsis. Interestingly, a number of BrMIKC genes showed responses to different abiotic stress treatments, suggesting a function for some of the genes in these processes as well. Taken together, the characterization of the B. rapa MADS-box family presented here, will certainly help in the selection of appropriate candidate genes and further facilitate functional studies in Chinese cabbage. PMID:25216934

  20. Evolution of the Class IV HD-Zip Gene Family in Streptophytes

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Christopher S.; Floyd, Sandra K.; Furumizu, Chihiro; Sakakibara, Keiko; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Bowman, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Class IV homeodomain leucine zipper (C4HDZ) genes are plant-specific transcription factors that, based on phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana, play an important role in epidermal development. In this study, we sampled all major extant lineages and their closest algal relatives for C4HDZ homologs and phylogenetic analyses result in a gene tree that mirrors land plant evolution with evidence for gene duplications in many lineages, but minimal evidence for gene losses. Our analysis suggests an ancestral C4HDZ gene originated in an algal ancestor of land plants and a single ancestral gene was present in the last common ancestor of land plants. Independent gene duplications are evident within several lineages including mosses, lycophytes, euphyllophytes, seed plants, and, most notably, angiosperms. In recently evolved angiosperm paralogs, we find evidence of pseudogenization via mutations in both coding and regulatory sequences. The increasing complexity of the C4HDZ gene family through the diversification of land plants correlates to increasing complexity in epidermal characters. PMID:23894141

  1. Genome-Wide Identification of the Invertase Gene Family in Populus

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xiaoxing; Rao, Pian; An, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Invertase plays a crucial role in carbohydrate partitioning and plant development as it catalyses the irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. The invertase family in plants is composed of two sub-families: acid invertases, which are targeted to the cell wall and vacuole; and neutral/alkaline invertases, which function in the cytosol. In this study, 5 cell wall invertase genes (PtCWINV1-5), 3 vacuolar invertase genes (PtVINV1-3) and 16 neutral/alkaline invertase genes (PtNINV1-16) were identified in the Populus genome and found to be distributed on 14 chromosomes. A comprehensive analysis of poplar invertase genes was performed, including structures, chromosome location, phylogeny, evolutionary pattern and expression profiles. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two sub-families were both divided into two clades. Segmental duplication is contributed to neutral/alkaline sub-family expansion. Furthermore, the Populus invertase genes displayed differential expression in roots, stems, leaves, leaf buds and in response to salt/cold stress and pathogen infection. In addition, the analysis of enzyme activity and sugar content revealed that invertase genes play key roles in the sucrose metabolism of various tissues and organs in poplar. This work lays the foundation for future functional analysis of the invertase genes in Populus and other woody perennials. PMID:26393355

  2. Genome-Wide Identification of the Invertase Gene Family in Populus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhong; Gao, Kai; Su, Xiaoxing; Rao, Pian; An, Xinmin

    2015-01-01

    Invertase plays a crucial role in carbohydrate partitioning and plant development as it catalyses the irreversible hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose. The invertase family in plants is composed of two sub-families: acid invertases, which are targeted to the cell wall and vacuole; and neutral/alkaline invertases, which function in the cytosol. In this study, 5 cell wall invertase genes (PtCWINV1-5), 3 vacuolar invertase genes (PtVINV1-3) and 16 neutral/alkaline invertase genes (PtNINV1-16) were identified in the Populus genome and found to be distributed on 14 chromosomes. A comprehensive analysis of poplar invertase genes was performed, including structures, chromosome location, phylogeny, evolutionary pattern and expression profiles. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the two sub-families were both divided into two clades. Segmental duplication is contributed to neutral/alkaline sub-family expansion. Furthermore, the Populus invertase genes displayed differential expression in roots, stems, leaves, leaf buds and in response to salt/cold stress and pathogen infection. In addition, the analysis of enzyme activity and sugar content revealed that invertase genes play key roles in the sucrose metabolism of various tissues and organs in poplar. This work lays the foundation for future functional analysis of the invertase genes in Populus and other woody perennials. PMID:26393355

  3. Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants

    PubMed Central

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ambrose, Barbara A.

    2014-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL) that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/SHP2) and INDEHISCENT (IND) at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL), responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC) and SPATULA (SPT) that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT, and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms. PMID:25018763

  4. Evolution of fruit development genes in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Pabón-Mora, Natalia; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Ambrose, Barbara A

    2014-01-01

    The genetic mechanisms regulating dry fruit development and opercular dehiscence have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the bicarpellate silique, valve elongation and differentiation is controlled by FRUITFULL (FUL) that antagonizes SHATTERPROOF1-2 (SHP1/SHP2) and INDEHISCENT (IND) at the dehiscence zone where they control normal lignification. SHP1/2 are also repressed by REPLUMLESS (RPL), responsible for replum formation. Similarly, FUL indirectly controls two other factors ALCATRAZ (ALC) and SPATULA (SPT) that function in the proper formation of the separation layer. FUL and SHP1/2 belong to the MADS-box family, IND and ALC belong to the bHLH family and RPL belongs to the homeodomain family, all of which are large transcription factor families. These families have undergone numerous duplications and losses in plants, likely accompanied by functional changes. Functional analyses of homologous genes suggest that this network is fairly conserved in Brassicaceae and less conserved in other core eudicots. Only the MADS box genes have been functionally characterized in basal eudicots and suggest partial conservation of the functions recorded for Brassicaceae. Here we do a comprehensive search of SHP, IND, ALC, SPT, and RPL homologs across core-eudicots, basal eudicots, monocots and basal angiosperms. Based on gene-tree analyses we hypothesize what parts of the network for fruit development in Brassicaceae, in particular regarding direct and indirect targets of FUL, might be conserved across angiosperms. PMID:25018763

  5. Expression of bacterial genes in plant cells.

    PubMed Central

    Fraley, R T; Rogers, S G; Horsch, R B; Sanders, P R; Flick, J S; Adams, S P; Bittner, M L; Brand, L A; Fink, C L; Fry, J S; Galluppi, G R; Goldberg, S B; Hoffmann, N L; Woo, S C

    1983-01-01

    Chimeric bacterial genes conferring resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics have been inserted into the Agrobacterium tumefaciens tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid and introduced into plant cells by in vitro transformation techniques. The chimeric genes contain the nopaline synthase 5' and 3' regulatory regions joined to the genes for neomycin phosphotransferase type I or type II. The chimeric genes were cloned into an intermediate vector, pMON120, and inserted into pTiB6S3 by recombination and then introduced into petunia and tobacco cells by cocultivating A. tumefaciens cells with protoplast-derived cells. Southern hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the chimeric genes in the transformed plant tissues. Expression of the chimeric genes was determined by the ability of the transformed cells to proliferate on medium containing normally inhibitory levels of kanamycin (50 micrograms/ml) or other aminoglycoside antibiotics. Plant cells transformed by wild-type pTiB6S3 or derivatives carrying the bacterial neomycin phosphotransferase genes with their own promoters failed to grow under these conditions. The significance of these results for plant genetic engineering is discussed. Images PMID:6308651

  6. Characterization and Functional Analysis of PEBP Family Genes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Congcong; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a naturally occurring photoperiod-sensitive perennial plant species. However, sensitivity to the day length was lost during domestication. The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family, of which three subclades have been identified in angiosperms, functions to promote and suppress flowering in photoperiod pathway. Recent evidence indicates that PEBP family genes play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals. We isolated homologues of the PEBP gene family in upland cotton and examined their regulation and function. Nine PEBP-like genes were cloned and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genes belonged to four subclades (FT, MFT, TFL1 and PEBP). Cotton PEBP-like genes showed distinct expression patterns in relation to different cotton genotypes, photoperiod responsive and cultivar maturity. The GhFT gene expression of a semi-wild race of upland cotton were strongly induced under short day condition, whereas the GhPEBP2 gene expression was induced under long days. We also elucidated that GhFT but not GhPEBP2 interacted with FD-like bZIP transcription factor GhFD and promote flowering under both long- and short-day conditions. The present result indicated that GhPEBP-like genes may perform different functions. This work corroborates the involvement of PEBP-like genes in photoperiod response and regulation of flowering time in different cotton genotypes, and contributes to an improved understanding of the function of PEBP-like genes in cotton. PMID:27552108

  7. Characterization and Functional Analysis of PEBP Family Genes in Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohong; Wang, Congcong; Pang, Chaoyou; Wei, Hengling; Wang, Hantao; Song, Meizhen; Fan, Shuli; Yu, Shuxun

    2016-01-01

    Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is a naturally occurring photoperiod-sensitive perennial plant species. However, sensitivity to the day length was lost during domestication. The phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) gene family, of which three subclades have been identified in angiosperms, functions to promote and suppress flowering in photoperiod pathway. Recent evidence indicates that PEBP family genes play an important role in generating mobile flowering signals. We isolated homologues of the PEBP gene family in upland cotton and examined their regulation and function. Nine PEBP-like genes were cloned and phylogenetic analysis indicated the genes belonged to four subclades (FT, MFT, TFL1 and PEBP). Cotton PEBP-like genes showed distinct expression patterns in relation to different cotton genotypes, photoperiod responsive and cultivar maturity. The GhFT gene expression of a semi-wild race of upland cotton were strongly induced under short day condition, whereas the GhPEBP2 gene expression was induced under long days. We also elucidated that GhFT but not GhPEBP2 interacted with FD-like bZIP transcription factor GhFD and promote flowering under both long- and short-day conditions. The present result indicated that GhPEBP-like genes may perform different functions. This work corroborates the involvement of PEBP-like genes in photoperiod response and regulation of flowering time in different cotton genotypes, and contributes to an improved understanding of the function of PEBP-like genes in cotton. PMID:27552108

  8. FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERIZATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF THE NRAMP GENE FAMILY IN RICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In plants, several groups of gene families are responsible for the uptake, transport and storage of different transition metals, such as iron, zinc, copper and manganese. In this work, we used different molecular resources such as NCBI, TIGR and RGRC to identify what appears to be the entire Nramp g...

  9. Sub-genomic level sequence analysis of the aquaporin multi-gene family in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aquaporins function mainly as water transport channel proteins that facilitate water movement across intracellular and intercellular membranes in most living organisms. Plant aquaporins belong to a multi-gene family and are commonly categorized into 5 subfamilies according to sequence similarity. Re...

  10. Identification and analysis of the TIFY gene family in Gossypium raimondii.

    PubMed

    He, D H; Lei, Z P; Tang, B S; Xing, H Y; Zhao, J X; Jing, Y L

    2015-01-01

    The highly conserved TIFY domain is included in the TIFY protein family of transcription factors, which is important in plant development. Here, 28 TIFY family genes were identified in the Gossypium raimondii genome and classified into JAZ (15 genes), ZML (8), PPD (3), and TIFY (2). The normal (TIF[F/Y]XG) motif was dominant in the TIFY family, excluding the ZML subfamily, in which TLSFXG was prevalent. TIFY family genes were unevenly distributed in the G. raimondii genome, with TIFY clusters present on chromosome 9. Phylogenetic analysis indicated abundant variations in the G. raimondii TIFY family, which were most closely related to those in Theobroma cacao among 5 species. Exon-intron organization and intron phases were homologous within each subfamily, correlating with their phylogeny. Intra-species synteny analyses indicated that genomic duplication contributed to the expansion of the TIFY family. Inter-species synteny analyses indicated that synteny regions involved in G. raimondii TIFY family genes were also present in the comparison of G. raimondii vs Arabidopsis thaliana or T. cacao, signifying that these genes had common ancestors and play the same or similar roles in biological processes. Greater synteny was present in the comparison of G. raimondii vs T. cacao than of G. raimondii vs A. thaliana. The expression patterns of TIFY family genes were characterized and most TIFY family genes were indicated to be involved in fiber development. Our study provides new data related to the evolution of TIFYs and their role as important regulators of transcription; these data can be useful for fiber development. PMID:26345949

  11. How Many Processed Pseudogenes Are Accumulated in a Gene Family?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, James Bruce

    1985-01-01

    A simple kinetic model is developed that describes the accumulation of processed pseudogenes in a functional gene family. Insertion of new pseudogenes occurs at rate ν per gene and is countered by spontaneous deletion (at rate δ per DNA segment) of segments containing processed pseudogenes. If there are k functional genes in a gene family, the equilibrium number of processed pseudogenes is k(ν/δ), and the percentage of functional genes in the gene family at equilibrium is 1/[1 + (ν/δ)]. ν/δ values estimated for five gene families ranged from 1.7 to 15. This fairly narrow range suggests that the rates of formation and deletion of processed pseudogenes may be positively correlated for these families. If δ is sufficiently large relative to the per nucleotide mutation rate µ (δ > 20µ), processed pseudogenes will show high homology with each other, even in the absence of gene conversion between pseudogenes. We argue that formation of processed pseudogenes may share common pathways with transposable elements and retroviruses, creating the potential for correlated responses in the evolution of processed pseudogenes due to direct selection for control of transposable elements and/or retroviruses. Finally, we discuss the nature of the selective forces that may act directly or indirectly to influence the evolution of processed pseudogenes. Anything produced by evolution is bound to be a bit of a mess—S. Brenner PMID:2408963

  12. [Ice/ced-3 family gene and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Miura, M

    1996-07-01

    Apoptosis is a process by which cells carry out their own execution by activating an orderly set of genetic and biochemical program. A genetic pathway of apoptosis has been identified in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The ced-3 gene is required for all programmed cell death in C. elegans. Mammalian homolog of ced-3 has been identified as Ice family which is newly identified cysteine protease. Overexpression of Ice/ced-3 family gene can induce apoptosis in a variety of mammalian cells, and inhibitors of Ice/ced-3 family effectively prevent apoptosis induced by a variety of stimulus. Several housekeeping genes have been shown to be targets of Ice/ced-3 family gene, indicating that activation of Ice/ced-3 can induce irreversible fatal changes of cells. PMID:8741679

  13. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper Subfamily IV (HDZ IV) Gene Family from Musa accuminata.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Misra, Prashant; Alok, Anshu; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Shivani; Lakhwani, Deepika; Asif, Mehar H; Tiwari, Siddharth; Trivedi, Prabodh K

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP) of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV) has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV encoding genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana, and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV encoding genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV encoding genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs. PMID:26870050

  14. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Homeodomain Leucine Zipper Subfamily IV (HDZ IV) Gene Family from Musa accuminata

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ashutosh; Misra, Prashant; Alok, Anshu; Kaur, Navneet; Sharma, Shivani; Lakhwani, Deepika; Asif, Mehar H.; Tiwari, Siddharth; Trivedi, Prabodh K.

    2016-01-01

    The homeodomain zipper family (HD-ZIP) of transcription factors is present only in plants and plays important role in the regulation of plant-specific processes. The subfamily IV of HDZ transcription factors (HD-ZIP IV) has primarily been implicated in the regulation of epidermal structure development. Though this gene family is present in all lineages of land plants, members of this gene family have not been identified in banana, which is one of the major staple fruit crops. In the present work, we identified 21 HDZIV encoding genes in banana by the computational analysis of banana genome resource. Our analysis suggested that these genes putatively encode proteins having all the characteristic domains of HDZIV transcription factors. The phylogenetic analysis of the banana HDZIV family genes further confirmed that after separation from a common ancestor, the banana, and poales lineages might have followed distinct evolutionary paths. Further, we conclude that segmental duplication played a major role in the evolution of banana HDZIV encoding genes. All the identified banana HDZIV genes expresses in different banana tissue, however at varying levels. The transcript levels of some of the banana HDZIV genes were also detected in banana fruit pulp, suggesting their putative role in fruit attributes. A large number of genes of this family showed modulated expression under drought and salinity stress. Taken together, the present work lays a foundation for elucidation of functional aspects of the banana HDZIV encoding genes and for their possible use in the banana improvement programs. PMID:26870050

  15. Duplication, divergence and persistence in the Phytochrome photoreceptor gene family of cottons (Gossypium spp.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Phytochromes are a family of red/far-red photoreceptors that regulate a number of important developmental traits in cotton (Gossypium spp.), including plant architecture, fiber development, and photoperiodic flowering. Little is known about the composition and evolution of the phytochrome gene family in diploid (G. herbaceum, G. raimondii) or allotetraploid (G. hirsutum, G. barbadense) cotton species. The objective of this study was to obtain a preliminary inventory and molecular-evolutionary characterization of the phytochrome gene family in cotton. Results We used comparative sequence resources to design low-degeneracy PCR primers that amplify genomic sequence tags (GSTs) for members of the PHYA, PHYB/D, PHYC and PHYE gene sub-families from A- and D-genome diploid and AD-genome allotetraploid Gossypium species. We identified two paralogous PHYA genes (designated PHYA1 and PHYA2) in diploid cottons, the result of a Malvaceae-specific PHYA gene duplication that occurred approximately 14 million years ago (MYA), before the divergence of the A- and D-genome ancestors. We identified a single gene copy of PHYB, PHYC, and PHYE in diploid cottons. The allotetraploid genomes have largely retained the complete gene complements inherited from both of the diploid genome ancestors, with at least four PHYA genes and two genes encoding PHYB, PHYC and PHYE in the AD-genomes. We did not identify a PHYD gene in any cotton genomes examined. Conclusions Detailed sequence analysis suggests that phytochrome genes retained after duplication by segmental duplication and allopolyploidy appear to be evolving independently under a birth-and-death-process with strong purifying selection. Our study provides a preliminary phytochrome gene inventory that is necessary and sufficient for further characterization of the biological functions of each of the cotton phytochrome genes, and for the development of 'candidate gene' markers that are potentially useful for cotton improvement via

  16. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family phylogenetics and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K; Rawls, Alan; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Roalson, Eric H

    2010-07-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene superfamily was performed using seven different species (human, mouse, rat, worm, fly, yeast, and plant Arabidopsis) and involving over 600 bHLH genes (Stevens et al., 2008). All bHLH genes were identified in the genomes of the various species, including expressed sequence tags, and the entire coding sequence was used in the analysis. Nearly 15% of the gene family has been updated or added since the original publication. A super-tree involving six clades and all structural relationships was established and is now presented for four of the species. The wealth of functional data available for members of the bHLH gene superfamily provides us with the opportunity to use this exhaustive phylogenetic tree to predict potential functions of uncharacterized members of the family. This phylogenetic and genomic analysis of the bHLH gene family has revealed unique elements of the evolution and functional relationships of the different genes in the bHLH gene family. PMID:20219281

  17. Cloning and characterisation of JAZ gene family in Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Hong, H; Xiao, H; Yuan, H; Zhai, J; Huang, X

    2015-05-01

    Mechanical wounding or treatment with exogenous jasmonates (JA) induces differentiation of the laticifer in Hevea brasiliensis. JA is a key signal for latex biosynthesis and wounding response in the rubber tree. Identification of JAZ (jasmonate ZIM-domain) family of proteins that repress JA responses has facilitated rapid progress in understanding how this lipid-derived hormone controls gene expression and related physiological processes in plants. In this work, the full-length cDNAs of six JAZ genes were cloned from H. brasiliensis (termed HbJAZ). These HbJAZ have different lengths and sequence diversity, but all of them contain Jas and ZIM domains, and two of them contain an ERF-associated amphiphilic repression (EAR) motif in the N-terminal. Real-time RT-PCR analyses revealed that HbJAZ have different expression patterns and tissue specificity. Four HbJAZ were up-regulated, one was down-regulated, while two were less effected by rubber tapping treatment, suggesting that they might play distinct roles in the wounding response. A yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that HbJAZ proteins interact with each other to form homologous or heterogeneous dimer complexes, indicating that the HbJAZ proteins may expand their function through diverse JAZ-JAZ interactions. This work lays a foundation for identification of the JA signalling pathway and molecular mechanisms of latex biosynthesis in rubber trees. PMID:25399518

  18. Genome-wide analysis of the SBP-box gene family in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis).

    PubMed

    Tan, Hua-Wei; Song, Xiao-Ming; Duan, Wei-Ke; Wang, Yan; Hou, Xi-Lin

    2015-11-01

    The SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN (SBP)-box gene family contains highly conserved plant-specific transcription factors that play an important role in plant development, especially in flowering. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa subsp. pekinensis) is a leafy vegetable grown worldwide and is used as a model crop for research in genome duplication. The present study aimed to characterize the SBP-box transcription factor genes in Chinese cabbage. Twenty-nine SBP-box genes were identified in the Chinese cabbage genome and classified into six groups. We identified 23 orthologous and 5 co-orthologous SBP-box gene pairs between Chinese cabbage and Arabidopsis. An interaction network among these genes was constructed. Sixteen SBP-box genes were expressed more abundantly in flowers than in other tissues, suggesting their involvement in flowering. We show that the MiR156/157 family members may regulate the coding regions or 3'-UTR regions of Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes. As SBP-box genes were found to potentially participate in some plant development pathways, quantitative real-time PCR analysis was performed and showed that Chinese cabbage SBP-box genes were also sensitive to the exogenous hormones methyl jasmonic acid and salicylic acid. The SBP-box genes have undergone gene duplication and loss, evolving a more refined regulation for diverse stimulation in plant tissues. Our comprehensive genome-wide analysis provides insights into the SBP-box gene family of Chinese cabbage. PMID:26599708

  19. Homologs of Breast Cancer Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Trapp, Oliver; Seeliger, Katharina; Puchta, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Since the initial discovery of genes involved in hereditary breast cancer in humans, a vast wealth of information has been published. Breast cancer proteins were shown to work as tumor suppressors primarily through their involvement in DNA-damage repair. Surprisingly, homologs of these genes can be found in plant genomes, as well. Here, we want to give an overview of the identification and characterization of the biological roles of these proteins, in plants. In addition to the conservation of their function in DNA repair, new plant-specific characteristics have been revealed. BRCA1 is required for the efficient repair of double strand breaks (DSB) by homologous recombination in somatic cells of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatic analysis indicates that, whereas most homologs of key components of the different mammalian BRCA1 complexes are present in plant genomes, homologs of most factors involved in the recruitment of BRCA1 to the DSB cannot be identified. Thus, it is not clear at the moment whether differences exist between plants and animals at this important step. The most conserved region of BRCA1 and BARD1 homologs in plants is a PHD domain which is absent in mammals and which, in AtBARD1, might be involved in the transcriptional regulation of plant development. The presence of a plant-specific domain prompted us to reevaluate the current model for the evolution of BRCA1 homologs and to suggest a new hypothesis, in which we postulate that plant BRCA1 and BARD1 have one common predecessor that gained a PHD domain before duplication. Furthermore, work in Arabidopsis demonstrates that – as in animals – BRCA2 homologs are important for meiotic DNA recombination. Surprisingly, recent research has revealed that AtBRCA2 also has an important role in systemic acquired resistance. In Arabidopsis, BRCA2 is involved in the transcriptional regulation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes via its interaction with the strand exchange protein RAD51. PMID

  20. Developmental regulation of embryonic genes in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Borkird, C.; Choi, Jung, H.; Jin, Zhenghua; Franz, G.; Hatzopoulos, P.; Chorneaus, R.; Bonas, U.; Pelegri, F.; Sung, Z.R.

    1988-09-01

    Somatic embryogenesis from cultured carrot cells progresses through successive morphogenetic stages termed globular, heart, and torpedo. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying plant embryogenesis, the authors isolated two genes differentially expressed during embryo development. The expression of these two genes is associated with heart-stage embryogenesis. By altering the culture conditions and examining their expressions in a developmental variant cell line, they found that these genes were controlled by the developmental program of embryogenesis and were not directly regulated by 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, the growth regulator that promotes unorganized growth of cultured cells and suppresses embryo morphogenesis. These genes are also expressed in carrot zygotic embryos but not in seedlings or mature plants.

  1. Plant defense genes are regulated by ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, J.R.; Davis, R.W.

    1987-08-01

    One of the earliest detectable events during plant-pathogen interaction is a rapid increase in ethylene biosynthesis. This gaseous plant stress hormone may be a signal for plants to activate defense mechanisms against invading pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The effect of ethylene on four plant genes involved in three separate plant defense response pathways was examined; these included (i and ii) genes that encode L-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (EC 4.3.1.5) and 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4-coumarate:CoA ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.2.1.12), enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway, (iii) the gene encoding chalcone synthase, an enzyme of the flavonoid glycoside pathway, and (iv) the genes encoding hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein, a major protein component(s) of plant cell walls. Blot hybridization analysis of mRNA from ethylene-treated carrot roots reveals marked increases in the levels of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase mRNA, 4-coumarate CoA ligase mRNA, chalcone synthase mRNA, and certain hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein transcripts. The effect of ethylene on hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNA accumulation was different from that of wounding. Ethylene induces two hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein mRNAs (1.8 and 4.0 kilobases), whereas wounding of carrot root leads to accumulation of an additional hydroxyproline-rich mRNA (1.5 kilobases). These results indicate that at least two distinct signals, ethylene and a wound signal, can affect the expression of plant defense-response genes.

  2. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  3. Evolution of DUF1313 family members across plant species and their association with maize photoperiod sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jia; Hu, Erliang; Chen, Xueying; Xu, Jie; Lan, Hai; Li, Chuan; Hu, Yaodong; Lu, Yanli

    2016-05-01

    Proteins of the DUF1313 family contain a highly conserved domain and are only found in plants; they play important roles in most plant functions. In this study, 269 DUF1313 genes from 81 photoautotrophic species were identified; they were classified into three major types based on the amino acid substitutions in the conserved region: IARV, I(S/T/F)(K/R)V, and IRRV. Phylogenic tree constructed from 51 DUF1313 genes from graminoids revealed three clades: A, B1, and B2. Clade B1 was found to have undergone episodic positive selection after a gene duplication event and included four amino acid sites under positive selection. The association between DUF1313 family members and traits investigated in maize indicated that three of four genes (GRMZM2G025646, GRMZM5G877647, GRMZM2G359322, and GRMZM2G382774) were associated with the target traits such as days to silking, days to tasselling, and plant height. The nucleotide diversity of the most primitive and highly conserved DUF1313 gene, ELF4-like4, was the highest in Tripsacum and the lowest in maize. Tajima's D and Fu and Li's D tests revealed that significant purifying selection had occurred in the coding sequence region of this DUF1313 gene in teosinte and maize. No significant signal was detected in the 5'-untranslated region of this gene in each of the three species (maize, teosinte, and Tripsacum) or in any gene regions of Tripsacum. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the 103 accessions of maize, teosinte, and Tripsacum can be grouped into four clades based on the ELF4-like4 gene sequence similarity. Thus, this gene can be used to determine the relationships between maize and its relatives, and the DUF1313 family members and alleles identified in this study might be valuable genetic resources for molecular marker-assisted breeding in maize. PMID:26772990

  4. Genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of the phospholipase D gene family in Gossypium arboreum.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kai; Dong, Chunjuan; Liu, Jinyuan

    2016-02-01

    The plant phospholipase D (PLD) plays versatile functions in multiple aspects of plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, until now, our knowledge concerning the PLD gene family members and their expression patterns in cotton has been limited. In this study, we performed for the first time the genome-wide analysis and expression profiling of PLD gene family in Gossypium arboretum, and finally, a total of 19 non-redundant PLD genes (GaPLDs) were identified. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, they were divided into six well-supported clades (α, β/γ, δ, ε, ζ and φ). Most of the GaPLD genes within the same clade showed the similar exon-intron organization and highly conserved motif structures. Additionally, the chromosomal distribution pattern revealed that GaPLD genes were unevenly distributed across 10 of the 13 cotton chromosomes. Segmental duplication is the major contributor to the expansion of GaPLD gene family and estimated to have occurred from 19.61 to 20.44 million years ago when a recent large-scale genome duplication occurred in cotton. Moreover, the expression profiling provides the functional divergence of GaPLD genes in cotton and provides some new light on the molecular mechanisms of GaPLDα1 and GaPLDδ2 in fiber development. PMID:26718354

  5. Molecular Analysis of the Aedes aegypti Carboxypeptidase Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Isoe, Jun; Zamora, Jorge; Miesfeld, Roger L.

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of coordinate regulation of protease gene expression in the mosquito midgut, we undertook a comprehensive molecular study of digestive carboxypeptidases in Aedes aegypti. Through a combination of cDNA cloning using degenerate PCR primers, and database mining of the recently completed Ae. aegypti genome, we cloned and characterized 18 Ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase genes. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that 11 of these genes belong to the carboxypeptidase A family (AaCPA-I through AaCPA-XI), and seven to the carboxypeptidase B gene family (AaCPB-I through AaCPB-VII). Phylogenetic analysis of 32 mosquito carboxypeptidases from five different species indicated that most of the sequence divergence in the carboxypeptidase gene family occurred prior to the separation of Aedes and Anopheles mosquito lineages. Unlike the CPA genes that are scattered throughout the Ae. aegypti genome, six of seven CPB genes were found to be located within a single 120 kb genome contig, suggesting that they most likely arose from multiple gene duplication events. Quantitative expression analysis revealed that 11 of the Ae. aegypti carboxypeptidase genes were induced up to 40-fold in the midgut in response to blood meal feeding, with peak expression times ranging from 3-36 hours post-feeding depending on the gene. PMID:18977440

  6. Family Lifestyles May Be as Important to Health as Genes

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160105.html Family Lifestyles May Be as Important to Health as Genes Shared habits and environment contribute to heart ... HealthDay News) -- Shared lifestyles and surroundings may play as strong a role as genes in diseases that ...

  7. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-01-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  8. Retention, Molecular Evolution, and Expression Divergence of the Auxin/Indole Acetic Acid and Auxin Response Factor Gene Families in Brassica Rapa Shed Light on Their Evolution Patterns in Plants.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhinan; Duan, Weike; Song, Xiaoming; Tang, Jun; Wu, Peng; Zhang, Bei; Hou, Xilin

    2016-02-01

    Auxin/indole acetic acids (Aux/IAAs) and auxin response factors (ARFs), major components of the Aux signaling network, are involved in many developmental processes in plants. Investigating their evolution will provide new sight on the relationship between the molecular evolution of these genes and the increasing morphotypes of plants. We constructed comparative analyses of the retention, structure, expansion, and expression patterns of Aux/IAAs and ARFs in Brassica rapa and their evolution in eight other plant species, including algae, bryophytes, lycophytes, and angiosperms. All 33 of the ARFs, including 1 ARF-like (AL) (a type of ARF-like protein) and 53 Aux/IAAs, were identified in the B. rapa genome. The genes mainly diverged approximately 13 Ma. After the split, no Aux/IAA was completely lost, and they were more preferentially retained than ARFs. In land plants, compared with ARFs, which increased in stability, Aux/IAAs expanded more rapidly and were under more relaxed selective pressure. Moreover, BraIAAs were expressed in a more tissue-specific fashion than BraARFs and demonstrated functional diversification during gene duplication under different treatments, which enhanced the cooperative interaction of homologs to help plants adapt to complex environments. In addition, ALs existed widely and had a closer relationship with ARFs, suggesting that ALs might be the initial structure of ARFs. Our results suggest that the rapid expansion and preferential retention of Aux/IAAs are likely paralleled by the increasingly complex morphotypes in Brassicas and even in land plants. Meanwhile, the data support the hypothesis that the PB1 domain plays a key role in the origin of both Aux/IAAs and ARFs. PMID:26721260

  9. Genome-Wide Identification, Evolution and Expression Analysis of mTERF Gene Family in Maize

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanxin; Cai, Manjun; Zhang, Xiaobo; Li, Yurong; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Hailiang; Kong, Fei; Zheng, Yonglian; Qiu, Fazhan

    2014-01-01

    Plant mitochondrial transcription termination factor (mTERF) genes comprise a large family with important roles in regulating organelle gene expression. In this study, a comprehensive database search yielded 31 potential mTERF genes in maize (Zea mays L.) and most of them were targeted to mitochondria or chloroplasts. Maize mTERF were divided into nine main groups based on phylogenetic analysis, and group IX represented the mitochondria and species-specific clade that diverged from other groups. Tandem and segmental duplication both contributed to the expansion of the mTERF gene family in the maize genome. Comprehensive expression analysis of these genes, using microarray data and RNA-seq data, revealed that these genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns. Environmental stimulus experiments revealed differential up or down-regulation expression of maize mTERF genes in seedlings exposed to light/dark, salts and plant hormones, respectively, suggesting various important roles of maize mTERF genes in light acclimation and stress-related responses. These results will be useful for elucidating the roles of mTERF genes in the growth, development and stress response of maize. PMID:24718683

  10. Genome-wide identification and characterization of the Dof gene family in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Shu, Y J; Song, L L; Zhang, J; Liu, Y; Guo, C H

    2015-01-01

    The DNA-binding one zinc finger (Dof) family is a classic plant-specific zinc-finger transcription factor family, which is involved in many important processes, including seed maturation and germination, plant growth and development, and light responses. Investigation of the Medicago truncatula genome revealed 42 putative Dof genes, each of which holds one Dof domain. These genes were classified into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis, which are similar to the groups reported for Arabidopsis and rice. Based on genome duplication analysis, it was found that the MtDof genes were distributed on all chromosomes and had expanded through tandem gene duplication and segmental duplication events. Two main duplication regions were identified, one from tandem duplication and another from segmental duplication. By analyzing high-throughput sequencing data from M. truncatula, we found that most of the MtDof genes showed specific expression patterns in different tissues. According to cis-regulatory element analysis, these MtDof genes are regulated by different cis-acting motifs, which are important for the functional divergence of the MtDof genes in different processes. Thus, using genome-wide identification, evolution, and expression pattern analysis of the Dof genes in M. truncatula, our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential function of the Dof genes in regulating the growth and development of M. truncatula. PMID:26400295

  11. Organization of the SUC gene family in Saccharomyces.

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, M; Botstein, D

    1983-01-01

    The SUC gene family of yeast (Saccharomyces) includes six structural genes for invertase (SUC1 through SUC5 and SUC7) found at unlinked chromosomal loci. A given yeast strain does not usually carry SUC+ alleles at all six loci; the natural negative alleles are called suc0 alleles. Cloned SUC2 DNA probes were used to investigate the physical structure of the SUC gene family in laboratory strains, commercial wine strains, and different Saccharomyces species. The active SUC+ genes are homologous. The suc0 allele at the SUC2 locus (suc2(0) in some strains is a silent gene or pseudogene. Other SUC loci carrying suc0 alleles appear to lack SUC DNA sequences. These findings imply that SUC genes have transposed to different chromosomal locations in closely related Saccharomyces strains. Images PMID:6843548

  12. The multifunctional SNM1 gene family: not just nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yiyi; Akhter, Shamima; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Legerski, Randy

    2010-01-01

    The archetypical member of the SNM1 gene family was discovered 30 years ago in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This small but ubiquitous gene family is characterized by metallo-β-lactamase and β-CASP domains, which together have been demonstrated to comprise a nuclease activity. Three mammalian members of this family, SNM1A, SNM1B/Apollo and Artemis, have been demonstrated to play surprisingly divergent roles in cellular metabolism. These pathways include variable (diversity) joining recombination, nonhomologous end-joining of double-strand breaks, DNA damage and mitotic cell cycle checkpoints, telomere maintenance and protein ubiquitination. Not all of these functions are consistent with a model in which these proteins act only as nucleases, and indicate that the SNM1 gene family encodes multifunctional products that can act in diverse biochemical pathways. In this article we discuss the various functions of SNM1A, SNM1B/Apollo and Artemis. PMID:20528238

  13. Evolution and significance of the Lon gene family in Arabidopsis organelle biogenesis and energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rigas, Stamatis; Daras, Gerasimos; Tsitsekian, Dikran; Alatzas, Anastasios; Hatzopoulos, Polydefkis

    2014-01-01

    Lon is the first identified ATP-dependent protease highly conserved across all kingdoms. Model plant species Arabidopsis thaliana has a small Lon gene family of four members. Although these genes share common structural features, they have distinct properties in terms of gene expression profile, subcellular targeting and substrate recognition motifs. This supports the notion that their functions under different environmental conditions are not necessarily redundant. This article intends to unravel the biological role of Lon proteases in energy metabolism and plant growth through an evolutionary perspective. Given that plants are sessile organisms exposed to diverse environmental conditions and plant organelles are semi-autonomous, it is tempting to suggest that Lon genes in Arabidopsis are paralogs. Adaptive evolution through repetitive gene duplication events of a single archaic gene led to Lon genes with complementing sets of subfunctions providing to the organism rapid adaptability for canonical development under different environmental conditions. Lon1 function is adequately characterized being involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, modulating carbon metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and energy supply, all prerequisites for seed germination and seedling establishment. Lon is not a stand-alone proteolytic machine in plant organelles. Lon in association with other nuclear-encoded ATP-dependent proteases builds up an elegant nevertheless, tight interconnected circuit. This circuitry channels properly and accurately, proteostasis and protein quality control among the distinct subcellular compartments namely mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. PMID:24782883

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the GRAS gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Y; Wu, P Z; Chen, Y P; Li, M R; Wu, G J; Jiang, H W

    2015-01-01

    GRAS proteins play vital roles in plant growth and development. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) was found to have a total of 48 GRAS family members (JcGRAS), 15 more than those found in Arabidopsis. The JcGRAS genes were divided into 12 subfamilies or 15 ancient monophyletic lineages based on the phylogenetic analysis of GRAS proteins from both flowering and lower plants. The functions of GRAS genes in 9 subfamilies have been reported previously for several plants, while the genes in the remaining 3 subfamilies were of unknown function; we named the latter families U1 to U3. No member of U3 subfamily is present in Arabidopsis and Poaceae species according to public genome sequence data. In comparison with the number of GRAS genes in Arabidopsis, more were detected in physic nut, resulting from the retention of many ancient GRAS subfamilies and the formation of tandem repeats during evolution. No evidence of recent duplication among JcGRAS genes was observed in physic nut. Based on digital gene expression data, 21 of the 48 genes exhibited differential expression in four tissues analyzed. Two members of subfamily U3 were expressed only in buds and flowers, implying that they may play specific roles. Our results provide valuable resources for future studies on the functions of GRAS proteins in physic nut. PMID:26782574

  15. Plant Glycosyltransferases Beyond CAZy: A Perspective on DUF Families.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Sara Fasmer; Harholt, Jesper; Oikawa, Ai; Scheller, Henrik V

    2012-01-01

    The carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) database is an invaluable resource for glycobiology and currently contains 45 glycosyltransferase families that are represented in plants. Glycosyltransferases (GTs) have many functions in plants, but the majority are likely to be involved in biosynthesis of polysaccharides and glycoproteins in the plant cell wall. Bioinformatic approaches and structural modeling suggest that a number of protein families in plants include GTs that have not yet been identified as such and are therefore not included in CAZy. These families include proteins with domain of unknown function (DUF) DUF23, DUF246, and DUF266. The evidence for these proteins being GTs and their possible roles in cell wall biosynthesis is discussed. PMID:22629278

  16. Characterizations of 9p21 candidate genes in familial melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, G.J.; Flores, J.F.; Glendening, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    We have previously collected and characterized 16 melanoma families for the inheritance of a familial melanoma predisposition gene on 9p21. Clear evidence for genetic linkage has been detected in 8 of these families with the 9p21 markers D9S126 and 1FNA, while linkage of the remaining families to this region is less certain. A candidate for the 9p21 familial melanoma gene, the cyclin kinase inhibitor gene p16 (also known as the multiple tumor suppressor 1 (MTS1) gene), has been recently indentified. Notably, a nonsense mutation within the p16 gene has been detected in the lymphoblastoid cell line DNA from a dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS), or familial melanoma, patient. The p16 gene is also known to be frequently deleted or mutated in a variety of tumor cell lines (including melanoma) and resides within a region that has been defined as harboring the 9p21 melanoma predisposition locus. This region is delineated on the distal side by the marker D9S736 (which resides just distal to the p16 gene) and extends in a proximal direction to the marker D9S171. Overall, the entire distance between these two loci is estimated at 3-5Mb. Preliminary analysis of our two largest 9p21-linked melanoma kindreds (by direct sequencing of PCR products) has not yet revealed mutations within the coding region of the p16 gene. Others have reported that 8/11 unrelated 9p21-linked melanoma families do not appear to carry p16 mutations; thus the possibility exists that p16 is not a melanoma susceptibility gene per se, although it appears to play some role in melanoma tumor progression. Our melanoma kindred DNAs are currently being analyzed by SSCP using primers that amplify exons of other candidate genes from the 9p21 region implicated in familial melanoma. These novel genes reside within a distinct critical region of homozygous loss in melanoma which is located >2 Mb from the p16 gene on 9p21.

  17. Characterization of the inositol monophosphatase gene family in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Aida; Collakova, Eva; Gillaspy, Glenda E.

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of myo-inositol is crucial in multicellular eukaryotes for production of phosphatidylinositol and inositol phosphate signaling molecules. The myo-inositol monophosphatase (IMP) enzyme is required for the synthesis of myo-inositol, breakdown of inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate, a second messenger involved in Ca2+ signaling, and synthesis of L-galactose, a precursor of ascorbic acid. Two myo-inositol monophosphatase -like (IMPL) genes in Arabidopsis encode chloroplast proteins with homology to the prokaryotic IMPs and one of these, IMPL2, can complement a bacterial histidinol 1-phosphate phosphatase mutant defective in histidine synthesis, indicating an important role for IMPL2 in amino acid synthesis. To delineate how this small gene family functions in inositol synthesis and metabolism, we sought to compare recombinant enzyme activities, expression patterns, and impact of genetic loss-of-function mutations for each. Our data show that purified IMPL2 protein is an active histidinol-phosphate phosphatase enzyme in contrast to the IMPL1 enzyme, which has the ability to hydrolyze D-galactose 1-phosphate, and D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate, a breakdown product of D-inositol (1,4,5) trisphosphate. Expression studies indicated that all three genes are expressed in multiple tissues, however, IMPL1 expression is restricted to above-ground tissues only. Identification and characterization of impl1 and impl2 mutants revealed no viable mutants for IMPL1, while two different impl2 mutants were identified and shown to be severely compromised in growth, which can be rescued by histidine. Analyses of metabolite levels in impl2 and complemented mutants reveals impl2 mutant growth is impacted by alterations in the histidine biosynthesis pathway, but does not impact myo-inositol synthesis. Together, these data indicate that IMPL2 functions in the histidine biosynthetic pathway, while IMP and IMPL1 catalyze the hydrolysis of inositol- and galactose-phosphates in the plant cell

  18. Horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants

    PubMed Central

    Matveeva, Tatiana V.; Lutova, Ludmila A.

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic engineering of plants uses Agrobacterium mediated transformation to introduce novel gene content. In nature, insertion of T-DNA in the plant genome and its subsequent transfer via sexual reproduction has been shown in several species in the genera Nicotiana and Linaria. In these natural examples of horizontal gene transfer from Agrobacterium to plants, the T-DNA donor is assumed to be a mikimopine strain of A. rhizogenes. A sequence homologous to the T-DNA of the Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes was found in the genome of untransformed Nicotiana glauca about 30 years ago, and was named “cellular T-DNA” (cT-DNA). It represents an imperfect inverted repeat and contains homologs of several T-DNA oncogenes (NgrolB, NgrolC, NgORF13, NgORF14) and an opine synthesis gene (Ngmis). A similar cT-DNA has also been found in other species of the genus Nicotiana. These presumably ancient homologs of T-DNA genes are still expressed, indicating that they may play a role in the evolution of these plants. Recently T-DNA has been detected and characterized in Linaria vulgaris and L. dalmatica. In Linaria vulgaris the cT-DNA is present in two copies and organized as a tandem imperfect direct repeat, containing LvORF2, LvORF3, LvORF8, LvrolA, LvrolB, LvrolC, LvORF13, LvORF14, and the Lvmis genes. All L. vulgaris and L. dalmatica plants screened contained the same T-DNA oncogenes and the mis gene. Evidence suggests that there were several independent T-DNA integration events into the genomes of these plant genera. We speculate that ancient plants transformed by A. rhizogenes might have acquired a selective advantage in competition with the parental species. Thus, the events of T-DNA insertion in the plant genome might have affected their evolution, resulting in the creation of new plant species. In this review we focus on the structure and functions of cT-DNA in Linaria and Nicotiana and discuss their possible evolutionary role. PMID:25157257

  19. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY family genes under biotic and abiotic stresses in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Kayum, Md Abdul; Jung, Hee-Jeong; Park, Jong-In; Ahmed, Nasar Uddin; Saha, Gopal; Yang, Tae-Jin; Nou, Ill-Sup

    2015-02-01

    WRKY proteins constitute one of the largest transcription factor families in higher plants, and they are involved in multiple biological processes such as plant development, metabolism, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. Genes of this family have been well documented in response to many abiotic and biotic stresses in many plant species, but not yet against Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in any of the plants. Moreover, potentiality of a specific gene may vary depending on stress conditions and genotypes. To identify stress resistance-related potential WRKY genes of Brassica rapa, we analyzed their expressions against above-mentioned pathogens and cold, salt, and drought stresses in B. rapa. Stress resistance-related functions of all Brassica rapa WRKY (BrWRKY) genes were firstly analyzed through homology study with existing biotic and abiotic stress resistance-related WRKY genes of other plant species and found a high degree of homology. We then identified all BrWRKY genes in a Br135K microarray dataset, which was created by applying low-temperature stresses to two contrasting Chinese cabbage doubled haploid (DH) lines, Chiifu and Kenshin, and selected 41 BrWRKY genes with high and differential transcript abundance levels. These selected genes were further investigated under cold, salt, and drought stresses as well as after infection with P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum and F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans in B. rapa. The selected genes showed an organ-specific expression, and 22 BrWRKY genes were differentially expressed in Chiifu compared to Kenshin under cold and drought stresses. Six BrWRKY genes were more responsive in Kenshin compared to Chiffu under salt stress. In addition, eight BrWRKY genes showed differential expression after P. carotovorum subsp. carotovorum infection and five genes after F. oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans infection in B. rapa. Thus, the differentially expressed Br

  20. Evolution of the Sox gene family within the chordate phylum.

    PubMed

    Heenan, Phoebe; Zondag, Lisa; Wilson, Megan J

    2016-01-10

    The ancient Sox gene family is a group of related transcription factors that perform a number of essential functions during embryonic development. During evolution, this family has undergone considerable expansion, particularly within the vertebrate lineage. In vertebrates SOX proteins are required for the specification, development and/or morphogenesis of most vertebrate innovations. Tunicates and lancelets are evolutionarily positioned as the closest invertebrate relatives to the vertebrate group. By identifying their Sox gene complement we can begin to reconstruct the gene set of the last common chordate ancestor before the split into invertebrates and vertebrate groups. We have identified core SOX family members from the genomes of six invertebrate chordates. Using phylogenetic analysis we determined their evolutionary relationships. We propose that the last common ancestor of chordates had at least seven Sox genes, including the core suite of SoxB, C, D, E and F as well as SoxH. PMID:26361847

  1. Arabidopsis Ovate Family Proteins, a Novel Transcriptional Repressor Family, Control Multiple Aspects of Plant Growth and Development

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shucai; Chang, Ying; Guo, Jianjun; Zeng, Qingning; Ellis, Brian; Chen, Jay

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis genome contains 18 genes that are predicted to encode Ovate Family Proteins (AtOFPs), a protein family characterized by a conserved OVATE domain, an approximately 70-amino acid domain that was originally found in tomato OVATE protein. Among AtOFP family members, AtOFP1 has been shown to suppress cell elongation, in part, by suppressing the expression of AtGA20ox1, AtOFP4 has been shown to regulate secondary cell wall formation by interact with KNOTTED1-LIKE HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN 7 (KNAT7), and AtOFP5 has been shown to regulate the activity of a BEL1-LIKEHOMEODOMAIN 1(BLH1)-KNAT3 complex during early embryo sac development, but little is known about the function of other AtOFPs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrated here that AtOFP proteins could function as effective transcriptional repressors in the Arabidopsis protoplast transient expression system. The analysis of loss-of-function alleles of AtOFPs suggested AtOFP genes may have overlapping function in regulating plant growth and development, because none of the single mutants identified, including T-DNA insertion mutants in AtOFP1, AtOFP4, AtOFP8, AtOFP10, AtOFP15 and AtOFP16, displayed any apparent morphological defects. Further, Atofp1 Atofp4 and Atofp15 Atofp16 double mutants still did not differ significantly from wild-type. On the other hand, plants overexpressing AtOFP genes displayed a number of abnormal phenotypes, which could be categorized into three distinct classes, suggesting that AtOFP genes may also have diverse functions in regulating plant growth and development. Further analysis suggested that AtOFP1 regulates cotyledon development in a postembryonic manner, and global transcript profiling revealed that it suppress the expression of many other genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that AtOFPs function as transcriptional repressors and they regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development. These results provided the first overview of a

  2. Genomic Characterization of the LEED..PEEDs, a Gene Family Unique to the Medicago Lineage

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, Diana I.; Silverstein, Kevin A. T.; Young, Nevin D.

    2014-01-01

    The LEED..PEED (LP) gene family in Medicago truncatula (A17) is composed of 13 genes coding small putatively secreted peptides with one to two conserved domains of negatively charged residues. This family is not present in the genomes of Glycine max, Lotus japonicus, or the IRLC species Cicer arietinum. LP genes were also not detected in a Trifolium pratense draft genome or Pisum sativum nodule transcriptome, which were sequenced de novo in this study, suggesting that the LP gene family arose within the past 25 million years. M. truncatula accession HM056 has 13 LP genes with high similarity to those in A17, whereas M. truncatula ssp. tricycla (R108) and M. sativa have 11 and 10 LP gene copies, respectively. In M. truncatula A17, 12 LP genes are located on chromosome 7 within a 93-kb window, whereas one LP gene copy is located on chromosome 4. A phylogenetic analysis of the gene family is consistent with most gene duplications occurring prior to Medicago speciation events, mainly through local tandem duplications and one distant duplication across chromosomes. Synteny comparisons between R108 and A17 confirm that gene order is conserved between the two subspecies, although a further duplication occurred solely in A17. In M. truncatula A17, all 13 LPs are exclusively transcribed in nodules and absent from other plant tissues, including roots, leaves, flowers, seeds, seed shells, and pods. The recent expansion of LP genes in Medicago spp. and their timing and location of expression suggest a novel function in nodulation, possibly as an aftermath of the evolution of bacteroid terminal differentiation or potentially associated with rhizobial–host specificity. PMID:25155275

  3. The evolution of the vertebrate Dlx gene family.

    PubMed Central

    Stock, D W; Ellies, D L; Zhao, Z; Ekker, M; Ruddle, F H; Weiss, K M

    1996-01-01

    The vertebrate Dlx gene family consists of homeobox-containing transcription factors distributed in pairs on the same chromosomes as the Hox genes. To investigate the evolutionary history of Dlx genes, we have cloned five new zebrafish family members and have provided additional sequence information for two mouse genes. Phylogenetic analyses of Dlx gene sequences considered in the context of their chromosomal arrangements suggest that an initial tandem duplication produced a linked pair of Dlx genes after the divergence of chordates and arthropods but prior to the divergence of tunicates and vertebrates. This pair of Dlx genes was then duplicated in the chromosomal events that led to the four clusters of Hox genes characteristic of bony fish and tetrapods. It is possible that a pair of Dlx genes linked to the Hoxc cluster has been lost from mammals. We were unable to distinguish between independent duplication and retention of the ancestral state of bony vertebrates to explain the presence of a greater number of Dlx genes in zebrafish than mammals. Determination of the linkage relationship of these additional zebrafish Dlx genes to Hox clusters should help resolve this issue. PMID:8855272

  4. Evolution of the multifaceted eukaryotic akirin gene family

    PubMed Central

    Macqueen, Daniel J; Johnston, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Background Akirins are nuclear proteins that form part of an innate immune response pathway conserved in Drosophila and mice. This studies aim was to characterise the evolution of akirin gene structure and protein function in the eukaryotes. Results akirin genes are present throughout the metazoa and arose before the separation of animal, plant and fungi lineages. Using comprehensive phylogenetic analysis, coupled with comparisons of conserved synteny and genomic organisation, we show that the intron-exon structure of metazoan akirin genes was established prior to the bilateria and that a single proto-orthologue duplicated in the vertebrates, before the gnathostome-agnathan separation, producing akirin1 and akirin2. Phylogenetic analyses of seven vertebrate gene families with members in chromosomal proximity to both akirin1 and akirin2 were compatible with a common duplication event affecting the genomic neighbourhood of the akirin proto-orthologue. A further duplication of akirins occurred in the teleost lineage and was followed by lineage-specific patterns of paralogue loss. Remarkably, akirins have been independently characterised by five research groups under different aliases and a comparison of the available literature revealed diverse functions, generally in regulating gene expression. For example, akirin was characterised in arthropods as subolesin, an important growth factor and in Drosophila as bhringi, which has an essential myogenic role. In vertebrates, akirin1 was named mighty in mice and was shown to regulate myogenesis, whereas akirin2 was characterised as FBI1 in rats and promoted carcinogenesis, acting as a transcriptional repressor when bound to a 14-3-3 protein. Both vertebrate Akirins have evolved under comparably strict constraints of purifying selection, although a likelihood ratio test predicted that functional divergence has occurred between paralogues. Bayesian and maximum likelihood tests identified amino-acid positions where the rate of

  5. Genome-wide identification of BURP domain-containing genes in rice reveals a gene family with diverse structures and responses to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xipeng; Hou, Xin; Xie, Kabin; Xiong, Lizhong

    2009-06-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that a gene family encoding proteins containing BURP domains have diverse functions in plants, but systematic characterization of this gene family have not been reported. In this study, 17 BURP family genes (OsBURP01-17) were identified and analyzed in rice (Oryza sativa L.). These genes have diverse exon-intron structures and distinct organization of putative motifs. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of BURP protein sequences from rice and other plant species, the BURP family was classified into seven subfamilies, including two subfamilies (BURP V and BURP VI) with members from rice only and one subfamily (BURP VII) with members from monocotyledons only. Two BURP gene clusters, belonging to BURP V and BURP VI, were located in the duplicated region on chromosome 5 and 6 of rice, respectively. Transcript level analysis of BURP genes of rice in various tissues and organs revealed different tempo-spatial expression patterns, suggesting that these genes may function at different stages of plant growth and development. Interestingly, all the genes of the BURP VII subfamily were predominantly expressed in flower organs. We also investigated the expression patterns of BURP genes of rice under different stress conditions. The results suggested that, except for two genes (OsBURP01 and OsBURP13), all other members were induced by at least one of the stresses including drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid treatment. Two genes (OsBURP05 and OsBURP16) were responsive to all the stress treatments and most of the OsBURP genes were responsive to salt stress. Promoter sequence analysis revealed an over-abundance of stress-related cis-elements in the stress-responsive genes. The data presented here provide important clues for elucidating the functions of genes of this family. PMID:19363683

  6. Comprehensive identification and expression analysis of Hsp90s gene family in Solanum lycopersicum.

    PubMed

    Zai, W S; Miao, L X; Xiong, Z L; Zhang, H L; Ma, Y R; Li, Y L; Chen, Y B; Ye, S G

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a protein produced by plants in response to adverse environmental stresses. In this study, we identified and analyzed Hsp90 gene family members using a bioinformatic method based on genomic data from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). The results illustrated that tomato contains at least 7 Hsp90 genes distributed on 6 chromosomes; protein lengths ranged from 267-794 amino acids. Intron numbers ranged from 2-19 in the genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed that Hsp90 genes in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) could be divided into 5 groups, which included 3 pairs of orthologous genes and 4 pairs of paralogous genes. Expression analysis of RNA-sequence data showed that the Hsp90-1 gene was specifically expressed in mature fruits, while Hsp90-5 and Hsp90-6 showed opposite expression patterns in various tissues of cultivated and wild tomatoes. The expression levels of the Hsp90-1, Hsp90-2, and Hsp90- 3 genes in various tissues of cultivated tomatoes were high, while both the expression levels of genes Hsp90-3 and Hsp90-4 were low. Additionally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that these genes were involved in the responses to yellow leaf curl virus in tomato plant leaves. Our results provide a foundation for identifying the function of the Hsp90 gene in tomato. PMID:26214462

  7. Evolution of the Hedgehog Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Balczarek, K. A.; Lai, Z. C.

    1996-01-01

    Effective intercellular communication is an important feature in the development of multicellular organisms. Secreted hedgehog (hh) protein is essential for both long- and short-range cellular signaling required for body pattern formation in animals. In a molecular evolutionary study, we find that the vertebrate homologs of the Drosophila hh gene arose by two gene duplications: the first gave rise to Desert hh, whereas the second produced the Indian and Sonic hh genes. Both duplications occurred before the emergence of vertebrates and probably before the evolution of chordates. The amino-terminal fragment of the hh precursor, crucial in long- and short-range intercellular communication, evolves two to four times slower than the carboxyl-terminal fragment in both Drosophila hh and its vertebrate homologues, suggesting conservation of mechanism of hh action in animals. A majority of amino acid substitutions in the amino- and carboxyl-terminal fragments are conservative, but the carboxyl-terminal domain has undergone extensive insertion-deletion events while maintaining its autocleavage protease activity. Our results point to similarity of evolutionary constraints among sites of Drosophila and vertebrate hh homologs and suggest some future directions for understanding the role of hh genes in the evolution of developmental complexity in animals. PMID:8849902

  8. The smaller human VH gene families display remarkably little polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, I; Kelly, P; Williams, C; Scholl, S; Tucker, P; Capra, J D

    1989-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of 30 distinct human VH gene segments from the VHIV, VHV and VHVI gene families. When these sequences were compared to previously published sequences from these smaller human VH families a surprisingly low level of polymorphism was noted. Two VHIV gene segments from unrelated individuals were identical to two previously published VHIV sequences. Five VHV sequences were identical and seven VHVI gene segments were identical. Where differences were found between the sequences, allele specific oligonucleotide probes were used to verify the germline nature of the change and to test for segregation in several large kindreds. These data provide evidence that at least some human VH gene segments are remarkably stable. Images PMID:2511001

  9. Dosage Sensitivity of RPL9 and Concerted Evolution of Ribosomal Protein Genes in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Devis, Deborah; Firth, Sue M.; Liang, Zhe; Byrne, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The ribosome in higher eukaryotes is a large macromolecular complex composed of four rRNAs and eighty different ribosomal proteins. In plants, each ribosomal protein is encoded by multiple genes. Duplicate genes within a family are often necessary to provide a threshold dose of a ribosomal protein but in some instances appear to have non-redundant functions. Here, we addressed whether divergent members of the RPL9 gene family are dosage sensitive or whether these genes have non-overlapping functions. The RPL9 family in Arabidopsis thaliana comprises two nearly identical members, RPL9B and RPL9C, and a more divergent member, RPL9D. Mutations in RPL9C and RPL9D genes lead to delayed growth early in development, and loss of both genes is embryo lethal, indicating that these are dosage-sensitive and redundant genes. Phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 as well as RPL4, RPL5, RPL27a, RPL36a, and RPS6 family genes in the Brassicaceae indicated that multicopy ribosomal protein genes have been largely retained following whole genome duplication. However, these gene families also show instances of tandem duplication, small scale deletion, and evidence of gene conversion. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis of RPL9 genes in angiosperm species showed that genes within a species are more closely related to each other than to RPL9 genes in other species, suggesting ribosomal protein genes undergo convergent evolution. Our analysis indicates that ribosomal protein gene retention following whole genome duplication contributes to the number of genes in a family. However, small scale rearrangements influence copy number and likely drive concerted evolution of these dosage-sensitive genes. PMID:26734020

  10. The KP4 killer protein gene family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Killer protein 4 (KP4) is a well studied toxin secreted by the maize smut fungus Ustilago maydis that kills sensitive Ustilago strains as well as inhibits Fusarium and plant root growth. This small, cysteine rich protein is encoded by a virus that depends on host survival for replication. KP4 functi...

  11. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development.

  12. Genome-wide characterization of the CBF/DREB1 gene family in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Choon; Lim, Myung-Ho; Yu, Jae-Gyeong; Park, Beom-Seok; Yang, Tae-Jin

    2012-12-01

    The C-repeat/dehydration-responsive element binding transcription factors (CBF/DREBs) are important proteins in involved in responses to abiotic stress in plants. We identified ten BrDREB1 genes belonging to the CBF/DREB1 gene family in the Brassica rapa whole genome sequence, whereas six genes are found in the Arabidopsis thaliana genome. The deduced amino acid sequences of the B. rapa genes showed conserved motifs shared with other known plant CBF/DREB1s. Comparative analysis revealed that nine of the BrDREB1 genes were derived from the recent genome triplication in the tribe Brassiceae and the other one was translocated. The nine genes were located in seven of the 12 macrosyntenic blocks that are triplicated counterparts of four Arabidopsis macrosyntenic blocks harboring six CBF/DREB1 genes: one gene on each of three blocks and three tandemly arrayed genes on another block. We inspected the expression patterns of eight BrDREB1 genes by RT-PCR and microarray database searches. All eight genes were highly up-regulated during cold (4 °C) treatment, and some of them were also responsive to salt (250 mM NaCl), drought (air drying), and ABA (100 μM) treatment. Microarray data for plant developmental stages revealed that BrDREB1C2 was highly expressed during a period of cold treatment for vernalization, similar to abiotic stress-inducible genes homologous to Bn28a, Bn47, Bn115, and BoRS1, but almost opposite of BrFLC genes. Taken together, the number of BrDREB1 genes increased to 10 by genome triplication and reorganization, providing additional functions in B. rapa abiotic stress responses and development, as distinct from their Arabidopsis homologs. PMID:23148914

  13. Coming of age: orphan genes in plants.

    PubMed

    Arendsee, Zebulun W; Li, Ling; Wurtele, Eve Syrkin

    2014-11-01

    Sizable minorities of protein-coding genes from every sequenced eukaryotic and prokaryotic genome are unique to the species. These so-called ‘orphan genes’ may evolve de novo from non-coding sequence or be derived from older coding material. They are often associated with environmental stress responses and species-specific traits or regulatory patterns. However, difficulties in studying genes where comparative analysis is impossible, and a bias towards broadly conserved genes, have resulted in underappreciation of their importance. We review here the identification, possible origins, evolutionary trends, and functions of orphans with an emphasis on their role in plant biology. We exemplify several evolutionary trends with an analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana and present QQS as a model orphan gene. PMID:25151064

  14. Genome-wide analysis of the MYB gene family in physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changpin; Chen, Yanbo; Wu, Zhenying; Lu, Wenjia; Han, Jinli; Wu, Pingzhi; Chen, Yaping; Li, Meiru; Jiang, Huawu; Wu, Guojiang

    2015-11-01

    The MYB proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants, and play key roles in regulatory networks controlling development, metabolism, and stress responses. A total of 125 MYB genes (JcMYB) have been identified in the physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) genome, including 120 2R-type MYB, 4 3R-MYB, and 1 4R-MYB genes. Based on exon-intron arrangement of MYBs from both lower (Physcomitrella patens) and higher (physic nut, Arabidopsis, and rice) plants, we can classify plant MYB genes into ten groups (MI-X), except for MIX genes which are nonexistent in higher plants. We also observed that MVIII genes may be one of the most ancient MYB types which consist of both R2R3- and 3R-MYB genes. Most MYB genes (76.8% in physic nut) belong to the MI group which can be divided into 34 subgroups. The JcMYB genes were nonrandomly distributed on its 11 linkage groups (LGs). The expansion of MYB genes across several subgroups was observed and resulted from genome triplication of ancient dicotyledons and from both ancient and recent tandem duplication events in the physic nut genome. The expression patterns of several MYB duplicates in the physic nut showed differences in four tissues (root, stem, leaf, and seed), and 34 MYB genes responded to at least one abiotic stressor (drought, salinity, phosphate starvation, and nitrogen starvation) in leaves and/or roots based on the data analysis of digital gene expression tags. Overexpression of the JcMYB001 gene in Arabidopsis increased its sensitivity to drought and salinity stresses. PMID:26142104

  15. Exploiting Gene Families for Phylogenomic Analysis of Myzostomid Transcriptome Data

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Stefanie; Helm, Conrad; Nickel, Birgit; Meyer, Matthias; Struck, Torsten H.; Tiedemann, Ralph; Selbig, Joachim; Bleidorn, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Background In trying to understand the evolutionary relationships of organisms, the current flood of sequence data offers great opportunities, but also reveals new challenges with regard to data quality, the selection of data for subsequent analysis, and the automation of steps that were once done manually for single-gene analyses. Even though genome or transcriptome data is available for representatives of most bilaterian phyla, some enigmatic taxa still have an uncertain position in the animal tree of life. This is especially true for myzostomids, a group of symbiotic (or parasitic) protostomes that are either placed with annelids or flatworms. Methodology Based on similarity criteria, Illumina-based transcriptome sequences of one myzostomid were compared to protein sequences of one additional myzostomid and 29 reference metazoa and clustered into gene families. These families were then used to investigate the phylogenetic position of Myzostomida using different approaches: Alignments of 989 sequence families were concatenated, and the resulting superalignment was analyzed under a Maximum Likelihood criterion. We also used all 1,878 gene trees with at least one myzostomid sequence for a supertree approach: the individual gene trees were computed and then reconciled into a species tree using gene tree parsimony. Conclusions Superalignments require strictly orthologous genes, and both the gene selection and the widely varying amount of data available for different taxa in our dataset may cause anomalous placements and low bootstrap support. In contrast, gene tree parsimony is designed to accommodate multilocus gene families and therefore allows a much more comprehensive data set to be analyzed. Results of this supertree approach showed a well-resolved phylogeny, in which myzostomids were part of the annelid radiation, and major bilaterian taxa were found to be monophyletic. PMID:22276131

  16. Promoter methylation of candidate genes associated with familial testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Mirabello, Lisa; Kratz, Christian P; Savage, Sharon A; Greene, Mark H

    2012-01-01

    Recent genomic studies have identified risk SNPs in or near eight genes associated with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Mouse models suggest a role for Dnd1 epigenetics in TGCT susceptibility, and we have recently reported that transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic events may be associated with familial TGCT risk. We now investigate whether aberrant promoter methylation of selected candidate genes is associated with familial TGCT risk. Pyrosequencing assays were designed to evaluate CpG methylation in the promoters of selected genes in peripheral blood DNA from 153 TGCT affecteds and 116 healthy male relatives from 101 multiple-case families. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests and logistic regression models were used to investigate associations between promoter methylation and TGCT. We also quantified gene product expression of these genes, using quantitative PCR. We observed increased PDE11A, SPRY4 and BAK1 promoter methylation, and decreased KITLG promoter methylation, in familial TGCT cases versus healthy male family controls. A significant upward risk trend was observed for PDE11A when comparing the middle and highest tertiles of methylation to the lowest [odds ratio (OR) =1.55, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.82-2.93, and 1.94, 95% CI 1.03-3.66], respectively; P(trend)=0.042). A significant inverse association was observed for KITLG when comparing the middle and lowest tertiles to the highest (OR=2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.11, and 2.15, 95% CI 1.12-4.14, respectively; P(trend)=0.031). There was a weak inverse correlation between promoter methylation and KITLG expression. Our results suggest that familial TGCT susceptibility may be associated with promoter methylation of previously-identified TGCT risk-modifying genes. Larger studies are warranted. PMID:23050052

  17. Genome-wide analysis of the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene family in Gossypium

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yurchenko, Olga P.; Park, Sunjung; Ilut, Daniel C.; Inmon, Jay J.; Millhollon, Jon C.; Liechty, Zach; Page, Justin T.; Jenks, Matthew A.; Chapman, Kent D.; Udall, Joshua A.; et al

    2014-11-18

    The majority of commercial cotton varieties planted worldwide are derived from Gossypium hirsutum, which is a naturally occurring allotetraploid produced by interspecific hybridization of A- and D-genome diploid progenitor species. While most cotton species are adapted to warm, semi-arid tropical and subtropical regions, and thus perform well in these geographical areas, cotton seedlings are sensitive to cold temperature, which can significantly reduce crop yields. One of the common biochemical responses of plants to cold temperatures is an increase in omega-3 fatty acids, which protects cellular function by maintaining membrane integrity. The purpose of our study was to identify and characterizemore » the omega-3 fatty acid desaturase (FAD) gene family in G. hirsutum, with an emphasis on identifying omega-3 FADs involved in cold temperature adaptation. Results: Eleven omega-3 FAD genes were identified in G. hirsutum, and characterization of the gene family in extant A and D diploid species (G. herbaceum and G. raimondii, respectively) allowed for unambiguous genome assignment of all homoeologs in tetraploid G. hirsutum. The omega-3 FAD family of cotton includes five distinct genes, two of which encode endoplasmic reticulum-type enzymes (FAD3-1 and FAD3-2) and three that encode chloroplast-type enzymes (FAD7/8-1, FAD7/8-2, and FAD7/8-3). The FAD3-2 gene was duplicated in the A genome progenitor species after the evolutionary split from the D progenitor, but before the interspecific hybridization event that gave rise to modern tetraploid cotton. RNA-seq analysis revealed conserved, gene-specific expression patterns in various organs and cell types and semi-quantitative RT-PCR further revealed that FAD7/8-1 was specifically induced during cold temperature treatment of G. hirsutum seedlings. Conclusions: The omega-3 FAD gene family in cotton was characterized at the genome-wide level in three species, showing relatively ancient establishment of the gene family prior

  18. Flavonoid Properties in Plant Families Synthesizing Betalain Pigments (Review).

    PubMed

    Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-06-01

    The anthocyanin pigments are contained in the flowers, fruits, leaves and roots of almost plant species. On the other hand, distribution of the betacyanins are limited in eight families of the order Caryophyllales, i.e. Aizoaceae, Amaranthaceae, Basellaceae, Cactaceae, Didiereaceae, Nyctaginaceae, Phytolaccaceae and Portulacaceae. However, other flavonoids, i.e. flavones, C-glycosylflavones, flavonols, flavanones, dihydroflavonols, chalcones, aurones, and flavan and proanthocyanidins, are synthesized in betalain-containing families. In this review, distribution and properties of the flavonoids in eight betalain-containing families are described. PMID:26197560

  19. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in sesame.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xin; Wang, Linhai; Yu, Jingyin; Zhang, Yanxin; Li, Donghua; Zhang, Xiurong

    2015-09-10

    MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that play crucial roles in plant growth and development. Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an oil crop that contributes to the daily oil and protein requirements of almost half of the world's population; therefore, a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family is needed. Fifty-seven MADS-box genes were identified from 14 linkage groups of the sesame genome. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships with Arabidopsis thaliana, Utricularia gibba and Solanum lycopersicum MADS-box genes was performed. Sesame MADS-box genes were clustered into four groups: 28 MIKC(c)-type, 5 MIKC(⁎)-type, 14 Mα-type and 10 Mγ-type. Gene structure analysis revealed from 1 to 22 exons of sesame MADS-box genes. The number of exons in type II MADS-box genes greatly exceeded the number in type I genes. Motif distribution analysis of sesame MADS-box genes also indicated that type II MADS-box genes contained more motifs than type I genes. These results suggested that type II sesame MADS-box genes had more complex structures. By analyzing expression profiles of MADS-box genes in seven sesame transcriptomes, we determined that MIKC(C)-type MADS-box genes played significant roles in sesame flower and seed development. Although most MADS-box genes in the same clade showed similar expression features, some gene functions were diversified from the orthologous Arabidopsis genes. This research will contribute to uncovering the role of MADS-box genes in sesame development. PMID:25967387

  20. Evolution of an Expanded Mannose Receptor Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Staines, Karen; Hunt, Lawrence G.; Young, John R.; Butter, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Sequences of peptides from a protein specifically immunoprecipitated by an antibody, KUL01, that recognises chicken macrophages, identified a homologue of the mammalian mannose receptor, MRC1, which we called MRC1L-B. Inspection of the genomic environment of the chicken gene revealed an array of five paralogous genes, MRC1L-A to MRC1L-E, located between conserved flanking genes found either side of the single MRC1 gene in mammals. Transcripts of all five genes were detected in RNA from a macrophage cell line and other RNAs, whose sequences allowed the precise definition of spliced exons, confirming or correcting existing bioinformatic annotation. The confirmed gene structures were used to locate orthologues of all five genes in the genomes of two other avian species and of the painted turtle, all with intact coding sequences. The lizard genome had only three genes, one orthologue of MRC1L-A and two orthologues of the MRC1L-B antigen gene resulting from a recent duplication. The Xenopus genome, like that of most mammals, had only a single MRC1-like gene at the corresponding locus. MRC1L-A and MRC1L-B genes had similar cytoplasmic regions that may be indicative of similar subcellular migration and functions. Cytoplasmic regions of the other three genes were very divergent, possibly indicating the evolution of a new functional repertoire for this family of molecules, which might include novel interactions with pathogens. PMID:25390371

  1. Molecular evolution of the lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase (LPAAT) gene family.

    PubMed

    Körbes, Ana Paula; Kulcheski, Franceli Rodrigues; Margis, Rogério; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Turchetto-Zolet, Andreia Carina

    2016-03-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferases (LPAATs) perform an essential cellular function by controlling the production of phosphatidic acid (PA), a key intermediate in the synthesis of membrane, signaling and storage lipids. Although LPAATs have been extensively explored by functional and biotechnological studies, little is known about their molecular evolution and diversification. We performed a genome-wide analysis using data from several plants and animals, as well as other eukaryotic and prokaryotic species, to identify LPAAT genes and analyze their evolutionary history. We used phylogenetic and molecular evolution analysis to test the hypothesis of distinct origins for these genes. The reconstructed phylogeny supported the ancient origin of some isoforms (plant LPAAT1 and LPAATB; animal AGPAAT1/2), while others emerged more recently (plant LPAAT2/3/4/5; AGPAAT3/4/5/8). Additionally, the hypothesis of endosymbiotic origin of the plastidic isoform LPAAT1 was confirmed. LPAAT genes from plants and animals mainly experienced strong purifying selection pressures with limited functional divergence after the species-specific duplications. Gene expression analyses of LPAAT isoforms in model plants demonstrated distinct LPAAT expression patterns in these organisms. The results showed that distinct origins followed by diversification of the LPAAT genes shaped the evolution of TAG biosynthesis. The expression pattern of individual genes may be responsible for adaptation into multiple ecological niches. PMID:26721558

  2. Two mutations in LDLR gene were found in two Chinese families with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaohuan; Ding, Junfa; Zheng, Fang; Zhou, Xin; Xiong, Chenling

    2009-11-01

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) (OMIM 143890) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disease mainly caused by mutations of the gene encoding the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and Apolipoprotein (Apo) B. First the common mutation R3500Q in ApoB gene was determined using PCR/RFLP method. Then the LDLR gene was screened for mutations using Touch-down PCR, SSCP and sequencing techniques. Furthermore, the secondary structure of the LDLR protein was predicted with ANTHEPROT5.0. The R3500Q mutation was absent in these two families. A heterozygous p.W483X mutation of LDLR gene was identified in family A which caused a premature stop codon, while a homozygous mutation p.A627T was found in family B. The predicted secondary structures of the mutant LDLR were altered. We identified two known mutations (p.W483X, p.A627T) of the LDLR gene in two Chinese FH families respectively. PMID:19020990

  3. Expansion of transducin subunit gene families in early vertebrate tetraploidizations.

    PubMed

    Lagman, David; Sundström, Görel; Ocampo Daza, Daniel; Abalo, Xesús M; Larhammar, Dan

    2012-10-01

    Hundreds of gene families expanded in the early vertebrate tetraploidizations including many gene families in the phototransduction cascade. We have investigated the evolution of the heterotrimeric G-proteins of photoreceptors, the transducins, in relation to these events using both phylogenetic analyses and synteny comparisons. Three alpha subunit genes were identified in amniotes and the coelacanth, GNAT1-3; two of these were identified in amphibians and teleost fish, GNAT1 and GNAT2. Most tetrapods have four beta genes, GNB1-4, and teleosts have additional duplicates. Finally, three gamma genes were identified in mammals, GNGT1, GNG11 and GNGT2. Of these, GNGT1 and GNGT2 were found in the other vertebrates. In frog and zebrafish additional duplicates of GNGT2 were identified. Our analyses show all three transducin families expanded during the early vertebrate tetraploidizations and the beta and gamma families gained additional copies in the teleost-specific genome duplication. This suggests that the tetraploidizations contributed to visual specialisations. PMID:22814267

  4. The Lipoxygenase Gene Family in Poplar: Identification, Classification, and Expression in Response to MeJA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Chen, Xue; Yan, Hanwei; Li, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Cai, Ronghao; Xiang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Background Lipoxygenases (LOXs) are important dioxygenases in cellular organisms. LOXs contribute to plant developmental processes and environmental responses. However, a systematic and comprehensive analysis has not been focused on the LOX gene family in poplar. Therefore, in the present study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the LOX gene family in poplar. Results Using bioinformatics methods, we identified a total of 20 LOX genes. These LOX genes were clustered into two subfamilies. The gene structure and motif composition of each subfamily were relatively conserved. These genes are distributed unevenly across nine chromosomes. The PtLOX gene family appears to have expanded due to high tandem and low segmental duplication events. Microarray analysis showed that a number of PtLOX genes have different expression pattern across disparate tissues and under various stress treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was further performed to confirm the responses to MeJA treatment of the 20 poplar LOX genes. The results show that the PtLOX genes are regulated by MeJA (Methyl jasmonate) treatment. Conclusions This study provides a systematic analysis of LOX genes in poplar. The gene family analysis reported here will be useful for conducting future functional genomics studies to uncover the roles of LOX genes in poplar growth and development. PMID:25928711

  5. Transcriptomes of the parasitic plant family Orobanchaceae reveal surprising conservation of chlorophyll synthesis.

    PubMed

    Wickett, Norman J; Honaas, Loren A; Wafula, Eric K; Das, Malay; Huang, Kan; Wu, Biao; Landherr, Lena; Timko, Michael P; Yoder, John; Westwood, James H; dePamphilis, Claude W

    2011-12-20

    Parasitism in flowering plants has evolved at least 11 times [1]. Only one family, Orobanchaceae, comprises all major nutritional types of parasites: facultative, hemiparasitic (partially photosynthetic), and holoparasitic (nonphotosynthetic) [2]. Additionally, the family includes Lindenbergia, a nonparasitic genus sister to all parasitic Orobanchaceae [3-6]. Parasitic Orobanchaceae include species with severe economic impacts: Striga (witchweed), for example, affects over 50 million hectares of crops in sub-Saharan Africa, causing more than $3 billion in damage annually [7]. Although gene losses and increased substitution rates have been characterized for parasitic plant plastid genomes [5, 8-11], the nuclear genome and transcriptome remain largely unexplored. The Parasitic Plant Genome Project (PPGP; http://ppgp.huck.psu.edu/) [2] is leveraging the natural variation in Orobanchaceae to explore the evolution and genomic consequences of parasitism in plants through a massive transcriptome and gene discovery project involving Triphysaria versicolor (facultative hemiparasite), Striga hermonthica (obligate hemiparasite), and Phelipanche aegyptiaca (Orobanche [12]; holoparasite). Here we present the first set of large-scale genomic resources for parasitic plant comparative biology. Transcriptomes of above-ground tissues reveal that, in addition to the predictable loss of photosynthesis-related gene expression in P. aegyptiaca, the nonphotosynthetic parasite retains an intact, expressed, and selectively constrained chlorophyll synthesis pathway. PMID:22169535

  6. Evaluating and Characterizing Ancient Whole-Genome Duplications in Plants with Gene Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Tiley, George P.; Ané, Cécile; Burleigh, J. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have helped shape the genomes of land plants, and recent evidence suggests that the genomes of all angiosperms have experienced at least two ancient WGDs. In plants, WGDs often are followed by rapid fractionation, in which many homeologous gene copies are lost. Thus, it can be extremely difficult to identify, let alone characterize, ancient WGDs. In this study, we use a new maximum likelihood estimator to test for evidence of ancient WGDs in land plants and estimate the fraction of new genes copies that are retained following a WGD using gene count data, the number of gene copies in gene families. We identified evidence of many putative ancient WGDs in land plants and found that the genome fractionation rates vary tremendously among ancient WGDs. Analyses of WGDs within Brassicales also indicate that background gene duplication and loss rates vary across land plants, and different gene families have different probabilities of being retained following a WGD. Although our analyses are largely robust to errors in duplication and loss rates and the choice of priors, simulations indicate that this method can have trouble detecting multiple WGDs that occur on the same branch, especially when the gene retention rates for ancient WGDs are very low. They also suggest that we should carefully evaluate evidence for some ancient plant WGD hypotheses. PMID:26988251

  7. Evaluating and Characterizing Ancient Whole-Genome Duplications in Plants with Gene Count Data.

    PubMed

    Tiley, George P; Ané, Cécile; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have helped shape the genomes of land plants, and recent evidence suggests that the genomes of all angiosperms have experienced at least two ancient WGDs. In plants, WGDs often are followed by rapid fractionation, in which many homeologous gene copies are lost. Thus, it can be extremely difficult to identify, let alone characterize, ancient WGDs. In this study, we use a new maximum likelihood estimator to test for evidence of ancient WGDs in land plants and estimate the fraction of new genes copies that are retained following a WGD using gene count data, the number of gene copies in gene families. We identified evidence of many putative ancient WGDs in land plants and found that the genome fractionation rates vary tremendously among ancient WGDs. Analyses of WGDs within Brassicales also indicate that background gene duplication and loss rates vary across land plants, and different gene families have different probabilities of being retained following a WGD. Although our analyses are largely robust to errors in duplication and loss rates and the choice of priors, simulations indicate that this method can have trouble detecting multiple WGDs that occur on the same branch, especially when the gene retention rates for ancient WGDs are very low. They also suggest that we should carefully evaluate evidence for some ancient plant WGD hypotheses. PMID:26988251

  8. Folk medicinal uses of Verbenaceae family plants in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Jahan, Rownak; Azam, F M Safiul; Hossan, S; Mollik, M A H; Rahman, Taufiq

    2011-01-01

    Folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health-care providers to most of the rural population of Bangladesh. They are known locally as Kavirajes and rely almost solely on oral or topical administration of whole plants or plant parts for treatment of various ailments. Also about 2% of the total population of Bangladesh are scattered among more than twenty tribes residing within the country's borders. The various tribes have their own tribal practitioners, who use medicinal plants for treatment of diseases. The objective of the present survey was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among the Kavirajes and tribal practitioners to determine which species of plants belonging to the Verbenaceae family are used by the practitioners. The Verbenaceae family plants are well known for constituents having important bio-active properties. The present survey indicated that 13 species belonging to 8 genera are used by the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners of Bangladesh. A comparison of their folk medicinal uses along with published reports in the scientific literature suggests that the Verbenaceae family plants used in Bangladesh can potentially be important sources of lead compounds or novel drugs for treatment of difficult to cure debilitating diseases like malaria and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:22754058

  9. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the WRKY Gene Family in Cassava.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxie; Shi, Haitao; Xia, Zhiqiang; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Wenquan; Hu, Wei; Li, Kaimian

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family, a large family of transcription factors (TFs) found in higher plants, plays central roles in many aspects of physiological processes and adaption to environment. However, little information is available regarding the WRKY family in cassava (Manihot esculenta). In the present study, 85 WRKY genes were identified from the cassava genome and classified into three groups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. Conserved motif analysis showed that all of the identified MeWRKYs had the conserved WRKY domain. Gene structure analysis suggested that the number of introns in MeWRKY genes varied from 1 to 5, with the majority of MeWRKY genes containing three exons. Expression profiles of MeWRKY genes in different tissues and in response to drought stress were analyzed using the RNA-seq technique. The results showed that 72 MeWRKY genes had differential expression in their transcript abundance and 78 MeWRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to drought stresses in different accessions, indicating their contribution to plant developmental processes and drought stress resistance in cassava. Finally, the expression of 9 WRKY genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR under osmotic, salt, ABA, H2O2, and cold treatments, indicating that MeWRKYs may be involved in different signaling pathways. Taken together, this systematic analysis identifies some tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MeWRKY genes for further functional assays in planta, and provides a solid foundation for understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by WRKYs in cassava. PMID:26904033

  10. Genome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of the WRKY Gene Family in Cassava

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yunxie; Shi, Haitao; Xia, Zhiqiang; Tie, Weiwei; Ding, Zehong; Yan, Yan; Wang, Wenquan; Hu, Wei; Li, Kaimian

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY family, a large family of transcription factors (TFs) found in higher plants, plays central roles in many aspects of physiological processes and adaption to environment. However, little information is available regarding the WRKY family in cassava (Manihot esculenta). In the present study, 85 WRKY genes were identified from the cassava genome and classified into three groups according to conserved WRKY domains and zinc-finger structure. Conserved motif analysis showed that all of the identified MeWRKYs had the conserved WRKY domain. Gene structure analysis suggested that the number of introns in MeWRKY genes varied from 1 to 5, with the majority of MeWRKY genes containing three exons. Expression profiles of MeWRKY genes in different tissues and in response to drought stress were analyzed using the RNA-seq technique. The results showed that 72 MeWRKY genes had differential expression in their transcript abundance and 78 MeWRKY genes were differentially expressed in response to drought stresses in different accessions, indicating their contribution to plant developmental processes and drought stress resistance in cassava. Finally, the expression of 9 WRKY genes was analyzed by qRT-PCR under osmotic, salt, ABA, H2O2, and cold treatments, indicating that MeWRKYs may be involved in different signaling pathways. Taken together, this systematic analysis identifies some tissue-specific and abiotic stress-responsive candidate MeWRKY genes for further functional assays in planta, and provides a solid foundation for understanding of abiotic stress responses and signal transduction mediated by WRKYs in cassava. PMID:26904033