Science.gov

Sample records for plant materials research

  1. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  8. Plant Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Land's agricultural research team is testing new ways to sustain life in space as a research participant with Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Land, sponsored by Kraft General Foods, is an entertainment, research, and education facility at EPCOT Center, part of Walt Disney World. The cooperative effort is simultaneously a research and development program, a technology demonstration that provides the public to see high technology at work and an area of potential spinoff: the CELSS work may generate Earth use technology beneficial to the hydroponic (soilless growing) vegetable production industries of the world.

  9. Materials research at CMAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-01

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  10. Materials research at CMAM

    SciTech Connect

    Zucchiatti, Alessandro

    2013-07-18

    The Centro de Micro Analisis de Materiales (CMAM) is a research centre of the Universidad Autonoma de Madrid dedicated to the modification and analysis of materials using ion beam techniques. The infrastructure, based on a HVEE 5MV tandem accelerator, provided with a coaxial Cockcroft Walton charging system, is fully open to research groups of the UAM, to other public research institutions and to private enterprises. The CMAM research covers a few important lines such as advanced materials, surface science, biomedical materials, cultural heritage, materials for energy production. The Centre gives as well support to university teaching and technical training. A detail description of the research infrastructures and their use statistics will be given. Some of the main research results will be presented to show the progress of research in the Centre in the past few years and to motivate the strategic plans for the forthcoming.

  11. Materials research for fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to <2 MeV on average for fission neutrons) releases significant amounts of hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  12. Materials Research Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, Andrew J.

    1986-01-01

    Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites, ceramics, coatings, processing techniques, etc., which are now also in use by U.S. industry. This brochure highlights selected past accomplishments of our materials research and technology staff. It also provides many examples of the facilities available with which we can conduct materials research. The nation is now beginning to consider integrating technology for high-performance supersonic/hypersonic aircraft, nuclear space power systems, a space station, and new research areas such as materials processing in space. As we proceed, I am confident that our materials research staff will continue to provide important contributions which will help our nation maintain a strong technology position in these areas of growing world competition. Lewis Research Center, in partnership with U.S. industry and academia, has long been a major force in developing advanced aerospace propulsion and power systems. One key aspect that made many of these systems possible has been the availability of high-performance, reliable, and long-life materials. To assure a continuing flow of new materials and processing concepts, basic understanding to guide such innovation, and technological support for development of major NASA systems, Lewis has supported a strong in-house materials research activity. Our researchers have discovered new alloys, polymers, metallic composites

  13. Research In Thermoelectric Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Report reviews current research in thermoelectric materials with view towards development of materials of greater energy-conversion efficiency. Emphasis on effort to understand and manipulate microstructure to increase thermoelectric figure of merit, Z. Thermoelectric properties of three broad categories of materials discussed. First category includes alloys of group IV elements like silicon and germanium. Second category is rare-earth chalcogenides. Third category includes narrow-band semiconductors, especially boron carbides.

  14. MATERIALS FOR OXYGENATED WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT CONSTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research study was initiated to identify resistant materials for construction of wastewater treatment plants using the oxygen activated sludge process. In this investigation, samples of a broad range of construction materials were exposed for periods up to 28 months in the a...

  15. The Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Plant: A guide to record series useful for health related research. Volume 4: Production and materials handling

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This is the fourth in a series of seven volumes which constitute a guide to records of the Rocky Flats Plant useful for conducting health-related research. The primary purpose of Volume 4 is to describe record series pertaining to production and materials handling activities at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant, now named the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project and HAI`s role in the project, provides a history of production and materials handling practices at Rocky Flats, and identifies organizations contributing to production and materials handling policies and activities. Other topics include the scope and arrangement of the guide and the organization to contact for access to these records.

  16. Plant materials for novel ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The preservationist approach to restoration plant materials has 'local' as its centerpiece, emphasizing taxonomic and genetic patterns (in space). This view can be seen to be at odds with an alternative interventionist point of view that emphasizes the 'processes' (across time) of ecosystem functio...

  17. Genomic Aspects of Research Involving Polyploid Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaohan; Ye, Chuyu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wullschleger, Stan D; Tuskan, Gerald A

    2011-01-01

    Almost all extant plant species have spontaneously doubled their genomes at least once in their evolutionary histories, resulting in polyploidy which provided a rich genomic resource for evolutionary processes. Moreover, superior polyploid clones have been created during the process of crop domestication. Polyploid plants generated by evolutionary processes and/or crop domestication have been the intentional or serendipitous focus of research dealing with the dynamics and consequences of genome evolution. One of the new trends in genomics research is to create synthetic polyploid plants which provide materials for studying the initial genomic changes/responses immediately after polyploid formation. Polyploid plants are also used in functional genomics research to study gene expression in a complex genomic background. In this review, we summarize the recent progress in genomics research involving ancient, young, and synthetic polyploid plants, with a focus on genome size evolution, genomics diversity, genomic rearrangement, genetic and epigenetic changes in duplicated genes, gene discovery, and comparative genomics. Implications on plant sciences including evolution, functional genomics, and plant breeding are presented. It is anticipated that polyploids will be a regular subject of genomics research in the foreseeable future as the rapid advances in DNA sequencing technology create unprecedented opportunities for discovering and monitoring genomic and transcriptomic changes in polyploid plants. The fast accumulation of knowledge on polyploid formation, maintenance, and divergence at whole-genome and subgenome levels will not only help plant biologists understand how plants have evolved and diversified, but also assist plant breeders in designing new strategies for crop improvement.

  18. Materials Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity materials processing experiments provide an opportunity to perform scientific research in an environment which allows one to observe various phenomena without the masking effects of gravity-driven convective flows, buoyancy, or contaminating influences of walled containers. Even for the most experienced scientists, it is still difficult to predict beforehand, whether or not microgravity experimentation can be successfully performed in space and achieve solutions to problems which are not attainable in 1 g. Consequently, experimentation in ground based facilities which are capable of simulating, in somewhat lesser time frames and to a lesser degree of microgravity, provides a unique low-cost approach to determine the feasibility of continuing research in a particular experiment. The utilization of these facilities in developing the full requirements for a space experiment does present a very cost-effective approach to microgravity experimentation. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an excellent test bed for containerless processing experiments such as described here. These facilities have demonstrated for a number of years the capability to develop insight into space experiments involving containerless processing, rapid solidification, and wetting phenomena through the use of lower-cost ground facilities. Once sufficient data has been obtained, then a space-based experiment can be better defined.

  19. Electronics materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  20. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P. B.

    1984-01-01

    Encapsulation materials for solar cells were investigated. The different phases consisted of: (1) identification and development of low cost module encapsulation materials; (2) materials reliability examination; and (3) process sensitivity and process development. It is found that outdoor photothermal aging devices (OPT) are the best accelerated aging methods, simulate worst case field conditions, evaluate formulation and module performance and have a possibility for life assessment. Outdoor metallic copper exposure should be avoided, self priming formulations have good storage stability, stabilizers enhance performance, and soil resistance treatment is still effective.

  1. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veazie, David R.

    1998-01-01

    High temperature thermoplastic polyimide polymers are incorporated in engineering structures in the form of matrix materials in advanced fiber composites and adhesives in bonded joints. Developing analytical tools to predict long term performance and screen for final materials selection for polymers is the impetus for intensive studies at NASA and major industry based airframe developers. These fiber-reinforced polymeric composites (FRPCs) combine high strength with lightweight. In addition, they offer corrosion and fatigue resistance, a reduction in parts count, and new possibilities for control through aeroelastic tailoring and "smart" structures containing fully-integrated sensors and actuators. However, large-scale acceptance and use of polymer composites has historically been extremely slow. Reasons for this include a lack of familiarity of designers with the materials; the need for new tooling and new inspection and repair infrastructures; and high raw materials and fabrication costs.

  2. Materials research at Stanford University

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Information briefly describing the total research activity related to the science of materials is reported. Emphasis is placed on physical and mechanical properties of composite materials, energy transportation, superconductors, microwave electronics, and solid state electrochemistry.

  3. Aquatic plant control research

    SciTech Connect

    Pryfogle, P.A.; Rinehart, B.N.; Ghio, E.G.

    1997-05-01

    The Northwest region of the United States contains extensive canal systems that transport water for hydropower generation. Nuisance plants, including algae, that grow in these systems reduce their hydraulic capacity through water displacement and increased surface friction. Most control methods are applied in an ad hoc fashion. The goal of this work is to develop cost-effective, environmentally sound, long-term management strategies to prevent and control nuisance algal growth. This paper reports on a multi-year study, performed in collaboration with the Pacific Gas & Electric Company, to investigate algal growth in their canal systems, and to evaluate various control methodologies. Three types of controls, including mechanical, biological and chemical treatment, were selected for testing and evaluation. As part of this study, water quality data were collected and algal communities were sampled from numerous stations throughout the distribution system at regular intervals. This study resulted in a more comprehensive understanding of conditions leading to the development of nuisance algal growth, a better informed selection of treatment plans, and improved evaluation of the effectiveness for the control strategies selected for testing.

  4. Encapsulation materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, P.

    1985-01-01

    The successful use of outdoor mounting racks as an accelerated aging technique (these devices are called optal reactors); a beginning list of candidate pottant materials for thin-film encapsulation, which process at temperatures well below 100 C; and description of a preliminary flame retardant formulation for ethylene vinyl acetate which could function to increase module flammability ratings are presented.

  5. Advanced desiccant materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czanderna, A. W.; Thomas, T. M.

    1986-05-01

    The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

  6. Computational Materials Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinkley, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Gates, Thomas S. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Computational Materials aims to model and predict thermodynamic, mechanical, and transport properties of polymer matrix composites. This workshop, the second coordinated by NASA Langley, reports progress in measurements and modeling at a number of length scales: atomic, molecular, nano, and continuum. Assembled here are presentations on quantum calculations for force field development, molecular mechanics of interfaces, molecular weight effects on mechanical properties, molecular dynamics applied to poling of polymers for electrets, Monte Carlo simulation of aromatic thermoplastics, thermal pressure coefficients of liquids, ultrasonic elastic constants, group additivity predictions, bulk constitutive models, and viscoplasticity characterization.

  7. Bioinspired materials: Boosting plant biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholes, Gregory D.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-04-01

    Chloroplasts with extended photosynthetic activity beyond the visible absorption spectrum, and living leaves that perform non-biological functions, are made possible by localizing nanoparticles within plant organelles.

  8. Reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorophyll and water obscure the absorption features of all other leaf constituents in the spectra of green leaves. The predominant near-IR and thermal IR spectral features of dry plant materials originate from lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. These compounds account for 80 to 98 percent of the dry weight in most plant materials.

  9. Materials Research in Microgravity 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, R. (Editor); Bojarevis, V. (Editor); Downey, J.; Henein, H. (Editor); Matson, D.; Seidel, A. (Editor); Voss, D. (Editor); SanSoucie, M. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Reducing gravitational effects such as thermal and solutal buoyancy enables investigation of a large range of different phenomena in materials science. The Symposium on Materials Research in Microgravity involved 6 sessions composed of 39 presentations and 14 posters with contributions from more than 14 countries. The sessions concentrated on four different categories of topics related to ongoing reduced-gravity research. Highlights from this symposium will be featured in the September 2012 issue of JOM. The TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, Process Technology and Modeling Committee and Solidification Committee sponsored the symposium.

  10. Research Ethics. Cases and Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penslar, Robin Levin, Ed.

    This book is a comprehensive resource of illustrative cases for classroom discussion of research ethics in the natural sciences, the behavioral sciences, and the humanities. The materials selected for inclusion are intended to speak to people in all disciplines, though the cases are drawn from biology, psychology, and history. They cover such…

  11. Materials research and applications at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Probst, H. B.

    1987-01-01

    The facilities and instruments of the Lewis Research Center specialized for materials research are discussed. The main objectives of the Center are to provide R & D relevant to main propulsion plants and auxiliary power systems for aeronautics, space, and energy conversion applications. The Center is concerned with microstructure-property relations and their effect on processing; intermetallic compounds and high temperature metal matrix composites; ceramics with improved reliability for use in heat engines; polymer matrix composites for aerospace applcations; understanding the high temperature corrosive attack in the hostile environments of aircraft, rockets, and other heat engines; high temperature lubrication and wear; and microgravity materials research. The various types of schemes and techniques, provided by the Center, for analyzing data are described.

  12. Materials sciences research. [research facilities, research projects, and technical reports of materials tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Research projects involving materials research conducted by various international test facilities are reported. Much of the materials research is classified in the following areas: (1) acousto-optic, acousto-electric, and ultrasonic research, (2) research for elucidating transport phenomena in well characterized oxides, (3) research in semiconductor materials and semiconductor devices, (4) the study of interfaces and interfacial phenomena, and (5) materials research relevant to natural resources. Descriptions of the individual research programs are listed alphabetically by the name of the author and show all personnel involved, resulting publications, and associated meeting speeches.

  13. Methods of producing compounds from plant material

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H.; Franz, James A.; Alnajjar, Mikhail S.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Alderson, Eric V.; Orth, Rick J.; Abbas, Charles A.; Beery, Kyle E.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.; Kim, Catherine J.

    2006-01-03

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  14. Methods of producing compounds from plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Werpy, Todd A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Frye, Jr., John G.; Zacher, Alan H. , Franz; James A. , Alnajjar; Mikhail S. , Neuenschwander; Gary G. , Alderson; Eric V. , Orth; Rick J. , Abbas; Charles A. , Beery; Kyle E. , Rammelsberg; Anne M. , Kim; Catherine J.

    2010-01-26

    The invention includes methods of processing plant material by adding water to form a mixture, heating the mixture, and separating a liquid component from a solid-comprising component. At least one of the liquid component and the solid-comprising component undergoes additional processing. Processing of the solid-comprising component produces oils, and processing of the liquid component produces one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention includes a process of forming glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol from plant matter by adding water, heating and filtering the plant matter. The filtrate containing starch, starch fragments, hemicellulose and fragments of hemicellulose is treated to form linear poly-alcohols which are then cleaved to produce one or more of glycerol, ethylene glycol, lactic acid and propylene glycol. The invention also includes a method of producing free and/or complexed sterols and stanols from plant material.

  15. Native Plant Materials for Sagebrush Steppe Restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An increasing number and diversity of plant materials are becoming available for restoration of sagebrush steppe lands. Some species that have previously been available only from wildland harvest are now more economically produced with better seed quality in cultivated fields. Others are now avail...

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  17. Unit Plants, First Trial Materials, Inspection Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Science Education Project, Toorak, Victoria.

    The Australian Science Education Project is producing materials designed for use in grades 7-10 of Australian schools. This is the first trial version of a unit introducing the study of plants. The section to be completed by all pupils, contained in the first of the student workbooks, emphasizes observation of specimens on school grounds and on…

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  19. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4 Section... production of plant materials. NRCS can produce plant materials in the quantity required to do a specific conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are...

  20. Materials science research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H.

    1992-01-01

    There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

  1. Aktau Plastics Plant Explosives Material Report

    SciTech Connect

    CASE JR.,ROGER S.

    1999-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been cooperating with the Republic of Kazakhstanin Combined Threat Reduction (CTR) activities at the BN350 reactor located at the Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex (MAEC) in the city of Aktau, Kazakhstan since 1994. DOE contract personnel have been stationed at this facility for the last two years and DOE representatives regularly visit this location to oversee the continuing cooperative activities. Continued future cooperation is planned. A Russian news report in September 1999 indicated that 75 metric tons of organic peroxides stored at the Plastics Plant near Aktau were in danger of exploding and killing or injuring nearby residents. To ensure the health and safety of the personnel at the BN350 site, the DOE conducted a study to investigate the potential danger to the BN350 site posed by these materials at the Plastics Plant. The study conclusion was that while the organic peroxides do have hazards associated with them, the BN350 site is a safe distance from the Plastics Plant. Further, because the Plastics Plant and MAEC have cooperative fire-fighting agreements,and the Plastics Plant had exhausted its reserve of fire-fighting foam, there was the possibility of the Plastics Plant depleting the store of fire-fighting foam at the BN350 site. Subsequently, the DOE decided to purchase fire-fighting foam for the Plastics Plant to ensure the availability of free-fighting foam at the BN350 site.

  2. Luminescence of some airborne plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satterwhite, Melvin B.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the excitation- emission spectra of seed pubescence, pollen and spores, and senesced plant materials that could be carried in the air column. Reference samples were a mature green-colored corn leaf, green-, yellow- and brown-colored soybean leaves, cellulose, commercial grade cotton batting and a soil. Spectral luminescence signatures were collected over the 300 to 800 nanometer region using a scanning spectrofluorometer. The excitation-emission spectra were broadband emission centroids in the 400-nm to 600-nm spectrum. Emission maxima were associated with the 440-nm, 470-nm and 370-nm excitation bands and the 455-nm to 590-nm emission bands. The coma of milkweed, silkvine, cotton (raw), cottonwood seeds and yellow- colored pollen and spores were highly fluorescent. The pappus of thistles, dandelion and goat's beard seeds and newly senesced grass leaves and glumes had moderate to high fluorescence. Dark brown-colored mushroom spores and weathered, senesced plant materials had low fluorescence. The emission spectra resembled that of regent, microcrystalline cellulose although impurities incorporated within the plant materials altered their emission intensities from that of cellulose. Moderate to low emissions were from tan- to dark brown-colored materials, whereas the white-colored or light, tan-colored materials had high emissions.

  3. MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document is the compiled progress reports of research funded through the Michigan State University/Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory. Fourteen reports are included, covering the molecular basis of plant/microbe symbiosis, cell wall biosynthesis and proteins, gene expression, stress responses, plant hormone biosynthesis, interactions between the nuclear and organelle genomes, sensory transduction and tropisms, intracellular sorting and trafficking, regulation of lipid metabolism, molecular basis of disease resistance and plant pathogenesis, developmental biology of Cyanobacteria, and hormonal involvement in environmental control of plant growth. 320 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs. (MHB)

  4. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  5. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  6. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  7. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers (PMC) assemble and test plant species for conservation uses. Usually a PMC serves two or more States, and...

  8. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  11. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  12. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  13. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  14. Bioinformatics Approach in Plant Genomic Research.

    PubMed

    Ong, Quang; Nguyen, Phuc; Thao, Nguyen Phuong; Le, Ly

    2016-08-01

    The advance in genomics technology leads to the dramatic change in plant biology research. Plant biologists now easily access to enormous genomic data to deeply study plant high-density genetic variation at molecular level. Therefore, fully understanding and well manipulating bioinformatics tools to manage and analyze these data are essential in current plant genome research. Many plant genome databases have been established and continued expanding recently. Meanwhile, analytical methods based on bioinformatics are also well developed in many aspects of plant genomic research including comparative genomic analysis, phylogenomics and evolutionary analysis, and genome-wide association study. However, constantly upgrading in computational infrastructures, such as high capacity data storage and high performing analysis software, is the real challenge for plant genome research. This review paper focuses on challenges and opportunities which knowledge and skills in bioinformatics can bring to plant scientists in present plant genomics era as well as future aspects in critical need for effective tools to facilitate the translation of knowledge from new sequencing data to enhancement of plant productivity. PMID:27499685

  15. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-04-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  16. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-10-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  17. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; J. Sarver; M. Borden; K. Coleman; J. Blough; S. Goodstine; R.W. Swindeman; W. Mohn; I. Perrin

    2003-04-21

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  18. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  19. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. Coleman; R. Viswanathan; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-01-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  2. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  3. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  4. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  5. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General plant... determine the procurement method that best meets its needs for purchase of general plant material...

  6. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-07-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  7. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  10. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  11. 7 CFR 613.4 - Special production of plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CONSERVATION OPERATIONS PLANT MATERIALS CENTERS § 613.4 Special... conservation job if this production will serve the public welfare and only if the plant materials are not... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special production of plant materials. 613.4...

  12. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers...

  13. 7 CFR 600.8 - Plant materials centers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant materials centers. 600.8 Section 600.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ORGANIZATION § 600.8 Plant materials centers. Plant materials centers...

  14. Materials research at Stanford University. [composite materials, crystal structure, acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Research activity related to the science of materials is described. The following areas are included: elastic and thermal properties of composite materials, acoustic waves and devices, amorphous materials, crystal structure, synthesis of metal-metal bonds, interactions of solids with solutions, electrochemistry, fatigue damage, superconductivity and molecular physics and phase transition kinetics.

  15. Plant biotechnology: research behind fences.

    PubMed

    Romeis, Jörg; Meissle, Michael; Brunner, Susanne; Tschamper, Denise; Winzeler, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The government of Switzerland has responded to vandalism of field experiments with genetically modified (GM) crops by establishing a protected field site. This site will enable research groups to conduct experiments without having to install and pay for security measures. This could be a model for other European countries who wish to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of GM crops in an objective and scientific manner and without the interference of vandalism. PMID:23473928

  16. Research on new energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.S.

    1996-07-01

    Fluorine and oxygen rich energetic crystals and polymers will provide a new approach to increasing composite propellant and explosive energy density and energy release rates. This class of energetic materials will be used to demonstrate that advances in computational chemistry and solid state physics can be used to begin to understand detonation and combustion processes. It is anticipated that fluorinated as well as the oxygenated combustion and detonation products will accelerate the rates of metal particle consumption in composite propellants and explosives. Enhanced and tailorable energy release rates and critical diameters of metallized composite explosives will provide new technological opportunities for both military and civilian applications. Environmentally friendly energetic materials are of great current interest to reduce life cycle waste and pollution as well as life cycle cost. Thermoplastic elastomers, which have reversible crosslinking mechanisms, are one of the required keys to the gate and pathway to achieving substantial waste and pollution reduction goals. The goal in this paper is to review progress in two emerging topics in energetic materials science. These emerging two areas are fluorine and oxygen rich energetic crystals and polymers and environmentally friendly energetic material classes. 33 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Preliminary Materials Transport Plan for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gilkison, J.M.; Dyches, G.M.; Randall, W.J.; Steed, J.H.

    2000-01-26

    This Materials Transport Plan defines the methodology for moving process and non-process materials within the Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) operations. The scope of the plan includes the movement of materials between plant operational units (gloveboxes or operational areas/rooms within the plant). The movements of materials within the various plant operational units are described in the System Design Description prepared for the individual units. The plan provides a design concept for transporting each type of material including the containerization used during the movements. Further, the plan identifies the high-level functions and requirements for movements of the materials.

  18. [Design and Preparation of Plant Bionic Materials Based on Optical and Infrared Features Simulation].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiao-jun; Lu, Xu-liang; Pan, Jia-liang; Zhang, Shuan-qin

    2015-07-01

    Due to the life characteristics such as physiological structure and transpiration, plants have unique optical and infrared features. In the optical band, because of the common effects of chlorophyll and water, plant leafs show spectral reflectance characteristics change in 550, 680, 1400 and 1900 nm significantly. In the infrared wave band, driven by transpiration, plants could regulate temperature on their own initiative, which make the infrared characteristics of plants different from artificial materials. So palnt bionic materials were proposed to simulate optical and infrared characteristics of plants. By analyzing formation mechanism of optical and infrared features about green plants, the component design and heat-transfer process of plants bionic materials were studied, above these the heat-transfer control formulation was established. Based on water adsorption/release compound, optical pigments and other man-made materials, plant bionic materials preparation methods were designed which could simulate the optical and infrared features of green plants. By chemical casting methods plant bionic material films were prepared, which use polyvinyl alcohol as film forming and water adsorption/release compound, and use optical pigments like chrome green and macromolecule yellow as colouring materials. The research conclusions achieved by testings figured out: water adsorption/release testing showed that the plant bionic materials with a certain thickness could absorb 1.3 kg water per square meter, which could satisfy the water usage of transpiration simulation one day; the optical and infrared simulated effect tests indicated that the plant bionic materials could preferably simulate the spectral reflective performance of green plants in optical wave band (380-2500 nm, expecially in 1400 and 1900 nm which were water absorption wave band of plants), and also it had similar daily infrared radiation variations with green plants, daily average radiation temperature

  19. Advanced Materials for Exploration Task Research Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M. B. (Compiler); Murphy, K. L.; Schneider, T.

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Materials for Exploration (AME) Activity in Marshall Space Flight Center s (MSFC s) Exploration Science and Technology Directorate coordinated activities from 2001 to 2006 to support in-space propulsion technologies for future missions. Working together, materials scientists and mission planners identified materials shortfalls that are limiting the performance of long-term missions. The goal of the AME project was to deliver improved materials in targeted areas to meet technology development milestones of NASA s exploration-dedicated activities. Materials research tasks were targeted in five areas: (1) Thermal management materials, (2) propulsion materials, (3) materials characterization, (4) vehicle health monitoring materials, and (5) structural materials. Selected tasks were scheduled for completion such that these new materials could be incorporated into customer development plans.

  20. Research Update: ARTI Materials Compatibility and Lubricant Research (MCLR) program

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1993-10-01

    Since September 1991, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) has been conducting materials compatibility and lubricants research on chlorfluorocarbons (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFC) refrigerant alternatives. During the first two years of this program, ARTI has subcontracted and managed sixteen research projects totaling over $4 million. This research has included materials compatibility tests, refrigerant-lubricant interaction studies, measurement of thermophysical properties, and development of accelerated test methods. This paper summarizes results to date and discusses plans for future research for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program.

  1. Analytical Ultrasonics in Materials Research and Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vary, A.

    1986-01-01

    Research results in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing structural materials from metals and ceramics to composites are presented. General topics covered by the conference included: status and advances in analytical ultrasonics for characterizing material microstructures and mechanical properties; status and prospects for ultrasonic measurements of microdamage, degradation, and underlying morphological factors; status and problems in precision measurements of frequency-dependent velocity and attenuation for materials analysis; procedures and requirements for automated, digital signal acquisition, processing, analysis, and interpretation; incentives for analytical ultrasonics in materials research and materials processing, testing, and inspection; and examples of progress in ultrasonics for interrelating microstructure, mechanical properites, and dynamic response.

  2. Materials Properties Research at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presson, Joan B.; Burdine, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    MSFC is currently planning, organizing and directing test coupon fabrication and subsequent CTE testing for two mirror materials of specific interest to the AMSD and NGST programs, Beryllium 0-30H (Be 0-30H) and Ultra Low Expansion glass (ULE). The ULE test coupons are being fabricated at MSFC from AMSD core residuals provided by Kodak, The Be 0-30H test coupons are being fabricated at Brush Wellman using residuals from the SBMD. Both sets of test coupons will be sent to a test vendor selected through the NASA competitive proposal process with the test results being provided by written report to MSFC by the end of the fiscal year. The test results will become model input data for the AMSD analysts, both MSFC and contractor, providing an enhancement to the historical CTE data currently available.

  3. Analysis of phosphate esters in plant material

    PubMed Central

    Isherwood, F. A.; Barrett, F. C.

    1967-01-01

    1. A critical study was made of the quantitative extraction of nucleotide and sugar phosphates from plant tissue by either boiling aqueous ethanol or cold trichloroacetic acid. The effect of the extraction technique on the inactivation of the enzymes in the plant tissue and the possibility of adsorption of the phosphate esters on the cell wall were especially considered. 2. In the recommended method the plant tissue was frozen in liquid nitrogen, ground to a powder and then blended with cold aqueous trichloroacetic acid containing 8-hydroxyquinoline to prevent adsorption. 3. The extract contained large amounts of trichloroacetic acid, cations, chloride, sugars, amino acids, hydroxy organic acids, phytic acid, orthophosphoric acid and high-molecular-weight material including some phosphorus-containing compounds. All of these were removed as they were liable to interfere with the chromatographic or enzymic assay of the individual nucleotide or sugar phosphates. 4. The procedure was as follows: the last traces of trichloroacetic acid were extracted with ether after the solution had been passed through a column of Dowex AG 50 in the hydrogen form to remove all cations. High-molecular-weight compounds were removed by ultrafiltration and low-molecular-weight solutes by a two-stage chromatography on cellulose columns with organic solvents. In the first stage, sugars, amino acids, chloride and phytic acid were separated by using a basic solvent (propan-1-ol–water–aqueous ammonia) and, in the second stage, the organic acids and orthophosphoric acid were separated by using an acidic solvent (di-isopropyl ether–formic acid–2-methylpropan-2-ol–water). The final solution of nucleotide and sugar phosphates was substantially free from other solutes and was suitable for the detection of individual phosphate esters by either chromatography or enzymic assay. 5. The recovery of d-glucose 6-phosphate or adenosine 5′-triphosphate added to a trichloroacetic acid extract

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Containment Pressure Boundary Research

    SciTech Connect

    Cherry, J.L.; Chokshi, N.C.; Costello, J.F.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Naus, D.J.

    1999-09-15

    Research to address aging of the containment pressure boundary in light-water reactor plants is summarized. This research is aimed at understanding the significant factors relating occurrence of corrosion, efficacy of inspection, and structural capacity reduction of steel containment and liners of concrete containment. This understanding will lead to improvements in risk-informed regulatory decision making. Containment pressure boundary components are described and potential aging factors identified. Quantitative tools for condition assessments of aging structures to maintain an acceptable level of reliability over the service life of the plant are discussed. Finally, the impact of aging (i.e., loss of shell thickness due to corrosion) on steel containment fragility for a pressurized water reactor ice-condenser plant is presented.

  5. Plants growing in Apollo 15 lunar material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close view of germ free plants - lettuce (left), tomato (right center and left center) and citrus (right). This type of testing is an effort at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) to grow germ-free plants.

  6. Solar thermal materials research and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, B. P.

    1981-01-01

    Objectives of the Materials Research and Development effort are examined. The behavior and interaction of different materials used in solar thermal technologies are studied so as to create a sound technical base for future system and component designs. Materials are developed to extend the application potential of systems by either making materials more reliable in difficult operating environments or by offering lower cost alternatives to presently used materials. Solar thermal systems designed for electric power, industrial process heat from low to high temperature, and fuels and chemicals applications are discussed.

  7. Granular Materials Research at NASA-Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Daidzic, Nihad; Green, Robert D.; Nakagawa, Masami; Nayagam, Vedha; Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of granular materials research at NASA-Glenn. The topics include: 1) Impulse dispersion of a tapered granular chain; 2) High Speed Digital Images of Tapered Chain Dynamics; 3) Impulse Dispersion; 4) Three Dimensional Granular Bed Experimental Setup; 5) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluid Flow in Porous Media; and 6) Net Charge on Granular Materials (NCharG).

  8. Nuclear plant-aging research on reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    This report presents the rsults of a review of the Reactor Trip System (RTS) and the Engineered Safety Feature Actuating System (ESFAS) operating experiences reported in Licensee Event Reports (LER)s, the Nuclear Power Experience data base, Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, and plant maintenance records. Our purpose is to evaluate the potential significance of aging, including cycling, trips, and testing as contributors to degradation of the RTS and ESFAS. Tables are presented that show the percentage of events for RTS and ESFAS classified by cause, components, and subcomponents for each of the Nuclear Steam Supply System vendors. A representative Babcock and Wilcox plant was selected for detailed study. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Nuclear Plant Aging Research guidelines were followed in performing the detailed study that identified materials susceptible to aging, stressors, environmental factors, and failure modes for the RTS and ESFAS as generic instrumentation and control systems. Functional indicators of degradation are listed, testing requirements evaluated, and regulatory issues discussed.

  9. Preparation of actinide-metal research materials

    SciTech Connect

    Aaron, W.S.; Culpepper, C.A.; Campbell, K.B.

    1986-01-01

    The preparation of actinide-metal research materials is one of many functions of the Isotope Research Materials Laboratory (IRML) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Research samples of uranium, plutonium, americium, and curium, typically from milligram quantities up to approx. 100 g, are prepared as pure metals or alloys to customer specifications. Larger quantities, up to many kilograms, of the lower activity actinides, such as /sup 235/U, /sup 238/U, and /sup 232/Th, are also fabricated into custom research forms. Physical forms of these metals include rolled foils or sheets, castings (ingot, rod, or special shapes), and evaporated or sputtered films. The actinide-metal processing capabilities of the IRML are continuing to be improved and applied to a wide variety of custom material preparations to meet the needs of the world-wide research community.

  10. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, Roberto J.

    2001-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI) Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  11. Composite Structures and Materials Research at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starnes, James H., Jr.; Dexter, H. Benson; Johnston, Norman J.; Ambur, Damodar R.; Cano, roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    A summary of recent composite structures and materials research at NASA Langley Research Center is presented. Fabrication research to develop low-cost automated robotic fabrication procedures for thermosetting and thermoplastic composite materials, and low-cost liquid molding processes for preformed textile materials is described. Robotic fabrication procedures discussed include ply-by-ply, cure-on-the-fly heated placement head and out-of-autoclave electron-beam cure methods for tow and tape thermosetting and thermoplastic materials. Liquid molding fabrication processes described include Resin Film Infusion (RFI), Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) and Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM). Results for a full-scale composite wing box are summarized to identify the performance of materials and structures fabricated with these low-cost fabrication methods.

  12. Progress in plant research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutcher, F. Ronald; Hess, Elizabeth L.; Halstead, Thora W.

    1994-01-01

    Progress is reviewed of spaceflight research conducted with plants between 1987 and 1992. Numerous plant experiments have been performed on spacecraft and sounding rockets in the past five years by scientists of the US, the former Soviet Union, Europe, and other areas. The experiments are categorized into three areas: gravity sensing, transduction, and response; development and reproduction; and metabolism, photosynthesis, and transport. The results of these experiments continue to demonstrate that gravity and/or other factors of spaceflight affect plants at the organismal, cellular, subcellular, and molecular levels, resulting in changes in orientation, development, metabolism, and growth. The challenge now is to truly dissect the effects of gravity from those of other spaceflight factors and to identify the basic mechanisms underlying gravity's effects.

  13. Materials Research With Neutrons at NIST

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, R. L.; Glinka, C. J.; Krueger, S.; Lindstrom, R. A.; Lynn, J. W.; Prask, H. J.; Prince, E.; Rush, J. J.; Rowe, J. M.; Satija, S. K.; Toby, B. H.; Tsai, A.; Udovic, T. J.

    2001-01-01

    The NIST Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory works with industry, standards bodies, universities, and other government laboratories to improve the nation’s measurements and standards infrastructure for materials. An increasingly important component of this effort is carried out at the NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR), at present the most productive center of its kind in the United States. This article gives a brief historical account of the growth and activities of the Center with examples of its work in major materials research areas and describes the key role the Center can expect to play in future developments. PMID:27500021

  14. NASA. Lewis Research Center materials research and technology: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, Salvatore J.

    1990-01-01

    The Materials Division at the Lewis Research Center has a long record of contributions to both materials and process technology as well as to the understanding of key high-temperature phenomena. This paper overviews the division staff, facilities, past history, recent progress, and future interests.

  15. Research update: Materials compatibility and lubricant research (MCLR) program

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1994-04-01

    Since September 1991, the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARTI) has been conducting materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC and HCFC refrigerant alternatives. This work has been supported by a grant from the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technology, with co-funding from the Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute (ARI). During the first two and one-half years of this program, ARTI has subcontracted and managed twenty-one research projects totaling over $5.2 million. This research has included materials compatibility tests, refrigerant-lubricant interaction studies, measurement of thermophysical properties, and development of accelerated test methods. This paper summarizes results to date and discusses plans for future research for the Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program.

  16. Interdisciplinary Research and Training Program in the Plant Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C.P.

    1992-01-01

    Research on plants continued. Topics include: Molecular basis of symbiotic plant-microbe interations; enzymatic mechanisms and regulation of plant cell wall biosynthesis; molecular mechanisms that regulate the expression of genes in plants; resistance of plants to environmental stress; studies on hormone biosynthesis and action; plant cell wall proteins; interaction of nuclear and organelle genomes; sensor transduction in plants; molecular mechanisms of trafficking in the plant cell; regulation of lipid metabolism; molecular bases of plant disease resistance mechanisms; biochemical and molecular aspects of plant pathogenesis; developmental biology of nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria; environmental control of plant development and its relation to plant hormones.

  17. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latanision, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    An annual report of the research activities of the Materials Processing Center of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is given. Research on dielectrophoresis in the microgravity environment, phase separation kinetics in immiscible liquids, transport properties of droplet clusters in gravity-free fields, probes and monitors for the study of solidification of molten semiconductors, fluid mechanics and mass transfer in melt crystal growth, and heat flow control and segregation in directional solidification are discussed.

  18. 2010 Plant Molecular Biology Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Sussman

    2010-07-23

    The Plant Molecular Biology Conference has traditionally covered a breadth of exciting topics and the 2010 conference will continue in that tradition. Emerging concerns about food security have inspired a program with three main themes: (1) genomics, natural variation and breeding to understand adaptation and crop improvement, (2) hormonal cross talk, and (3) plant/microbe interactions. There are also sessions on epigenetics and proteomics/metabolomics. Thus this conference will bring together a range of disciplines, will foster the exchange of ideas and enable participants to learn of the latest developments and ideas in diverse areas of plant biology. The conference provides an excellent opportunity for individuals to discuss their research because additional speakers in each session will be selected from submitted abstracts. There will also be a poster session each day for a two-hour period prior to dinner. In particular, this conference plays a key role in enabling students and postdocs (the next generation of research leaders) to mingle with pioneers in multiple areas of plant science.

  19. Plant Material Testing: Can we learn from small plots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Choosing appropriate plant materials for a rangeland rehabilitation project is critical for long-term success. The question is what species to seed? We find it is first necessary to define objectives and goals before debating plant material choices. For example, our objective is often to suppress...

  20. Method of preparing and handling chopped plant materials

    DOEpatents

    Bransby, David I.

    2002-11-26

    The method improves efficiency of harvesting, storage, transport, and feeding of dry plant material to animals, and is a more efficient method for harvesting, handling and transporting dry plant material for industrial purposes, such as for production of bioenergy, and composite panels.

  1. Materials research institute annual report FY98

    SciTech Connect

    Radousky, H

    1999-11-02

    The Materials Research Institute (MRI) is the newest of the University/LLNL Institutes and began operating in March 1997. The MRI is one of five Institutes reporting to the LLNL University Relations Program (URP), all of which have as their primary goal to facilitate university interactions at LLNL. This report covers the period from the opening of the MRI through the end of FY98 (September 30, 1998). The purpose of this report is to emphasize both the science that has been accomplished, as well as the LLNL and university people who were involved. The MRI is concentrating on projects, which highlight and utilize the Laboratory's unique facilities and expertise. Our goal is to enable the best university research to enhance Laboratory programs in the area of cutting-edge materials science. The MRI is focusing on three primary areas of materials research: Biomaterials (organic/inorganic interfaces, biomemetic processes, materials with improved biological response, DNA materials science); Electro/Optical Materials (laser materials and nonlinear optical materials, semiconductor devices, nanostructured materials); and Metals/Organics (equation of state of metals, synthesis of unique materials, high explosives/polymers). In particular we are supporting projects that will enable the MRI to begin to make a distinctive name for itself within the scientific community and will develop techniques applicable to LLNL's core mission. This report is organized along the lines of these three topic areas. A fundamental goal of the MRI is to nucleate discussion and interaction between Lab and university researchers, and among Lab researchers from different LLNL Directorates. This is accomplished through our weekly seminar series, special seminar series such as Biomaterials and Applications of High Pressure Science, conferences and workshops, our extensive visitors program and MRI lunches. We are especially pleased to have housed five graduate students who are performing their thesis

  2. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  3. Recent global trends in structural materials research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hideyuki; Ohmura, Takahito; Nishimura, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Structural materials support the basis of global society, such as infrastructure and transportation facilities, and are therefore essential for everyday life. The optimization of such materials allows people to overcome environmental, energy and resource depletion issues on a global scale. The creation and manufacture of structural materials make a large contribution to economies around the world every year. The use of strong, resistant materials can also have profound social effects, providing a better quality of life at both local and national levels. The Great East Japan Earthquake of 11 March 2011 caused significant structural damage in the Tohoku and Kanto regions of Japan. On a global scale, accidents caused by the ageing and failure of structural materials occur on a daily basis. Therefore, the provision and inspection of structural reliability, safety of nuclear power facilities and construction of a secure and safe society hold primary importance for researchers and engineers across the world. Clearly, structural materials need to evolve further to address both existing problems and prepare for new challenges that may be faced in the future. With this in mind, the National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS) organized the 'NIMS Conference 2012' to host an extensive discussion on a variety of global issues related to the future development of structural materials. Ranging from reconstruction following natural disasters, verification of structural reliability, energy-saving materials to fundamental problems accompanying the development of materials for high safety standards, the conference covered many key issues in the materials industry today. All the above topics are reflected in this focus issue of STAM, which introduces recent global trends in structural materials research with contributions from world-leading researchers in this field. This issue covers the development of novel alloys, current methodologies in the characterization of structural

  4. Catalytic production of aromatics and olefins from plant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.O.; Rodewald, P.G.; Weisz, P.B.

    1980-08-01

    Hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon-like plant materials offer the possibility of relatively simple and energy-efficient processing to liquid fuels or petrochemicals. The use of such highly reduced photosynthesis products as potential fuels has been advocated by Calvin and coworkers, and Buchanan and coworkers have evaluated several hundred plant species for the presence of hydrocarbons. The yield of extracted oils may exceed 10 wt % of the plant dry weight. Some field growth studies of the most promising of these plants are underway, e.g., by Calvin in California, by Native Plants, Inc., and by the Diamond Shamrock Co., in conjunction with the University of Arizona, mostly with Euphorbia and related genera. Exploratory studies were performed to determine if direct catalytic upgrading of the hydrocarbon-like plant constituents could be carried out. A preliminary report has been published recently. A variety of plant materials were shown to be upgraded to liquid premium fuels by relatively simple catalytic processing over Mobil's shape selective zeolite, ZSM-5. The present paper contains additional information on the conversion of a variety of plant materials with special emphasis on the production of petrochemicals, and discusses key mechanistic aspects of the reactions. Feedstocks were chosen to represent different types of plant materials: corn oil, castor oil and jojoba seed oil; plant extracts from Euphorbia lathyrus and Grindelia squarrosa; and hydrocarbons obtained by tapping of trees such as copaiba oil and natural rubber latex.

  5. Highlights of recent progress in plant lipid research.

    PubMed

    Lessire, R; Cahoon, E; Chapman, K; Dyer, J; Eastmond, P; Heinz, E

    2009-06-01

    Raw fossil material reserves are not inexhaustible and as prices continue to raise it is necessary to find new sources of alternative and renewable energy. Oils from oleaginous field crops (sunflower and rape) with properties close to those of fossil fuel could constitute an alternative source of energy for the production of raw materials. This is the context in which the 18th International Symposium on Plant lipids (ISPL) was held in Bordeaux from 20th to 25th July 2008 at "La Cité Mondiale". The 18th ISPL gathered 270 researchers from 33 countries. Sixty nine oral communications and 136 posters were presented during the 12 sessions of the Symposium. The sessions have covered all the different aspects of the Plant Lipid field including: Surface lipids: suberin, cutin and waxes, Fatty acids, Glycerolipids, Plant lipids as renewable sources of energy, Seed oils and bioengineering of metabolic pathways, Lipid catabolism, Models for lipid studies: lower plants, micro-organisms and others, Modifications of proteins by lipids, Sphingolipids, sterols and isoprenoids, Lipid signaling and plant stress responses, Lipid trafficking and membrane dynamics, New methods and technologies: functional lipidomics, fluxome, modelling. During the ISPL 2008 Bordeaux, important and new information was reported in the different fields. A selection of these results is presented here. PMID:19328004

  6. Space plant biology research in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Ričkienė, Aurika

    2012-09-01

    In 1957, the Soviet Union launched the first artificial Earth satellite, initiating its space exploration programs. Throughout the rest of the twentieth century, the development of these space programs received special attention from Soviet Union authorities. Scientists from the former Soviet Republics, including Lithuania, participated in these programs. From 1971 to 1990, Lithuanians designed more than 20 experiments on higher plant species during space flight. Some of these experiments had never before been attempted and, therefore, made scientific history. However, the formation and development of space plant biology research in Lithuania or its origins, context of formation, and placement in a worldwide context have not been explored from a historical standpoint. By investigating these topics, this paper seeks to construct an image of the development of a very specific field of science in a small former Soviet republic. PMID:22613222

  7. Advanced research workshop: nuclear materials safety

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Moshkov, M M

    1999-01-28

    The Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) on Nuclear Materials Safety held June 8-10, 1998, in St. Petersburg, Russia, was attended by 27 Russian experts from 14 different Russian organizations, seven European experts from six different organizations, and 14 U.S. experts from seven different organizations. The ARW was conducted at the State Education Center (SEC), a former Minatom nuclear training center in St. Petersburg. Thirty-three technical presentations were made using simultaneous translations. These presentations are reprinted in this volume as a formal ARW Proceedings in the NATO Science Series. The representative technical papers contained here cover nuclear material safety topics on the storage and disposition of excess plutonium and high enriched uranium (HEU) fissile materials, including vitrification, mixed oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication, plutonium ceramics, reprocessing, geologic disposal, transportation, and Russian regulatory processes. This ARW completed discussions by experts of the nuclear materials safety topics that were not covered in the previous, companion ARW on Nuclear Materials Safety held in Amarillo, Texas, in March 1997. These two workshops, when viewed together as a set, have addressed most nuclear material aspects of the storage and disposition operations required for excess HEU and plutonium. As a result, specific experts in nuclear materials safety have been identified, know each other from their participation in t he two ARW interactions, and have developed a partial consensus and dialogue on the most urgent nuclear materials safety topics to be addressed in a formal bilateral program on t he subject. A strong basis now exists for maintaining and developing a continuing dialogue between Russian, European, and U.S. experts in nuclear materials safety that will improve the safety of future nuclear materials operations in all the countries involved because of t he positive synergistic effects of focusing these diverse backgrounds of

  8. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  9. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

  10. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

  11. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Here the transparent furnace is extracted for servicing. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  12. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, and TBD). This composite is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  13. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  14. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

  15. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  16. Material and Virtual Workspaces in Physics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickman, Chad; Haas, Christina; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    2009-03-01

    A growing body of research has examined the potential for computer-based tools to improve the quality and scope of physics education. Yet, few studies have investigated how experienced scientists deploy those tools in the conduct and communication of their work. Based on a study of text production in liquid crystal physics, I will discuss how specific applications, like LabVIEW, mediate the practice of experimental research. Findings suggest that experimentation involves a complex negotiation of material and virtual constraints and that, as a result, a concept of scientific literacy must account for the processes through which scientists visualize, display, and characterize their objects of study symbolically and textually. This approach, in examining the relationship between the material and virtual in a modern scientific workplace, ultimately offers insight into education that prepares students to undertake and communicate research in dynamic, multimedia laboratory environments.

  17. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  18. Microgravity Materials Research and Code U ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curreri, Peter A.; Sibille, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    The NASA microgravity research program, simply put, has the goal of doing science (which is essentially finding out something previously unknown about nature) utilizing the unique long-term microgravity environment in Earth orbit. Since 1997 Code U has in addition funded scientific basic research that enables safe and economical capabilities to enable humans to live, work and do science beyond Earth orbit. This research has been integrated with the larger NASA missions (Code M and S). These new exploration research focus areas include Radiation Shielding Materials, Macromolecular Research on Bone and Muscle Loss, In Space Fabrication and Repair, and Low Gravity ISRU. The latter two focus on enabling materials processing in space for use in space. The goal of this program is to provide scientific and technical research resulting in proof-of-concept experiments feeding into the larger NASA program to provide humans in space with an energy rich, resource rich, self sustaining infrastructure at the earliest possible time and with minimum risk, launch mass and program cost. President Bush's Exploration Vision (1/14/04) gives a new urgency for the development of ISRU concepts into the exploration architecture. This will require an accelerated One NASA approach utilizing NASA's partners in academia, and industry.

  19. Development of Native Plant Materials for Use in Restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of native plant materials for restoration demands that close attention be paid to the expectations of the specialized customer base of restoration practitioners. Native and introduced plants are not biologically different, but they are usually very different in how they are marketed...

  20. 7 CFR 1726.175 - General plant materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General plant materials. 1726.175 Section 1726.175 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES General Plant § 1726.175 General...

  1. Sources of plant materials for land rehabilitation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, S.D.; Howard, G.L.; White, S.J.

    1994-12-01

    Military land managers and trainers are charged with planning and implementing land rehabilitation and maintenance to minimize environmental degradation and improve the safety and realism of the training mission. One step in the rehabilitation and maintenance process is to purchase appropriate plant materials, particularly locally endemic or adapted species. This report contains a list of plant material vendors in each state. Managers and trainers can contact these vendors for solicitation of bids.

  2. Space Research Results Purify Semiconductor Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    While President Obama's news that NASA would encourage private companies to develop vehicles to take NASA into space may have come as a surprise to some, NASA has always encouraged private companies to invest in space. More than two decades ago, NASA established Commercial Space Centers across the United States to encourage industry to use space as a place to conduct research and to apply NASA technology to Earth applications. Although the centers are no longer funded by NASA, the advances enabled by that previous funding are still impacting us all today. For example, the Space Vacuum Epitaxy Center (SVEC) at the University of Houston, one of the 17 Commercial Space Centers, had a mission to create advanced thin film semiconductor materials and devices through the use of vacuum growth technologies both on Earth and in space. Making thin film materials in a vacuum (low-pressure environment) is advantageous over making them in normal atmospheric pressures, because contamination floating in the air is lessened in a vacuum. To grow semiconductor crystals, researchers at SVEC utilized epitaxy the process of depositing a thin layer of material on top of another thin layer of material. On Earth, this process took place in a vacuum chamber in a clean room lab. For space, the researchers developed something called the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), a 12-foot-diameter disk-shaped platform designed to grow thin film materials using the low-pressure environment in the wake of the space shuttle. Behind an orbiting space shuttle, the vacuum levels are thousands of times better than in the best vacuum chambers on Earth. Throughout the 1990s, the WSF flew on three space shuttle missions as a series of proof-of-concept missions. These experiments are a lasting testament to the success of the shuttle program and resulted in the development of the first thin film materials made in the vacuum of space, helping to pave the way for better thin film development on Earth.

  3. NASA Materials Research for Extreme Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpe, R. J.; Wright, M. D.

    2009-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum briefly covers various innovations in materials science and development throughout the course of the American Space program. It details each innovation s discovery and development, explains its significance, and describes the applications of this material either in the time period discovered or today. Topics of research include silazane polymers, solvent-resistant elastomeric polymers (polyurethanes and polyisocyanurates), siloxanes, the Space Shuttle thermal protection system, phenolic-impregnated carbon ablator, and carbon nanotubes. Significance of these developments includes the Space Shuttle, Apollo programs, and the Constellation program.

  4. Uptake by plants of radionuclides from FUSRAP waste materials

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, M.J.

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclides from FUSRAP wastes potentially may be taken up by plants during remedial action activities and permanent near-surface burial of contaminated materials. In order to better understand the propensity of radionuclides to accumulate in plant tissue, soil and plant factors influencing the uptake and accumulation of radionuclides by plants are reviewed. In addition, data describing the uptake of the principal radionuclides present in FUSRAP wastes (uranium-238, thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210, and polonium-210) are summarized. All five radionuclides can accumulate in plant root tissue to some extent, and there is potential for the translocation and accumulation of these radionuclides in plant shoot tissue. Of these five radionuclides, radium-226 appears to have the greatest potential for translocation and accumulation in plant shoot tissue. 28 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  5. Cyberinfrastructure for (Comparative) Plant Genome Research Through PlantGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and comprehensive gene structure annotation in emerging and assembled genomes is fundamental to comparative, functional, and translational genomics. We plan to build the cyberinfrastructure necessary for defining and accessing the plant gene space. Our Plant Genetic Data Base (PlantGDB) r...

  6. Structural biological materials: Overview of current research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, P.-Y.; Lin, A. Y.-M.; Stokes, A. G.; Seki, Y.; Bodde, S. G.; McKittrick, J.; Meyers, M. A.

    2008-06-01

    Through specific biological examples this article illustrates the complex designs that have evolved in nature to address strength, toughness, and weight optimization. Current research is reviewed, and the structure of some shells, bones, antlers, crab exoskeletons, and avian feathers and beaks is described using the principles of materials science and engineering by correlating the structure with mechanical properties. In addition, the mechanisms of deformation and failure are discussed.

  7. The History and Future of NDE in the Management of Nuclear Power Plant Materials Degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, Steven R.

    2009-04-01

    The author has spent more than 25 years conducting engineering and research studies to quantify the performance of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) in nuclear power plant (NPP) applications and identifying improvements to codes and standards for NDE to manage materials degradation. This paper will review this fundamental NDE engineering/research work and then look to the future on how NDE can be optimized for proactively managing materials degradation in NPP components.

  8. DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similar...

  9. The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Lorna J

    2012-11-01

    The cell walls in plants are made up of just four basic building blocks: cellulose (the main structural fibre of the plant kingdom) hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Although the microstructure of plant cell walls varies in different types of plants, broadly speaking, cellulose fibres reinforce a matrix of hemicellulose and either pectin or lignin. The cellular structure of plants varies too, from the largely honeycomb-like cells of wood to the closed-cell, liquid-filled foam-like parenchyma cells of apples and potatoes and to composites of these two cellular structures, as in arborescent palm stems. The arrangement of the four basic building blocks in plant cell walls and the variations in cellular structure give rise to a remarkably wide range of mechanical properties: Young's modulus varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to 30 GPa in the densest palm, while the compressive strength varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to over 300 MPa in dense palm. The moduli and compressive strength of plant materials span this entire range. This study reviews the composition and microstructure of the cell wall as well as the cellular structure in three plant materials (wood, parenchyma and arborescent palm stems) to explain the wide range in mechanical properties in plants as well as their remarkable mechanical efficiency. PMID:22874093

  10. The hierarchical structure and mechanics of plant materials

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Lorna J.

    2012-01-01

    The cell walls in plants are made up of just four basic building blocks: cellulose (the main structural fibre of the plant kingdom) hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Although the microstructure of plant cell walls varies in different types of plants, broadly speaking, cellulose fibres reinforce a matrix of hemicellulose and either pectin or lignin. The cellular structure of plants varies too, from the largely honeycomb-like cells of wood to the closed-cell, liquid-filled foam-like parenchyma cells of apples and potatoes and to composites of these two cellular structures, as in arborescent palm stems. The arrangement of the four basic building blocks in plant cell walls and the variations in cellular structure give rise to a remarkably wide range of mechanical properties: Young's modulus varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to 30 GPa in the densest palm, while the compressive strength varies from 0.3 MPa in parenchyma to over 300 MPa in dense palm. The moduli and compressive strength of plant materials span this entire range. This study reviews the composition and microstructure of the cell wall as well as the cellular structure in three plant materials (wood, parenchyma and arborescent palm stems) to explain the wide range in mechanical properties in plants as well as their remarkable mechanical efficiency. PMID:22874093

  11. Superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic plant surfaces: an inspiration for biomimetic materials.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kerstin; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2009-04-28

    The diversity of plant surface structures, evolved over 460 million years, has led to a large variety of highly adapted functional structures. The plant cuticle provides structural and chemical modifications for surface wetting, ranging from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic. In this paper, the structural basics of superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic plant surfaces and their biological functions are introduced. Wetting in plants is influenced by the sculptures of the cells and by the fine structure of the surfaces, such as folding of the cuticle, or by epicuticular waxes. Hierarchical structures in plant surfaces are shown and further types of plant surface structuring leading to superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are presented. The existing and potential uses of superhydrophobic and superhydrophilic surfaces for self-cleaning, drag reduction during moving in water, capillary liquid transport and other biomimetic materials are shown. PMID:19324720

  12. Interface problems between material recycling systems and plants.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Oguchi, M; Otsubo, K

    1992-01-01

    A most important problem to creating a CELSS system to be used in space, for example, for a Lunar Base or Manned Mars mission, seems to be how to design and operate the various material recycling systems to be used on the missions. Recent studies of a Lunar Base habitat have identified examples of CELSS configurations to be used for the Plant Cultivation Module. Material recycling subsystems to be installed in the Plant Cultivation Modules are proposed to consist of various sub-systems, such as dehumidifiers, oxygen separation systems, catalytic wet oxidation systems, nitrogen adjusting systems, including tanks, and so on. The required performances of such various material recycling subsystems are determined based on precise metabolic data of derived from the various species of plants to be selected and investigated. The plant metabolic data, except that for wheat and potato, has not been fully collected at the present time. Therefore, much additional plant cultivation data is required to determine the performances of each material recycling subsystem introduced in Plant Cultivation Modules. PMID:11537056

  13. Research on high energy density capacitor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somoano, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Pulsed Plasma thruster is the simplest of all electric propulsion devices. It is a pulsed device which stores energy in capacitors for each pulse. The lifetimes and energy densities of these capacitors are critical parameters to the continued use of these thrusters. This report presents the result of a research effort conducted by JPL into the materials used in capacitors and the modes of failure. The dominant failure mechanism was determined to be material breakdown precipitated by heat build-up within the capacitors. The presence of unwanted gas was identified as the source of the heat. An aging phenomena was discovered in polycarbonate based capacitors. CO build-up was noted to increase with the number of times the capacitor had been discharged. Improved quality control was cited as being essential for the improvement of capacitor lifetimes.

  14. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.

    1992-01-01

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  15. Plant biology research and training for the 21st century

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.

    1992-12-31

    The committee was assembled in response to a request from the National Science Foundation (NSF), the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the US Department of Energy (DoE). The leadership of these agencies asked the National Academy of Sciences through the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the status of plant-science research in the United States in light of the opportunities arising from advances inother areas of biology. NRC was asked to suggest ways of accelerating the application of these new biologic concepts and tools to research in plant science with the aim of enhancing the acquisition of new knowledge about plants. The charge to the committee was to examine the following: Organizations, departments, and institutions conducting plant biology research; human resources involved in plant biology research; graduate training programs in plant biology; federal, state, and private sources of support for plant-biology research; the role of industry in conducting and supporting plant-biology research; the international status of US plant-biology research; and the relationship of plant biology to leading-edge research in biology.

  16. Materials dispersion and biodynamics project research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1992-01-01

    The Materials Dispersion and Biodynamics Project (MDBP) focuses on dispersion and mixing of various biological materials and the dynamics of cell-to-cell communication and intracellular molecular trafficking in microgravity. Research activities encompass biomedical applications, basic cell biology, biotechnology (products from cells), protein crystal development, ecological life support systems (involving algae and bacteria), drug delivery (microencapsulation), biofilm deposition by living organisms, and hardware development to support living cells on Space Station Freedom (SSF). Project goals are to expand the existing microgravity science database through experiments on sounding rockets, the Shuttle, and COMET program orbiters and to evolve,through current database acquisition and feasibility testing, to more mature and larger-scale commercial operations on SSF. Maximized utilization of SSF for these science applications will mean that service companies will have a role in providing equipment for use by a number of different customers. An example of a potential forerunner of such a service for SSF is the Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) 'mini lab' of Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc. (ITA) in use on the Shuttle for the Commercial MDAITA Experiments (CMIX) Project. The MDA wells provide the capability for a number of investigators to perform mixing and bioprocessing experiments in space. In the area of human adaptation to microgravity, a significant database has been obtained over the past three decades. Some low-g effects are similar to Earth-based disorders (anemia, osteoporosis, neuromuscular diseases, and immune system disorders). As new information targets potential profit-making processes, services and products from microgravity, commercial space ventures are expected to expand accordingly. Cooperative CCDS research in the above mentioned areas is essential for maturing SSF biotechnology and to ensure U.S. leadership in space technology

  17. Material and methods to increase plant growth and yield

    SciTech Connect

    Kirst, Matias

    2015-09-15

    The present invention relates to materials and methods for modulating growth rates, yield, and/or resistance to drought conditions in plants. In one embodiment, a method of the invention comprises increasing expression of an hc1 gene (or a homolog thereof that provides for substantially the same activity), or increasing expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene thereof, in a plant, wherein expression of the hc1 gene or expression or activity of the protein encoded by an hc1 gene results in increased growth rate, yield, and/or drought resistance in the plant.

  18. Effect of lunar materials on plant tissue culture.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Venketeswaran, S.; Baur, P. S.; Croley, T. E.; Scholes, V. E.; Weete, J. D.; Halliwell, R. S.; Hall, R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Lunar material collected during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, and 15 missions has been used to treat 12 species of higher plant tissue cultures. Biochemical and morphological studies have been conducted on several of these species. Tobacco tissue cultures treated with 0.22 g of lunar material exhibited increased greening more complex chloroplasts, less cytoplasmic vacuolation and greater vesiculation. Pine tissue cultures reacted to treatment by an increased deposition of tannin-like materials. The percentage of dry weight and soluble protein was increased in cultures treated with either lunar or terrestrial rock materials.

  19. 2010 Membranes: Materials & Processes Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Lin

    2010-07-30

    The GRC series on Membranes: Materials and Processes have gained significant international recognition, attracting leading experts on membranes and other related areas from around the world. It is now known for being an interdisciplinary and synergistic meeting. The next summer's edition will keep with the past tradition and include new, exciting aspects of material science, chemistry, chemical engineering, computer simulation with participants from academia, industry and national laboratories. This edition will focus on cutting edge topics of membranes for addressing several grand challenges facing our society, in particular, energy, water, health and more generally sustainability. During the technical program, we want to discuss new membrane structure and characterization techniques, the role of advanced membranes and membrane-based processes in sustainability/environment (including carbon dioxide capture), membranes in water processes, and membranes for biological and life support applications. As usual, the informal nature of the meeting, excellent quality of the oral presentations and posters, and ample opportunity to meet many outstanding colleagues make this an excellent conference for established scientists as well as for students. A Gordon Research Seminar (GRS) on the weekend prior to the GRC meeting will provide young researchers an opportunity to present their work and network with outstanding experts. It will also be a right warm-up for the conference participants to join and enjoy the main conference.

  20. Thermochromic Materials Research for Optical Switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J. C.; Jorgenson, G. V.; Lin, R. J.

    1987-02-01

    Reactive-ion-beam-sputtering (RIBS) is used to deposit doped vanadium dioxide (V1-xMxO2), where M is a dopant that lowers the transition temperature (Tt) from that of stoichiometric V02. The objective is to synthesize a material that will passively switch between a heat-transmitting-and a heat-reflecting-state at specific design temperatures in the human comfort range. The films are deposited at elevated temperature (>700K) onto glass and sapphire substrates for spectrophotometric evaluation above and below Tt. Then by analyzing the deposited films via EDAX, correlations between film composition and passive solar switching performance are made. Also concepts for synthesizing suitable crystallites of such materials are described. These crystallites could act as switchable pigments for throchromic solar paint. The overall long range goals of this research are to develop these materials for: (1) thin film application to building glazings and (2) pigments for opaque wall coatings. The glazings will transmit and the walls will absorb solar energy when the V1-xMxO2 temperature (T) is low (TTt, both glazings and walls will reflect the solar infrared.

  1. 2011 Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism, & Function Gordon Research Conference

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Benning

    2011-02-04

    This is the second Gordon Research Conference on 'Plant Lipids: Structure, Metabolism & Function'. It covers current topics in lipid structure, metabolism and function in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including seed plants, algae, mosses and ferns. Work in photosynthetic bacteria is considered as well as it serves the understanding of specific aspects of lipid metabolism in plants. Breakthroughs are discussed in research on plant lipids as diverse as glycerolipids, sphingolipids, lipids of the cell surface, isoprenoids, fatty acids and their derivatives. The program covers nine concepts at the forefront of research under which afore mentioned plant lipid classes are discussed. The goal is to integrate areas such as lipid signaling, basic lipid metabolism, membrane function, lipid analysis, and lipid engineering to achieve a high level of stimulating interaction among diverse researchers with interests in plant lipids. One Emphasis is on the dynamics and regulation of lipid metabolism during plant cell development and in response to environmental factors.

  2. SURVEY OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE-RELATED MATERIALS NEEDS IN GEOTHERMAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    ALLAN,M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views research and development priorities. A. wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent's perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  3. Survey of operation and maintenance-related materials needs in geothermal power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, M.L.

    1998-06-01

    A survey was conducted to determine operation and maintenance (O and M)-related materials needs in geothermal power plants and to identify future research and development to address these needs. A total of 44 questionnaires was mailed to geothermal plant operators and industry consultants. The response rate was 54%. The participants were asked to describe type and frequency of materials problems, strategies currently used to mitigate such problems, barriers to using new or alternative materials and technologies, sources of information and give their views on research and development priorities. A wide range of opinions was obtained, reflecting each individual respondent`s perspective and the site-specific nature of some problems. However, the consensus is that corrosion and scaling remain major issues and that components requiring performance improvements include pipelines, well casing, turbines, heat exchangers, condensers, valves and cooling towers. It is recommended that appropriate research and development continue to be directed at reducing O and M costs associated with materials failure or inadequate service. There should be a balance between optimizing existing materials through better design and understanding of behavior in geothermal environments and development of new materials. Life extension of existing equipment, service life prediction, education of plant personnel in materials and methods for mitigating corrosion, and improvements in inhibitors and biocides would also be beneficial.

  4. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  5. Ammonia And Ethylene Optrodes For Research On Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Quan; Tabacco, Mary Beth

    1995-01-01

    Fiber-optic sensors developed for use in measuring concentrations of ammonia and ethylene near plants during experiments on growth of plants in enclosed environments. Developmental fiber-optic sensors satisfy need to measure concentrations as low as few parts per billion (ppb) and expected to contribute to research on roles of ethylene and ammonia in growth of plants.

  6. Development of a material processing plant for lunar soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettsch, Ulix; Ousterhout, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Currently there is considerable interest in developing in-situ materials processing plants for both the Moon and Mars. Two of the most important aspects of developing such a materials processing plant is the overall system design and the integration of the different technologies into a reliable, lightweight, and cost-effective unit. The concept of an autonomous materials processing plant that is capable of producing useful substances from lunar regolith was developed. In order for such a materials processing plant to be considered as a viable option, it must be totally self-contained, able to operate autonomously, cost effective, light weight, and fault tolerant. In order to assess the impact of different technologies on the overall systems design and integration, a one-half scale model was constructed that is capable of scooping up (or digging) lunar soil, transferring the soil to a solar furnace, heating the soil in the furnace to liberate the gasses, and transferring the spent soil to a 'tile' processing center. All aspects of the control system are handled by a 386 class PC via D/A, A/D, and DSP (Digital Signal Processor) control cards.

  7. Profiling of Peanut Plant Material Using LC-TOFMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There has been an increasing interest in the presence and availability of compounds in plant materials that may possess bioactive properties, in particular, antioxidant activity. The high phenolic content of these pars makes them sources of compounds with nutraceutical properties. The types of pla...

  8. Materials selection for the SRC-I demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Barnett, W.P.

    1983-10-01

    Three major areas of concern with respect to materials are: rapid wear of letdown valves; erosion in hot slurry lines; and solvent fractionation column corrosion. Except for the transfer of hot slurry in the presence of H/SUB/2S and hydrogen, technology developed in petroleum refineries and in cryogenic industries will be used in the plant.

  9. Ecologically appropriate plant materials for functional restoration of rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecosystems of rangelands targeted for restoration have often been modified, hindering restoration efforts. WEhile local adaptation has long been used as an argument for the exclusive use of local plant materials, recent meta-analysis results indicate that general adaptation across a variety of envi...

  10. The materials processing research base of the Materials Processing Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flemings, M. C.; Bowen, H. K.; Kenney, G. B.

    1980-01-01

    The goals and activities of the center are discussed. The center activities encompass all engineering materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, superconductors, and thin films. Processes include crystallization, solidification, nucleation, and polymer synthesis.

  11. Interdisciplinary research and training program in the plant sciences

    SciTech Connect

    Wolk, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    This document is the compiled progress reports from the Interdisciplinary Research and Training Program in the Plant Sciences funded through the MSU-DOE Plant Research Laboratory. Fourteen reports are included, covering topics such as the molecular basis of plant/microbe symbiosis, cell wall proteins and assembly, gene expression, stress responses, growth regulator biosynthesis, interaction between nuclear and organelle genomes, sensory transduction and tropisms, intracellular sorting and membrane trafficking, regulation of lipid metabolism, the molecular basis of disease resistance and plant pathogenesis, developmental biology of Cyanobacteria and hormonal involvement in environmental control of plant growth. 132 refs. (MHB)

  12. Thermochromic Materials Research For Optical Switching Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, G. V.; Lee, J. C.

    1985-12-01

    A dual-ion-beam-sputtering (DIBS) deposition system is used to deposit doped vanadium dioxide (V1-xMx02), where M is a dopant that decreases the transition temperature (Tt) from that of stoichiometric V02. The objective is to synthesize a material that will passively switch between a heat- transmitting-and a heat-reflecting-state at specific design temperatures. The technique is reactive ion beam sputtering of vanadium and a dopant (separate beams) in a well controlled atmosphere of Ar with a partial pressure of O2. The films are deposited at elevated temperature (>700K) onto glass and sapphire substrates for spectrophotometric evaluation above and below Tt. The longer range goals of this research are to develop the material for: (1) thin film application to building glazings and (2) pigments for opaque wall coatings. The glazings will transmit and the walls will absorb solar energy when the V1-xMxO2 temperature (T) is low (TTt, both glazings and walls will reflect the solar infrared.

  13. Indentation Methods in Advanced Materials Research Introduction

    SciTech Connect

    Pharr, George Mathews; Cheng, Yang-Tse; Hutchings, Ian; Sakai, Mototsugu; Moody, Neville; Sundararajan, G.; Swain, Michael V.

    2009-01-01

    Since its commercialization early in the 20th century, indentation testing has played a key role in the development of new materials and understanding their mechanical behavior. Progr3ess in the field has relied on a close marriage between research in the mechanical behavior of materials and contact mechanics. The seminal work of Hertz laid the foundations for bringing these two together, with his contributions still widely utilized today in examining elastic behavior and the physics of fracture. Later, the pioneering work of Tabor, as published in his classic text 'The Hardness of Metals', exapdned this understanding to address the complexities of plasticity. Enormous progress in the field has been achieved in the last decade, made possible both by advances in instrumentation, for example, load and depth-sensing indentation and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) based in situ testing, as well as improved modeling capabilities that use computationally intensive techniques such as finite element analysis and molecular dynamics simulation. The purpose of this special focus issue is to present recent state of the art developments in the field.

  14. A plant resource and experiment management system based on the Golm Plant Database as a basic tool for omics research

    PubMed Central

    Köhl, Karin I; Basler, Georg; Lüdemann, Alexander; Selbig, Joachim; Walther, Dirk

    2008-01-01

    and barcode labels facilitate identification and management of the material. Web pages are provided as user interfaces to facilitate maintaining the system in an environment with many desktop computers and a rapidly changing user community. Web based search tools are the basis for joint use of the material by all researchers of the institute. Conclusion The Golm Plant Database system, which is based on a relational database, collects the genetic and environmental information on plant material during its production or experimental use at the Max-Planck-Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology. It thus provides information according to the MIAME standard for the component 'Sample' in a highly standardised format. The Plant Database system thus facilitates collaborative work and allows efficient queries in data analysis for systems biology research. PMID:18495032

  15. 2007 Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Conference and Graduate Research Seminar

    SciTech Connect

    Erich Grotewold

    2008-09-15

    Plant Metabolic Engineering is an emerging field that integrates a diverse range of disciplines including plant genetics, genomics, biochemistry, chemistry and cell biology. The Gordon-Kenan Graduate Research Seminar (GRS) in Plant Metabolic Engineering was initiated to provide a unique opportunity for future researcher leaders to present their work in this field. It also creates an environment allowing for peer-review and critical assessment of work without the intimidation usually associated with the presence of senior investigators. The GRS immediately precedes the Plant Metabolic Engineering Gordon Research Conference and will be for and by graduate students and post-docs, with the assistance of the organizers listed.

  16. Plant seeds in biological research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. T.

    1982-01-01

    Data of 15 years of space flight and laboratory tests of plant seeds of 20 species, mainly on the combined and separate effects of launch vibration, ionizing radiation and weightlessness, are surveyed. It is concluded that plants do not show a pronounced response to space flight factors. Conditions of return to Earth, the number of heavy cosmic ray particles striking biological targets and effects of change in magnetic an electromagnetic fields have been little studied, and that more study of growing plants in space is needed.

  17. Genetic Engineering of Plants. Agricultural Research Opportunities and Policy Concerns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leslie

    Plant scientists and science policymakers from government, private companies, and universities met at a convocation on the genetic engineering of plants. During the convocation, researchers described some of the ways genetic engineering may be used to address agricultural problems. Policymakers delineated and debated changes in research funding…

  18. SUMMER RESEARCH INTERNSHIPS IN PLANT GENOME RESEARCH FOR AMERICAN INDIANS AT IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The involvement of American Indian students and researchers in plant genome research is minimal. In an effort to increase their representation in the research community, we are offering a summer program to mentor seven American Indian undergraduates in plant genomics research. Students selected to...

  19. Steam Turbine Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Viswanathan, R.; Hawk, J.; Schwant, R.; Saha, D.; Totemeier, T.; Goodstine, S.; McNally, M.; Allen, D. B.; Purgert, Robert

    2009-06-30

    The Ultrasupercritical (USC) Steam Turbine Materials Development Program is sponsored and funded by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Ohio Coal Development Office, through grants to Energy Industries of Ohio (EIO), a non-profit organization contracted to manage and direct the project. The program is co-funded by the General Electric Company, Alstom Power, Siemens Power Generation (formerly Siemens Westinghouse), and the Electric Power Research Institute, each organization having subcontracted with EIO and contributing teams of personnel to perform the requisite research. The program is focused on identifying, evaluating, and qualifying advanced alloys for utilization in coal-fired power plants that need to withstand steam turbine operating conditions up to 760°C (1400°F) and 35 MPa (5000 psi). For these conditions, components exposed to the highest temperatures and stresses will need to be constructed from nickel-based alloys with higher elevated temperature strength than the highchromium ferritic steels currently used in today's high-temperature steam turbines. In addition to the strength requirements, these alloys must also be weldable and resistant to environmental effects such as steam oxidation and solid particle erosion. In the present project, candidate materials with the required creep strength at desired temperatures have been identified. Coatings that can resist oxidation and solid particle erosion have also been identified. The ability to perform dissimilar welds between nickel base alloys and ferritic steels have been demonstrated, and the properties of the welds have been evaluated. Results of this three-year study that was completed in 2009 are described in this final report. Additional work is being planned and will commence in 2009. The specific objectives of the future studies will include conducting more detailed evaluations of the weld-ability, mechanical properties and repair-ability of the selected candidate alloys for rotors, casings

  20. 1064 nm FT-Raman spectroscopy for investigations of plant cell walls and other biomass materials

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Umesh P.

    2014-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy with its various special techniques and methods has been applied to study plant biomass for about 30 years. Such investigations have been performed at both macro- and micro-levels. However, with the availability of the Near Infrared (NIR) (1064 nm) Fourier Transform (FT)-Raman instruments where, in most materials, successful fluorescence suppression can be achieved, the utility of the Raman investigations has increased significantly. Moreover, the development of several new capabilities such as estimation of cellulose-crystallinity, ability to analyze changes in cellulose conformation at the local and molecular level, and examination of water-cellulose interactions have made this technique essential for research in the field of plant science. The FT-Raman method has also been applied to research studies in the arenas of biofuels and nanocelluloses. Moreover, the ability to investigate plant lignins has been further refined with the availability of near-IR Raman. In this paper, we present 1064-nm FT-Raman spectroscopy methodology to investigate various compositional and structural properties of plant material. It is hoped that the described studies will motivate the research community in the plant biomass field to adapt this technique to investigate their specific research needs. PMID:25295049

  1. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  2. The Plant Protoplast: A Useful Tool for Plant Research and Student Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, George J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A plant protoplast is basically a plant cell that lacks a cell wall. This article outlines some of the ways in which protoplasts may be used to advance understanding of plant cell biology in research and student instruction. Topics include high efficiency experimental virus infection, organelle isolation, and osmotic effects. (Author/MA)

  3. The contribution of woody plant materials on the several conditions in a space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, Kaori; Baba, Keiichi; Suzuki, Toshisada; Kimura, Shunta; Sato, Seigo; Katoh, Hiroshi; Abe, Yusuke; Katayama, Takeshi

    Woody plant materials have several utilization elements in our habitation environment on earth. The studies of woody plants under a space-environment in the vegetable kingdom have a high contribution to the study of various and exotic environmental responses, too. Woody plants can produce an excess oxygen, woody materials for the living cabin, and provide a biomass by cultivating crops and other species of creatures. Tree material would become to be a tool in closed bio-ecosystems such as an environment in a space. We named the trees used as material for the experiment related to space environments “CosmoBon”, small tree bonsai. Japanese cherry tree, “Sakura”, is famous and lovely tree in Japan. One species of “Sakura”, “Mamezakura, Prunus incisa”, is not only lovely tree species, but also suitable tree for the model tree of our purpose. The species of Prunus incisa is originally grown in volcano environment. That species of Sakura is originally grown on Mt. Fuji aria, oligotrophic place. We will try to build the best utilization usage of woody plant under the space environment by “Mamezakura” as a model tree. Here, we will show the importance of uniformity of materials when we will use the tree materials in a space environment. We will also discuss that tree has a high possibility of utilization under the space environments by using our several results related to this research.

  4. Solid oxide materials research accelerated electrochemical testing

    SciTech Connect

    Windisch, C.; Arey, B.

    1995-08-01

    The objectives of this work were to develop methods for accelerated testing of cathode materials for solid oxide fuel cells under selected operating conditions. The methods would be used to evaluate the performance of LSM cathode material.

  5. Alkene Metathesis and Renewable Materials: Selective Transformations of Plant Oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malacea, Raluca; Dixneuf, Pierre H.

    The olefin metathesis of natural oils and fats and their derivatives is the basis of clean catalytic reactions relevant to green chemistry processes and the production of generate useful chemicals from renewable raw materials. Three variants of alkene metathesis: self-metathesis, ethenolysis and cross-metathesis applied to plant oil derivatives will show new routes to fine chemicals, bifunctional products, polymer precursours and industry intermediates.

  6. Mechanical behaviour of plant tissues: composite materials or structures?

    PubMed

    Spatz, H; Köhler, L; Niklas, K J

    1999-12-01

    The mechanical characteristics of the strengthening tissue of young axes of Aristolochia macrophylla were studied in successive loading-unloading cycles in tension. Elastic, viscoelastic and plastic deformations could be distinguished. After the first cycle, the material was in a state different from its original state, to which it returned only partially and/or slowly. Internal 'microstructural' prestresses are considered as an explanation for the mechanical behaviour seen in Aristolochia macrophylla and several other plants. PMID:10562508

  7. Materials for the SRC-I demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, K.L.; Barnett, W.P.

    1982-04-01

    This paper describes the process and equipment in which high ash coal is converted to a clean burning solid product by means of solvent refining. in addition to the solid product, hydrocarbon liquids are generated during the refining process as well. The planned demonstration plant will further process the solvent-refined coal (SRC) to produce calcined coke and additional hydrocarbon liquids by means of an expanded bed hydrocracker. The purpose of the 6,000-TPD plant to be built at Newman, Kentucky, is to demonstrate this process for the production of clean-burning coal, calcined coke, and hydrocarbon liquids. General remarks on the project are followed by a detailed discussion of the following topics - letdown valves; erosion in hot slurry lines; solvent fractionation tower. The majority of the materials problems in the SRC demonstration plant would have been seen in the pilot plant. In general, except for the transfer of hot slurry in the presence of H/sub 2/S and hydrogen, technology developed in petroleum refineries and in the cryogenic industries will be utilized for this plant. 4 refs.

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  10. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  11. Enzyme-assisted extraction of flavorings and colorants from plant materials.

    PubMed

    Sowbhagya, H B; Chitra, V N

    2010-02-01

    From times immemorial, colorants, and flavorings have been used in foods. Color and flavor are the major attributes to the quality of a food product, affecting the appearance and acceptance of the product. As a consequence of the increased demand of natural flavoring and colorant from industries, there is a renewed interest in the research on the composition and recovery of natural food flavors and colors. Over the years, numerous procedures have been proposed for the isolation of aromatic compounds and colors from plant materials. Generally, the methods of extraction followed for aroma and pigment from plant materials are solvent extraction, hydro-distillation, steam distillation, and super critical carbon dioxide extraction. The application of enzymes in the extraction of oil from oil seeds like sunflower, corn, coconut, olives, avocado etc. are reported in literature. There is a great potential for this enzyme-based extraction technology with the selection of appropriate enzymes with optimized operating conditions. Various enzyme combinations are used to loosen the structural integrity of botanical material thereby enhancing the extraction of the desired flavor and color components. Recently enzymes have been used for the extraction of flavor and color from plant materials, as a pre-treatment of the raw material before subjecting the plant material to hydro distillation/solvent extraction. A deep knowledge of enzymes, their mode of action, conditions for optimum activity, and selection of the right type of enzymes are essential to use them effectively for extraction. Although the enzyme hydrolases such as lipases, proteases (chymotrypsin, subtilisin, thermolysin, and papain), esterases use water as a substrate for the reaction, they are also able to accept other nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines, thio-esters, and oximes. Advantages of enzyme-assisted extraction of flavor and color in some of the plant materials in comparison with conventional methods are

  12. Economic Effectiveness of Healthy Potato Planting Material Production with the Use of Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishchenko, I. A.; Galushko, V. P.; Taran, O. P.

    2008-06-01

    Research of potato crop productivity under simulated microgravity allows to identify the plants which can become potentially productive under such stress conditions and that might allow to identify the technological parameters of potato production in other space expeditions. One of the traditional practices of planting material treatment against the viruses are the species in vitro. The study of infectious process flow is conducted in the vitro potato in the conditions of clinorotation. The introduction into culture of the meristems from clinostated plants allowed to obtain the regenerants free from the PVX infection. The employment of simulated microgravity for plant remediation reduced the expenditures on the production of in vitro culture 4,5 times, as compared to termoteraphy.

  13. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation for Nuclear Power Plant Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.; Taylor, Theodore T.; Doctor, Steven R.; Hull, Amy; Malik, Shah

    2008-09-01

    There are approximately 440 operating reactors in the global nuclear power plant (NPP) fleet, and these have an average age greater than 20 years. These NPPs had design lives of 30 or 40 years. The United States is currently implementing license extensions of 20 years on many plants and consideration is now being given to the concept of “life-beyond-60,” a further period of license extension from 60 to 80 years, and potentially longer. In almost all countries with NPPs, authorities are looking at some form of license renewal program. There is a growing urgency as a number of plants face either approvals for license extension or shut down, which will require deployment of new power plants. In support of NPP license extension over the past decade, various national and international programs have been initiated. This paper reports part of the work performed in support of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC’s) Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program. The paper concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD, its relationship to advanced diagnostics and prognostics and provides an assessment of some the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed.

  14. Fatigue and fracture research in composite materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obrien, T. K.

    1982-01-01

    The fatigue, fracture, and impact behavior of composite materials are investigated. Bolted and bonded joints are included. The solutions developed are generic in scope and are useful for a wide variety of structural applications. The analytical tools developed are used to demonstrate the damage tolerance, impact resistance, and useful fatigue life of structural composite components. Standard tests for screening improvements in materials and constituents are developed.

  15. Research into Practice: How Research Appears in Pronunciation Teaching Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levis, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Research into pronunciation has often disregarded its potential to inform pedagogy. This is due partly to the historical development of pronunciation teaching and research, but its effect is that there is often a mismatch between research and teaching. This paper looks at four areas in which the (mis)match is imperfect but in which a greater…

  16. Materials Science Research Rack Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reagan, Shawn E.; Lehman, John R.; Frazier, Natalie C.

    2014-01-01

    The Materials Science Research Rack (MSRR) is a highly automated facility developed in a joint venture/partnership between NASA and ESA center dot Allows for the study of a variety of materials including metals, ceramics, semiconductor crystals, and glasses onboard the International Space Station (ISS) center dot Multi-user facility for high temperature materials science research center dot Launched on STS-128 in August 2009, and is currently installed in the U.S. Destiny Laboratory Module ?Research goals center dot Provide means of studying materials processing in space to develop a better understanding of the chemical and physical mechanisms involved center dot Benefit materials science research via the microgravity environment of space where the researcher can better isolate the effects of gravity during solidification on the properties of materials center dot Use the knowledge gained from experiments to make reliable predictions about conditions required on Earth to achieve improved materials

  17. Progress in materials and structures at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasgow, T. K.; Lauver, R. W.; Halford, G. R.; Davies, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The development of power and propulsion system technology is discussed. Specific emphasis is placed on the following: high temperature materials; composite materials; advanced design and life prediction; and nondestructive evaluation. Future areas of research are also discussed.

  18. The Idaho Chemical Processing Plant Special Nuclear Material vault upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.C.; Holloway, E.R.

    1992-06-24

    This document discusses storage space in a Special Nuclear Material (SNM) product storage vault at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which has been recently expanded by approximately 175%. This expansion required a minimum of space and funding and resulted in a large increase in net storage capacity. Security for the additional storage is provided by standard intrusion sensors and by a real-time monitoring system, which monitors the weight of the material as it rests on weight sensors (load cells). The monitoring system also feeds weight data to a Safeguards processor which provides further confidence to Safeguards personnel. The Department of Energy requirements for bimonthly inventories for SNM stored in a particular part of this facility have been eliminated because of the guarantees provided by a real-time monitoring system. A higher efficiency has been obtained by using the expensive real estate inside a hardened product storage vault. This project has provided the ICPP with a relatively inexpensive vault upgrade and when product material is placed in this area of the vault the manpower requirements to inventory it will be reduced, resulting in a net reduction in plant worker radiation exposure.

  19. Low Dielectric Constant Materials from Hollow Fibers and Plant Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chang K.; Wool, Richard P.

    2003-03-01

    A new low dielectric constant (k) material suited to electronic materials applications was developed using hollow keratin fibers (HF) and chemically modified soyoil. High-speed microelectronics are facilitated by preventing the ``rubber necking", or slow-down of electrons on the printed wires through the use of low-k dielectrics. The unusual low k-value of the HF composite material derives both from the air (k = 1) in the hollow microcrystalline keratin fibers (k = 1.6), and the triglyceride molecules (k = 2.3), and is in the range of 1.7 to 2.7 at 100 MHz, depending on the HF fraction. These values are lower than that of the conventional silicon dioxide, (k = 3.8 to 4.2) or epoxy dielectric insulators. Also, the HF dielectric is lightweight (SG < 1) and rigid (Modulus > 2 GPa), with fracture toughness (1.0 MPa m^1/2) (and approximates the shape and feel of a silicon dioxide insulator. Multi-Chip-Module circuit printing results suggest that the low-cost composite made with HF (from avian sources) and plant oil (from soybean) has the potential to replace the dielectric in microchips and circuit boards in the ever-growing electronic materials field, in addition to many applications as a new lightweight composite material. Supported by EPA and DoE

  20. FREEDOM TO OPERATE: Intellectual Property Protection in Plant Biology and Its Implications for the Conduct of Research.

    PubMed

    Kimpel, J A

    1999-09-01

    ▪ Abstract  Research endeavors are being affected by issues involving intellectual property (patents, copyrights, and trademarks). The acquisition of rights in intellectual property by universities can result in the transfer of new innovations to the private sector, with the university recouping a share of the profits for support of further scientific research. Intellectual property rights available for new plant cultivars include plant patents, plant variety protection certificates, plant breeder's rights, and utility patents. Under the patent laws, there is no explicit exemption for research use, so researchers are increasingly being required to execute materials transfer agreements to obtain permission to use patented materials, such as techniques, genes, seeds, and cell lines, in laboratory research and in breeding programs. Research scientists must educate themselves on these issues so that they can make informed decisions regarding their research practices and the licensing of their discoveries. PMID:11701816

  1. Formation of stable chlorinated hydrocarbons in weathering plant material

    SciTech Connect

    Myneni, Satish C. B.

    2001-10-01

    Though several chlorinated organic compounds produced by humans are carcinogenic and toxic, some are also produced by the biotic and abiotic processes in the environment. In situ x-ray spectroscopy data indicate that natural organic matter in soils, sediments, and natural waters contain stable, less volatile organic compounds with chlorinated phenolic and aliphatic groups as the principal Cl forms. These compounds are formed at rapid rates from the transformation of inorganic Cl during humification of plant material and, thus, play a critical role in the cycling of Cl and of several major and trace elements in the environment and may influence human health. [References: 19

  2. A fusion power plant without plasma-material interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, S.A.

    1997-04-01

    A steady-state fusion power plant is described which avoids the deleterious plasma-material interactions found in D-T fueled tokamaks. It is based on driven p-{sup 11}B fusion in a high-beta closed-field device, the field-reversed configuration (FRC), anchored in a gas-dynamic trap (GDT). The plasma outflow on the open magnetic-field lines is cooled by radiation in the GDT, then channeled through a magnetic nozzle, promoting 3-body recombination in the expansion region. The resulting supersonic neutral exhaust stream flows through a turbine, generating electricity.

  3. Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Szymurski, S.R.

    1994-12-01

    Objective is to accelerate phaseout of CFC refrigerants. Since its start in 1991, the MCLR program has initiated twenty-five research projects and the ARTI Refrigerant Database. The MCLR program is now entering its final phase. This phase will include over a dozen new research projects which will be completed in the next two years. This presentation highlights accomplishments of the MCLR program and outlines new projects to be conducted in the final phase.

  4. Bentonite as a waste isolation pilot plant shaft sealing material

    SciTech Connect

    Daemen, J.; Ran, Chongwei

    1996-12-01

    Current designs of the shaft sealing system for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) propose using bentonite as a primary sealing component. The shaft sealing designs anticipate that compacted bentonite sealing components can perform through the 10,000-year regulatory period and beyond. To evaluate the acceptability of bentonite as a sealing material for the WIPP, this report identifies references that deal with the properties and characteristics of bentonite that may affect its behavior in the WIPP environment. This report reviews published studies that discuss using bentonite as sealing material for nuclear waste disposal, environmental restoration, toxic and chemical waste disposal, landfill liners, and applications in the petroleum industry. This report identifies the physical and chemical properties, stability and seal construction technologies of bentonite seals in shafts, especially in a saline brine environment. This report focuses on permeability, swelling pressure, strength, stiffness, longevity, and densification properties of bentonites.

  5. Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Advanced Materials and Solids Analysis Research Core (AMSARC), centered at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Andrew W. Breidenbach Environmental Research Center in Cincinnati, Ohio, is the foundation for the Agency's solids and surfaces analysis capabilities. ...

  6. Perspectives for genomic selection applications and research in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic selection (GS) has created a lot of excitement and expectations in the animal and plant breeding research communities. In this review, we briefly describe how genomic prediction can be integrated into breeding efforts and point out achievements and areas where more research is needed. GS pro...

  7. Nuclear physics detector technology applied to plant biology research

    SciTech Connect

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Kross, Brian J.; Lee, Seung Joo; McKisson, John E.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, Calvin; Crowell, A.S.; Reid, C.D.; Smith, Mark

    2013-08-01

    The ability to detect the emissions of radioactive isotopes through radioactive decay (e.g. beta particles, x-rays and gamma-rays) has been used for over 80 years as a tracer method for studying natural phenomena. More recently a positron emitting radioisotope of carbon: {sup 11}C has been utilized as a {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer for plant ecophysiology research. Because of its ease of incorporation into the plant via photosynthesis, the {sup 11}CO{sub 2} radiotracer is a powerful tool for use in plant biology research. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been used to study carbon transport in live plants using {sup 11}CO{sub 2}. Presently there are several groups developing and using new PET instrumentation for plant based studies. Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with the Duke University Phytotron and the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) is involved in PET detector development for plant imaging utilizing technologies developed for nuclear physics research. The latest developments of the use of a LYSO scintillator based PET detector system for {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer studies in plants will be briefly outlined.

  8. DAMAGE RESEARCH WITH P. PENETRANS IN ASPARAGUS PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Hoek, J; Molendijk, L P G

    2014-01-01

    During cultivation of asparagus plants growth can be inhibited and yield can be reduced by plant-parasitic nematodes. Plant raising companies assume that the root lesion nematode (Pratylenchus penetrans) can cause severe yield loss in asparagus plants. However quantitative information about yield reduction in relation to the degree of infestation of this nematode species in the field is lacking. Research was done in The Netherlands by Applied Plant Research (part of Wageningen University and Research Centre) to determine the maximum degree of yield loss of asparagus plants at high infestation levels of P. penetrans and to establish the height of the tolerance limit for this nematode species. Also was investigated whether a field application of a granular nematicide could prevent or reduce yield loss caused by P. penetrans. Research was done in the field at sandy soils at the PPO location near Vredepeel in The Netherlands over a period of two years. In the first year the most suitable field was selected and on this field different infestation levels of P. penetrans were created. In the second year asparagus was cultivated and plant yield (number and quality of deliverable plants and financial yield) was calculated. At high infestation levels of Pratylenchus penetrans maximum yield loss was 12% (which can mean a financial loss of 7.000 C per ha). Yield started to decrease at very low infestation levels of P. penetrans and no statistical reliable tolerance limit could be calculated. Field application of 40 kg per ha of Vydate 10 G just before sowing of asparagus, could almost completely prevent yield loss caused by P. penetrans. After harvest infestation levels of P. penetrans were much lower than could be expected if asparagus was a non-host for this nematode species. In this paper therefore it is suggested that asparagus plants are (actively) controlling P. penetrans. PMID:26084109

  9. Research on regulating technique of material flow for 2-person and 30-day integrated CELSS test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuangsheng; Dong, Wenping; Ai, Weidang; Feng, Hongqi; Tang, Yongkang; Huang, Zhide; Shen, Yunze; Ren, Jin; Qin, Lifeng; Zeng, Gu; Zhang, Lihong; Zhu, Jingtao; Fei, Jinxue; Xu, Guoxin

    2014-07-01

    A man-plant integration test was processed using the CELSS integration experiment platform in which 4 kinds of plants were grown (Lactuca sativa L var. Dasusheng, L. sativa L var. Youmaicai, Gynura bicolor and Cichorium endivia L) to exchange material with 2 persons in order to research the dynamic changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in an inclosed system. In the test the material flow was measured so that the dynamically changing laws and balanced regulation of air and water between man and plant in the closed system were mostly mastered. The material closure degree of air, water and food reached 100%, 90% and 13.9% respectively with the whole system closure degree up to 95.1%. Meanwhile, it was proved that a 13.5 m2 planting area could meet the demand of one person for O2 in the system, and the energy efficiency ratio of which reached 59.56 g/(kW m2 day). The material flow dynamic balance-regulating technology was initially mastered between man and plant through the test. The interaction was realized among man, plant and environment in the closed system, which is of great significance to the advancement of long-term manned environment control and life support technology for China.

  10. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1985-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrysalline silicon solar cell research are summarized. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon solar cells.

  11. Future opportunities for photovoltaic materials and device research

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.K. )

    1994-06-30

    The semiconductor material science and associated device technologies have entered into a new era, almost a revolutionary period. The use of sophisticated computation techniques has given theoreticians the predictive power for novel materials architecture; the experimentalists have the ability to grow materials and devices under carefully controlled conditions and manipulate materials on an atomic scale; and the powerful analytical tools have enabled us to gain insight on the surface, interface, and bulk properties of materials and devices with a high degree of precision. These have opened up some opportunities for doing some very exciting materials and device research in the area of semiconductor materials, in general, and photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices, in particular. In this brief review, a global view of semiconductor materials for PV applications will be taken and an attempt will be made to identify future research opportunities.

  12. Woody Plant Research of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Tschaplinski, T.J.; Wright, L.L.

    1994-12-31

    This article describes some of the research of the Biofuels Feedstock Development Program at ORNL. The focus of the research is to produce wood crops that are highly productive under short rotations with minimal inputs. The research combines the disciplines of forestry and traditional genetics, with the new techniques of molecular biology and plant physiology to develop high yield, stress, insect and disease resistant tree crops adaptable to large scale field trials. 4 figs.

  13. New directions for nanoscale thermoelectric materials research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dresselhaus, M. S.; Chen, G.; Tang, M. Y.; Yang, R. G.; Lee, H.; Wang, D. Z.; Ren, F.; Fleurial, J. P.; Gogna, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the recent advances in enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit are linked to nanoscale phenomena with both bulk samples containing nanoscale constituents and nanoscale materials exhibiting enhanced thermoelectric performance in their own right. Prior theoretical and experimental proof of principle studies on isolated quantum well and quantum wire samples have now evolved into studies on bulk samples containing nanostructured constituents. In this review, nanostructural composites are shown to exhibit nanostructures and properties that show promise for thermoelectric applications. A review of some of the results obtained to date are presented.

  14. Strategic Research Directions in Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G.; Semmes, Ed; Cook, Beth; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville

    2003-01-01

    The next challenge of space exploration is the development of the capabilities for long-term missions beyond low earth orbit. NASA s scientific advisory groups and internal mission studies have identified several fundamental issues which require substantial advancements in new technology if these goals are to be accomplished. Crews must be protected from the severe radiation environment beyond the earth s magnetic field. Chemical propulsion must be replaced by systems that require less mass and are more efficient. The overall launch complement must be reduced by developing repair and fabrication techniques which utilize or recycle available materials.

  15. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1987-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-based superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. Recent research activities at Lewis on single-crystal blading material as well as future research initiatives on metal matrix composites related to creep and fatigue are discussed. The goal of these research efforts is improving the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  16. Creep and fatigue research efforts on advanced materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gayda, John

    1990-01-01

    Two of the more important materials problems encountered in turbine blades of aircraft engines are creep and fatigue. To withstand these high-temperature phenomena, modern engines utilize single-crystal, nickel-base superalloys as the material of choice in critical applications. This paper will present recent research activities at NASA's Lewis Research Center on single-crystal blading material, related to creep and fatique. The goal of these research efforts is to improve the understanding of microstructure-property relationships and thereby guide material development.

  17. Advanced materials research for long-haul aircraft turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Signorelli, R. A.; Blankenship, C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of research efforts to apply low to intermediate temperature composite materials and advanced high temperature materials to engine components is reviewed. Emerging materials technologies and their potential benefits to aircraft gas turbines were emphasized. The problems were identified, and the general state of the technology for near term use was assessed.

  18. A model for coburning of power plant waste materials in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, S.P.; Shea, S.C.; Quinn, A.; Murarka, I.

    1994-12-31

    A software package, the Coburning Feed Rate Simulator (COFERS), has been developed which will enable utility environmental specialists and plant engineers to evaluate the impacts of coburning power plant waste materials in coal-fired power plants. Examples of the wastes considered include contaminated soils and low-volume waste materials such as spent solvents, boiler cleaning fluids, waste paints, etc. The impacts considered are trace element and organic compound concentrations in solid waste streams. The program uses data from various EPRI research projects that examine the distribution of trace elements and organic compounds within solid waste streams The program is designed to allow users easily to modify or update the partitioning information as it becomes available in the future. COFERS calculates the maximum coburned waste feed rate possible given a coal feed rate and user-specified limits on the composition of the waste materials being processed. Also, plant waste stream compositions can be determined for specified coal and waste feed rates. Sensitivity analyses can be performed on a variety of parameters. Results are presented in graphical and text formats. The benefits of using this program include assuring a desired chemical composition of the solid wastes generated by coburning, allowing the development of coburning plans based on sensitivity analysis of alternate scenarios, and simplified preparation of coburning plan documents. The Coburning Feed Rate Simulator (COFERS) runs under Microsoft Windows and will be available from the EPRI Product Distribution Center in the fall of 1994.

  19. Importance of plant integrity in crop research, breeding, and production

    PubMed Central

    Pazderů, Kateřina; Bláha, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Plant integrity looks like a “very easy and expanded topic,” but the reality is totally different. Thanks to the very high specialization of scientists, we are losing a holistic view of plants and are making mistakes in our research due to this drawback. It is necessary to sense a plant in their whole complexity—in both roots and shoot, as well as throughout their life cycles. Only such an integrated approach can allow us to reach correct interpretations of our experimental results. PMID:24301201

  20. Process Research of Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    A passivation process (hydrogenation) that will improve the power generation of solar cells fabricated from presently produced, large grain, cast polycrystalline silicon (Semix), a potentially low cost material are developed. The first objective is to verify the operation of a DC plasma hydrogenation system and to investigate the effect of hydrogen on the electrical performance of a variety of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The second objective is to parameterize and optimize a hydrogenation process for cast polycrystalline silicon, and will include a process sensitivity analysis. The sample preparation for the first phase is outlined. The hydrogenation system is described, and some early results that were obtained using the hydrogenation system without a plasma are summarized. Light beam induced current (LBIC) measurements of minicell samples, and their correlation to dark current voltage characteristics, are discussed.

  1. Plant virus directed fabrication of nanoscale materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Culver, James N; Brown, Adam D; Zang, Faheng; Gnerlich, Markus; Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Ghodssi, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Bottom-up self-assembly methods in which individual molecular components self-organize to form functional nanoscale patterns are of long-standing interest in the field of materials sciences. Such self-assembly processes are the hallmark of biology where complex macromolecules with defined functions assemble from smaller molecular components. In particular, plant virus-derived nanoparticles (PVNs) have drawn considerable attention for their unique self-assembly architectures and functionalities that can be harnessed to produce new materials for industrial and biomedical applications. In particular, PVNs provide simple systems to model and assemble nanoscale particles of uniform size and shape that can be modified through molecularly defined chemical and genetic alterations. Furthermore, PVNs bring the added potential to "farm" such bio-nanomaterials on an industrial scale, providing a renewable and environmentally sustainable means for the production of nano-materials. This review outlines the fabrication and application of several PVNs for a range of uses that include energy storage, catalysis, and threat detection. PMID:25816763

  2. New materials for thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Luis; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) is an important alternative to PV electricity production, not only because it is getting more cost competitive with the continuous growth in installed capacity, engineering and associated innovations, but also, because of its unique dispatch ability advantage as a result of the already well established 2-tank energy storage using molten salts (MS). In recent years, research has been performed, on direct MS systems, to which features like modularity and combinations with other (solid) thermal storage materials are considered with the goal of achieving lower investment cost. Several alternative materials and systems have been studied. In this research, storage materials were identified with thermo-physical data being presented for different rocks (e.g. quartzite), super concrete, and other appropriate solid materials. Among the new materials being proposed like rocks from old quarries, an interesting option is the incorporation of solid waste material from old mines belonging to the Iberian Pyritic Belt. These are currently handled as byproducts of past mine activity, and can potentially constitute an environmental hazard due to their chemical (metal) content. This paper presents these materials, as part of a broad study to improve the current concept of solar energy storage for STE plants, and additionally presents a potentially valuable solution for environmental protection related to re-use of mining waste.

  3. Closed vessel miniaturized microwave assisted chelating extraction for determination of trace metals in plant materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Sezin; Duering, Rolf-Alexander

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, the use of closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (MAE) for plant samples has shown increasing research interest which will probably substitute conventional procedures in the future due to their general disadvantages including consumption of time and solvents. The objective of this study was to demonstrate an innovative miniaturized closed vessel microwave assisted extraction (µMAE) method under the use of EDTA (µMAE-EDTA) to determine metal contents (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) in plant samples (Lolio-Cynosuretum) by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Validation of the method was done by comparison of the results with another miniaturized closed vessel microwave HNO3 method (µMAE-H) and with two other macro scale MAE procedures (MAE-H and MAE-EDTA) which were applied by using a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (MAE-H) and EDTA (MAE-EDTA), respectively. The already established MAE-H method is taken into consideration as a reference validation MAE method for plant material. A conventional plant extraction (CE) method, based on dry ashing and dissolving of the plant material in HNO3, was used as a confidence comparative method. Certified plant reference materials (CRMs) were used for comparison of recovery rates from different extraction protocols. This allowed the validation of the applicability of the µMAE-EDTA procedure. For 36 real plant samples with triplicates each, µMAE-EDTA showed the same extraction yields as the MAE-H in the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents in plant samples. Analytical parameters in µMAE-EDTA should be further investigated and adapted for other metals of interest. By the reduction and elimination of the use of hazardous chemicals in environmental analysis and thus allowing a better understanding of metal distribution and accumulation process in plants and also the metal transfer from soil to plants and into the food chain, µ

  4. Process Research on Polycrystalline Silicon Material (PROPSM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culik, J. S.; Wrigley, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    Results of hydrogen-passivated polycrystalline silicon solar cells are summarized. Very small grain or short minority-carrier diffusion length silicon was used. Hydrogenated solar cells fabricated from this material appear to have effective minority-carrier diffusion lengths that are still not very long, as shown by the open-circuit voltages of passivated cells that are still significantly less than those of single-crystal solar cells. The short-circuit current of solar cells fabricated from large-grain cast polycrystalline silicon is nearly equivalent to that of single-crystal cells, which indicates long bulk minority-carrier diffusion length. However, the open-circuit voltage, which is sensitive to grain boundary recombination, is sometimes 20 to 40 mV less. The goal was to minimize variations in open-circuit voltage and fill-factor caused by defects by passivating these defects using a hydrogenation process. Treatments with molecular hydrogen showed no effect on large-grain cast polycrystaline silicon solar cells.

  5. MIPS PlantsDB: a database framework for comparative plant genome research.

    PubMed

    Nussbaumer, Thomas; Martis, Mihaela M; Roessner, Stephan K; Pfeifer, Matthias; Bader, Kai C; Sharma, Sapna; Gundlach, Heidrun; Spannagl, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The rapidly increasing amount of plant genome (sequence) data enables powerful comparative analyses and integrative approaches and also requires structured and comprehensive information resources. Databases are needed for both model and crop plant organisms and both intuitive search/browse views and comparative genomics tools should communicate the data to researchers and help them interpret it. MIPS PlantsDB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/plant/genomes.jsp) was initially described in NAR in 2007 [Spannagl,M., Noubibou,O., Haase,D., Yang,L., Gundlach,H., Hindemitt, T., Klee,K., Haberer,G., Schoof,H. and Mayer,K.F. (2007) MIPSPlantsDB-plant database resource for integrative and comparative plant genome research. Nucleic Acids Res., 35, D834-D840] and was set up from the start to provide data and information resources for individual plant species as well as a framework for integrative and comparative plant genome research. PlantsDB comprises database instances for tomato, Medicago, Arabidopsis, Brachypodium, Sorghum, maize, rice, barley and wheat. Building up on that, state-of-the-art comparative genomics tools such as CrowsNest are integrated to visualize and investigate syntenic relationships between monocot genomes. Results from novel genome analysis strategies targeting the complex and repetitive genomes of triticeae species (wheat and barley) are provided and cross-linked with model species. The MIPS Repeat Element Database (mips-REdat) and Catalog (mips-REcat) as well as tight connections to other databases, e.g. via web services, are further important components of PlantsDB. PMID:23203886

  6. Evaluation of materials for the MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-05-01

    Test data have been obtained on the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762, 593, and 567/degree/C to simulated MHD conditions for the intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), ITAH transition region (transition from a low- to medium-chromium alloy to a high-chromium steel), and secondary superheater (SSH), respectively. This paper discusses, in detail, the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented, and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 6 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Corrosion behavior of materials for MHD steam bottoming plant

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.; Swift, W.M.

    1989-04-01

    Test data have been developed for the corrosion of several commercial ASME-coded alloys and their weldments by exposing internally cooled ring specimens to simulated MHD environments. The specimens, coated with a K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-rich deposit, were exposed for times up to 2000 h at metal temperatures of 762,593, and 567/degree/C to simulate intermediate-temperature air heater (ITAH), transition region and secondary superheater (SSH) conditions, respectively. This report discusses the observed corrosion scale morphologies of various exposed specimens. Data on scale thickness, depth of intergranular penetration, and metal recession are presented and the results are used to assess the corrosion behavior of various materials for application in the MHD steam bottoming plant. 9 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Radiation effects on organic materials in nuclear plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce, M B; Davis, M V

    1981-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to identify information useful in determining the lowest level at which radiation causes damage to nuclear plant equipment. Information was sought concerning synergistic effects of radiation and other environmental stresses. Organic polymers are often identified as the weak elements in equipment. Data on radiation effects are summarized for 50 generic name plastics and 16 elastomers. Coatings, lubricants, and adhesives are treated as separate groups. Inorganics and metallics are considered briefly. With a few noted exceptions, these are more radiation resistant than organic materials. Some semiconductor devices and electronic assemblies are extremely sensitive to radiation. Any damage threshold including these would be too low to be of practical value. With that exception, equipment exposed to less than 10/sup 4/ rads should not be significantly affected. Equipment containing no Teflon should not be significantly affected by 10/sup 5/ rads. Data concerning synergistic effects and radiation sensitization are discussed. The authors suggest correlations between the two effects.

  9. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderoni, P.; Sharpe, J.; Shimada, M.; Denny, B.; Pawelko, B.; Schuetz, S.; Longhurst, G.; Hatano, Y.; Hara, M.; Oya, Y.; Otsuka, T.; Katayama, K.; Konishi, S.; Noborio, K.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2011-10-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  10. An overview of research activities on materials for nuclear applications at the INL Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility

    SciTech Connect

    P. Calderoni; P. Sharpe; M. Shimada

    2009-09-01

    The Safety, Tritium and Applied Research facility at the Idaho National Laboratory is a US Department of Energy National User Facility engaged in various aspects of materials research for nuclear applications related to fusion and advanced fission systems. Research activities are mainly focused on the interaction of tritium with materials, in particular plasma facing components, liquid breeders, high temperature coolants, fuel cladding, cooling and blanket structures and heat exchangers. Other activities include validation and verification experiments in support of the Fusion Safety Program, such as beryllium dust reactivity and dust transport in vacuum vessels, and support of Advanced Test Reactor irradiation experiments. This paper presents an overview of the programs engaged in the activities, which include the US-Japan TITAN collaboration, the US ITER program, the Next Generation Power Plant program and the tritium production program, and a presentation of ongoing experiments as well as a summary of recent results with emphasis on fusion relevant materials.

  11. Plant development effects of biochars from different raw materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cely, Paola; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Gascó, Gabriel

    2015-04-01

    Biochar can provide multiple benefits in the ecosystem. However, the presence of phytotoxic compounds in some biochars is an important concern that needs to be addressed and that depends on the raw material and the pyrolysis conditions used in biochar production. For example, sewage sludge biochars can have elevated heavy metal contents as they were present in the feedstock and were enriched during pyrolysis. Also during carbonization, some phytotoxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polyphenols or volatile organic compounds (VOCs) could be formed representing a risk of contamination to soils and crops. In this work we report the results from seed germination and plant development for three biochars prepared from wood, paper sludge plus wheat husks and sewage sludge. Five higher plant species (cress, lentils, cucumber, tomato and lettuce) were studied. Biochar from wood shows seed inhibition in several species and the paper sludge biochar on lettuce. For the rest, the effect on seed germination was positive. No inhibition of root growth was detected, but in some cases leaves and stems growth were inhibited. Our results are significant in terms of advancing or current understanding on the impacts of biochar on vegetative growth and linking those effects to biochar properties.

  12. Challenges and Opportunities in Interdisciplinary Materials Research Experiences for Undergraduates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Yogesh; Nordlund, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) offer a broad range of interdisciplinary materials research experiences to undergraduate students with diverse backgrounds in physics, chemistry, applied mathematics, and engineering. The research projects offered cover a broad range of topics including high pressure physics, microelectronic materials, nano-materials, laser materials, bioceramics and biopolymers, cell-biomaterials interactions, planetary materials, and computer simulation of materials. The students welcome the opportunity to work with an interdisciplinary team of basic science, engineering, and biomedical faculty but the challenge is in learning the key vocabulary for interdisciplinary collaborations, experimental tools, and working in an independent capacity. The career development workshops dealing with the graduate school application process and the entrepreneurial business activities were found to be most effective. The interdisciplinary university wide poster session helped student broaden their horizons in research careers. The synergy of the REU program with other concurrently running high school summer programs on UAB campus will also be discussed.

  13. From plant biomass to bio-based chemicals: latest developments in xylan research.

    PubMed

    Deutschmann, Rudolf; Dekker, Robert F H

    2012-01-01

    For a hundred years or more, oil and natural gas has supplied fuel and other raw chemicals to support economic growth. In the last decades their shrinking reservoirs and the increasing cost of production has become obvious, leading researchers to look for alternative substitutes of all the chemical materials presently derived from oil and gas. This review is focused on xylan, the second most abundant plant polysaccharide on our planet. Some xylan-derived products have already found commercial applications (ethanol, xylitol, xylo-oligosaccharides) while others could have a great future in a wide range of industries. The chemical and structural variations of xylans produced by different plants, and the concentration of xylan in various plant resources are summarized. This review discusses the latest research developments in extraction and purification methodologies, and chemical modification, as well as the analytical methods necessary for xylan related research. PMID:22776161

  14. 7 CFR 3406.17 - Program application materials-research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Program application materials-research. 3406.17... RESEARCH, EDUCATION, AND EXTENSION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 1890 INSTITUTION CAPACITY BUILDING GRANTS PROGRAM Preparation of a Research Proposal § 3406.17 Program application...

  15. USDA-ARS Plant Science Research Unit, St. Paul Alfalfa/Forage Research Program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Plant Science Research Unit (PSRU) located at the University of Minnesota in St. Paul receives approximately $1.5 million to fund the research of six scientists who direct their research efforts toward developing new uses and improved traits for alfalfa. Our overarching goal is to develop alfalf...

  16. Introduction to the USDA-Agricultural Research Service Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory Special Rangelands Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Poisonous Plant Research Labortory (PPRL) in Logan, UT will sponsor an edition of the magazine Rangelands. This paper provides a brief history and overview of the PPRL, mission statement, research objectives by CRIS, and the disciplines involved in the research....

  17. 2003 research briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2003-08-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems and Materials Modeling and Computational Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  18. 2005 Research Briefs : Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2005-05-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  19. 2004 research briefs :Materials and Process Sciences Center.

    SciTech Connect

    Cieslak, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This report is the latest in a continuing series that highlights the recent technical accomplishments associated with the work being performed within the Materials and Process Sciences Center. Our research and development activities primarily address the materials-engineering needs of Sandia's Nuclear-Weapons (NW) program. In addition, we have significant efforts that support programs managed by the other laboratory business units. Our wide range of activities occurs within six thematic areas: Materials Aging and Reliability, Scientifically Engineered Materials, Materials Processing, Materials Characterization, Materials for Microsystems, and Materials Modeling and Simulation. We believe these highlights collectively demonstrate the importance that a strong materials-science base has on the ultimate success of the NW program and the overall DOE technology portfolio.

  20. Bibliography of the Maryland Power Plant Research Program, fourteenth edition

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.

    1993-02-01

    The Power Plant Siting Act of 1971 (Sec. 3-303) established the Power Plant Research Program to ensure that demands for electric power would be met in a timely manner at a reasonable cost while assuring that the associated environmental impact would be acceptable. The scope of the Program extends to estimating the impact of proposed new generating facilities, evaluating the acceptability of proposed transmission line routes, assessing the impact of existing generation facilities, and investigating generic issues related to power plant site evaluation and associated environmental and land use considerations. The bibliography is a compilation of all the studies performed for and/or by the Power Plant and Environmental Review Division since its inception.

  1. Bibliography of the Maryland Power Plant Research Program, Thirteenth Edition

    SciTech Connect

    McLean, R.I.

    1992-02-01

    The Power Plant Siting Act of 1971 (Sec. 3-303) established the Power Plant Research Program to insure that demands for electric power would be met in a timely manner at a reasonable cost while assuring that the associated environmental impact would be acceptable. The scope of the Program extends to estimating the impact of proposed new generating facilities, evaluating the acceptability of proposed transmission line routes, assessing the impact of existing generation facilities, and investigating generic issues related to power plant site evaluation and associated environmental and land use considerations. The bibliography is a compilation of all the studies performed for and or by the Power Plant and Environmental Review Division since its inception. Reports published by the Division considered to be of general interest are routinely made available through the National Technical Information Service. Those reports so registered may be identified by the NTIS accession number immediately following the citation in the bibliography.

  2. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  3. Materials compatibility and lubricants research on CFC-refrigerant substitutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymurski, S. R.; Hawley, M.; Hourahan, G. C.; Godwin, D. S.

    1994-08-01

    The Materials Compatibility and Lubricants Research (MCLR) program supports critical research to accelerate the introduction of CFC and HCFC refrigerant substitutes. The MCLR program addresses refrigerant and lubricant properties and materials compatibility. The primary elements of the work include data collection and dissemination, materials compatibility testing, and methods development. The work is guided by an Advisory Committee consisting of technical experts from the refrigeration and air-conditioning industry and government agencies. The Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Technology Institute, Inc., (ARTI) manages and contracts multiple research projects and a data collection and dissemination effort. Detailed results from these projects are reported in technical reports prepared by each subcontractor.

  4. Advanced Propulsion Research Interest in Materials for Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, John

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of material science and technology in the area of propulsion energetics. The authors note that conventional propulsion systems are near peak performance and further refinements in manufacturing, engineering design and materials will only provide incremental increases in performance. Energetic propulsion technologies could potential solve the problems of energy storage density and energy-to-thrust conversion efficiency. Topics considered include: the limits of thermal propulsion systems, the need for energetic propulsion research, emerging energetic propulsion technologies, materials research needed for advanced propulsion, and potential research opportunities.

  5. High-Resolution DNA Melting Analysis in Plant Research.

    PubMed

    Simko, Ivan

    2016-06-01

    Genetic and genomic studies provide valuable insight into the inheritance, structure, organization, and function of genes. The knowledge gained from the analysis of plant genes is beneficial to all aspects of plant research, including crop improvement. New methods and tools are continually being developed to facilitate rapid and accurate mapping, sequencing, and analyzing of genes. Here, I review the recent progress in the application of high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of DNA, a method that allows detecting polymorphism in double-stranded DNA by comparing profiles of melting curves. Use of HRM has expanded considerably in the past few years as the method was successfully applied for high-throughput genotyping, mapping genes, testing food products and seeds, and other areas of plant research. PMID:26827247

  6. [Research advance in medicinal plants from genus Coreopsis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Mourboul, Ablise; Li, Zhi-Yuan

    2013-08-01

    There are about 100 species in the genus Coreopsis which distributed in the America, south of Africa and Hawaiian Islands, and 7 species are distributed in China. The inflorescences of Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. is the Uigur herb 'Snow chrysanthemum' which is named 'Shemuju' with the effects of heat-cleaning, detoxicating, dampness-dissipating and dysentery-curing in the Xinhua Herbal Scheme. The chemical constituents from Coreopsis plants mainly contain flavonoids, phenylpropanoids, sesquiterpenes, and sterols, which show anti-inflammatory activities in modern pharmaceutical research. This article presents an overview of the chemical constituents and pharmaceutical activities, prospects of development and exploitation of Coreopsis plants, hopefully to provide a basis for further research and development of Coreopsis plants. PMID:24228578

  7. Extraction of Nucleic Acids from Lyophilized Plant Material

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Gene

    1966-01-01

    Four methods for extracting nucleic acids from lyophilized cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Stoneville 62) leaves and roots were compared. They were based on the use of: (I) HC104; (II) KOH; (III) a mixture of 90% phenol, Tris (hydroxymethyl) aminomethane buffer, and sodium lauryl sulfate; and (IV) NaCl. (I) extracted large amounts of RNA but little DNA and extracted much carbohydrate and protein contaminants. (II) gave a good yield of both RNA and DNA but extracted such large amounts of contaminating material that purification of RNA on an anion exchange column was necessary. (III) extracted only part of the RNA and practically no DNA, but extracted contaminating materials. (IV) resulted in high yields of both RNA and DNA when modified to omit preliminary acid extraction of impurities. The use of cold trichloroacetic acid instead of ethanol, to precipitate NaCl-extracted nucleic acids, separated the nucleic acids from most of the carbohydrate and acid-soluble phosphate contaminants and resulted in good agreement among results by ultraviolet absorbance, pentose tests, and phosphate analysis. This method also resulted in lower protein contents and better ultraviolet absorption spectra than the other methods tested. Nucleic acids were extracted from leaves of 14 other species of plants, in addition to cotton, by this modified NaCl procedure. PMID:16656306

  8. Field-based phenomics for plant genetics research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perhaps the greatest challenge for crop research in the 21st century is how to predict crop performance as a function of genetic architecture and climate change. Advances in “next generation” DNA sequencing have greatly reduced genotyping costs. Methods for characterization of plant traits (phenotyp...

  9. Active-solar-energy-system materials research priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, S.A.; Hien, L.K.; Silberglitt, R.

    1983-01-01

    THis report describes and prioritizes materials research alternatives to improve active solar heating and cooling system cost-effectiveness. Materials research areas analyzed are (polymer) glazings, heat mirrors, (selective) absorber surfaces, absorber adhesives, absorber substrates, fluids, thermal storage materials, and desiccants. Three classes of solar collectors are considered in the cost-effectiveness analysis: medium-temperature flat-plate collectors (operating temperature, 70/sup 0/C); high-temperature flat-plate collectors (operating temperature, 70 to 120/sup 0/C); and evacuated tubes (operating temperature 70 to 230/sup 0/C). We found the highest priority for medium-temperature flat-plate collectors to be research on polymeric materials to improve performance and durability characteristics. For the high-temperature, flat-plate collectors and evacuated tubes, heat mirror and selective absorber research is the highest priority. Research on storage materials, fluids, and desiccants is of relatively low priority for improving cost-effectiveness in all cases. The highest priority materials research areas identified include: optical properties and degradation of transparent conducting oxide heat mirrors and thickness insensitive selective paints; uv and thermal stabilization of polymeric glazing materials; and systems analysis of integrated polymeric collectors.

  10. NASA Space Biology Plant Research for 2010-2020

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, H. G.; Tomko, D. L.; Porterfield, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. National Research Council (NRC) recently published "Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era" (http://www.nap.edu/catalog.php?record id=13048), and NASA completed a Space Biology Science Plan to develop a strategy for implementing its recommendations ( http://www.nasa.gov/exploration/library/esmd documents.html). The most important recommendations of the NRC report on plant biology in space were that NASA should: (1) investigate the roles of microbial-plant systems in long-term bioregenerative life support systems, and (2) establish a robust spaceflight program of research analyzing plant growth and physiological responses to the multiple stimuli encountered in spaceflight environments. These efforts should take advantage of recently emerged analytical technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and apply modern cellular and molecular approaches in the development of a vigorous flight-based and ground-based research program. This talk will describe NASA's strategy and plans for implementing these NRC Plant Space Biology recommendations. New research capabilities for Plant Biology, optimized by providing state-of-the-art automated technology and analytical techniques to maximize scientific return, will be described. Flight experiments will use the most appropriate platform to achieve science results (e.g., ISS, free flyers, sub-orbital flights) and NASA will work closely with its international partners and other U.S. agencies to achieve its objectives. One of NASA's highest priorities in Space Biology is the development research capabilities for use on the International Space Station and other flight platforms for studying multiple generations of large plants. NASA will issue recurring NASA Research Announcements (NRAs) that include a rapid turn-around model to more fully engage the biology community in designing experiments to respond to the NRC recommendations. In doing so, NASA

  11. 7 CFR 351.7 - Regulations governing importation by mail of plant material for immediate export.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regulations governing importation by mail of plant material for immediate export. 351.7 Section 351.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IMPORTATION OF PLANTS OR PLANT PRODUCTS BY MAIL §...

  12. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  13. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  14. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  15. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  16. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... materials for plant pests. 330.210a Section 330.210a Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of...

  17. Phytomedicine 101: plant taxonomy for preclinical and clinical medicinal plant researchers.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Bradley C; Balick, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the primary source of medicine for most of the world. The most fundamental step in the scientific study of medicinal plants is establishing their botanical identity. Many studies lack voucher specimens, which serve as permanent records of scientific investigations. This omission makes positive identification impossible and hinders reproducibility. Even when vouchers are cited, scientific names are often mishandled. A random survey of titles and abstracts of 100 publications revealed 20 with taxonomic errors. Mistakes included a lack of author citations, misspellings, and use of older synonyms instead of currently accepted names. A seemingly minor orthographic error makes it impossible to search electronic databases for information about a species. Medicinal plant manuscripts and National Institutes of Health proposals commonly lack scientific rigor in dealing with botanical names and documentation. This article examines common taxonomic problems relevant to medicinal plant research and provides a basic guide to plant taxonomy for medicinal plant researchers. Voucher specimens and their preparation, plant identification, and botanical nomenclature are discussed. References and other resources to assist investigators are cited. PMID:19134447

  18. PREFACE: MRS International Materials Research Conference (IMRC-2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhanguo; Qiu, Yong; Li, Yongxiang

    2009-03-01

    This volume contains selected papers presented at the MRS International Materials Research Conference (IMRC-2008) held in Chongqing, China, 9-12 June 2008. IMRC-2008 included 9 symposia of A. Eco/Environmental Materials, B. Sustainable Energy Materials, C. Electronic Packaging Materials, D. Electronic Materials, E. Materials and Processes for Flat-panel Displays, F. Functional Ceramics, G. Transportation Materials, H. Magnesium and I. Biomaterials for Medical Applications. Nearly 1200 participants from 33 countries attended the conference, and the conference organizers received more than 700 papers. After the peer review processes, 555 papers were selected to be published in 9 Journals or proceedings, including J. of Materials Research (JMR), Rare Metal Materials and Engineering, J. of Univ. Science and Technology Beijing, Biomedical Materials: Materials for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Chinese Journal of Aeronautics, Materials Science Forum, and Journal of Physics: Conference Series. Among the 555 selected papers, 91 papers are published in this volume, and the topics mainly cover electronic matrials, processes for flat-panel displays and functional ceramics. The editors would like to give special thanks to the graduate students Liwu Jiang, Ming Li and Di He from Beihang University for their hard work compiling and typesetting each paper in this volume. Zhanguo Wang, Yong Qiu and Yongxiang Li Editors

  19. Parameters affecting the efficient delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle materials and gold nanorods into plant tissues by the biolistic method.

    PubMed

    Martin-Ortigosa, Susana; Valenstein, Justin S; Sun, Wei; Moeller, Lorena; Fang, Ning; Trewyn, Brian G; Lin, Victor S-Y; Wang, Kan

    2012-02-01

    Applying nanotechnology to plant science requires efficient systems for the delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) to plant cells and tissues. The presence of a cell wall in plant cells makes it challenging to extend the NP delivery methods available for animal research. In this work, research is presented which establishes an efficient NP delivery system for plant tissues using the biolistic method. It is shown that the biolistic delivery of mesoporous silica nanoparticle (MSN) materials can be improved by increasing the density of MSNs through gold plating. Additionally, a DNA-coating protocol is used based on calcium chloride and spermidine for MSN and gold nanorods to enhance the NP-mediated DNA delivery. Furthermore, the drastic improvement of NP delivery is demonstrated when the particles are combined with 0.6 μm gold particles during bombardment. The methodology described provides a system for the efficient delivery of NPs into plant cells using the biolistic method. PMID:22174078

  20. Advanced Research and Technology Development Fossil Energy Materials Program. Quarterly progress report ending June 30, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The objective of the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is to conduct research and development on materials for fossil energy applications with a focus on the longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The program includes research aimed toward a better understanding of materials behavior in fossil energy environments and the development of new materials capable of substantial enhancement of plant operations and reliability. The management of the Program has been decentralized to DOE Oak Ridge Operations Office (ORO) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as technical support contractor. A substantial portion of the work on the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program is performed by participating subcontractor organizations. The ORNL Fossil Energy Materials Program Office compiles and issues this combined quarterly progress report from camera-ready copies submitted by each of the participating subcontractor organizations. This report of activities on the program is organized in accordance with a work breakdown structure defined in the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program Plan for FYs 1982 to 1986, in which projects are organized according to fossil energy technologies. It is the intent of the AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program to sponsor materials research which is generic to a number of fossil energy technologies. We hope this series of AR and TD Fossil Energy Materials Program quarterly progress reports will aid in the dissemination of information developed on the program.

  1. [Research and industrialization of biobased materials in China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Wang, Ying

    2015-06-01

    This paper reviews the research and commercialization progresses of biobased polymeric materials including polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), polylactides (PLA), poly (butylene succinate) (PBS) and its monomer succinate, and CO2 copolymer poly (propylene carbonate), especially these efforts made in China. PMID:26672370

  2. Analysis of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in water, plant materials and soil.

    PubMed

    Koskinen, William C; Marek, LeEtta J; Hall, Kathleen E

    2016-03-01

    There is a need for simple, fast, efficient and sensitive methods of analysis for glyphosate and its degradate aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in diverse matrices such as water, plant materials and soil to facilitate environmental research needed to address the continuing concerns related to increasing glyphosate use. A variety of water-based solutions have been used to extract the chemicals from different matrices. Many methods require extensive sample preparation, including derivatization and clean-up, prior to analysis by a variety of detection techniques. This review summarizes methods used during the past 15 years for analysis of glyphosate and AMPA in water, plant materials and soil. The simplest methods use aqueous extraction of glyphosate and AMPA from plant materials and soil, no derivatization, solid-phase extraction (SPE) columns for clean-up, guard columns for separation and confirmation of the analytes by mass spectrometry and quantitation using isotope-labeled internal standards. They have levels of detection (LODs) below the regulatory limits in North America. These methods are discussed in more detail in the review. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26454260

  3. Progress of applied superconductivity research at Materials Research Laboratories, ITRI (Taiwan)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, R. S.; Wang, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    A status report based on the applied high temperature superconductivity (HTS) research at Materials Research Laboratories (MRL), Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) is given. The aim is to develop fabrication technologies for the high-TC materials appropriate to the industrial application requirements. To date, the majorities of works have been undertaken in the areas of new materials, wires/tapes with long length, prototypes of magnets, large-area thin films, SQUID's and microwave applications.

  4. Research on plants for fertility regulation in India.

    PubMed

    Kamboj, V P; Dhawan, B N

    1982-09-01

    This present review of Indian plants investigated for fertility regulation includes published literature of the country and unpublished data of the Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), located in Lucknow, India. Publications without supportive experimental data have not been included. It is evident from the data presented in the tables that most of the investigators have failed to include the valuable information on the time and place of collection and proper botanical authentication, if conducted, in their publications. The plants evaluated at the Institute do contain this information and their herbaria sheets are available at CDRI. The plants, with part used, type of extract, isolated compound/chromatographic fraction, dose, route and schedule of administration with animal used, and percentage activity are given in tables. The plants are classified according to their activity profile and presented accordingly. Plants for which the hormonal profile or toxicity data have been reported are dealt with under each type of activity. Most of the investigators did not develop the active plants, probably because of inconsistent results in repeat tests or lack of facilities. Major attention has been devoted to identifying plants with interceptive properties. The schedules used are more or less uniform and acceptable. On the basis of preliminary toxicity data, extracts/compounds from "Aristolochia indica," "Artemisia scoparia," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Laccardia lacca," and "Plumbago zeylanica" exclude themselves from consideration for follow-up. Wherever done, the hormonal profiles revealed estrogenic activity in active extracts/fractions/compounds from "Artabotrys odoratissimus," "Datura quercifolia," "Daucus carota," "Embelia ribes," "Hibiscus rosa sinensis," "Pueraria tuberosa" and "Tabernaemontana heyneana." Thus they are not ideal for follow-up. Some more plants can be excluded initially because of low activity or equivocal reports on activity. The remaining

  5. Research and Development in the Educational Materials Industries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnegie Corp. of New York, NY.

    Under the sponsorship of the Carnegie Corporation and the Ford Foundation, a study was instituted to examine research and development in the educational materials industry. Using the open-ended interview method, data was collected from executives of major book publishers and their subsidiaries, and producers of materials other than books.…

  6. Materials and Molecular Research Division annual report 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-01

    Progress made in the following research areas is reported: materials sciences (metallurgy and ceramics, solid state physics, materials chemistry); chemical sciences (fundamental interactions, processes and techniques); nuclear sciences; fossil energy; advanced isotope separation technology; energy storage; magnetic fusion energy; and nuclear waste management.

  7. Fossil Energy Advanced Research and Technology Development Materials Program

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, N.C.; Judkins, R.R.

    1992-12-01

    Objective of this materials program is to conduct R and D on materials for fossil energy applications with focus on longer-term and generic needs of the various fossil fuel technologies. The projects are organized according to materials research areas: (1) ceramics, (2) new alloys: iron aluminides, advanced austenitics and chromium niobium alloys, and (3) technology development and transfer. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  8. Nuclear power plant control room operators' performance research

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.H.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A research program is being conducted to provide information on the performance of nuclear power plant control room operators when responding to abnormal/emergency events in the plants and in full-scope training simulators. The initial impetus for this program was the need for data to assess proposed design criteria for the choice of manual versus automatic action for accomplishing safety-related functions during design basis accidents. The program also included studies of training simulator capabilities, of procedures and data for specifying and verifying simulator performance, and of methods and applications of task analysis.

  9. Method and apparatus for selectively harvesting multiple components of a plant material

    DOEpatents

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Hess, Richard J.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Svoboda, John M.; Foust, Thomas D.

    2004-05-04

    A method and apparatus for selectively harvesting multiple components of a plant material. A grain component is separated from the plant material such as by processing the plant material through a primary threshing and separating mechanism. At least one additional component of the plant material is selectively harvested such as by subjecting the plant material to a secondary threshing and separating mechanism. For example, the stems of a plant material may be broken at a location adjacent one or more nodes thereof with the nodes and the internodal stem portions being subsequently separated for harvesting. The at least one additional component (e.g., the internodal stems) may then be consolidated and packaged for subsequent use or processing. The harvesting of the grain and of the at least one additional component may occur within a single harvesting machine, for example, during a single pass over a crop field.

  10. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.