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Sample records for plant pathogen fusarium

  1. A fungal symbiont of plant-roots modulates mycotoxin gene expression in the pathogen Fusarium sambucinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling the growth of mycotoxin production pathogens. In this study, ...

  2. Comparative genomics of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex: biosynthetic pathways metabolite production and plant pathogenicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a huge genus of filamentous fungi causing plant diseases in a wide range of host plants that result in high economic losses to world agriculture every year. Phylogenetic studies have shown that the genus Fusarium consists of different species complexes. One of them is the “Fusarium fujik...

  3. Challenges in Fusarium, a Trans-Kingdom Pathogen.

    PubMed

    van Diepeningen, Anne D; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-04-01

    Fusarium species are emerging human pathogens, next to being plant pathogens. Problems with Fusarium are in their diagnostics and in their difficult treatment, but also in what are actual Fusarium species or rather Fusarium-like species. In this issue Guevara-Suarez et al. (Mycopathologia. doi: 10.1007/s11046-016-9983-9 , 2016) characterized 89 isolates of Fusarium from Colombia showing especially lineages within the Fusarium solani and oxysporum species complexes to be responsible for onychomycosis. PMID:26966007

  4. Antifungal activity of a synthetic cationic peptide against the plant pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and three Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 µg ml 1, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 µg ml 1. Most conidia of Fusa...

  5. Host extract modulates metabolism and fumonisin biosynthesis by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Wilman, Karolina

    2015-01-16

    Fusarium proliferatum is a common pathogen able to infect a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Recently, some evidence for genetic variance among the species genotypes in relation to their plant origin has been reported. Mycotoxin contamination of plant tissues is the most important threat caused by F. proliferatum and fumonisins B (FBs) are the principal mycotoxins synthesized. The toxigenic potential of the pathogen genotypes is variable and also the reaction of different host plant species on the infection by pathogen is different. The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of the extracts on the growth and fumonisin biosynthesis by 32 F. proliferatum strains originating from different host species (A-asparagus, M-maize, G-garlic, PS-pea and P-pineapple), and how it changes the secondary metabolism measured by fumonisin biosynthesis. The average strain dry weight was 65.2 mg for control conditions and it reached 180.7 mg, 100.5 mg, 76.6 mg, 126.2 mg and 51.1 mg when pineapple, asparagus, maize, garlic and pea extracts were added, respectively. In the second experiment the extracts were added after 5 days of culturing of the representative group of strains, displaying diverse reaction to the extract presence. Also, the influence of stationary vs. shaken culture was examined. Mean biomass amounts for shaken cultures of 15 chosen strains were as follows: 37.4 mg of dry weight for control culture (C), 219.6 mg (P), 113 mg (A), 93.6 mg (M), 62 mg (G) and 48 mg (PS), respectively. For stationary cultures, the means were as follows: C-57.4 mg, P-355.6 mg, A-291.6 mg, M-191.1 mg, G-171.1 mg and PS-58.9 mg. Few strains showed differential growth when stationary/shaken culture conditions were applied. Almost all strains synthesized moderate amounts of fumonisins in control conditions-less than 10 ng/μL, regardless of the origin and host species. Few strains were able to produce over 100 ng/μL of FBs when pineapple extract was added, twelve

  6. Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides, Ustilago maydis, and Zea mays: an endophyte, a pathogen, and their shared plant host.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Estrada, Alma E; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kistler, H Corby; May, Georgiana

    2012-07-01

    Highly diverse communities of microbial symbionts occupy eukaryotic organisms, including plants. While many well-studied symbionts may be characterized as either parasites or as mutualists, the prevalent but cryptic endophytic fungi are less easily qualified because they do not cause observable symptoms of their presence within their host. Here, we investigate the interactions of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides with a pathogen, Ustilago maydis, as they occur within maize (Zea mays). We used experimental inoculations to evaluate metabolic mechanisms by which these three organisms might interact. We assessed the impacts of fungal-fungal interactions on endophyte and pathogen growth within the plant, and on plant growth. We find that F. verticillioides modulates the growth of U. maydis and thus decreases the pathogen's aggressiveness toward the plant. With co-inoculation of the endophyte with the pathogen, plant growth is similar to that which would be gained without the pathogen present. However, the endophyte may also break down plant compounds that limit U. maydis growth, and obtains a growth benefit from the presence of the pathogen. Thus, an endophyte such as F. verticillioides may function as both a defensive mutualist and a parasite, and express nutritional modes that depend on ecological context. PMID:22587948

  7. Characterization of RNA silencing components in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun; Gao, Qixun; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Ye; Liu, Zunyong; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) plays a critical role in gene regulation in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the role of RNAi remains largely unclear in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we explored the roles of core components of the RNAi pathway in Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of wheat head blight. Our results demonstrated that the hairpin RNA (hpRNA) can efficiently silence the expression level of target gene, and the argonaute protein FgAgo1 and dicer protein FgDicer2 are important in this silencing process. RNAi machinery was not involved in growth, abiotic stress and pathogenesis in F. graminearum under tested conditions. We firstly applied high-throughput sequencing technology to elucidate small RNA (17–40 nucleotides) (sRNA) transcriptome in F. graminearum, and found that a total of forty-nine micro-like-RNA (milRNA) candidates were identified in the wild-type and ∆FgDICER2, and twenty-four of them were FgDicer2-dependent. Fg-milRNA-4 negatively regulated expression of its target gene. Taken together, our results indicated that the hpRNA-induced gene silencing was a valuable genetic tool for exploring gene function in F. graminearum. FgAgo1 and FgDicer2 proteins played a critical role in the hpRNA mediated gene silencing process. In addition, FgDicer2 was involved in sRNA transcription and milRNA generation in this fungus. PMID:26212591

  8. Characterization of RNA silencing components in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Gao, Qixun; Huang, Mengmeng; Liu, Ye; Liu, Zunyong; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The RNA interference (RNAi) plays a critical role in gene regulation in a variety of eukaryotic organisms. However, the role of RNAi remains largely unclear in plant pathogenic fungi. In this study, we explored the roles of core components of the RNAi pathway in Fusarium graminearum, the major causal agent of wheat head blight. Our results demonstrated that the hairpin RNA (hpRNA) can efficiently silence the expression level of target gene, and the argonaute protein FgAgo1 and dicer protein FgDicer2 are important in this silencing process. RNAi machinery was not involved in growth, abiotic stress and pathogenesis in F. graminearum under tested conditions. We firstly applied high-throughput sequencing technology to elucidate small RNA (17-40 nucleotides) (sRNA) transcriptome in F. graminearum, and found that a total of forty-nine micro-like-RNA (milRNA) candidates were identified in the wild-type and ∆FgDICER2, and twenty-four of them were FgDicer2-dependent. Fg-milRNA-4 negatively regulated expression of its target gene. Taken together, our results indicated that the hpRNA-induced gene silencing was a valuable genetic tool for exploring gene function in F. graminearum. FgAgo1 and FgDicer2 proteins played a critical role in the hpRNA mediated gene silencing process. In addition, FgDicer2 was involved in sRNA transcription and milRNA generation in this fungus. PMID:26212591

  9. Use of molecular markers to compare Fusarium verticillioides pathogenic strains isolated from plants and humans.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Macêdo, D P C; Souza-Motta, C M; Oliveira, N T

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of agriculturally important crops, especially maize. It is considered one of the most important pathogens responsible for fumonisin contamination of food products, which causes severe, chronic, and acute intoxication in humans and animals. Moreover, it is recognized as a cause of localized infections in immunocompetent patients and disseminated infections among severely immunosuppressed patients. Several molecular tools have been used to analyze the intraspecific variability of fungi. The objective of this study was to use molecular markers to compare pathogenic isolates of F. verticillioides and isolates of the same species obtained from clinical samples of patients with Fusarium mycoses. The molecular markers that we used were inter-simple sequence repeat markers (primers GTG5 and GACA4), intron splice site primer (primer EI1), random amplified polymorphic DNA marker (primer OPW-6), and restriction fragment length polymorphism-internal transcribed spacer (ITS) from rDNA. From the data obtained, clusters were generated based on the UPGMA clustering method. The amplification products obtained using primers ITS4 and ITS5 and loci ITS1-5.8-ITS2 of the rDNA yielded fragments of approximately 600 bp for all the isolates. Digestion of the ITS region fragment using restriction enzymes such as EcoRI, DraI, BshI, AluI, HaeIII, HinfI, MspI, and PstI did not permit differentiation among pathogenic and clinical isolates. The inter-simple sequence repeat, intron splice site primer, and random amplified polymorphic DNA markers presented high genetic homogeneity among clinical isolates in contrast to the high variability found among the phytopathogenic isolates of F. verticillioides. PMID:24065642

  10. Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. PMID:23103050

  11. BIOCONTROL AND PLANT PATHOGENIC FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM-INDUCED CHANGES IN PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS IN TOMATO LEAVES AND ROOTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The biocontrol fungus Fusarium oxysporum strain CS-20 was previously shown to reduce incidence of Fusarium wilt of tomato through an uncharacterized host-mediated response. Since phenolic compounds are involved in the defense response of tomato to pathogens and other stressors, this work was undert...

  12. Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eric T; Evans, Kervin O; Dowd, Patrick F

    2015-09-01

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of 250 μg/ml even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and 50 μg/ml of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens. PMID:26361481

  13. Antifungal Activity of a Synthetic Cationic Peptide against the Plant Pathogens Colletotrichum graminicola and Three Fusarium Species

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Eric T.; Evans, Kervin O.; Dowd, Patrick F.

    2015-01-01

    A small cationic peptide (JH8944) was tested for activity against a number of pathogens of agricultural crops. JH8944 inhibited conidium growth in most of the tested plant pathogens with a dose of 50 μg/ml, although one isolate of Fusarium oxysporum was inhibited at 5 μg/ml of JH8944. Most conidia of Fusarium graminearum were killed within 6 hours of treatment with 50 μg/ml of JH8944. Germinating F. graminearum conidia required 238 μg/ml of JH8944 for 90% growth inhibition. The peptide did not cause any damage to tissues surrounding maize leaf punctures when tested at a higher concentration of 250 μg/ml even after 3 days. Liposomes consisting of phosphatidylglycerol were susceptible to leakage after treatment with 25 and 50 μg/ml of JH8944. These experiments suggest this peptide destroys fungal membrane integrity and could be utilized for control of crop fungal pathogens. PMID:26361481

  14. Mechanistic Characterisation of Two Sesquiterpene Cyclases from the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Immo; Siemon, Thomas; Henrot, Matthias; Studt, Lena; Rösler, Sarah; Tudzynski, Bettina; Christmann, Mathias; Dickschat, Jeroen S

    2016-07-18

    Two sesquiterpene cyclases from Fusarium fujikuroi were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The first enzyme was inactive because of a critical mutation, but activity was restored by sequence correction through site-directed mutagenesis. The mutated enzyme and two naturally functional homologues from other fusaria converted farnesyl diphosphate into guaia-6,10(14)-diene. The second enzyme produced eremophilene. The absolute configuration of guaia-6,10(14)-diene was elucidated by enantioselective synthesis, while that of eremophilene was evident from the sign of its optical rotation and is opposite to that in plants but the same as in Sorangium cellulosum. The mechanisms of both terpene cyclases were studied with various (13) C- and (2) H-labelled FPP isotopomers. PMID:27294564

  15. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    PubMed

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. PMID:26545945

  16. Effect of different ecological conditions on secondary metabolite production and gene expression in two mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium species: F. verticillioides and F. equiseti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Fusarium includes many species that are plant pathogens and many produce harmful secondary metabolites including fumonisins and trichothecenes. These mycotoxins can cause disease in animals and have been associated with cancers and birth defects in humans. Many factors influence the produc...

  17. Linear plasmidlike DNA in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans.

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, H C; Leong, S A

    1986-01-01

    Double-stranded, 1.9-kilobase-pair (kbp) DNA molecules were found in 18 strains representing three pathogenic races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. The DNA element (pFOXC1) from a race 1 strain and the DNA element (pFOXC2) from a race 2 strain were shown by restriction endonuclease mapping to be linear. pFOXC2 was found in mitochondrial preparations and appears to have blocked 5' termini, as it was sensitive to 3'----5' exonuclease III but insensitive to 5'----3' lambda exonuclease. The major 1.8-kbp BglII restriction endonuclease fragment of pFOXC2 was cloned in plasmid pUC12. The recombinant plasmid (pCK1) was not homologous to the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. This suggests that pFOXC2 is self-replicating. pCK1 was homologous to all 1.9-kbp DNA elements of race 2 but was not homologous to those of race 1 or race 5. All race 1 and 5 elements were also shown to share common DNA sequences. Images PMID:3015880

  18. THE ROLE OF FUSARIUM BIODIVERSITY IN PLANT PATHOGENICITY AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium disease complexes of maize, wheat, and other cereal grains are biologically highly diverse. This biodiversity is believed to have a major impact on the types and levels of mycotoxins in food grains. The first dimension of complexity is at the Fusarium species level. Identification an...

  19. The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2012-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in the development of visible disease symptoms. Since the original genome annotation analysis was done in 2007, which predicted the secretome using TargetP, the F. graminearum gene call has changed considerably through the combined efforts of the BROAD and MIPS institutes. As a result of the modifications to the genome and the recent findings that suggested a role for secreted proteins in virulence, the F. graminearum secretome was revisited. In the current study, a refined F. graminearum secretome was predicted by combining several bioinformatic approaches. This strategy increased the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins. A secretome of 574 proteins was predicted of which 99% was supported by transcriptional evidence. The function of the annotated and unannotated secreted proteins was explored. The potential role(s) of the annotated proteins including, putative enzymes, phytotoxins and antifungals are discussed. Characterisation of the unannotated proteins included the analysis of Pfam domains and features associated with known fungal effectors, for example, small size, cysteine-rich and containing internal amino acid repeats. A comprehensive comparative genomic analysis involving 57 fungal and oomycete genomes revealed that only a small number of the predicted F. graminearum secreted proteins can be considered to be either species or sequenced strain specific. PMID:22493673

  20. Induction of Defense-Related Enzymes in Banana Plants: Effect of Live and Dead Pathogenic Strain of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense

    PubMed Central

    Thakker, Janki N.; Patel, Samiksha; Dhandhukia, Pinakin C.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to scrutinize the response of banana (Grand Naine variety) plants when interacting with dead or live pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense, a causative agent of Panama disease. Response of plants was evaluated in terms of induction of defense-related marker enzyme activity, namely, peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), β-1,3 glucanase, chitinase, and phenolics. Plant's interaction with live pathogen resulted in early induction of defense to restrain penetration as well as antimicrobial productions. However, pathogen overcame the defense of plant and caused disease. Interaction with dead pathogen resulted in escalating defense response in plants. Later on plants inoculated with dead pathogen showed resistance to even forced inoculation of live pathogen. Results obtained in the present study suggest that dead pathogen was able to mount defense response in plants and provide resistance to Panama disease upon subsequent exposure. Therefore, preparation from dead pathogen could be a potential candidate as a biocontrol agent or plant vaccine to combat Panama disease. PMID:25969777

  1. Impact of transgenic Bt maize residues on the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum and the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride.

    PubMed

    Naef, Andreas; Zesiger, Thierry; Défago, Geneviève

    2006-01-01

    Transformation of maize with genes encoding for insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) could have an impact on the saprophytic survival of plant pathogens and their antagonists on crop residues. We assessed potential effects on the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON)-producing wheat and maize pathogen Fusarium graminearum and on the biocontrol agent Trichoderma atroviride. Purified Cry1Ab protein caused no growth inhibition of these fungi on agar plates. Cry1Ab concentrations above levels common in Bt maize tissue stimulated the growth of F. graminearum. The fungi were also grown on gamma-radiation-sterilized leaf tissue of four Bt maize hybrids and their non transgenic isolines collected at maize maturity on a field trial in 2002 and 2003. Both fungi degraded the Cry1Ab protein in Bt maize tissue. Fungal biomass quantification with microsatellite-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays revealed differential fungal growth on leaf tissue of different maize varieties but no consistent difference between corresponding Bt and non-Bt hybrids. Generally, year of maize tissue collection had a greater impact on biomass production than cultivar or Bt transformation. The mycotoxin DON levels observed in maize tissue experiments corresponded with patterns in F. graminearum biomass, indicating that Bt transformation has no impact on DON production. In addition to bioassays, maize leaf tissue was analyzed with a mass spectrometer-based electronic nose, generating fingerprints of volatile organic compounds. Chemical fingerprints of corresponding Bt and non-Bt leaf tissues differed only for those hybrid pairs that caused differential fungal biomass production in the bioassays. Our results suggest that Cry1Ab protein in maize residues has no direct effect on F. graminearum and T. atroviride but some corresponding Bt/non-Bt maize hybrids differ more in composition than Cry protein content alone, which can affect the saprophytic growth of fungi on crop

  2. Polyamine metabolism in flax in response to treatment with pathogenic and non–pathogenic Fusarium strains

    PubMed Central

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Namysł, Katarzyna; Preisner, Marta; Szopa, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Flax crop yield is limited by various environmental stress factors, but the largest crop losses worldwide are caused by Fusarium infection. Polyamines are one of the many plant metabolites possibly involved in the plant response to infection. However, in flax plants the polyamine composition, genes involved in polyamine synthesis, and in particular their regulation, were previously unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the polyamine synthesis pathway in flax and its involvement in response to pathogen infection. It is well established that polyamines are essential for the growth and development of both plants and fungi, but their role in pathogen infection still remains unknown. In our study we correlated the expression of genes involved in polyamine metabolism with the polyamine levels in plant tissues and compared the results for flax seedlings treated with two pathogenic and one non-pathogenic strains of Fusarium. We observed an increase in the expression of genes participating in polyamine synthesis after fungal infection, and it was reflected in an increase of polyamine content in the plant tissues. The highest level of mRNA was characteristic for ornithine decarboxylase during infection with all tested, pathogenic and non-pathogenic, Fusarium strains and the arginine decarboxylase gene during infection with the pathogenic strain of Fusarium culmorum. The main polyamine identified in the flax seedlings was putrescine, and its level changed the most during infection. Moreover, the considerable increase in the contents of cell wall-bound polyamines compared to the levels of free and conjugated polyamines may indicate that their main role during pathogen infection lies in strengthening of the cell wall. In vitro experiments showed that the polyamines inhibit Fusarium growth, which suggests that they play an important role in plant defense mechanisms. Furthermore, changes in metabolism and content of polyamines indicate different defense mechanisms

  3. Heterochromatin influences the secondary metabolite profile in the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Dominguez, Yazmid; Boedi, Stefan; Sulyok, Michael; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Stoppacher, Norbert; Krska, Rudolf; Strauss, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Chromatin modifications and heterochromatic marks have been shown to be involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism gene clusters in the fungal model system Aspergillus nidulans. We examine here the role of HEP1, the heterochromatin protein homolog of Fusarium graminearum, for the production of secondary metabolites. Deletion of Hep1 in a PH-1 background strongly influences expression of genes required for the production of aurofusarin and the main tricothecene metabolite DON. In the Hep1 deletion strains AUR genes are highly up-regulated and aurofusarin production is greatly enhanced suggesting a repressive role for heterochromatin on gene expression of this cluster. Unexpectedly, gene expression and metabolites are lower for the trichothecene cluster suggesting a positive function of Hep1 for DON biosynthesis. However, analysis of histone modifications in chromatin of AUR and DON gene promoters reveals that in both gene clusters the H3K9me3 heterochromatic mark is strongly reduced in the Hep1 deletion strain. This, and the finding that a DON-cluster flanking gene is up-regulated, suggests that the DON biosynthetic cluster is repressed by HEP1 directly and indirectly. Results from this study point to a conserved mode of secondary metabolite (SM) biosynthesis regulation in fungi by chromatin modifications and the formation of facultative heterochromatin. PMID:22100541

  4. A combined ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analysis to understand the basal metabolism of plant-pathogenic Fusarium spp.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Rohan G T; Allwood, J William; Galster, Aimee M; Urban, Martin; Daudi, Arsalan; Canning, Gail; Ward, Jane L; Beale, Michael H; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2010-12-01

    Many ascomycete Fusarium spp. are plant pathogens that cause disease on both cereal and noncereal hosts. Infection of wheat ears by Fusarium graminearum and F. culmorum typically results in bleaching and a subsequent reduction in grain yield. Also, a large proportion of the harvested grain can be spoiled when the colonizing Fusarium mycelia produce trichothecene mycotoxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, we have explored the intracellular polar metabolome of Fusarium spp. in both toxin-producing and nonproducing conditions in vitro. Four Fusarium spp., including nine well-characterized wild-type field isolates now used routinely in laboratory experimentation, were explored. A metabolic "triple-fingerprint" was recorded using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance and direct-injection electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopy in both positive- and negative-ionization modes. These combined metabolomic analyses revealed that this technique is sufficient to resolve different wild-type isolates and different growth conditions. Principal components analysis was able to resolve the four species explored-F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. pseudograminearum, and F. venenatum-as well as individual isolate differences from the same species. The external nutritional environment was found to have a far greater influence on the metabolome than the genotype of the organism. Conserved responses to DON-inducing medium were evident and included increased abundance of key compatible solutes, such as glycerol and mannitol. In addition, the concentration of γ-aminobutyric acid was elevated, indicating that the cellular nitrogen status may be affected by growth on DON-inducing medium. PMID:20718668

  5. Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.

    PubMed

    Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

    2007-01-01

    An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

  6. A Deoxynivalenol-Activated Methionyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene from Wheat Encodes a Nuclear Localized Protein and Protects Plants Against Fusarium Pathogens and Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Dong-Yun; Yi, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Rong-Jing; Qu, Bo; Huang, Tao; He, Wei-Jie; Li, Cheng; Li, He-Ping; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum is the fungal pathogen that causes globally important diseases of cereals and produces mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Owing to the dearth of available sources of resistance to Fusarium pathogens, characterization of novel genes that confer resistance to mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi is vitally important for breeding resistant crop varieties. In this study, a wheat methionyl-tRNA synthetase (TaMetRS) gene was identified from suspension cell cultures treated with DON. It shares conserved aminoacylation catalytic and tRNA anticodon binding domains with human MetRS and with the only previously characterized plant MetRS, suggesting that it functions in aminoacylation in the cytoplasm. However, the TaMetRS comprises a typical nuclear localization signal and cellular localization studies with a TaMetRS::GFP fusion protein showed that TaMetRS is localized in the nucleus. Expression of TaMetRS was activated by DON treatment and by infection with a DON-producing F. graminearum strain in wheat spikes. No such activation was observed following infection with a non-DON-producing F. graminearum strain. Expression of TaMetRS in Arabidopsis plants conferred significant resistance to DON and F. graminearum. These results indicated that this DON-activated TaMetRS gene may encode a novel type of MetRS in plants that has a role in defense and detoxification. PMID:26882849

  7. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1α sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1α genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1α region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study. PMID:25501150

  8. The Genome of the Generalist Plant Pathogen Fusarium avenaceum Is Enriched with Genes Involved in Redox, Signaling and Secondary Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lysøe, Erik; Harris, Linda J.; Walkowiak, Sean; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Divon, Hege H.; Riiser, Even S.; Llorens, Carlos; Gabaldón, Toni; Kistler, H. Corby; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Thrane, Ulf; Frandsen, Rasmus J. N.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium avenaceum is a fungus commonly isolated from soil and associated with a wide range of host plants. We present here three genome sequences of F. avenaceum, one isolated from barley in Finland and two from spring and winter wheat in Canada. The sizes of the three genomes range from 41.6–43.1 MB, with 13217–13445 predicted protein-coding genes. Whole-genome analysis showed that the three genomes are highly syntenic, and share>95% gene orthologs. Comparative analysis to other sequenced Fusaria shows that F. avenaceum has a very large potential for producing secondary metabolites, with between 75 and 80 key enzymes belonging to the polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, terpene, alkaloid and indole-diterpene synthase classes. In addition to known metabolites from F. avenaceum, fuscofusarin and JM-47 were detected for the first time in this species. Many protein families are expanded in F. avenaceum, such as transcription factors, and proteins involved in redox reactions and signal transduction, suggesting evolutionary adaptation to a diverse and cosmopolitan ecology. We found that 20% of all predicted proteins were considered to be secreted, supporting a life in the extracellular space during interaction with plant hosts. PMID:25409087

  9. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li-Jun; van der Does, H. Charlotte; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Josée; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin-Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A. E.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald M.; Goff, Stephen; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurélie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook-Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. Carmen; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi. To understand the molecular underpinnings of pathogenicity in the genus Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three phenotypically diverse species: Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes and account for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity, indicative of horizontal acquisition. Experimentally, we demonstrate the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, converting a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in F. oxysporum. These findings put the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective. PMID:20237561

  10. Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

    2010-03-18

    Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

  11. The Transcription Factor FgStuA Influences Spore Development, Pathogenicity and Secondary Metabolism in the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum causes extensive losses on cereals world-wide and contaminates harvested grain with mycotoxins, whose levels in the food supply are strictly regulated. We deleted the FgStuA gene in Fusarium graminearum and demonstrate its involvement in several different ...

  12. A Two-locus DNA Sequence Database for Typing Plant and Human Pathogens Within the Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1alpha) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex ...

  13. Analysis of transporter responsible for the secretion of fusaric acid from the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid (FA), a phytotoxic polyketide produced by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov), has been suggested to be associated with disease symptoms on cotton. In response to a potential threat on cotton production by the introduction of high FA producing strains from Australia, new sources...

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis in Three Fusarium Pathogens Identifies Rapidly Evolving Chromosomes and Genes Associated with Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Sperschneider, Jana; Gardiner, Donald M; Thatcher, Louise F; Lyons, Rebecca; Singh, Karam B; Manners, John M; Taylor, Jennifer M

    2015-06-01

    Pathogens and hosts are in an ongoing arms race and genes involved in host-pathogen interactions are likely to undergo diversifying selection. Fusarium plant pathogens have evolved diverse infection strategies, but how they interact with their hosts in the biotrophic infection stage remains puzzling. To address this, we analyzed the genomes of three Fusarium plant pathogens for genes that are under diversifying selection. We found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene group level. Diversifying selection acts strongly on the dispensable chromosomes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and on distinct core chromosome regions in Fusarium graminearum, all of which have associations with virulence. Members of two gene groups evolve rapidly, namely those that encode proteins with an N-terminal [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif and proteins that are conserved predominantly in pathogens. Specifically, 29 F. graminearum genes are rapidly evolving, in planta induced and encode secreted proteins, strongly pointing toward effector function. In summary, diversifying selection in Fusarium is strongly reflected as genomic footprints and can be used to predict a small gene set likely to be involved in host-pathogen interactions for experimental verification. PMID:25994930

  15. The genome of the of the generalist plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium avenaceum is enriched with genes involved in redox, signaling and secondary metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium avenaceum is a fungus commonly isolated from soil and with a wide range of host plants. We present here three genome sequences of F. avenaceum, one isolated from barley in Finland and two from spring and winter wheat in Canada. The physical sizes of the three genomes range from 41.6-43.2 MB...

  16. Saprophytic and Potentially Pathogenic Fusarium Species from Peat Soil in Perak and Pahang

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Nurul Farah Abdul; Mohd, Masratulhawa; Nor, Nik Mohd Izham Mohd; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2016-01-01

    Isolates of Fusarium were discovered in peat soil samples collected from peat swamp forest, waterlogged peat soil, and peat soil from oil palm plantations. Morphological characteristics were used to tentatively identify the isolates, and species confirmation was based on the sequence of translation elongation factor-1α (TEF-1α) and phylogenetic analysis. Based on the closest match of Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) searches against the GenBank and Fusarium-ID databases, five Fusarium species were identified, namely F. oxysporum (60%), F. solani (23%), F. proliferatum (14%), F. semitectum (1%), and F. verticillioides (1%). From a neighbour-joining tree of combined TEF-1α and β-tubulin sequences, isolates from the same species were clustered in the same clade, though intraspecies variations were observed from the phylogenetic analysis. The Fusarium species isolated in the present study are soil inhabitants and are widely distributed worldwide. These species can act as saprophytes and decomposers as well as plant pathogens. The presence of Fusarium species in peat soils suggested that peat soils could be a reservoir of plant pathogens, as well-known plant pathogenic species such F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides were identified. The results of the present study provide knowledge on the survival and distribution of Fusarium species. PMID:27019679

  17. The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is also required for pathogenicity and expression of plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an imp...

  18. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li; Zhao, Guoyi; Xu, Jin-Rong; Kistler, H Corby; Gao, Lixin; Ma, Li-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum threatens world-wide wheat production, resulting in both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. We reconstructed the global F. graminearum gene regulatory network (GRN) from a large collection of transcriptomic data using Bayesian network inference, a machine-learning algorithm. This GRN reveals connectivity between key regulators and their target genes. Focusing on key regulators, this network contains eight distinct but interwoven modules. Enriched for unique functions, such as cell cycle, DNA replication, transcription, translation and stress responses, each module exhibits distinct expression profiles. Evolutionarily, the F. graminearum genome can be divided into core regions shared with closely related species and variable regions harboring genes that are unique to F. graminearum and perform species-specific functions. Interestingly, the inferred top regulators regulate genes that are significantly enriched from the same genomic regions (P < 0.05), revealing a compartmentalized network structure that may reflect network rewiring related to specific adaptation of this plant pathogen. This first-ever reconstructed filamentous fungal GRN primes our understanding of pathogenicity at the systems biology level and provides enticing prospects for novel disease control strategies involving the targeting of master regulators in pathogens. The program can be used to construct GRNs of other plant pathogens. PMID:26990214

  19. Fusarium Pathogenomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed compartmentalization of genomes into regions responsible for metabolism and reproduction (core genome) and p...

  20. Response of endophytic bacterial communities in banana tissue culture plantlets to Fusarium wilt pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jie; Wang, Zifeng; Zhou, Shining

    2008-04-01

    Endophytic bacteria reside within plant hosts without having pathogenic effects, and various endophytes have been found to functionally benefit plant disease suppressive ability. In this study, the influence of banana plant stress on the endophytic bacterial communities, which was achieved by infection with the wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, was examined by cultivation-independent denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA directly amplified from plant tissue DNA. Community analysis clearly demonstrated increased bacterial diversity in pathogen-infected plantlets compared to that in control plantlets. By sequencing, bands most similar to species of Bacillus and Pseudomonas showed high density in the pathogen-treated pattern. In vitro screening of the isolates for antagonistic activity against Fusarium wilt pathogen acquired three strains of endophytic bacteria which were found to match those species that obviously increased in the pathogen infection process; moreover, the most inhibitive strain could also interiorly colonize plantlets and perform antagonism. The evidence obtained from this work showed that antagonistic endophytic bacteria could be induced by the appearance of a host fungal pathogen and further be an ideal biological control agent to use in banana Fusarium wilt disease protection. PMID:18497482

  1. Nitric oxide detoxification by Fusarium verticillioides flavohemoglobin and role in pathogenicity of maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a non-obligate plant pathogen of maize causing a number of specific diseases, including root rot, kernel rot, seed rot, stalk rot, and seedling blight. The saprophytic nature of this fungus, its production of the mycotoxin fumonisin, and complex relationship maize puts t...

  2. The Fusarium graminearum species complex comprises at least 16 phylogenetically distinct head blight pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. FHB outbreaks and epidemics of wheat and barley cause significant reduction in yields; these pathogens also frequently contaminate grain with deoxynivalenol or nivalenol trich...

  3. Extracellular peptidases of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Rohan G. T.; McCorkelle, Owen; Bleackley, Mark; Collins, Christine; Faou, Pierre; Mathivanan, Suresh; Anderson, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum (Fgr) creates economic and health risks in cereals agriculture. Fgr causes head blight (or scab) of wheat and stalk rot of corn, reducing yield, degrading grain quality, and polluting downstream food products with mycotoxins. Fungal plant pathogens must secrete proteases to access nutrition and to breakdown the structural protein component of the plant cell wall. Research into the proteolytic activity of Fgr is hindered by the complex nature of the suite of proteases secreted. We used a systems biology approach comprising genome analysis, transcriptomics and label-free quantitative proteomics to characterize the peptidases deployed by Fgr during growth. A combined analysis of published microarray transcriptome datasets revealed seven transcriptional groupings of peptidases based on in vitro growth, in planta growth, and sporulation behaviors. A high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics analysis defined the extracellular proteases secreted by F. graminearum. A meta-classification based on sequence characters and transcriptional/translational activity in planta and in vitro provides a platform to develop control strategies that target Fgr peptidases. PMID:26635820

  4. Cross Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae on Sugar Beet and Common Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, also known as Fusarium yellows, is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Fusarium oxysporum is a vascular pathogen with a broad host range including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with formae speciales (f. sp.) defined by the ability to cause ...

  5. Fusarium Wilt of Banana Is Caused by Several Pathogens Referred to as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium wilt of banana (also known as Panama disease) is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Where susceptible cultivars are grown, management is limited to the use of pathogen-free planting stock and clean soils. Resistant genotypes exist for some applications, but resistance is still needed in other situations. Progress has been made with this recalcitrant crop by traditional and nontraditional improvement programs. The disease was first reported in Australia in 1876, but did the greatest damage in export plantations in the western tropics before 1960. A new variant, tropical race 4, threatens the trades that are now based on Cavendish cultivars, and other locally important types such as the plantains. Phylogenetic studies indicate that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense had several independent evolutionary origins. The significance of these results and the future impact of this disease are discussed. PMID:18943184

  6. Identification and characterization of non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum capable of increasing and decreasing Fusarium wilt severity.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Leanne M; Smith, Linda J; Aitken, Elizabeth A B

    2006-08-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana is a potentially devastating disease throughout the world. Options for control of the causal organism, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc) are limited. Suppressive soil sites have previously been identified where, despite the presence of Foc, Fusarium wilt does not develop. In order to understand some aspects of this disease suppression, endophytic Fusarium oxysporum isolates were obtained from banana roots. These isolates were genetically characterized and compared with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum previously identified as being capable of suppressing Fusarium wilt of banana in glasshouse trials. Three additional isolates were selected for glasshouse trials to assess suppression of Fusarium wilt in two different cultivars of banana, Cavendish and Lady Finger. One isolate (BRIP 29089) was identified as a potential biocontrol organism, reducing the disease severity of Fusarium wilt in Lady Finger and Cavendish cultivars. Interestingly, one isolate (BRIP 45952) increased Fusarium wilt disease severity on Cavendish. The implications of an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum, non-pathogenic on banana, increasing disease severity and the potential role of non-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum in disease complexes are discussed. PMID:16891106

  7. The transcription factor FgStuAp influences spore development, pathogenicity, and secondary metabolism in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important plant-pathogenic fungus and the major cause of cereal head blight. Here, we report the functional analysis of FgStuA, the gene for a transcription factor with homology to key developmental regulators in fungi. The deletion mutant was greatly reduced in pathogenic...

  8. Antibody-Mediated Pathogen Resistance in Plants.

    PubMed

    Peschen, Dieter; Schillberg, Stefan; Fischer, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The methods described in this chapter were developed in order to produce transgenic plants expressing pathogen-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibodies fused to antifungal peptides (AFPs), conferring resistance against fungal pathogens. We describe the selection from a phage display library of avian scFv antibodies that recognize cell surface proteins on fungi from the genus Fusarium, and the construction of scFv-AFP fusion protein constructs followed by their transient expression in tobacco (Nicotiana spp.) plants and stable expression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Using these techniques, the antibody fusion with the most promising in vitro activity can be used to generate transgenic plants that are resistant to pathogens such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. matthiolae. PMID:26614296

  9. Plant defense response against Fusarium oxysporum and strategies to develop tolerant genotypes in banana.

    PubMed

    Swarupa, V; Ravishankar, K V; Rekha, A

    2014-04-01

    Soil-borne fungal pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum causes major economic losses by inducing necrosis and wilting symptoms in many crop plants. Management of fusarium wilt is achieved mainly by the use of chemical fungicides which affect the soil health and their efficiency is often limited by pathogenic variability. Hence understanding the nature of interaction between pathogen and host may help to select and improve better cultivars. Current research evidences highlight the role of oxidative burst and antioxidant enzymes indicating that ROS act as an important signaling molecule in banana defense response against Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cubense. The role of jasmonic acid signaling in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens is well recognized. But recent studies show that the role of salicylic acid is complex and ambiguous against necrotrophic pathogens like Fusarium oxysporum, leading to many intriguing questions about its relationship between other signaling compounds. In case of banana, a major challenge is to identify specific receptors for effector proteins like SIX proteins and also the components of various signal transduction pathways. Significant progress has been made to uncover the role of defense genes but is limited to only model plants such as Arabidopsis and tomato. Keeping this in view, we review the host response, pathogen diversity, current understanding of biochemical and molecular changes that occur during host and pathogen interaction. Developing resistant cultivars through mutation, breeding, transgenic and cisgenic approaches have been discussed. This would help us to understand host defenses against Fusarium oxysporum and to formulate strategies to develop tolerant cultivars. PMID:24420701

  10. Fusarium graminearum: an pathogen of maize in Nepal, pathogenic variability and mycotoxins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen of maize in hills of Nepal. It predominantly occurs on maize grown in cool and humid environment of high hills. The pathogen is also known to infect other cereal crops including wheat and rice causing important diseases. The incidence of ear rot is hi...

  11. Mutation of FVS1, encoding a protein with a sterile alpha motif domain, affects asexual reproduction in the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Iida, Yuichiro; Fujiwara, Kazuki; Yoshioka, Yosuke; Tsuge, Takashi

    2014-02-01

    Fusarium oxysporum produces three kinds of asexual spores: microconidia, macroconidia and chlamydospores. We previously analysed expressed sequence tags during vegetative growth and conidiation in F. oxysporum and found 42 genes that were markedly upregulated during conidiation compared to vegetative growth. One of the genes, FVS1, encodes a protein with a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain, which functions in protein-protein interactions that are involved in transcriptional or post-transcriptional regulation and signal transduction. Here, we made FVS1-disrupted mutants from the melon wilt pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis. Although the mutants produced all three kinds of asexual spores with normal morphology, they formed markedly fewer microconidia and macroconidia than the wild type. The mutants appeared to have a defect in the development of the conidiogenesis cells, conidiophores and phialides, required for the formation of microconidia and macroconidia. In contrast, chlamydospore formation was dramatically promoted in the mutants. The growth rates of the mutants on media were slightly reduced, indicating that FVS1 is also involved in, but not essential for, vegetative growth. We also observed that mutation of FVS1 caused defects in conidial germination and virulence, suggesting that the Fvs1 has pleiotropic functions in F. oxysporum. PMID:24330129

  12. Fusarium foetens, a new species pathogenic to begonia elatior hybrids (Begonia x hiemalis) and the sister taxon of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex.

    PubMed

    Schroers, H-J; Baayen, R P; Meffert, J P; de Gruyter, J; Hooftman, M; O'Donnell, K

    2004-01-01

    A new disease recently was discovered in begonia elatior hybrid (Begonia × hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting and the base of collapsing plants was covered by unusually large masses of Fusarium macroconidia. A species of Fusarium was isolated consistently from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. It differed morphologically from F. begoniae, a known agent of begonia flower, leaf and stem blight. The Fusarium species resembled members of the F. oxysporum species complex in producing short monophialides on the aerial mycelium and abundant chlamydospores. Other phenotypic characters such as polyphialides formed occasionally in at least some strains, relatively long monophialides intermingled with the short monophialides formed on the aerial mycelium, distinct sporodochial conidiomata, and distinct pungent colony odor distinguished it from the F. oxysporum species complex. Phylogenetic analyses of partial sequences of the mitochondrial small subunit of the ribosomal DNA (mtSSU rDNA), nuclear translation elongation factor 1α (EF-1α) and β-tubulin gene exons and introns indicate that the Fusarium species represents a sister group of the F. oxysporum species complex. Begonia × hiemalis cultivars Bazan, Bellona and Netja Dark proved to be highly susceptible to the new species. Inoculated plants developed tracheomycosis within 4 wk, and most died within 8 wk. The new taxon was not pathogenic to Euphorbia pulcherrima, Impatiens walleriana and Saintpaulia ionantha that commonly are grown in nurseries along with B. × hiemalis. Inoculated plants of Cyclamen persicum did not develop the disease but had discolored vessels from which the inoculated fungus was isolated. Given that the newly discovered begonia pathogen is distinct in pathogenicity, morphology and phylogeny from other fusaria, it is described here as a new species, Fusarium foetens. PMID:21148861

  13. Surfactin A production and isoforms characterizations in strains of Bacillus mojavensis for control of a maize pathogen, Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, RRC 101 controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. An antifungal cyclic lipopeptide produced by B. moj...

  14. PAM: Particle automata model in simulation of Fusarium graminearum pathogen expansion.

    PubMed

    Wcisło, Rafał; Miller, S Shea; Dzwinel, Witold

    2016-01-21

    The multi-scale nature and inherent complexity of biological systems are a great challenge for computer modeling and classical modeling paradigms. We present a novel particle automata modeling metaphor in the context of developing a 3D model of Fusarium graminearum infection in wheat. The system consisting of the host plant and Fusarium pathogen cells can be represented by an ensemble of discrete particles defined by a set of attributes. The cells-particles can interact with each other mimicking mechanical resistance of the cell walls and cell coalescence. The particles can move, while some of their attributes can be changed according to prescribed rules. The rules can represent cellular scales of a complex system, while the integrated particle automata model (PAM) simulates its overall multi-scale behavior. We show that due to the ability of mimicking mechanical interactions of Fusarium tip cells with the host tissue, the model is able to simulate realistic penetration properties of the colonization process reproducing both vertical and lateral Fusarium invasion scenarios. The comparison of simulation results with micrographs from laboratory experiments shows encouraging qualitative agreement between the two. PMID:26549468

  15. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate–protein kinase A (cAMP–PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of cAMP signaling in fungal development and pathogenesis has been well documented in many fungal species including several phytopathogenic Fusarium spp. Two key components of the cAMP-PKA pathway, adenylate cyclase (AC) and catalytic subunit of PKA (CPKA), have been functionally chara...

  16. Wildly Growing Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.) Hosts Pathogenic Fusarium Species and Accumulates Their Mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Stępień, Łukasz; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Urbaniak, Monika

    2016-05-01

    Asparagus officinalis L. is an important crop in many European countries, likely infected by a number of Fusarium species. Most of them produce mycotoxins in plant tissues, thus affecting the physiology of the host plant. However, there is lack of information on Fusarium communities in wild asparagus, where they would definitely have considerable environmental significance. Therefore, the main scientific aim of this study was to identify the Fusarium species and quantify their typical mycotoxins present in wild asparagus plants collected at four time points of the season. Forty-four Fusarium strains of eight species--Fusarium acuminatum, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium sporotrichioides, and Fusarium tricinctum--were isolated from nine wild asparagus plants in 2013 season. It is the first report of F. sporotrichioides isolated from this particular host. Fumonisin B1 was the most abundant mycotoxin, and the highest concentrations of fumonisins B1-B3 and beauvericin were found in the spears collected in May. Moniliformin and enniatins were quantified at lower concentrations. Mycotoxins synthesized by individual strains obtained from infected asparagus tissues were assessed using in vitro cultures on sterile rice grain. Most of the F. sporotrichioides strains synthesized HT-2 toxin and F. equiseti strains were found to be effective zearalenone producers. PMID:26687343

  17. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOEpatents

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  18. Plant pathogen resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  19. Cross pathogenicity and vegetative compatibility of Fusarium oxysporum isolated from sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae, which causes Fusarium yellows in sugar beet, can be highly variable in virulence and morphology, with further diversity derived due to the wide geographic distribution of sugar beet production. Little is known about factors that determine pathogenicity to sugar beet...

  20. Population genomics of Fusarium graminearum head blight pathogens in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study we utilized comparative genomics to identify candidate adaptive alleles in the fungus Fusarium graminearum, the primary pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereal crops. Recent epidemics of FHB have been economically devastating to agriculture, as F. graminearum reduces cereal yi...

  1. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates, and comparing...

  2. Comparative Proteomics Analyses of Two Races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans that Differ in Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Erfeng; Ling, Jian; Wang, Gang; Xiao, Jiling; Yang, Yuhong; Mao, Zhenchuan; Wang, Xuchu; Xie, Bingyan

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-inhabiting fungus that induces vascular wilt and root rot in a variety of plants. F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans (Foc), which comprises two races, can cause wilt disease in cabbage. Compared with race 1 (52557−TM, R1), race 2 (58385−TM, R2) exhibits much stronger pathogenicity. Here, we provide the first proteome reference maps for Foc mycelium and conidia and identify 145 proteins with different abundances among the two races. Of these proteins, most of the high-abundance proteins in the R2 mycelium and conidia are involved in carbohydrate, amino acid and ion metabolism, which indicates that these proteins may play important roles in isolate R2’s stronger pathogenicity. The expression levels of 20 typical genes demonstrate similarly altered patterns compared to the proteomic analysis. The protein glucanosyltransferase, which is involved in carbohydrate metabolism, was selected for research. We knocked out the corresponding gene (gas1) and found that Foc-∆gas1 significantly reduced growth rate and virulence compared with wild type isolates. These results deepened our understanding of the proteins related to F. oxysporum pathogenicity in cabbage Fusarium wilt and provided new opportunities to control this disease. PMID:26333982

  3. Genomic characterization of plant cell wall degrading enzymes and in silico analysis of xylanses and polygalacturonases of Fusarium virguliforme

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are important effectors for plant pathogens to invade plants. In this study, the composition of PCWDEs in Fusarium virguliforme that were grown for 5-days and 20 days in liquid medium was determined by RNA-Seq. Differential expression analysis showed more P...

  4. REN1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed Central

    Ohara, Toshiaki; Inoue, Iori; Namiki, Fumio; Kunoh, Hitoshi; Tsuge, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. F. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. Ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by the modification of hyphal cells. Here we describe rensa, a conidiation mutant of F. oxysporum, obtained by restriction-enzyme-mediated integration mutagenesis. Molecular analysis of rensa identified the affected gene, REN1, which encodes a protein with similarity to MedA of Aspergillus nidulans and Acr1 of Magnaporthe grisea. MedA and Acr1 are presumed transcription regulators involved in conidiogenesis in these fungi. The rensa mutant and REN1-targeted strains lack normal conidiophores and phialides and form rod-shaped, conidium-like cells directly from hyphae by acropetal division. These mutants, however, exhibit normal vegetative growth and chlamydospore formation. Nuclear localization of Ren1 was verified using strains expressing the Ren1-green fluorescent protein fusions. These data strongly suggest that REN1 encodes a transcription regulator required for the correct differentiation of conidiogenesis cells for development of microconidia and macroconidia in F. oxysporum. PMID:15020411

  5. Tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of a fusion protein containing a Fusarium-specific antibody and a fungal chitinase protects wheat against Fusarium pathogens and mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Du, Hong-Jie; Wei, Qi-Yong; Huang, Tao; Yang, Peng; Kong, Xian-Wei; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other small grain cereals is a globally devastating disease caused by toxigenic Fusarium pathogens. Controlling FHB is a challenge because germplasm that is naturally resistant against these pathogens is inadequate. Current control measures rely on fungicides. Here, an antibody fusion comprised of the Fusarium spp.-specific recombinant antibody gene CWP2 derived from chicken, and the endochitinase gene Ech42 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride was introduced into the elite wheat cultivar Zhengmai9023 by particle bombardment. Expression of this fusion gene was regulated by the lemma/palea-specific promoter Lem2 derived from barley; its expression was confirmed as lemma/palea-specific in transgenic wheat. Single-floret inoculation of independent transgenic wheat lines of the T3 to T6 generations revealed significant resistance (type II) to fungal spreading, and natural infection assays in the field showed significant resistance (type I) to initial infection. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed marked reduction of mycotoxins in the grains of the transgenic wheat lines. Progenies of crosses between the transgenic lines and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Huamai13 also showed significantly enhanced FHB resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the tissue-specific expression of the antibody fusion was induced by salicylic acid drenching and induced to a greater extent by F. graminearum infection. Histochemical analysis showed substantial restriction of mycelial growth in the lemma tissues of the transgenic plants. Thus, the combined tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of this Fusarium-specific antibody fusion can effectively protect wheat against Fusarium pathogens and reduce mycotoxin content in grain. PMID:25418882

  6. Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications. PMID:23889215

  7. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization.

    PubMed

    Cuomo, Christina A; Güldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin-Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, B Gillian; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Jonathan D; Ma, Li-Jun; Baker, Scott E; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh-Long; Decaprio, David; Gale, Liane R; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S; Hammond-Kosack, Kim; Harris, Linda J; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans-Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Münsterkötter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Thérèse; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M Isabel G; Seong, Kye-Yong; Tetko, Igor V; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W; Kistler, H Corby

    2007-09-01

    We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts. PMID:17823352

  8. The Fusarium Graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization

    SciTech Connect

    Cuomo, Christina A.; Guldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Johnathan D.; Ma, Li Jun; Baker, Scott E.; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh Long; DeCaprio, David; Gale, Liane R.; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S.; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Harris, Linda J.; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C.; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K.; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Munsterkotter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'Donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Therese; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M. Isabel; Seong, Kye Yong; Tetko, Igor V.; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J.; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W.; Kistler, H. Corby

    2007-09-07

    We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.

  9. Genotype Response of Soybean (Glycine max) Whole Plants and Hairy Roots to Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines Infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium solani f. sp. Glycines, a soilborne fungus, infects soybean roots and causes sudden death syndrome. The response of 13 soybean genotypes to the pathogen infection was tested with potted greenhouse grown plants and with cultured hairy roots. The taproots of all genotypes grown plants measure...

  10. Role of fusaric acid in the virulence of cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium Oxysporum f. sp. Vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid is a potent phytotoxin to cotton. It has also long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Fusarium wilt for a number of plant species including cotton, tomato, watermelon, and flax. The Australian biotype isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) produce copious amount of ...

  11. Systematics, phylogeny and trichothecene mycotoxin potential of fusarium head blight cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight(FHB)or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species,Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over the p...

  12. Systematics, Phylogeny and Trichothecene Mycotoxin potential of Fusarium head blight cereal pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species, Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over th...

  13. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an economically significant disease of cultivated cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense). Fov race 4 has spread among soils planted to cotton in the San Joaquin Valley of California and has caused serious losses. Because ...

  14. An antibody that confers plant disease resistance targets a membrane-bound glyoxal oxidase in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiu-Shi; Xing, Shu; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Jiang, Jin-He; Fan, Chao; Yang, Peng; Liu, Jin-Long; Hu, Zu-Quan; Xue, Sheng; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2016-05-01

    Plant germplasm resources with natural resistance against globally important toxigenic Fusarium are inadequate. CWP2, a Fusarium genus-specific antibody, confers durable resistance to different Fusarium pathogens that infect cereals and other crops, producing mycotoxins. However, the nature of the CWP2 target is not known. Thus, investigation of the gene coding for the CWP2 antibody target will likely provide critical insights into the mechanism underlying the resistance mediated by this disease-resistance antibody. Immunoblots and mass spectrometry analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis gels containing cell wall proteins from Fusarium graminearum (Fg) revealed that a glyoxal oxidase (GLX) is the CWP2 antigen. Cellular localization studies showed that GLX is localized to the plasma membrane. This GLX efficiently catalyzes hydrogen peroxide production; this enzymatic activity was specifically inhibited by the CWP2 antibody. GLX-deletion strains of Fg, F. verticillioides (Fv) and F. oxysporum had significantly reduced virulence on plants. The GLX-deletion Fg and Fv strains had markedly reduced mycotoxin accumulation, and the expression of key genes in mycotoxin metabolism was downregulated. This study reveals a single gene-encoded and highly conserved cellular surface antigen that is specifically recognized by the disease-resistance antibody CWP2 and regulates both virulence and mycotoxin biosynthesis in Fusarium species. PMID:26720747

  15. A fungal pathogen secretes plant alkalinizing peptides to increase infection.

    PubMed

    Masachis, Sara; Segorbe, David; Turrà, David; Leon-Ruiz, Mercedes; Fürst, Ursula; El Ghalid, Mennat; Leonard, Guy; López-Berges, Manuel S; Richards, Thomas A; Felix, Georg; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Plant infections caused by fungi are often associated with an increase in the pH of the surrounding host tissue(1). Extracellular alkalinization is thought to contribute to fungal pathogenesis, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the root-infecting fungus Fusarium oxysporum uses a functional homologue of the plant regulatory peptide RALF (rapid alkalinization factor)(2,3) to induce alkalinization and cause disease in plants. An upshift in extracellular pH promotes infectious growth of Fusarium by stimulating phosphorylation of a conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase essential for pathogenicity(4,5). Fungal mutants lacking a functional Fusarium (F)-RALF peptide failed to induce host alkalinization and showed markedly reduced virulence in tomato plants, while eliciting a strong host immune response. Arabidopsis plants lacking the receptor-like kinase FERONIA, which mediates the RALF-triggered alkalinization response(6), displayed enhanced resistance against Fusarium. RALF homologues are found across a number of phylogenetically distant groups of fungi, many of which infect plants. We propose that fungal pathogens use functional homologues of alkalinizing peptides found in their host plants to increase their infectious potential and suppress host immunity. PMID:27572834

  16. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:27072489

  17. Fusaric acid is a crucial factor in the disturbance of leaf water imbalance in Fusarium-infected banana plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xian; Ling, Ning; Wang, Min; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-11-01

    Fusarium wilt of banana is caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. The initial chlorosis symptoms occur progressively from lower to upper leaves, with wilt symptoms subsequently occurring in the whole plant. To determine the effect of the pathogen infection on the gas exchange characteristics and water content in banana leaves, hydroponic experiments with pathogen inoculation were conducted in a greenhouse. Compared with control plants, infected banana seedlings showed a higher leaf temperature as determined by thermal imaging. Reduced stomatal conductance (g(s)) and transpiration rate (E) in infected plants resulted in lower levels of water loss than in control plants. Water potential in heavily diseased plants (II) was significantly reduced and the E/g(s) ratio was higher than in noninfected plants, indicating the occurrence of uncontrolled water loss not regulated by stomata in diseased plants. As no pathogen colonies were detected from the infected plant leaves, the crude toxin was extracted from the pathogen culture and evaluated about the effect on banana plant to further investigate the probable reason of these physiological changes in Fusarium-infected banana leaf. The phytotoxin fusaric acid (FA) was found in the crude toxin, and both crude toxin and pure FA had similar effects as the pathogen infection on the physiological changes in banana leaf. Additionally, FA was present at all positions in diseased plants and its concentration was positively correlated with the incidence of disease symptoms. Taken together, these observations indicated that FA secreted by the pathogen is an important factor involved in the disturbance of leaf temperature, resulting in uncontrolled leaf water loss and electrolyte leakage due to damaging the cell membrane. In conclusion, FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in banana plants by acting as a phytotoxin. PMID:22964424

  18. Genes of phenylpropanoid pathway are activated in early response to Fusarium attack in flax plants.

    PubMed

    Kostyn, Kamil; Czemplik, Magdalena; Kulma, Anna; Bortniczuk, Małgorzata; Skała, Jacek; Szopa, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Fusarium is the most common flax pathogen causing serious plant diseases and in most cases leading to plant death. To protect itself, the plant activates a number of genes and metabolic pathways, both to counteract the effects of the pathogen, and to eliminate the threat. The identification of the plant genes which respond to infection is the approach, that has been used in this study. Forty-seven flax genes have been identified by means of cDNA subtraction method as those, which respond to pathogen infection. Subtracted genes were classified into several classes and the prevalence of the genes involved in the broad spectrum of antioxidants biosynthesis has been noticed. By means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR and metabolite profiling, the involvement of subtracted genes controlling phenylpropanoid pathway in flax upon infection was positively verified. We identified the key genes of the synthesis of these compounds. At the same time we determined the level of the metabolites produced in the phenylpropanoid pathway (flavonoids, phenolic acids) in early response to Fusarium attack by means of GC-MS technique. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report to describe genes and metabolites of early flax response to pathogens studied in a comprehensive way. PMID:22608524

  19. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy cattle feed.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinggao; Bell, Alois A; Wheeler, Michael H; Stipanovic, Robert D; Puckhaber, Lorraine S

    2011-11-01

    A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. f.sp. vasinfectum (Atk) Sny. & Hans., found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require plant parasitic nematodes to cause disease. This makes it a threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) that is grown on heavy alkaline soil and currently is not affected by Fusarium wilt. In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live cottonseed were imported into California for dairy cattle feed. Thirteen F. oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum isolates and four isolates of a Fusarium spp. that resembled F. oxysporum were isolated from the imported cottonseed. The isolates, designated by an AuSeed prefix, formed four vegetative compatibility groups (VCG) all of which were incompatible with tester isolates for 18 VCGs found in the USA. Isolate AuSeed14 was vegetatively compatible with the four reference isolates of Australian biotype VCG01111. Phylogenetic analyses based on EF-1α, PHO, BT, Mat1-1, and Mat1-2 gene sequences separated the 17 seed isolates into three lineages (race A, race 3, and Fusarium spp.) with AuSeed14 clustering into race 3 lineage or race A lineage depending on the genes analyzed. Indel analysis of the EF-1α gene sequences revealed a close evolutionary relationship among AuSeed14, Australian biotype reference isolates, and the four Fusarium spp. isolates. The Australian seed isolates and the four Australian biotype reference isolates caused disease with root-dip inoculation, but not with stem-puncture inoculation. Thus, they were a vascular incompetent pathotype. In contrast, USA race A lineage isolates readily colonized vascular tissue and formed a vascular competent pathotype when introduced directly into xylem vessels. The AuSeed14 isolate was as pathogenic as the Australian biotype, and it or related isolates could cause a severe Fusarium wilt problem in USA cotton fields if they become established. PMID:22004096

  20. Functional genomic studies of pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight or scab caused by Fusarium graminearum is a disease of wheat and barley that occurs worldwide and that has great impact on U.S. agriculture and society. Infested cereals are often contaminated with trichothecene and estrogenic mycotoxins. To better understand fungal pathogenesis and deve...

  1. Compartmentalized gene regulatory network of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum (Fg) is a major limiting factor of wheat production with both yield loss and mycotoxin contamination. Here we report a model for global Fg gene regulatory networks (GRNs) inferred from a large collection of transcriptomic data using a machine-learning appro...

  2. Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains.

    PubMed

    Short, Dylan P G; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H; Geiser, David M

    2011-12-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  3. The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major destructive pathogen of cultivated cereals. We have sequenced and annotated the F. graminearum genome, and found it includes very few repetitive sequences. We experimentally demonstrate that repeats are mutated by the process of repeat-induced p...

  4. First Report of Sexual Reproduction by the Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome Pathogen Fusarium tucumaniae in Nature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Of the four fusaria that have been shown to cause soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), field surveys indicate that Fusarium tucumaniae is the most important and genetically diverse SDS pathogen in Argentina. Although none of the SDS fusaria have been shown to produce perithecia in nature, a heteroth...

  5. Expression of rice thaumatin-like protein gene in transgenic banana plants enhances resistance to fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, F; Sariah, M; Maziah, M

    2012-02-01

    The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants. PMID:22183565

  6. Identification of pathogenicity-related genes in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Vágány, Viktória; Jackson, Alison C; Harrison, Richard J; Rainoni, Alessandro; Clarkson, John P

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic isolates of Fusarium oxysporum, distinguished as formae speciales (f. spp.) on the basis of their host specificity, cause crown rots, root rots and vascular wilts on many important crops worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) is particularly problematic to onion growers worldwide and is increasing in prevalence in the UK. We characterized 31 F. oxysporum isolates collected from UK onions using pathogenicity tests, sequencing of housekeeping genes and identification of effectors. In onion seedling and bulb tests, 21 isolates were pathogenic and 10 were non-pathogenic. The molecular characterization of these isolates, and 21 additional isolates comprising other f. spp. and different Fusarium species, was carried out by sequencing three housekeeping genes. A concatenated tree separated the F. oxysporum isolates into six clades, but did not distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic isolates. Ten putative effectors were identified within FOC, including seven Secreted In Xylem (SIX) genes first reported in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Two highly homologous proteins with signal peptides and RxLR motifs (CRX1/CRX2) and a gene with no previously characterized domains (C5) were also identified. The presence/absence of nine of these genes was strongly related to pathogenicity against onion and all were shown to be expressed in planta. Different SIX gene complements were identified in other f. spp., but none were identified in three other Fusarium species from onion. Although the FOC SIX genes had a high level of homology with other f. spp., there were clear differences in sequences which were unique to FOC, whereas CRX1 and C5 genes appear to be largely FOC specific. PMID:26609905

  7. Characterization of a population of Fusarium oxysporum, from sugar beet, using the population structure of putative pathogenicity genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    WEBB, KIMBERLY M.*, PAUL COVEY, BRETT KUWITZKY, AND MIA HANSON, USDA-ARS, Sugar Beet Research Unit, 1701 Centre Ave., Fort Collins, CO 80526. Characterization of a population of Fusarium oxysporum, from sugar beet, using the population structure of putative pathogenicity genes. Fusarium oxysp...

  8. Rapid and Efficient Estimation of Pea Resistance to the Soil-Borne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum by Infrared Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Rispail, Nicolas; Rubiales, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilts are widespread diseases affecting most agricultural crops. In absence of efficient alternatives, sowing resistant cultivars is the preferred approach to control this disease. However, actual resistance sources are often overcome by new pathogenic races, forcing breeders to continuously search for novel resistance sources. Selection of resistant accessions, mainly based on the evaluation of symptoms at timely intervals, is highly time-consuming. Thus, we tested the potential of an infra-red imaging system in plant breeding to speed up this process. For this, we monitored the changes in surface leaf temperature upon infection by F. oxysporum f. sp. pisi in several pea accessions with contrasting response to Fusarium wilt under a controlled environment. Using a portable infra-red imaging system we detected a significant temperature increase of at least 0.5 °C after 10 days post-inoculation in the susceptible accessions, while the resistant accession temperature remained at control level. The increase in leaf temperature at 10 days post-inoculation was positively correlated with the AUDPC calculated over a 30 days period. Thus, this approach allowed the early discrimination between resistant and susceptible accessions. As such, applying infra-red imaging system in breeding for Fusarium wilt resistance would contribute to considerably shorten the process of selection of novel resistant sources. PMID:25671514

  9. Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum

    PubMed Central

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  10. Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.

    PubMed

    Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

  11. Changing fitness of a necrotrophic plant pathogen under increasing temperature.

    PubMed

    Sabburg, Rosalie; Obanor, Friday; Aitken, Elizabeth; Chakraborty, Sukumar

    2015-08-01

    Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to have a direct impact on plant pathogens, challenging crops and altering plant disease profiles in the future. In this study, we have investigated the effect of increasing temperature on the pathogenic fitness of Fusarium pseudograminearum, an important necrotrophic plant pathogen associated with crown rot disease of wheat in Australia. Eleven wheat lines with different levels of crown rot resistance were artificially inoculated with F. pseudograminearum and maintained at four diurnal temperatures 15/15°C, 20/15°C, 25/15°C and 28/15°C in a controlled glasshouse. To quantify the success of F. pseudograminearum three fitness measures, these being disease severity, pathogen biomass in stem base and flag leaf node, and deoxynivalenol (DON) in stem base and flag leaf node of mature plants were used. F. pseudograminearum showed superior overall fitness at 15/15°C, and this was reduced with increasing temperature. Pathogen fitness was significantly influenced by the level of crown rot resistance of wheat lines, but the influence of line declined with increasing temperature. Lines that exhibited superior crown rot resistance in the field were generally associated with reduced overall pathogen fitness. However, the relative performance of the wheat lines was dependent on the measure of pathogen fitness, and lines that were associated with one reduced measure of pathogen fitness did not always reduce another. There was a strong correlation between DON in stem base tissue and disease severity, but length of browning was not a good predictor of Fusarium biomass in the stem base. We report that a combination of host resistance and rising temperature will reduce pathogen fitness under increasing temperature, but further studies combining the effect of rising CO2 are essential for more realistic assessments. PMID:25767051

  12. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L; Reynoso, María M; Torres, Adriana M

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to -14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to -8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was -8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and -5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  13. Impact of water potential on growth and germination of Fusarium solani soilborne pathogen of peanut

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Sofia; Casasnovas, Francisco; Ramirez, María L.; Reynoso, María. M.; Torres, Adriana M.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the effect of osmotic and matric stress on germination and growth of two Fusarium solani strains, the etiological agent responsible of peanut brown root rot. Both strains had similar osmotic and matric potential ranges that allowed growth, being the latter one narrower. F. solani showed the ability to grow down to −14 MPa at 25 °C in non-ionic modified osmotic medium, while under matric stress this was limited to −8.4 MPa at 25 °C. However, both strains were seen to respond differently to decreasing osmotic and matric potentials, during early stages of germination. One strain (RC 338) showed to be more sensitive to matric than osmotic (non ionic) and the other one (RC 386) showed to be more sensitive to osmotic than matric imposed water stress. After 24 h of incubation, both isolates behaved similarly. The minimum water potential for germination was −8.4 MPa on glycerol amended media and −5.6 MPa for NaCl and PEG amended media, respectively. The knowledge of the water potential range which allow mycelia growth and spore germination of F. solani provides an inside to the likely behaviour of this devastating soilborne plant pathogen in nature and has important practical implications. PMID:25477950

  14. Expression of a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, D4E1, in Gladiolus plants for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The main pathogen of Gladiolus plants is Fusarium oxysporum, a soilborne fungus that infects roots and corms and kills the plant. Purified D4E1, a synthetic antimicrobial peptide, was found to effectively inhibit 100% of F. oxysporum f. sp. gladioli germinated spores from forming a mycelial mass in ...

  15. Comparative study of the pathogenicity of seabed isolates of Fusarium equiseti and the effect of the composition of the mineral salt medium and temperature on mycelial growth

    PubMed Central

    Palmero, D.; de Cara, M.; Iglesias, C.; Gálvez, L.; Tello, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenicity of seven strains of Fusarium equiseti isolated from seabed soil was evaluated on different host plants showing pre and post emergence damage. Radial growth of 27 strains was measured on culture media previously adjusted to different osmotic potentials with either KCl or NaCl (-1.50 to -144.54 bars) at 15°, 25° and 35° C. Significant differences and interactive effects were observed in the response of mycelia to osmotic potential and temperature. PMID:24031710

  16. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  17. The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

    2013-12-01

    The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

  18. How Phytohormones Shape Interactions between Plants and the Soil-Borne Fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Di, Xiaotang; Takken, Frank L W; Tintor, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Plants interact with a huge variety of soil microbes, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex consists of ubiquitous soil inhabiting fungi that can infect and cause disease in over 120 different plant species including tomato, banana, cotton, and Arabidopsis. However, in many cases Fo colonization remains symptomless or even has beneficial effects on plant growth and/or stress tolerance. Also in pathogenic interactions a lengthy asymptomatic phase usually precedes disease development. All this indicates a sophisticated and fine-tuned interaction between Fo and its host. The molecular mechanisms underlying this balance are poorly understood. Plant hormone signaling networks emerge as key regulators of plant-microbe interactions in general. In this review we summarize the effects of the major phytohormones on the interaction between Fo and its diverse hosts. Generally, Salicylic Acid (SA) signaling reduces plant susceptibility, whereas Jasmonic Acid (JA), Ethylene (ET), Abscisic Acid (ABA), and auxin have complex effects, and are potentially hijacked by Fo for host manipulation. Finally, we discuss how plant hormones and Fo effectors balance the interaction from beneficial to pathogenic and vice versa. PMID:26909099

  19. How Phytohormones Shape Interactions between Plants and the Soil-Borne Fungus Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Di, Xiaotang; Takken, Frank L. W.; Tintor, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Plants interact with a huge variety of soil microbes, ranging from pathogenic to mutualistic. The Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) species complex consists of ubiquitous soil inhabiting fungi that can infect and cause disease in over 120 different plant species including tomato, banana, cotton, and Arabidopsis. However, in many cases Fo colonization remains symptomless or even has beneficial effects on plant growth and/or stress tolerance. Also in pathogenic interactions a lengthy asymptomatic phase usually precedes disease development. All this indicates a sophisticated and fine-tuned interaction between Fo and its host. The molecular mechanisms underlying this balance are poorly understood. Plant hormone signaling networks emerge as key regulators of plant-microbe interactions in general. In this review we summarize the effects of the major phytohormones on the interaction between Fo and its diverse hosts. Generally, Salicylic Acid (SA) signaling reduces plant susceptibility, whereas Jasmonic Acid (JA), Ethylene (ET), Abscisic Acid (ABA), and auxin have complex effects, and are potentially hijacked by Fo for host manipulation. Finally, we discuss how plant hormones and Fo effectors balance the interaction from beneficial to pathogenic and vice versa. PMID:26909099

  20. Colonization of Flax Roots and Early Physiological Responses of Flax Cells Inoculated with Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Strains of Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Olivain, Chantal; Trouvelot, Sophie; Binet, Marie-Noëlle; Cordier, Christelle; Pugin, Alain; Alabouvette, Claude

    2003-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum includes nonpathogenic strains and pathogenic strains that can induce necrosis or tracheomycosis in plants. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of a pathogenic strain (Foln3) and a nonpathogenic strain (Fo47) to colonize flax roots and to induce early physiological responses in flax cell culture suspensions. Both strains colonized the outer cortex of the root; however, plant defense reactions, i.e., the presence of wall appositions, osmiophilic material, and collapsed cells, were less frequent and less intense in a root colonized by Foln3 than by Fo47. Early physiological responses were measured in flax cell suspensions confronted with germinated microconidia of both strains. Both pathogenic (Foln3) and nonpathogenic strains (Fo47) triggered transient H2O2 production in the first few minutes of the interaction, but the nonpathogenic strain also induced a second burst 3 h postinoculation. Ca2+ influx was more intense in cells inoculated with Fo47 than in cells inoculated with Foln3. Similarly, alkalinization of the extracellular medium was higher with Fo47 than with Foln3. Inoculation of the fungi into flax cell suspensions induced cell death 10 to 20 h postinoculation, with a higher percentage of dead cells observed with Fo47 than with Foln3 beginning at 14 h. This is the first report showing that early physiological responses of flax cells can be used to distinguish pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of the soil-borne fungus F. oxysporum. PMID:12957934

  1. Integrated control of soilborne plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are no resistant varieties or chemical controls for the Major soilborne pathogens of wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. These diseases include Rhizoctonia root rot and bare patch (caused by R. solani and R. oryzae), Fusarium crown rot (caused by F. pseudograminearum and F. culmorum), P...

  2. [Population genetics of plant pathogens].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen; Zhan, Jia-Sui

    2012-02-01

    Comparing to natural ecosystems, the evolution of plant pathogens in agricultural ecosystems is generally faster due to high-density monocultures, large-scale application of agrochemicals, and international trade in agricultural products. Knowledge of the population genetics and evolutionary biology of plant pathogens is necessary to understand disease epidemiology, effectively breed and use resistant cultivars, and control plant diseases. In this article, we outlined the aims of population genetic studies in plant pathogens, discuss contributions of five evolutionary forces (i.e., mutation, gene flow, recombination, random genetic drift, and natural selection) to origin, maintenance, and distribution of genetic variation in time and space, and gave an overview of current research status in this field. PMID:22382057

  3. Screening of endophytic bacteria against fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ohike, Tatsuya; Makuni, Kohei; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial endophytes were found from 6 plant leaves among 35 plant leaves screened. Two of the isolated bacteria showed antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. An isolate named KL1 showed the clear inihibition against plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, on PDA as well as TSA plate. Supernatant of the bacterial culture also showed the clear inhibition against the fungal growth on the plate and the antibiotic substance was identified as iturin A by HPLC analysis. KL1 was identified as Bacillus sp. from the 16S rRNA gene analysis. Very thin hyphae of R. solani was miccroscopically observed when the fungus was co-cultivated with KL1. PMID:25078813

  4. First Report of Pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium acuminatum on Sunflowers in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread infection of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid) was observed in a commercial sunflower field (Helianthus annuus L. cv. 'Pioneer 63M82') in Todd County, MN in September 2009. Stem sections of the basal portion of infected plants were harvested and dissected. In addition to...

  5. Cyber-infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF): Three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics, and knowledge sharing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on ...

  6. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Prats, Elena; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.

    2010-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection. PMID:20589070

  7. The Top 10 fungal pathogens in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Dean, Ralph; Van Kan, Jan A L; Pretorius, Zacharias A; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E; Di Pietro, Antonio; Spanu, Pietro D; Rudd, Jason J; Dickman, Marty; Kahmann, Regine; Ellis, Jeff; Foster, Gary D

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this review was to survey all fungal pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which fungal pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 495 votes from the international community, and resulted in the generation of a Top 10 fungal plant pathogen list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Magnaporthe oryzae; (2) Botrytis cinerea; (3) Puccinia spp.; (4) Fusarium graminearum; (5) Fusarium oxysporum; (6) Blumeria graminis; (7) Mycosphaerella graminicola; (8) Colletotrichum spp.; (9) Ustilago maydis; (10) Melampsora lini, with honourable mentions for fungi just missing out on the Top 10, including Phakopsora pachyrhizi and Rhizoctonia solani. This article presents a short resumé of each fungus in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant mycology community, as well as laying down a bench-mark. It will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and what fungi will comprise any future Top 10. PMID:22471698

  8. Activity of Flavanones Isolated from Rhododendron hainanense against Plant Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya; Zhao, Jie; Gao, Kun

    2016-05-01

    In a search for naturally occurring antimicrobial compounds in medicinal plants and herbs, seven flavanones were isolated from the aerial parts of Rhododendron hainanense and were tested for their antimicrobial activities against six bacteria and six plant pathogenic fungi. Within the series of flavanones tested, farrerol (1) displayed moderate antibacterial activities against Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Erwinia carotovora, with MICs ranging from 15.6 to 125 μg/mL. Furthermore, farrerol (1) exhibited excellent inhibitory activities against six plant pathogenic fungi: Fusarium oxysporum f sp. niveum, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Penicillium italicum, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum f sp. cubenserace and Phytophthora melonis, with EC50 values of 9, 18, 35, 39, 46 and 66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report on farrerol with anti-plant pathogenic fungal activities. PMID:27319130

  9. Jasmonic Acid, Abscisic Acid, and Salicylic Acid Are Involved in the Phytoalexin Responses of Rice to Fusarium fujikuroi, a High Gibberellin Producer Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Amaral Carneiro, Greice; Spadaro, Davide; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2015-09-23

    Fusarium fujikuroi, the causal agent of bakanae disease, is the main seedborne pathogen on rice. To understand the basis of rice resistance, a quantitative method to simultaneously detect phytohormones and phytoalexins was developed by using HPLC-MS/MS. With this method dynamic profiles and possible interactions of defense-related phytohormones and phytoalexins were investigated on two rice cultivars, inoculated or not with F. fujikuroi. In the resistant cultivar Selenio, the presence of pathogen induced high production of phytoalexins, mainly sakuranetin, and symptoms of bakanae were not observed. On the contrary, in the susceptible genotype Dorella, the pathogen induced the production of gibberellin and abscisic acid and inhibited jasmonic acid production, phytoalexins were very low, and bakanae symptoms were observed. The results suggested that a wide range of secondary metabolites are involved in plant defense against pathogens and phytoalexin synthesis could be an important factor for rice resistance against bakanae disease. PMID:26323788

  10. FUSARIUM FOETENS, A NEW SPECIES PATHOGENIC TO ELATIOR BEGONIA (BEGONIA X HIEMALIS) HYBRIDS AND THE SISTER TAXON OF THE FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM SPECIES COMPLEX

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new disease was recently discovered in Elatior hybrid begonia (Begonia x hiemalis) nurseries in The Netherlands. Diseased plants showed a combination of basal rot, vein yellowing and wilting. A species of Fusarium was consistently isolated from the discolored veins of leaves and stems. This spe...

  11. Characterization of a JAZ7 activation-tagged Arabidopsis mutant with increased susceptibility to the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Louise F.; Cevik, Volkan; Grant, Murray; Zhai, Bing; Jones, Jonathan D.G.; Manners, John M.; Kazan, Kemal

    2016-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, jasmonate (JA)-signaling plays a key role in mediating Fusarium oxysporum disease outcome. However, the roles of JASMONATE ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins that repress JA-signaling have not been characterized in host resistance or susceptibility to this pathogen. Here, we found most JAZ genes are induced following F. oxysporum challenge, and screening T-DNA insertion lines in Arabidopsis JAZ family members identified a highly disease-susceptible JAZ7 mutant (jaz7-1D). This mutant exhibited constitutive JAZ7 expression and conferred increased JA-sensitivity, suggesting activation of JA-signaling. Unlike jaz7 loss-of-function alleles, jaz7-1D also had enhanced JA-responsive gene expression, altered development and increased susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen Pst DC3000 that also disrupts host JA-responses. We also demonstrate that JAZ7 interacts with transcription factors functioning as activators (MYC3, MYC4) or repressors (JAM1) of JA-signaling and contains a functional EAR repressor motif mediating transcriptional repression via the co-repressor TOPLESS (TPL). We propose through direct TPL recruitment, in wild-type plants JAZ7 functions as a repressor within the JA-response network and that in jaz7-1D plants, misregulated ectopic JAZ7 expression hyper-activates JA-signaling in part by disturbing finely-tuned COI1-JAZ-TPL-TF complexes. PMID:26896849

  12. Plant innate immunity against human bacterial pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Melotto, Maeli; Panchal, Shweta; Roy, Debanjana

    2014-01-01

    Certain human bacterial pathogens such as the enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica are not proven to be plant pathogens yet. Nonetheless, under certain conditions they can survive on, penetrate into, and colonize internal plant tissues causing serious food borne disease outbreaks. In this review, we highlight current understanding on the molecular mechanisms of plant responses against human bacterial pathogens and discuss salient common and contrasting themes of plant interactions with phytopathogens or human pathogens. PMID:25157245

  13. Widespread Occurrence of Diverse Human Pathogenic Types of the Fungus Fusarium Detected in Plumbing Drains ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Short, Dylan P. G.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H.; Geiser, David M.

    2011-01-01

    It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

  14. A meiotic drive element is located within a 130-kb region of chromosome V of the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize worldwide and produces carcinogenic mycotoxins known as fumonisins. Natural populations of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element called Spore killer, abbreviated as FvSkK. Only FvSkK progeny survive in a cross between an FvSkK strain and...

  15. Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy cattle feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require nematodes to cause disease, making it a new threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live ...

  16. mRNA isoforms in the maize endophyte/pathogen Fusarium verticillioides: And a little story about KP4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The filamentous fungus Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen and endophyte of maize. At some stages of its life, it may synthesize a family of mycotoxins called fumonisins that may contaminate maize products. Ingestion of fumonisin is linked to a variety of animal diseases including cancer in som...

  17. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Upasani, Medha L.; Gurjar, Gayatri S.; Gupta, Vidya S.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62) and wilt-resistant (Digvijay) chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar. PMID:27227745

  18. Dynamics of Colonization and Expression of Pathogenicity Related Genes in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri during Chickpea Vascular Wilt Disease Progression.

    PubMed

    Upasani, Medha L; Gurjar, Gayatri S; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Gupta, Vidya S

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. ciceri (Foc) is a constant threat to chickpea productivity in several parts of the world. Understanding the molecular basis of chickpea-Foc interaction is necessary to improve chickpea resistance to Foc and thereby the productivity of chickpea. We transformed Foc race 2 using green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene and used it to characterize pathogen progression and colonization in wilt-susceptible (JG62) and wilt-resistant (Digvijay) chickpea cultivars using confocal microscopy. We also employed quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate the pathogen load and progression across various tissues of both the chickpea cultivars during the course of the disease. Additionally, the expression of several candidate pathogen virulence genes was analyzed using quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR), which showed their characteristic expression in wilt-susceptible and resistant chickpea cultivars. Our results suggest that the pathogen colonizes the susceptible cultivar defeating its defense; however, albeit its entry in the resistant plant, further proliferation is severely restricted providing an evidence of efficient defense mechanism in the resistant chickpea cultivar. PMID:27227745

  19. Physiological and biochemical aspects of the resistance of banana plants to Fusarium wilt potentiated by silicon.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antonio; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila; do Nascimento, Kelly Juliane Teles

    2012-10-01

    Silicon amendments to soil have resulted in a decrease of diseases caused by several soilborne pathogens affecting a wide number of crops. This study evaluated the physiological and biochemical mechanisms that may have increased resistance of banana to Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, after treatment with silicon (Si) amendment. Plants from the Grand Nain (resistant to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) and "Maçã" (susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense) were grown in plastic pots amended with Si at 0 or 0.39 g/kg of soil (-Si or +Si, respectively) and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. Relative lesion length (RLL) and asymptomatic fungal colonization in tissue (AFCT) were evaluated at 40 days after inoculation. Root samples were collected at different times after inoculation with F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense to determine the level of lipid peroxidation, expressed as equivalents of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, and carotenoids), total soluble phenolics (TSP), and lignin-thioglycolic acid (LTGA) derivatives; the activities of the enzymes phenylalanine ammonia-lyases glucanases (PALs), peroxidases (POXs), polyphenoloxidases (PPOs), β-1,3-glucanases (GLUs), and chitinases (CHIs); and Si concentration in roots. Root Si concentration was significantly increased by 35.3% for the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. For Grand Nain, the root Si concentration was significantly increased by 12.8% compared with "Maçã." Plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" in the +Si treatment showed significant reductions of 40.0 and 57.2%, respectively, for RLL compared with the -Si treatment. For the AFCT, there was a significant reduction of 18.5% in the +Si treatment compared with the -Si treatment. The concentration of MDA significantly decreased for plants from Grand Nain and "Maçã" supplied with Si compared with the -Si treatment while the

  20. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B₁, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  1. Septins are involved in nuclear division, morphogenesis and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ahai; Xie, Qiurong; Lin, Yahong; Xu, Huaijian; Shang, Wenjie; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Dongmei; Zheng, Wenhui; Li, Guangpu; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-09-01

    Septins are GTP-binding proteins that regulate cell polarity, cytokinesis and cell morphogenesis. Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most devastating diseases worldwide. In this study, we have functionally characterized the core septins, Cdc3, Cdc10, Cdc11 and Cdc12 in F. graminearum. The loss of FgCdc3, FgCdc11, FgCdc12, but not FgCdc10, mutants showed significant reduction in growth, conidiation and virulence. Microscopic analyses revealed that all of them were involved in septum formation and nuclear division. Moreover, disruption of septin genes resulted in morphological defects in ascospores and conidia. Interestingly, conidia produced by ΔFgcdc3, ΔFgcdc11 and ΔFgcdc12 mutants exhibited deformation with interconnecting conidia in contrast to their parent wild-type strain PH-1 and the ΔFgcdc10 mutant that produced normal conidia. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we determined the interactions among FgCdc3, FgCdc10, FgCdc11 and FgCdc12. Taken together, our results indicate that septins play important roles in the nuclear division, morphogenesis and pathogenicity in F. graminearum. PMID:27387218

  2. Identification of Pathogenic Fusarium spp. Causing Maize Ear Rot and Potential Mycotoxin Production in China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Canxing; Qin, Zihui; Yang, Zhihuan; Li, Weixi; Sun, Suli; Zhu, Zhendong; Wang, Xiaoming

    2016-01-01

    Ear rot is a serious disease that affects maize yield and grain quality worldwide. The mycotoxins are often hazardous to humans and livestock. In samples collected in China between 2009 and 2014, Fusarium verticillioides and F. graminearum species complex were the dominant fungi causing ear rot. According to the TEF-1α gene sequence, F. graminearum species complex in China included three independent species: F. graminearum, F. meridionale, and F. boothii. The key gene FUM1 responsible for the biosynthesis of fumonisin was detected in all 82 F. verticillioides isolates. Among these, 57 isolates mainly produced fumonisin B1, ranging from 2.52 to 18,416.44 µg/g for each gram of dry hyphal weight, in vitro. Three different toxigenic chemotypes were detected among 78 F. graminearum species complex: 15-ADON, NIV and 15-ADON+NIV. Sixty and 16 isolates represented the 15-ADON and NIV chemotypes, respectively; two isolates carried both 15-ADON and NIV-producing segments. All the isolates carrying NIV-specific segment were F. meridionale. The in vitro production of 15-ADON, 3-ADON, DON, and ZEN varied from 5.43 to 81,539.49; 6.04 to 19,590.61; 13.35 to 19,795.33; and 1.77 to 430.24 µg/g of dry hyphal weight, respectively. Altogether, our present data demonstrate potential main mycotoxin production of dominant pathogenic Fusarium in China. PMID:27338476

  3. Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

    2014-07-16

    Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

  4. Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

  5. Isolation and characterisation of a ferrirhodin synthetase gene from the sugarcane pathogen Fusarium sacchari.

    PubMed

    Munawar, Asifa; Marshall, James W; Cox, Russell J; Bailey, Andy M; Lazarus, Colin M

    2013-02-11

    FSN1, a gene isolated from the sugar-cane pathogen Fusarium sacchari, encodes a 4707-residue nonribosomal peptide synthetase consisting of three complete adenylation, thiolation and condensation modules followed by two additional thiolation and condensation domain repeats. This structure is similar to that of ferricrocin synthetase, which makes a siderophore that is involved in intracellular iron storage in other filamentous fungi. Heterologous expression of FSN1 in Aspergillus oryzae resulted in the accumulation of a secreted metabolite that was identified as ferrirhodin. This siderophore was found to be present in both mycelium and culture filtrates of F. sacchari, whereas ferricrocin is found only in the mycelium, thus suggesting that ferricrocin is an intracellular storage siderophore in F. sacchari, whereas ferrirhodin is used for iron acquisition. To our knowledge, this is the first report to characterise a ferrirhodin synthetase gene functionally. PMID:23307607

  6. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  7. Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

  8. Petunia Floral Defensins with Unique Prodomains as Novel Candidates for Development of Fusarium Wilt Resistance in Transgenic Banana Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghag, Siddhesh B.; Shekhawat, Upendra K. Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R.

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C- terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium–mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana. PMID:22745785

  9. Petunia floral defensins with unique prodomains as novel candidates for development of fusarium wilt resistance in transgenic banana plants.

    PubMed

    Ghag, Siddhesh B; Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R

    2012-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are a potent group of defense active molecules that have been utilized in developing resistance against a multitude of plant pathogens. Floral defensins constitute a group of cysteine-rich peptides showing potent growth inhibition of pathogenic filamentous fungi especially Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. Full length genes coding for two Petunia floral defensins, PhDef1 and PhDef2 having unique C-terminal 31 and 27 amino acid long predicted prodomains, were overexpressed in transgenic banana plants using embryogenic cells as explants for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. High level constitutive expression of these defensins in elite banana cv. Rasthali led to significant resistance against infection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense as shown by in vitro and ex vivo bioassay studies. Transgenic banana lines expressing either of the two defensins were clearly less chlorotic and had significantly less infestation and discoloration in the vital corm region of the plant as compared to untransformed controls. Transgenic banana plants expressing high level of full-length PhDef1 and PhDef2 were phenotypically normal and no stunting was observed. In conclusion, our results suggest that high-level constitutive expression of floral defensins having distinctive prodomains is an efficient strategy for development of fungal resistance in economically important fruit crops like banana. PMID:22745785

  10. Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Larson, Troy M; Kendra, David F; Busman, Mark; Brown, Daren W

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize. PMID:21246198

  11. Fusarium agapanthi sp. nov, a novel bikaverin and fusarubin-producing leaf and stem spot pathogen of Agapanthus praecox (African lily) from Australia and Italy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to characterize a novel Fusarium species that caused leaf and stem spot on Agapanthus praecox (Agapanthus, African lily) in northern Italy and leaf rot and spot on the same host in Melbourne, Australia. Formally described here as Fusarium agapanthi, this novel pathogen was a...

  12. LDS1-produced oxylipins are negative regulators of growth, conidiation and fumonisin synthesis in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Scala, Valeria; Giorni, Paola; Cirlini, Martina; Ludovici, Matteo; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca; Fabbri, Anna A; Fanelli, Corrado; Reverberi, Massimo; Battilani, Paola; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins are fatty acid-derived signaling compounds produced by all eukaryotes so far investigated; in mycotoxigenic fungi, they modulate toxin production and interactions with the host plants. Among the many enzymes responsible for oxylipin generation, Linoleate Diol Synthase 1 (LDS1) produces mainly 8-hydroperoxyoctadecenoic acid and subsequently different di-hydroxyoctadecenoic acids. In this study, we inactivated a copy of the putative LDS1 ortholog (acc. N. FVEG_09294.3) of Fusarium verticillioides, with the aim to investigate its influence on the oxylipin profile of the fungus, on its development, secondary metabolism and virulence. LC-MS/MS oxylipin profiling carried out on the selected mutant strain revealed significant quali-quantitative differences for several oxylipins when compared to the WT strain. The Fvlds1-deleted mutant grew better, produced more conidia, synthesized more fumonisins and infected maize cobs faster than the WT strain. We hypothesize that oxylipins may act as regulators of gene expression in the toxigenic plant pathogen F. verticillioides, in turn causing notable changes in its phenotype. These changes could relate to the ability of oxylipins to re-shape the transcriptional profile of F. verticillioides by inducing chromatin modifications and exerting a direct control on the transcription of secondary metabolism in fungi. PMID:25566199

  13. LDS1-produced oxylipins are negative regulators of growth, conidiation and fumonisin synthesis in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Scala, Valeria; Giorni, Paola; Cirlini, Martina; Ludovici, Matteo; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado; Reverberi, Massimo; Battilani, Paola; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    Oxylipins are fatty acid-derived signaling compounds produced by all eukaryotes so far investigated; in mycotoxigenic fungi, they modulate toxin production and interactions with the host plants. Among the many enzymes responsible for oxylipin generation, Linoleate Diol Synthase 1 (LDS1) produces mainly 8-hydroperoxyoctadecenoic acid and subsequently different di-hydroxyoctadecenoic acids. In this study, we inactivated a copy of the putative LDS1 ortholog (acc. N. FVEG_09294.3) of Fusarium verticillioides, with the aim to investigate its influence on the oxylipin profile of the fungus, on its development, secondary metabolism and virulence. LC-MS/MS oxylipin profiling carried out on the selected mutant strain revealed significant quali-quantitative differences for several oxylipins when compared to the WT strain. The Fvlds1-deleted mutant grew better, produced more conidia, synthesized more fumonisins and infected maize cobs faster than the WT strain. We hypothesize that oxylipins may act as regulators of gene expression in the toxigenic plant pathogen F. verticillioides, in turn causing notable changes in its phenotype. These changes could relate to the ability of oxylipins to re-shape the transcriptional profile of F. verticillioides by inducing chromatin modifications and exerting a direct control on the transcription of secondary metabolism in fungi. PMID:25566199

  14. Pathogenic and Phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugarbeet in Michigan and Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium yellows of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.), caused by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend:FR. f. sp. betae (Stewart) Snyd & Hans, can lead to significant reduction in root yield sucrose percentage, and juice purity. Fusarium yellows has become increasingly common in both Michigan and Minnesota sug...

  15. The Sfp-Type 4′-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Wiemann, Philipp; Albermann, Sabine; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Studt, Lena; von Bargen, Katharina W.; Brock, Nelson L.; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2012-01-01

    The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g. moniliformin. The key enzymes needed for their production belong to the family of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) that are generally known to be post-translationally modified by a Sfp-type 4′phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). In this study we provide evidence that the F. fujikuroi Sfp-type PPTase FfPpt1 is essentially involved in lysine biosynthesis and production of bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins, but not moniliformin as shown by analytical methods. Concomitantly, targeted Ffppt1 deletion mutants reveal an enhancement of terpene-derived metabolites like GAs and volatile substances such as α-acorenol. Pathogenicity assays on rice roots using fluorescent labeled wild-type and Ffppt1 mutant strains indicate that lysine biosynthesis and iron acquisition but not PKS and NRPS metabolism is essential for establishment of primary infections of F. fujikuroi. Additionally, FfPpt1 is involved in conidiation and sexual mating recognition possibly by activating PKS- and/or NRPS-derived metabolites that could act as diffusible signals. Furthermore, the effect on iron acquisition of Ffppt1 mutants led us to identify a previously uncharacterized putative third reductive iron uptake system (FfFtr3/FfFet3) that is closely related to the FtrA/FetC system of A. fumigatus. Functional characterization provides evidence that both proteins are involved in iron acquisition and are liable to transcriptional repression of the homolog of the Aspergillus GATA-type transcription factor SreA under

  16. A transcription factor FgSte12 is required for pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qin; Zhang, Chengqi; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    A conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 mating/filamentation pathway is involved in the regulation of vegetative development and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum. However, little is known about the downstream transcription factors of this pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the homeodomain protein Ste12 is a key transcription factor activated by Fus3/Kss1. In this study, we characterized a Ste12 orthologue FgSte12 in F. graminearum. The FgSTE12 deletion mutant (ΔFgSte12) was impaired in virulence and in the secretion of cellulase and protease, although it did not show recognizable phenotype changes in hyphal growth, conidiation or deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis. In addition, ΔFgSte12 and the FgGPMK1 (a FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene) mutant shared several phenotypic traits. Furthermore, we found that FgGpmk1 controls the nuclear localization of FgSte12. Yeast two-hybrid and affinity capture assays indicated that FgSte12 interacts with the FgSte11-Ste7-Gpmk1 complex. Taken together, these results indicate that FgSte12 is a downstream target of FgSte11-Ste7-Gpmk1 and plays an important role in pathogenicity in F. graminearum. PMID:24832137

  17. Phylogenetically marking the limits of the genus Fusarium for post-Article 59 usage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic fungi. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial nucleotide sequences of genes encod...

  18. Onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Godoy, P; Nunes, E; Silva, V; Tomimori-Yamashita, J; Zaror, L; Fischman, O

    2004-04-01

    Fusarium species are common soil saprophytes and plant pathogens that have been frequently reported as etiologic agents of opportunistic infections in humans. We report eight cases of onychomycosis caused by Fusarium solani (4) and Fusarium oxysporum (4) in São Paulo, Brazil. These species were isolated from toenails in all cases. The infections were initially considered to be caused by dermatophytes. The clinical appearance of the affected toenails was leukonychia or distal subungual hyperkeratosis with yellowish brown coloration. The eight cases reported here suggest that Fusarium spp. should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of tinea unguium. PMID:15180157

  19. Plants versus pathogens: an evolutionary arms race

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Jonathan P.; Gleason, Cynthia A.; Foley, Rhonda C.; Thrall, Peter H.; Burdon, Jeremy B.; Singh, Karam B.

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of plant–pathogen interactions is a rapidly moving research field and one that is very important for productive agricultural systems. The focus of this review is on the evolution of plant defence responses and the coevolution of their pathogens, primarily from a molecular-genetic perspective. It explores the evolution of the major types of plant defence responses including pathogen associated molecular patterns and effector triggered immunity as well as the forces driving pathogen evolution, such as the mechanisms by which pathogen lineages and species evolve. Advances in our understanding of plant defence signalling, stomatal regulation, R gene–effector interactions and host specific toxins are used to highlight recent insights into the coevolutionary arms race between pathogens and plants. Finally, the review considers the intriguing question of how plants have evolved the ability to distinguish friends such as rhizobia and mycorrhiza from their many foes. PMID:21743794

  20. Fusaric acid and pathogenic interactions of corn and non-corn isolates of Fusarium moniliforme, a nonobligate pathogen of corn.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W; Hinton, D M

    1996-01-01

    Fusarium moniliform is a nonobligate parasite of corn, which exists as a complex of closely related fungi from different mating population or biological species. Strains of this fungus isolated from corn, have been determined to belong to mating populations A, although other populations have been isolated from corn. The ultrastructural association of the fungus with corn during growth, and the effects of the host on suppression of disease suppression are reviewed. This fungus enters a relationship with corn cultivars that is not always pathogenic. Pathogenesis is delayed, if it ever occurs. F. moniliforme can exist entirely as an endophyte, systemically colonizing kernels, remaining there until germination upon which the fungus infects the emerging seedlings. The symptomless association persists during the growth cycle of corn, and the resulting endophytic hyphae may be the source of mycotoxin production. The host's ability to suppress the fungus appears to be related to one class of compounds, the cyclic hydroxamic acids and their decomposition products, which can be catabolized by the fungi of mating population A but not C. PMID:8850616

  1. Biosynthesis of DON/15-ADON and NX-2 by different variants of TRI1 from Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the econimically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. During a large scale survey of Fusarium graminearum (sensu strictu) in the northern United States strains (termed N-strains)...

  2. A Multilocus Genealogical Concordance Approach to Species Delimitation within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex of Cereal Head Blight Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley currently ranks as one of the most destructive and economically devastating plant diseases worldwide. Outbreaks and epidemics of FHB pose a double threat to cereal production: (i) the disease is frequently responsible for poor seed quality and reductio...

  3. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2013-04-24

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

  4. In vitro study of the growth, development and pathogenicity responses of Fusarium oxysporum to phthalic acid, an autotoxin from Lanzhou lily.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhijiang; Yang, Liu; Wang, Ruoyu; Zhang, Yubao; Shang, Qianhan; Wang, Le; Ren, Qin; Xie, Zhongkui

    2015-08-01

    Continuous monoculture of Lanzhou lily (Lilium davidii var. unicolor Cotton) results in frequent incidence of fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum. Phthalic acid (PA), a principal autotoxin from root exudates of Lanzhou lily, is involved in soil sickness by inducing autotoxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the direct allelopathic effects of PA on the growth, development and pathogenicity of F. oxysporum in vitro based on an ecologically relevant soil concentration. The results showed that PA slightly but not significantly inhibited the colony growth (mycelial growth) and fungal biomass of F. oxysporum at low concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 0.5 mM, and significantly inhibited the colony growth at the highest concentration (1 mM). None of the PA concentrations tested significantly inhibited the conidial germination and sporulation of F. oxysporum in liquid medium. However, mycotoxin (fusaric acid) yield and pathogenesis-related hydrolytic enzyme (protease, pectinase, cellulase, and amylase) activities were significantly stimulated in liquid cultures of F. oxysporum containing PA at ≥ 0.25 mM. We conclude that PA at a soil level (i.e. 0.25 mM) is involved in plant-pathogen allelopathy as a stimulator of mycotoxin production and hydrolytic enzyme activities in F. oxysporum, which is possibly one of the mechanisms responsible for promoting the wilt disease of lily. PMID:25994089

  5. Field resistance to Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium dahliae in transgenic cotton expressing the plant defensin NaD1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    The plant defensin NaD1, from Nicotiana alata, has potent antifungal activity against a range of filamentous fungi including the two important cotton pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) and Verticillium dahliae. Transgenic cotton plants expressing NaD1 were produced and plants from three events were selected for further characterization. Homozygous plants were assessed in greenhouse bioassays for resistance to Fov. One line (D1) was selected for field trial testing over three growing seasons in soils naturally infested with Fov and over two seasons in soils naturally infested with V. dahliae. In the field trials with Fov-infested soil, line D1 had 2–3-times the survival rate, a higher tolerance to Fov (higher disease rank), and a 2–4-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. When transgenic line D1 was planted in V. dahliae-infested soil, plants had a higher tolerance to Verticillium wilt and up to a 2-fold increase in lint yield compared to the non-transgenic Coker control. Line D1 did not exhibit any detrimental agronomic features compared to the parent Coker control when plants were grown in non-diseased soil. This study demonstrated that the expression of NaD1 in transgenic cotton plants can provide substantial resistance to two economically important fungal pathogens. PMID:24502957

  6. Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

  7. Induction of systemic resistance of benzothiadiazole and humic Acid in soybean plants against fusarium wilt disease.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Monaim, Montaser Fawzy; Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

    2011-12-01

    The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

  8. Glycogen catabolism, but not its biosynthesis, affects virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on the plant host.

    PubMed

    Corral-Ramos, Cristina; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2015-04-01

    The role of glycogen metabolism was investigated in the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Targeted inactivation was performed of genes responsible for glycogen biosynthesis: gnn1 encoding glycogenin, gls1 encoding glycogen synthase, and gbe1 encoding glycogen branching enzyme. Moreover genes involved in glycogen catabolism were deleted: gph1 encoding glycogen phosphorylase and gdb1 encoding glycogen de-branching enzyme. Glycogen reserves increased steadily during growth of the wild type strain in axenic cultures, to reach up to 1500μg glucose equivalents mg(-1) protein after 14 days. Glycogen accumulation was abolished in mutants lacking biosynthesis genes, whereas it increased by 20-40% or 80%, respectively, in the single and double mutants affected in catabolic genes. Transcript levels of glycogen metabolism genes during tomato plant infection peaked at four days post inoculation, similar to the results observed during axenic culture. Significant differences were observed between gdb mutants and the wild type strain for vegetative hyphal fusion ability. The single mutants defective in glycogen metabolism showed similar levels of virulence in the invertebrate animal model Galleria mellonella. Interestingly, the deletion of gdb1 reduced virulence on the plant host up to 40% compared to the wild type in single and in double mutant backgrounds, whereas the other mutants showed the virulence at the wild-type level. PMID:25865793

  9. Immunity to plant pathogens and iron homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Aznar, Aude; Chen, Nicolas W G; Thomine, Sebastien; Dellagi, Alia

    2015-11-01

    Iron is essential for metabolic processes in most living organisms. Pathogens and their hosts often compete for the acquisition of this nutrient. However, iron can catalyze the formation of deleterious reactive oxygen species. Hosts may use iron to increase local oxidative stress in defense responses against pathogens. Due to this duality, iron plays a complex role in plant-pathogen interactions. Plant defenses against pathogens and plant response to iron deficiency share several features, such as secretion of phenolic compounds, and use common hormone signaling pathways. Moreover, fine tuning of iron localization during infection involves genes coding iron transport and iron storage proteins, which have been shown to contribute to immunity. The influence of the plant iron status on the outcome of a given pathogen attack is strongly dependent on the nature of the pathogen infection strategy and on the host species. Microbial siderophores emerged as important factors as they have the ability to trigger plant defense responses. Depending on the plant species, siderophore perception can be mediated by their strong iron scavenging capacity or possibly via specific recognition as pathogen associated molecular patterns. This review highlights that iron has a key role in several plant-pathogen interactions by modulating immunity. PMID:26475190

  10. Genomic clustering and co-regulation of transcriptional networks in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genes for the production of a broad range of fungal secondary metabolites are frequently colinear. The prevalence of such gene clusters was systematically examined across the genome of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. The topological structure of transcriptional networks was also examined to investigate control mechanisms for mycotoxin biosynthesis and other processes. Results The genes associated with transcriptional processes were identified, and the genomic location of transcription-associated proteins (TAPs) analyzed in conjunction with the locations of genes exhibiting similar expression patterns. Highly conserved TAPs reside in regions of chromosomes with very low or no recombination, contrasting with putative regulator genes. Co-expression group profiles were used to define positionally clustered genes and a number of members of these clusters encode proteins participating in secondary metabolism. Gene expression profiles suggest there is an abundance of condition-specific transcriptional regulation. Analysis of the promoter regions of co-expressed genes showed enrichment for conserved DNA-sequence motifs. Potential global transcription factors recognising these motifs contain distinct sets of DNA-binding domains (DBDs) from those present in local regulators. Conclusions Proteins associated with basal transcriptional functions are encoded by genes enriched in regions of the genome with low recombination. Systematic searches revealed dispersed and compact clusters of co-expressed genes, often containing a transcription factor, and typically containing genes involved in biosynthetic pathways. Transcriptional networks exhibit a layered structure in which the position in the hierarchy of a regulator is closely linked to the DBD structural class. PMID:23805903

  11. Real-time imaging of hydrogen peroxide dynamics in vegetative and pathogenic hyphae of Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Mentges, Michael; Bormann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Balanced dynamics of reactive oxygen species in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum play key roles for development and infection. To monitor those dynamics, ratiometric analysis using the novel hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensitive fluorescent indicator protein HyPer-2 was established for the first time in phytopathogenic fungi. H2O2 changes the excitation spectrum of HyPer-2 with an excitation maximum at 405 nm for the reduced and 488 nm for the oxidized state, facilitating ratiometric readouts with maximum emission at 516 nm. HyPer-2 analyses were performed using a microtiter fluorometer and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Addition of external H2O2 to mycelia caused a steep and transient increase in fluorescence excited at 488 nm. This can be reversed by the addition of the reducing agent dithiothreitol. HyPer-2 in F. graminearum is highly sensitive and specific to H2O2 even in tiny amounts. Hyperosmotic treatment elicited a transient internal H2O2 burst. Hence, HyPer-2 is suitable to monitor the intracellular redox balance. Using CLSM, developmental processes like nuclear division, tip growth, septation, and infection structure development were analyzed. The latter two processes imply marked accumulations of intracellular H2O2. Taken together, HyPer-2 is a valuable and reliable tool for the analysis of environmental conditions, cellular development, and pathogenicity. PMID:26446493

  12. Sharing a Host Plant (Wheat [Triticum aestivum]) Increases the Fitness of Fusarium graminearum and the Severity of Fusarium Head Blight but Reduces the Fitness of Grain Aphids (Sitobion avenae)

    PubMed Central

    Drakulic, Jassy; Caulfield, John; Woodcock, Christine; Jones, Stephen P. T.; Linforth, Robert; Bruce, Toby J. A.

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that interactions between fusarium head blight-causing pathogens and herbivores are likely to occur because they share wheat as a host plant. Our aim was to investigate the interactions between the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, and Fusarium graminearum on wheat ears and the role that host volatile chemicals play in mediating interactions. Wheat ears were treated with aphids and F. graminearum inoculum, together or separately, and disease progress was monitored by visual assessment and by quantification of pathogen DNA and mycotoxins. Plants exposed to both aphids and F. graminearum inoculum showed accelerated disease progression, with a 2-fold increase in disease severity and 5-fold increase in mycotoxin accumulation over those of plants treated only with F. graminearum. Furthermore, the longer the period of aphid colonization of the host prior to inoculation with F. graminearum, the greater the amount of pathogen DNA that accumulated. Headspace samples of plant volatiles were collected for use in aphid olfactometer assays and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-coupled electroantennography. Disease-induced plant volatiles were repellent to aphids, and 2-pentadecanone was the key semiochemical underpinning the repellent effect. We measured aphid survival and fecundity on infected wheat ears and found that both were markedly reduced on infected ears. Thus, interactions between F. graminearum and grain aphids on wheat ears benefit the pathogen at the expense of the pest. Our findings have important consequences for disease epidemiology, because we show increased spread and development of host disease, together with greater disease severity and greater accumulation of pathogen DNA and mycotoxin, when aphids are present. PMID:25769834

  13. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  14. The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium

  15. Molecular phylogeny, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Nirmaladevi, D; Venkataramana, M; Srivastava, Rakesh K; Uppalapati, S R; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yli-Mattila, T; Clement Tsui, K M; Srinivas, C; Niranjana, S R; Chandra, Nayaka S

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at the molecular characterization of pathogenic and non pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains isolated from tomato. The causal agent isolated from symptomatic plants and soil samples was identified based on morphological and molecular analyses. Pathogenicity testing of 69 strains on five susceptible tomato varieties showed 45% of the strains were highly virulent and 30% were moderately virulent. Molecular analysis based on the fingerprints obtained through ISSR indicated the presence of wide genetic diversity among the strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences showed the presence of at least four evolutionary lineages of the pathogen. The clustering of F. oxysporum with non pathogenic isolates and with the members of other formae speciales indicated polyphyletic origin of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Further analysis revealed intraspecies variability and nucleotide insertions or deletions in the ITS region among the strains in the study and the observed variations were found to be clade specific. The high genetic diversity in the pathogen population demands for development of effective resistance breeding programs in tomato. Among the pathogenic strains tested, toxigenic strains harbored the Fum1 gene clearly indicating that the strains infecting tomato crops have the potential to produce Fumonisin. PMID:26883288

  16. Molecular phylogeny, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici

    PubMed Central

    Nirmaladevi, D.; Venkataramana, M.; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Uppalapati, S. R.; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Yli-Mattila, T.; Clement Tsui, K. M.; Srinivas, C.; Niranjana, S. R.; Chandra, Nayaka S.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at the molecular characterization of pathogenic and non pathogenic F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strains isolated from tomato. The causal agent isolated from symptomatic plants and soil samples was identified based on morphological and molecular analyses. Pathogenicity testing of 69 strains on five susceptible tomato varieties showed 45% of the strains were highly virulent and 30% were moderately virulent. Molecular analysis based on the fingerprints obtained through ISSR indicated the presence of wide genetic diversity among the strains. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences showed the presence of at least four evolutionary lineages of the pathogen. The clustering of F. oxysporum with non pathogenic isolates and with the members of other formae speciales indicated polyphyletic origin of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Further analysis revealed intraspecies variability and nucleotide insertions or deletions in the ITS region among the strains in the study and the observed variations were found to be clade specific. The high genetic diversity in the pathogen population demands for development of effective resistance breeding programs in tomato. Among the pathogenic strains tested, toxigenic strains harbored the Fum1 gene clearly indicating that the strains infecting tomato crops have the potential to produce Fumonisin. PMID:26883288

  17. An Evaluation Method for the Suppression of Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum by Soil Microorganisms Using the Dilution Plate Technique

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuboshi, Masahiro; Kioka, Yuuzou; Noguchi, Katsunori; Asakawa, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Soil-borne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms are one of the main factors responsible for the decline in crop yields in farmlands. Pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum causes serious damage to various crops, and, thus, a feasible diagnostic method for soil-borne diseases is required. We herein examined a simple method to evaluate the suppressiveness of soil microorganisms against a pathogen by co-cultivating indigenous soil microorganisms and a pathogenic fungus (F. oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae). We inoculated F. oxysporum onto the center of agar medium plates mixed with a dilution series of a suspension of organic fertilizers or soil. After an approximately one-week cultivation, the growth degree of F. oxysporum was estimated based on the size of the colonies that formed on the plates. The growth degree of F. oxysporum significantly differed among the organic fertilizers tested, indicating the usefulness of the method for evaluating suppressiveness by organic fertilizers. Differences in the growth degrees of F. oxysporum were associated with the incidence of disease in spinach on soil treated with organic fertilizers and inoculated with a pathogenic F. oxysporum strain. These results suggested that this method provides some useful information on the suppressiveness of organic fertilizers and soil against Fusarium wilt. PMID:27558588

  18. Fusarium Race 4 host plant resistance: upland and pima screening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A wide range of commercial varieties and experimental germplasm from seed companies have been screened for relative susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum vasinfectum (race 4) in both naturally-infested grower field sites and artificially inoculated greenhouse evaluations. Evaluations have included a ...

  19. Species diversity, pathogenicity and toxigenicity of Fusarium associated with rice seeds in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium is commonly reported in association with rice seeds in Brazil, but knowledge on the species diversity and toxigenic potential is lacking. Such information is critical because maximum limits for Fusarium mycotoxins were set for Brazilian rice in 2011. Ninety-eight rice seed samples from the ...

  20. Fusaric acid production and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In recent years, Fusarium wilt of cotton has gained increased importance with the emergence of extremely virulent strains of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. The recent discovery of new pathotypes not previously found in the U.S. is of particular concern to the cotton industry. In addition, a ...

  1. Systematics, Phylogeny and Trichothecene Mycotoxin Potential of Fusarium Head Blight Cereal Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically devastating outbreaks and epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of wheat and barley have occurred worldwide over the past two decades. Although the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species, Fusarium graminearum, a series of studies we...

  2. Novel fusarium head blight pathogens from Nepal and Louisiana revealed by multilocus genealogical concordance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to assess evolutionary relationships, species diversity, and trichothecene toxin potential of five Fusarium graminearum complex (FGSC) isolates identified as genetically novel during prior Fusarium head blight (FHB) surveys in Nepal and Louisiana. Results of a multilocus gen...

  3. Evaluation of methods to detect the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov) is an important disease of cotton. Fov race 4, identified in the San Joaquin Valley of California, has caused serious losses and is a potential threat to US cotton production. Tests have been developed to rapidly identify race 4 i...

  4. Detoxification of nitric oxide by flavohemoglobin and the denitrification pathway in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ephemeral nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical, highly reactive, environmentally rare, and a potent signaling molecule in organisms across kingdoms of life. This gaseous small molecule can freely transverse membranes and has been implicated in aspects of pathogenicity both in animal and plant ho...

  5. Contribution of proteomics to the study of plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fernandez, Raquel; Jorrin-Novo, Jesus V

    2012-01-01

    Phytopathogenic fungi are one of the most damaging plant parasitic organisms, and can cause serious diseases and important yield losses in crops. The study of the biology of these microorganisms and the interaction with their hosts has experienced great advances in recent years due to the development of moderm, holistic and high-throughput -omic techniques, together with the increasing number of genome sequencing projects and the development of mutants and reverse genetics tools. We highlight among these -omic techniques the importance of proteomics, which has become a relevant tool in plant-fungus pathosystem research. Proteomics intends to identify gene products with a key role in pathogenicity and virulence. These studies would help in the search of key protein targets and in the development of agrochemicals, which may open new ways for crop disease diagnosis and protection. In this review, we made an overview on the contribution of proteomics to the knowledge of life cycle, infection mechanisms, and virulence of the plant pathogenic fungi. Data from current, innovative literature, according to both methodological and experimental systems, were summarized and discussed. Specific sections were devoted to the most studied fungal phytopathogens: Botrytis cinerea, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, and Fusarium graminearum. PMID:22085090

  6. Phytophthora parasitica: a model oomycete plant pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuling; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Wei; Shan, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    Oomycetes are eukaryotic microorganisms morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from true fungi. Most species in the genus Phytophthora of oomycetes are devastating plant pathogens, causing damages to both agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Tremendous progress has been achieved in recent years in diversity, evolution and lifestyles of oomycete plant pathogens, as well as on the understanding of genetic and molecular basis of oomycete-plant interactions. Phytophthora parasitica is a soilborne pathogen with a wide range of host plants and represents most species in the genus Phytophthora. In this review, we present some recent progress of P. parasitica research by highlighting important features that make it emerge as a model species of oomycete pathogens. The emerged model pathogen will facilitate improved understanding of oomycete biology and pathology that are crucial to the development of novel disease-control strategies and improved disease-control measures. PMID:24999436

  7. Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

    2009-07-15

    In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

  8. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  9. Isolating Fungal Pathogens from a Dynamic Disease Outbreak in a Native Plant Population to Establish Plant-Pathogen Bioassays for the Ecological Model Plant Nicotiana attenuata

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Stefan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    The wild tobacco species Nicotiana attenuata has been intensively used as a model plant to study its interaction with insect herbivores and pollinators in nature, however very little is known about its native pathogen community. We describe a fungal disease outbreak in a native N. attenuata population comprising 873 plants growing in an area of about 1500 m2. The population was divided into 14 subpopulations and disease symptom development in the subpopulations was monitored for 16 days, revealing a waxing and waning of visible disease symptoms with some diseased plants recovering fully. Native fungal N. attenuata pathogens were isolated from diseased plants, characterized genetically, chemotaxonomically and morphologically, revealing several isolates of the ascomycete genera Fusarium and Alternaria, that differed in the type and strength of the disease symptoms they caused in bioassays on either detached leaves or intact soil-grown plants. These isolates and the bioassays will empower the study of N. attenuata-pathogen interactions in a realistic ecological context. PMID:25036191

  10. Recent advances in genes involved in secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development, energy metabolism and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae).

    PubMed

    Geng, Zongyi; Zhu, Wei; Su, Hao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    The ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph Gibberella zeae), is the most common causal agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease for cereal crops worldwide. F. graminearum produces ascospores (sexual spores) and conidia (asexual spores), which can serve as disease inocula of FHB. Meanwhile, Fusarium-infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as trichothecenes (TRIs), fumonisins, and zearalenones, among which TRIs are related to the pathogenicity of F. graminearum, and these toxins are hazardous to humans and livestock. In recent years, with the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, an increasing number of functional genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites, hyphal differentiation, sexual and asexual reproduction, virulence and pathogenicity have been identified from F. graminearum. In this review, the secondary metabolite synthesis, hyphal development and pathogenicity related genes in F. graminearum were thoroughly summarized, and the genes associated with secondary metabolites, sexual reproduction, energy metabolism, and pathogenicity were highlighted. PMID:24389085

  11. Resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli in transgenic Gladiolus plants expressing either a bacterial chloroperoxidase or fungal chitinase genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three antifungal genes, a non-heme chloroperoxidase from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia, and an exochitinase and endochitinase from Fusarium venetanum under regulation by the CaMV 35S promoter, were used to transform Gladiolus for resistance to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli. Gladiolus plants were conf...

  12. Natural and introduced Fusarium verticillioides populations in ears of field-grown corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn may be colonized by the fungus, Fusarium verticillioides, resulting in both plant disease and mycotoxin contamination. The purpose of the current research was to compare frequencies of three F. verticillioides populations in kernels of corn grown under field conditions. The populations assess...

  13. BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

  14. Pathogen threat assessment is predictive plant pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Plant Pathologists has maintained a formal effort to prioritize threatening and emerging crop pathogens for over 70 years, and the APS Emerging Pathogens and Diseases Committee is continuing the process. In order to accomplish prioritization in a rigorous fashion, criteria mu...

  15. Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits perform distinct functional roles in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joon-Hee; Kim, Jung-Eun; Malapi-Wight, Martha; Choi, Yoon-E; Shaw, Brian D; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-06-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize causing ear rot and stalk rot. The fungus also produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins linked to disorders in animals and humans. A cluster of genes, designated FUM genes, plays a key role in the synthesis of fumonisins. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of fumonisin biosynthesis is still incomplete. We have demonstrated previously that Cpp1, a protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit, negatively regulates fumonisin production and is involved in cell shape maintenance. In general, three PP2A subunits, structural A, regulatory B and catalytic C, make up a heterotrimer complex to perform regulatory functions. Significantly, we identified two PP2A regulatory subunits in the F. verticillioides genome, Ppr1 and Ppr2, which are homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc55 and Rts1, respectively. In this study, we hypothesized that Ppr1 and Ppr2 are involved in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and/or cell development in F. verticillioides, and generated a series of mutants to determine the functional role of Ppr1 and Ppr2. The PPR1 deletion strain (Δppr1) resulted in drastic growth defects, but increased microconidia production. The PPR2 deletion mutant strain (Δppr2) showed elevated fumonisin production, similar to the Δcpp1 strain. Germinating Δppr1 conidia formed abnormally swollen cells with a central septation site, whereas Δppr2 showed early hyphal branching during conidia germination. A kernel rot assay showed that the mutants were slow to colonize kernels, but this is probably a result of growth defects rather than a virulence defect. Results from this study suggest that two PP2A regulatory subunits in F. verticillioides carry out distinct roles in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and fungal development. PMID:23452277

  16. Systemic ketoconazole treatment for Fusarium leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Landau, M; Srebrnik, A; Wolf, R; Bashi, E; Brenner, S

    1992-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a large foot ulcer in an otherwise healthy 69-year-old man. Although tissue invasion could not be proven histologically, systemic antifungal treatment was administered with satisfactory response. Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. In humans, Fusarium is considered an opportunistic agent in skin ulcers, interdigital spaces, and burned skin, but can also cause mycotic keratitis, onychomycosis, and rarely deep-seated or disseminated infections, especially in an immunocompromised host. The distinction between skin infection and saprophytic growth, as well as optimal treatment regimens for the two types of infection, have not been clearly defined. We describe a case of leg ulcers caused by Fusarium oxysporum in a 69-year-old man treated successfully with oral ketoconazole. "Silent" immunologic disturbances were found in this apparently healthy patient. The case illustrates a relatively benign infection caused by Fusarium that responded to systemic antifungal drug treatment. PMID:1500248

  17. Plant pathogen nanodiagnostic techniques: forthcoming changes?

    PubMed Central

    Khiyami, Mohammad A.; Almoammar, Hassan; Awad, Yasser M.; Alghuthaymi, Mousa A.; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.

    2014-01-01

    Plant diseases are among the major factors limiting crop productivity. A first step towards managing a plant disease under greenhouse and field conditions is to correctly identify the pathogen. Current technologies, such as quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), require a relatively large amount of target tissue and rely on multiple assays to accurately identify distinct plant pathogens. The common disadvantage of the traditional diagnostic methods is that they are time consuming and lack high sensitivity. Consequently, developing low-cost methods to improve the accuracy and rapidity of plant pathogens diagnosis is needed. Nanotechnology, nano particles and quantum dots (QDs) have emerged as essential tools for fast detection of a particular biological marker with extreme accuracy. Biosensor, QDs, nanostructured platforms, nanoimaging and nanopore DNA sequencing tools have the potential to raise sensitivity, specificity and speed of the pathogen detection, facilitate high-throughput analysis, and to be used for high-quality monitoring and crop protection. Furthermore, nanodiagnostic kit equipment can easily and quickly detect potential serious plant pathogens, allowing experts to help farmers in the prevention of epidemic diseases. The current review deals with the application of nanotechnology for quicker, more cost-effective and precise diagnostic procedures of plant diseases. Such an accurate technology may help to design a proper integrated disease management system which may modify crop environments to adversely affect crop pathogens. PMID:26740775

  18. Characterization of the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum and the Effect of Fungicides on Their Mycelial Growth and Colony Formation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Han, Joon-Hee; Lee, Ju Kyong; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2014-12-01

    Maize is a socioeconomically important crop in many countries. Recently, a high incidence of stalk rot disease has been reported in several maize fields in Gangwon province. In this report, we show that maize stalk rot is associated with the fungal pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum. Since no fungicides are available to control these pathogens on maize plants, we selected six fungicides (tebuconazole, difenoconazole, fluquinconazole, azoxystrobin, prochloraz and kresoxim-methyl) and examined their effectiveness against the two pathogens. The in vitro antifungal effects of the six fungicides on mycelial growth and colony formation were investigated. Based on the inhibition of mycelial growth, the most toxic fungicide was tebuconazole with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of <0.1 μg/ml and EC90 values of 0.9 μg/ml for both pathogens, while the least toxic fungicide was azoxystrobin with EC50 values of 0.7 and 0.5 μg/ml for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, and EC90 values of >3,000 μg/ml for both pathogens. Based on the inhibition of colony formation by the two pathogens, kresoxim-methyl was the most toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 μg/ml for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, whereas azoxystrobin was the least toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations >3,000 μg/ml for both pathogens. PMID:25506304

  19. Characterization of the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum and the Effect of Fungicides on Their Mycelial Growth and Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jong-Hwan; Han, Joon-Hee; Lee, Ju Kyong; Kim, Kyoung Su

    2014-01-01

    Maize is a socioeconomically important crop in many countries. Recently, a high incidence of stalk rot disease has been reported in several maize fields in Gangwon province. In this report, we show that maize stalk rot is associated with the fungal pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum. Since no fungicides are available to control these pathogens on maize plants, we selected six fungicides (tebuconazole, difenoconazole, fluquinconazole, azoxystrobin, prochloraz and kresoxim-methyl) and examined their effectiveness against the two pathogens. The in vitro antifungal effects of the six fungicides on mycelial growth and colony formation were investigated. Based on the inhibition of mycelial growth, the most toxic fungicide was tebuconazole with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of <0.1 μg/ml and EC90 values of 0.9 μg/ml for both pathogens, while the least toxic fungicide was azoxystrobin with EC50 values of 0.7 and 0.5 μg/ml for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, and EC90 values of >3,000 μg/ml for both pathogens. Based on the inhibition of colony formation by the two pathogens, kresoxim-methyl was the most toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 μg/ml for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, whereas azoxystrobin was the least toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations >3,000 μg/ml for both pathogens. PMID:25506304

  20. Evolution of a Secondary Metabolite Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium by Gene Relocation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of fungi, including some plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. Trichothecenes contribute to virulence of Fusarium on some plants and are considered to be mycotoxins because of their human and animal toxicity. Previous analyses of...

  1. Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.

    PubMed

    Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

    2006-01-01

    Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no

  2. Pathogen Tactics to Manipulate Plant Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Mukhtar, M Shahid; McCormack, Maggie E; Argueso, Cristiana T; Pajerowska-Mukhtar, Karolina M

    2016-07-11

    Cell death is a vital process for multicellular organisms. Programmed cell death (PCD) functions in a variety of processes including growth, development, and immune responses for homeostasis maintenance. In particular, plants and animals utilize PCD to control pathogen invasion and infected cell populations. Despite some similarity, there are a number of key differences between how these organisms initiate and regulate cell death. In contrast to animals, plants are sessile, lack a circulatory system, and have additional cellular structures, including cell walls and chloroplasts. Plant cells have the autonomous ability to induce localized cell death using conserved eukaryotic pathways as well as unique plant-specific pathways. Thus, in order to successfully infect host cells, pathogens must subvert immune responses and avoid detection to prevent PCD and allow infection. Here we discuss the roles of cell death in plant immune responses and the tactics pathogens utilize to avert cell death. PMID:27404256

  3. Punctuated changes in plant pathogen populations associated with passage of atmospheric Lagrangian coherent structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Shane; Tallapragada, Phanindra; Schmale, David

    2010-11-01

    The atmospheric transport of airborne microorganisms (e.g., plant pathogens) is poorly understood, yet necessary to assess their ecological roles in agricultural ecosystems and to evaluate risks posed by invasive species. The atmospheric transport of plant pathogens can be roughly divided into three phases: liberation of pathogen spores, drift (transport in the atmosphere) and deposition. If liberated spores escape into the planetary boundary layer, they could be transported over thousands of kilometers before being deposited. The drift phase is poorly understood, due to the complex nature of atmospheric transport and relative lack of observational data. In this talk, we present a framework of Lagrangian coherent structures to determine the important atmospheric transport barriers (ATBs) that partition the atmosphere and systematically organize the mesoscale transport problem. Using autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles, we measure the concentration of spores of a plant pathogenic fungus (Fusarium) sampled in the atmosphere above Virginia Tech's Kentland Farm. We report correlations between concentrations of Fusarium with the local movement of ATBs determined from archived meteorological data.

  4. Microbial Forensics and Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New awareness of the vulnerability of a nation's agricultural infrastructure to the intentional introduction of pathogens or pests has led to the enhancement of programs for prevention and preparedness. A necessary component of a balanced bio-security plan is the capability to determine whether an ...

  5. Genus-Specific Primers for Study of Fusarium Communities in Field Samples

    PubMed Central

    Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Gautheron, Nadine; Durling, Mikael Brandström; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Steinberg, Christian; Persson, Paula; Friberg, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium is a large and diverse genus of fungi of great agricultural and economic importance, containing many plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. To date, high-throughput sequencing of Fusarium communities has been limited by the lack of genus-specific primers targeting regions with high discriminatory power at the species level. In the present study, we evaluated two Fusarium-specific primer pairs targeting translation elongation factor 1 (TEF1). We also present the new primer pair Fa+7/Ra+6. Mock Fusarium communities reflecting phylogenetic diversity were used to evaluate the accuracy of the primers in reflecting the relative abundance of the species. TEF1 amplicons were subjected to 454 high-throughput sequencing to characterize Fusarium communities. Field samples from soil and wheat kernels were included to test the method on more-complex material. For kernel samples, a single PCR was sufficient, while for soil samples, nested PCR was necessary. The newly developed primer pairs Fa+7/Ra+6 and Fa/Ra accurately reflected Fusarium species composition in mock DNA communities. In field samples, 47 Fusarium operational taxonomic units were identified, with the highest Fusarium diversity in soil. The Fusarium community in soil was dominated by members of the Fusarium incarnatum-Fusarium equiseti species complex, contradicting findings in previous studies. The method was successfully applied to analyze Fusarium communities in soil and plant material and can facilitate further studies of Fusarium ecology. PMID:26519387

  6. New insight into a complex plant-fungal pathogen interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The coevolution of plants and microbes has shaped plant mechanisms that detect and repel pathogens. A newly identified plant gene confers partial resistance to a fungal pathogen not by preventing initial infection, but by limiting its spread through the plant. ...

  7. The Interaction of Human Enteric Pathogens with Plants

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jeong-A; Lee, Dong Hwan; Heu, Sunggi

    2014-01-01

    There are an increasing number of outbreaks of human pathogens related to fresh produce. Thus, the growth of human pathogens on plants should be explored. Human pathogens can survive under the harsh environments in plants, and can adhere and actively invade plants. Plant-associated microbiota or insects contribute to the survival and transmission of enteric pathogens in plants. Human enteric pathogens also trigger plant innate immunity, but some pathogens–such as Salmonella–can overcome this defense mechanism. PMID:25288993

  8. Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

  9. Plant and pathogen nutrient acquisition strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Urooj; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients are indispensable elements required for the growth of all living organisms including plants and pathogens. Phyllosphere, rhizosphere, apoplast, phloem, xylem, and cell organelles are the nutrient niches in plants that are the target of bacterial pathogens. Depending upon nutrients availability, the pathogen adapts various acquisition strategies and inhabits the specific niche. In this review, we discuss the nutrient composition of different niches in plants, the mechanisms involved in the recognition of nutrient niche and the sophisticated strategies used by the bacterial pathogens for acquiring nutrients. We provide insight into various nutrient acquisition strategies used by necrotrophic, biotrophic, and hemibiotrophic bacteria. Specifically we discuss both modulation of bacterial machinery and manipulation of host machinery. In addition, we highlight the current status of our understanding about the nutrient acquisition strategies used by bacterial pathogens, namely targeting the sugar transporters that are dedicated for the plant’s growth and development. Bacterial strategies for altering the plant cell membrane permeability to enhance the release of nutrients are also enumerated along with in-depth analysis of molecular mechanisms behind these strategies. The information presented in this review will be useful to understand the plant–pathogen interaction in nutrient perspective. PMID:26442063

  10. Isolation and characterization of soil Streptomyces species as potential biological control agents against fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Evangelista-Martínez, Zahaed

    2014-05-01

    The use of antagonist microorganisms against fungal plant pathogens is an attractive and ecologically alternative to the use of chemical pesticides. Streptomyces are beneficial soil bacteria and potential candidates for biocontrol agents. This study reports the isolation, characterization and antagonist activity of soil streptomycetes from the Los Petenes Biosphere Reserve, a Natural protected area in Campeche, Mexico. The results showed morphological, physiological and biochemical characterization of six actinomycetes and their inhibitory activity against Curvularia sp., Aspergillus niger, Helminthosporium sp. and Fusarium sp. One isolate, identified as Streptomyces sp. CACIS-1.16CA showed the potential to inhibit additional pathogens as Alternaria sp., Phytophthora capsici, Colletotrichum sp. and Rhizoctonia sp. with percentages ranging from 47 to 90 %. This study identified a streptomycete strain with a broad antagonist activity that could be used for biocontrol of plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:24310522

  11. Candida and Fusarium species known as opportunistic human pathogens from customer-accessible parts of residential washing machines.

    PubMed

    Babič, Monika Novak; Zalar, Polona; Ženko, Bernard; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Džeroski, Sašo; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina

    2015-03-01

    Energy constraints have altered consumer practice regarding the use of household washing machines. Washing machines were developed that use lower washing temperatures, smaller amounts of water and biodegradable detergents. These conditions may favour the enrichment of opportunistic human pathogenic fungi. We focused on the isolation of fungi from two user-accessible parts of washing machines that often contain microbial biofilms: drawers for detergents and rubber door seals. Out of 70 residential washing machines sampled in Slovenia, 79% were positive for fungi. In total, 72 strains belonging to 12 genera and 26 species were isolated. Among these, members of the Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani species complexes, Candida parapsilosis and Exophiala phaeomuriformis represented 44% of fungi detected. These species are known as opportunistic human pathogens and can cause skin, nail or eye infections also in healthy humans. A machine learning analysis revealed that presence of detergents and softeners followed by washing temperature, represent most critical factors for fungal colonization. Three washing machines with persisting malodour that resulted in bad smelling laundry were analysed for the presence of fungi and bacteria. In these cases, fungi were isolated in low numbers (7.5 %), while bacteria Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Sphingomonas species prevailed. PMID:25749362

  12. Interplay between pathway-specific and global regulation of the fumonisin gene cluster in the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Rösler, Sarah M; Sieber, Christian M K; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2016-07-01

    The rice pathogenic fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is known to produce a large variety of secondary metabolites. Besides the gibberellins, causing the bakanae effect in infected rice seedlings, the fungus produces several mycotoxins and pigments. Among the 47 putative secondary metabolite gene clusters identified in the genome of F. fujikuroi, the fumonisin gene cluster (FUM) shows very high homology to the FUM cluster of the main fumonisin producer Fusarium verticillioides, a pathogen of maize. Despite the high level of cluster gene conservation, total fumonisin FB1 and FB2 levels (FBx) produced by F. fujikuroi were only 1-10 % compared to F. verticillioides under inducing conditions. Nitrogen repression was found to be relevant for wild-type strains of both species. However, addition of germinated maize kernels activated the FBx production only in F. verticillioides, reflecting the different host specificity of both wild-type strains. Over-expression of the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 in F. fujikuroi strongly activated the FUM cluster genes leading to 1000-fold elevated FBx levels. To gain further insights into the nitrogen metabolite repression of FBx biosynthesis, we studied the impact of the global nitrogen regulators AreA and AreB and demonstrated that both GATA-type transcription factors are essential for full activation of the FUM gene cluster. Loss of one of them obstructs the pathway-specific transcription factor Fum21 to fully activate expression of FUM cluster genes. PMID:26966024

  13. Class V chitin synthase determines pathogenesis in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum and mediates resistance to plant defence compounds.

    PubMed

    Madrid, Martan P; Di Pietro, Antonio; Roncero, M Isabel G

    2003-01-01

    Chitin, a beta-1,4-linked polysaccharide of N-acetylglucosamine, is a major structural component of fungal cell walls. Fungi have multiple classes of chitin synthases that catalyse N-acetylglucosamine polymerization. Here, we demonstrate the requirement for a class V chitin synthase during host infection by the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. The chsV gene was identified in an insertional mutagenesis screen for pathogenicity mutants. ChsV has a putative myosin motor and a chitin synthase domain characteristic of class V chitin synthases. The chsV insertional mutant and a gene replacement mutant of F. oxysporum display morphological abnormalities such as hyphal swellings that are indicative of alterations in cell wall structure and can be partially restored by osmotic stabilizer. The mutants are unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or to grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. They are also hypersensitive to plant antimicrobial defence compounds such as the tomato phytoanticipin alpha-tomatine or H2O2. Reintroduction of a functional chsV copy into the mutant restored the growth phenotype of the wild-type strain. These data suggest that F. oxysporum requires a specific class V chitin synthase for pathogenesis, most probably to protect itself against plant defence mechanisms. PMID:12492869

  14. PathoPlant: a database on plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Bülow, Lorenz; Schindler, Martin; Choi, Claudia; Hehl, Reinhard

    2004-01-01

    Pathogen recognition and signal transduction during plant pathogenesis is essential for the activation of plant defense mechanisms. To facilitate easy access to published data and to permit comparative studies of different pathogen response pathways, a database is indispensable to give a broad overview of the components and reactions so far known. PathoPlant has been developed as a relational database to display relevant components and reactions involved in signal transduction related to plant-pathogen interactions. On the organism level, the tables 'plant', 'pathogen' and 'interaction' are used to describe incompatible interactions between plants and pathogens or diseases. On the molecular level, plant pathogenesis related information is organized in PathoPlant's main tables 'molecule', 'reaction' and 'location'. Signal transduction pathways are modeled as consecutive sequences of known molecules and corresponding reactions. PathoPlant entries are linked to associated internal records as well as to entries in external databases such as SWISS-PROT, GenBank, PubMed, and TRANSFAC. PathoPlant is available as a web-based service at http://www.pathoplant.de. PMID:15752070

  15. Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  16. Plant pathogen forensics: capabilities, needs, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, J; Bender, C; Budowle, B; Cobb, W T; Gold, S E; Ishimaru, C A; Luster, D; Melcher, U; Murch, R; Scherm, H; Seem, R C; Sherwood, J L; Sobral, B W; Tolin, S A

    2006-06-01

    A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

  17. The plant immunity inducer pipecolic acid accumulates in the xylem sap and leaves of soybean seedlings following Fusarium virguliforme infection.

    PubMed

    Abeysekara, Nilwala S; Swaminathan, Sivakumar; Desai, Nalini; Guo, Lining; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2016-02-01

    The causal agent of the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS), Fusarium virguliforme, remains in infected roots and secretes toxins to cause foliar SDS. In this study we investigated the xylem sap, roots, and leaves of F. virguliforme-infected and -uninfected soybean seedlings for any changes in a set of over 3,000 metabolites following pathogen infection by conducting GC/MS and LC/MS/MS, and detected 273 biochemicals. Levels of many intermediates of the TCA cycle were reduced suggesting suppression of this metabolic pathway by the pathogen. There was an increased accumulation of peroxidated lipids in leaves of F. virguliforme-infected plants suggesting possible involvement of free radicals and lipoxygenases in foliar SDS development. Levels of both isoflavone conjugates and isoflavonoid phytoalexins were decreased in infected roots suggesting degradation of these metabolites by the pathogen to promote root necrosis. The levels of the plant immunity inducer pipecolic acid (Pip) and the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) were significantly increased in xylem sap (in case of Pip) and leaves (in case of both Pip and SA) of F. virguliforme-infected soybean plants compared to the control plants. This suggests a major signaling role of Pip in inducing host defense responses in above ground parts of the F. virguliforme-infected soybean. Increased accumulation of pipecolic acid in foliar tissues was associated with the induction of GmALD1, the soybean homolog of Arabidopsis ALD1. This metabolomics study generated several novel hypotheses for studying the mechanisms of SDS development in soybean. PMID:26795155

  18. Species composition, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species complex isolates from southern Brazilian rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in Brazilian rice. Four species and two trichothecene genotypes were found among 89 FGSC isolates obtained from infected seeds: F. asiaticum with the nivalenol (NIV) genotype (69%), F. gra...

  19. Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Studt, Lena; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Espino, Jose J.; Huß, Kathleen; Michielse, Caroline B.; Albermann, Sabine; Wagner, Dominik; Bergner, Sonja V.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Fischer, Andreas; Reuter, Gunter; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bald, Till; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Ophir, Ron; Freeman, Stanley; Hippler, Michael; Smith, Kristina M.; Brown, Daren W.; Proctor, Robert H.; Münsterkötter, Martin; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Güldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes “bakanae” disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F

  20. Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-11

    The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

  1. [RAPD analysis of plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria].

    PubMed

    Yin, Yan-Ni; Chen, Yong-Fang; Li, Shi-Mo; Guo, Jian-Hua

    2005-12-01

    RAPD analysis was used for the taxonomy of plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria, especially for the classification of two new pathogens (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. basellae pv. nov. and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. beticola pv. nov.). 20 random primers were screened from 50 ones to detect polymorphism among the total strains used. 80.4% were polymorphic bands among the 225 ones produced. The results of pairwise similarity and UPGMA cluster analysis suggest that the two new pathovars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera) and malabar spinach (Basella rubra) are genetically close related with Curtobacterium flacumfaciens, and the minimal similarity coefficient is 0.6511. According to the RAPD analysis and previous research, some newly made taxonomic changes of the plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria are discussed. PMID:16496687

  2. Production of anti-fungal volatiles by non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum and its efficacy in suppression of verticillium wilt of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aims: The study aimed to identify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (Fo) strain CanR-46, and to determine the anti-fungal spectrum and the control efficacy of the Fo-VOCs. Methods: The Fo-VOCs were identified by GC-MS. The antifungal activity of the...

  3. Comparison of inoculation methods for characterizing relative aggressiveness of two soybean sudden-death syndrome pathogens, Fusarium virguliforme and F. tucumaniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina and the United States, respectively. Five isolates of F. tucumaniae and four of F. virguliforme were tested for pathogenicity to soybeans, by comparing a toothpick method...

  4. Identification of candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen-derived small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) are known to be a common source of fungal effectors that trigger resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. This group of proteins has not been well studied in Fusarium graminearum, the primary cause of Fusarium head blight (...

  5. Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

  6. A North American isolate of Fusarium graminearum: toxicity and biosynthesis of a new type A trichothecene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is one of the economically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by F. graminearum is a virulence factor in wheat and probably also on other host...

  7. Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

  8. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection.

    PubMed

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  9. Fusarium musae infected banana fruits as potential source of human fusariosis: May occur more frequently than we might think and hypotheses about infection

    PubMed Central

    Triest, David; Piérard, Denis; De Cremer, Koen; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The banana fruit infecting fungus Fusarium musae was originally known as a distinct population within Fusarium verticillioides. However, recently, Fusarium musae was installed as a separate species and the first cases of human infection associated with Fusarium musae were found. In this article, we report an additional survey indicating that human pathogenic Fusarium musae infections may occur more frequently than we might think. Moreover, we evaluate the hypotheses on how infection can be acquired. A first hypothesis is that banana fruits act as carriers of Fusarium musae spores and thereby be the source of human infection with Fusarium musae. Acquisition is likely to be caused through contact with Fusarium musae contaminated banana fruits, either being imported or after traveling of the patient to a banana-producing country. An alternative hypothesis is that Fusarium musae is not only present on banana fruits, but also on other plant hosts or environmental sources. PMID:27195070

  10. HapX-Mediated Iron Homeostasis Is Essential for Rhizosphere Competence and Virulence of the Soilborne Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    López-Berges, Manuel S.; Capilla, Javier; Turrà, David; Schafferer, Lukas; Matthijs, Sandra; Jöchl, Christoph; Cornelis, Pierre; Guarro, Josep; Haas, Hubertus; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Soilborne fungal pathogens cause devastating yield losses and are highly persistent and difficult to control. During the infection process, these organisms must cope with limited availability of iron. Here we show that the bZIP protein HapX functions as a key regulator of iron homeostasis and virulence in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Deletion of hapX does not affect iron uptake but causes derepression of genes involved in iron-consuming pathways, leading to impaired growth under iron-depleted conditions. F. oxysporum strains lacking HapX are reduced in their capacity to invade and kill tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and immunodepressed mice. The virulence defect of ΔhapX on tomato plants is exacerbated by coinoculation of roots with a biocontrol strain of Pseudomonas putida, but not with a siderophore-deficient mutant, indicating that HapX contributes to iron competition of F. oxysporum in the tomato rhizosphere. These results establish a conserved role for HapX-mediated iron homeostasis in fungal infection of plants and mammals. PMID:22968717

  11. Isolation and characterization of endophytic streptomycete antagonists of Fusarium wilt pathogen from surface-sterilized banana roots.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lixiang; Qiu, Zhiqi; You, Jianlan; Tan, Hongming; Zhou, Shining

    2005-06-15

    A total of 131 endophytic actinomycete strains were successfully isolated from surface-sterilized banana roots. These isolates belonged to Streptomyces (n=99), Streptoverticillium (n=28), and Streptosporangium (n=2) spp. The remaining 2 isolates were not identified. About 18.3% of the isolates inhibited the growth of pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense on banana tissue extract medium. The most frequently isolated Streptomyces sp. strain S96 was similar to Streptomyces griseorubiginosus. About 37.5% of the S. griseorubiginosus strains were antagonistic to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The antagonism of strain S96 was lost when FeCl(3) was introduced into the inhibition zone. In vivo biocontrol assays showed that the disease severity index (DSI) was significantly (P=0.05) reduced and mean fresh weight increased (P=0.001) in plantlets treated with strain S96 compared to those grown in the absence of the biocontrol strain. These findings indicate the potential of developing siderophore-producing Streptomyces endophytes for the biological control of fusarium wilt disease of banana. PMID:15935565

  12. Transcription factors spt3 and spt8 are associated with conidiation, mycelium growth, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Tao; Zheng, Zhitian; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Mingguo

    2014-02-01

    Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae), the dominant pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, can cause substantial economic losses. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcription coactivator plays multiple roles in regulating transcription because of the presence of functionally independent modules of subunits within the complex. The transcription factors spt3 and spt8 are components of the SAGA complex and they are important in yeasts and filamentous fungi including F. graminearum. In this study, we identified Fgspt3 and Fgspt8, homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae spt3 and spt8 from F. graminearum using the blastp program. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functions of Fgspt3 and Fgspt8 in F. graminearum. The deletion mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type parent and did not produce conidia. Expression of the sporulation-related genes FgFlbC and FgRen1 were significantly down-regulated in the mutants. The mutants exhibited no sexual reproduction on infected wheat kernels and a 90% decrease in virulence on wheat. Pigment formation was also greatly altered in the mutants. All of the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutant with wild-type Fgspt3 and Fgspt8 genes. Overall, Fgspt3 and Fgspt8 are essential genes in F. graminearum. PMID:24289742

  13. Tomato root colonization by fluorescent-tagged pathogenic and protective strains of Fusarium oxysporum in hydroponic culture differs from root colonization in soil.

    PubMed

    Nahalkova, Jarmila; Fatehi, Jamshid; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude

    2008-09-01

    The colonization process of tomato roots inoculated separately or/and simultaneously by a pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol8 and the protective F. oxysporum strain Fo47, genetically tagged with the red and green fluorescent protein genes, respectively, was studied in a hydroponic culture. Plants were coinoculated with Fol8 and Fo47 at two conidial concentration ratios of 1/1 and 1/100, in which biological control was not effective or effective, respectively. First observation of fungi on root was possible 48 h after inoculation at a high inoculum level and 5 days post inoculation at the lower concentration of inoculum. The pattern of root colonization was similar for both strains with the initial development of hyphal network on the upper part of taproot, followed by the growth of hyphae towards the elongation zone, lateral roots and root apices. Finally, the whole elongation zone and root apex were invaded by both strains but no specific infection sites were observed. When coinoculated, both strains could grow very closely or even at the same spot on the root surface. At the nonprotective ratio, Fol8 was the successful colonizer, but application of Fo47 at a concentration 100 times >Fol8 delayed vessel colonization by the pathogen. PMID:18657114

  14. Phytotoxins produced by plant pathogenic Streptomyces species.

    PubMed

    Bignell, D R D; Fyans, J K; Cheng, Z

    2014-02-01

    Streptomyces is a large genus consisting of soil-dwelling, filamentous bacteria that are best known for their capability of producing a vast array of medically and agriculturally useful secondary metabolites. In addition, a small number of Streptomyces spp. are capable of colonizing and infecting the underground portions of living plants and causing economically important crop diseases such as potato common scab (CS). Research into the mechanisms of Streptomyces plant pathogenicity has led to the identification and characterization of several phytotoxic secondary metabolites that are known or suspected of contributing to diseases in various plants. The best characterized are the thaxtomin phytotoxins, which play a critical role in the development of CS, acid scab and soil rot of sweet potato. In addition, the best-characterized CS-causing pathogen, Streptomyces scabies, produces a molecule that is predicted to resemble the Pseudomonas syringae coronatine phytotoxin and which contributes to seedling disease symptom development. Other Streptomyces phytotoxic secondary metabolites that have been identified include concanamycins, FD-891 and borrelidin. Furthermore, there is evidence that additional, unknown metabolites may participate in Streptomyces plant pathogenicity. Such revelations have implications for the rational development of better management procedures for controlling CS and other Streptomyces plant diseases. PMID:24131731

  15. PLEXdb: Gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PLEXdb (Plant Expression Database), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facili...

  16. Investigating Spore killer of Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. Fusarium verticillioides may colonize maize as an endophyte or as a pathogen, causing disease at any life stage of the plant. During growth on maize, F. verticillioides can synthesis a number of mycotoxins including fumonisins, which have been l...

  17. HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

  18. Mycotoxigenic Fusarium species in animal feed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium species are among the most studied plant pathogenic fungi, with several species causing diseases on corn, wheat, barley, and other food and feed grains. Decreased yield, as well as diminished quality and value of the grain, results in significant worldwide economic losses. Additionally, ...

  19. Global Analysis of Horizontal Gene Transfer in Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The co-occurrence of microbes within plants and other specialized niches may facilitate horizontal gene transfer (HGT) affecting host-pathogen interactions. We recently identified fungal-to-fungal HGTs involving metabolic gene clusters. For a global analysis of HGTs in the maize pathogen Fusarium ve...

  20. Molecular genetic classification of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum races

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An understanding of the pathogenic diversity present in a population of a given disease organism is necessary for the effective development and deployment of host-plant resistance. The need for rapid and accurate diagnostic tools for identifying races or genotypes of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, Fusa...

  1. Fusarium infection in maize: volatile induction of infected and neighboring uninfected plants has the potential to attract a pest cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus.

    PubMed

    Piesik, Dariusz; Lemńczyk, Grzegorz; Skoczek, Agata; Lamparski, Robert; Bocianowski, Jan; Kotwica, Karol; Delaney, Kevin J

    2011-09-01

    Fusarium infection of maize leaves and/or roots through the soil can stimulate the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). It is also well known that VOC emission from maize plants can repel or attract pests. In our experiments, we studied VOC induction responses of Zea mays L. ssp. mays cv. 'Prosna' having Fusarium infection (mix of four species) in leaves or roots, then tested for VOC induction of uninfected neighboring plants, and finally examined wind-tunnel behavioral responses of the adult cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L. (Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) behavior to four induced VOCs. In the first part of our experiment, we confirmed that several green leaf volatiles (GLVs; (Z)-3-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexen-1-yl acetate, 1-hexyl acetate), terpenes (β-pinene, β-myrcene, Z-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene), and shikimic acid pathway derivatives (benzyl acetate, methyl salicylate, indole) were positively induced from maize plants infected by Fusarium spp. The quantities of induced VOCs were higher at 7d than 3d post-infection and greater when plants were infected with Fusarium on leaves rather than through soil. In the second part of our experiment, uninfected maize plants also showed significantly positive induction of several VOCs when neighboring an infected plant where the degree of induction was negatively related to the distance from the infected plant. In the third part of our experiment, a Y-tube bioassay was used to evaluate upwind orientation of adult cereal leaf beetles to four individual VOCs. Female and male O. melanopus were significantly attracted to the GLVs (Z)-3-hexenal and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and the terpenes linalool and β-caryophyllene. Our results indicate that a pathogen can induce several VOCs in maize plants that also induce VOCs in neighboring uninfected plants, though VOC induction could increase the range at which an insect pest species is attracted to VOC inducing plants

  2. Plants, plant pathogens, and microgravity--a deadly trio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, J. E.; Ryba-White, M.; Sun, Q.; Wu, C. J.; Hilaire, E.; Gartner, C.; Nedukha, O.; Kordyum, E.; Keck, M.; Leung, H.; Guikema, J. A.

    2001-01-01

    Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment.

  3. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. PMID:25346411

  4. Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance

  5. Quorum sensing in plant-pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Von Bodman, Susanne B; Bauer, W Dietz; Coplin, David L

    2003-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) allows bacteria to assess their local population density and/or physical confinement via the secretion and detection of small, diffusible signal molecules. This review describes how phytopathogenic bacteria have incorporated QS mechanisms into complex regulatory cascades that control genes for pathogenicity and colonization of host surfaces. Traits regulated by QS include the production of extracellular polysaccharides, degradative enzymes, antibiotics, siderophores, and pigments, as well as Hrp protein secretion, Ti plasmid transfer, motility, biofilm formation, and epiphytic fitness. Since QS regulatory systems are often required for pathogenesis, interference with QS signaling may offer a means of controlling bacterial diseases of plants. Several bacterial pathogens of plants that have been intensively studied and have revealed information of both fundamental and practical importance are reviewed here: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Pantoea stewartii, Erwinia carotovora, Ralstonia solanacearum, Pseudomonas syringae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Xanthomonas campestris. PMID:12730390

  6. The need for culture collections to support plant pathogen diagnostic networks.

    PubMed

    Barba, Marina; Van den Bergh, Inge; Belisario, Alessandra; Beed, Fen

    2010-01-01

    Plant-pathogenic microorganisms, by virtue of their size, similarity in disease symptoms and closely related morphologies, are notoriously difficult to diagnose and detect. Diagnosis gives proof as to the causal agent of disease and is important for developing appropriate control measures. Detection shows the presence of a microorganism and is of importance for safeguarding national and international trade. Live reference collections are required to characterize the taxonomy and function of microorganisms as a prerequisite to development of tools for diagnosis and detection. Two case studies will be presented in this paper to demonstrate the importance of microorganism collections for facilitating knowledge sharing and the development of identification methods. Fusarium wilt of banana caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense and sharka disease of stone fruits caused by plum pox virus (PPV) are considered. Both diseases consist of different races/strains with different host specificities, but Fusarium wilt poses a threat to food security, while PPV poses a threat to trade due to its classification as a quarantine pest, since there is no anti-virus treatment available to control sharka disease in orchards. It is only through comprehensive collections of correctly identified and well-maintained strains representing the genetic diversity of a target organism that robust, specific, reliable and efficient diagnostic and detection tools can be developed. PMID:20457251

  7. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sun; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-06-01

    Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this issue, these methods require complicated PCR steps or are frequently inefficient. Here, we introduce a cloning system that utilizes multi-fragment assembly by In-Fusion to generate a gene disruption construct. This method utilizes DNA fragment fusion and requires only one PCR step and one reaction for construction. Using this strategy, a gene disruption construct for Fusarium cyclin C1 (FCC1 ), which is associated with fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was successfully created and used for fungal transformation. In vivo and in vitro experiments using confirmed fcc1 mutants suggest that fumonisin production is closely related to disease symptoms exhibited by F. fujikuroi strain B14. Taken together, this multi-fragment assembly method represents a simpler and a more convenient process for targeted gene disruption in fungi. PMID:27298592

  8. Pathogen induced changes in the protein profile of human tears from Fusarium keratitis patients.

    PubMed

    Ananthi, Sivagnanam; Venkatesh Prajna, Namperumalsamy; Lalitha, Prajna; Valarnila, Murugesan; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu

    2013-01-01

    Fusarium is the major causative agent of fungal infections leading to corneal ulcer (keratitis) in Southern India and other tropical countries. Keratitis caused by Fusarium is a difficult disease to treat unless antifungal therapy is initiated during the early stages of infection. In this study tear proteins were prepared from keratitis patients classified based on the duration of infection. Among the patients recruited, early infection (n = 35), intermediate (n = 20), late (n = 11), samples from five patients in each group were pooled for analysis. Control samples were a pool of samples from 20 patients. Proteins were separated on difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and the differentially expressed proteins were quantified using DeCyder software analysis. The following differentially expressed proteins namely alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin α2 chain, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein, albumin, haptoglobin precursor - β chain, lactoferrin, lacrimal lipocalin precursor, cystatin SA III precursor, lacritin precursor were identified using mass spectrometry. Variation in the expression level of some of the proteins was confirmed using western blot analysis. This is the first report to show stage specific tear protein profile in fungal keratitis patients. Validation of this data using a much larger sample set could lead to clinical application of these findings. PMID:23308132

  9. Multi-Homologous Recombination-Based Gene Manipulation in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Sun; Ahn, Il-Pyung

    2016-01-01

    Gene disruption by homologous recombination is widely used to investigate and analyze the function of genes in Fusarium fujikuroi, a fungus that causes bakanae disease and root rot symptoms in rice. To generate gene deletion constructs, the use of conventional cloning methods, which rely on restriction enzymes and ligases, has had limited success due to a lack of unique restriction enzyme sites. Although strategies that avoid the use of restriction enzymes have been employed to overcome this issue, these methods require complicated PCR steps or are frequently inefficient. Here, we introduce a cloning system that utilizes multi-fragment assembly by In-Fusion to generate a gene disruption construct. This method utilizes DNA fragment fusion and requires only one PCR step and one reaction for construction. Using this strategy, a gene disruption construct for Fusarium cyclin C1 (FCC1 ), which is associated with fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was successfully created and used for fungal transformation. In vivo and in vitro experiments using confirmed fcc1 mutants suggest that fumonisin production is closely related to disease symptoms exhibited by F. fujikuroi strain B14. Taken together, this multi-fragment assembly method represents a simpler and a more convenient process for targeted gene disruption in fungi. PMID:27298592

  10. Sexual reproduction in the soybean sudden death syndrome pathogen Fusarium tucumaniae.

    PubMed

    Covert, S F; Aoki, T; O'Donnell, K; Starkey, D; Holliday, A; Geiser, D M; Cheung, F; Town, C; Strom, A; Juba, J; Scandiani, M; Yang, X B

    2007-08-01

    We investigated the sexual reproductive mode of the two most important etiological agents of soybean sudden death syndrome, Fusarium tucumaniae and Fusarium virguliforme. F. tucumaniae sexual crosses often were highly fertile, making it possible to assign mating type and assess female fertility in 24 South American isolates. These crosses produced red perithecia and oblong-elliptical ascospores, as is typical for sexual members of the F. solani species complex. Genotyping of progeny from three F. tucumaniae crosses confirmed that sexual recombination had occurred. In contrast, pairings among 17 U.S. F. virguliforme isolates never produced perithecia. Inter-species crosses between F. tucumaniae and F. virguliforme, in which infertile perithecia were induced only in one of the two F. tucumaniae mating types, suggest that all U.S. F. virguliforme isolates are of a single mating type. We conclude that the F. tucumaniae life cycle in S. America includes a sexual reproductive mode, and thus this species has greater potential for rapid evolution than the F. virguliforme population in the U.S., which may be exclusively asexual. PMID:17300967

  11. Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, John; Genin, Stephane; Magori, Shimpei; Citovsky, Vitaly; Sriariyanum, Malinee; Ronald, Pamela; Dow, Max; Verdier, Valérie; Beer, Steven V; Machado, Marcos A; Toth, Ian; Salmond, George; Foster, Gary D

    2012-08-01

    Many plant bacteriologists, if not all, feel that their particular microbe should appear in any list of the most important bacterial plant pathogens. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all bacterial pathologists with an association with the journal Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate the bacterial pathogens they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated 458 votes from the international community, and allowed the construction of a Top 10 bacterial plant pathogen list. The list includes, in rank order: (1) Pseudomonas syringae pathovars; (2) Ralstonia solanacearum; (3) Agrobacterium tumefaciens; (4) Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae; (5) Xanthomonas campestris pathovars; (6) Xanthomonas axonopodis pathovars; (7) Erwinia amylovora; (8) Xylella fastidiosa; (9) Dickeya (dadantii and solani); (10) Pectobacterium carotovorum (and Pectobacterium atrosepticum). Bacteria garnering honourable mentions for just missing out on the Top 10 include Clavibacter michiganensis (michiganensis and sepedonicus), Pseudomonas savastanoi and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. This review article presents a short section on each bacterium in the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intention of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant bacteriology community, as well as laying down a benchmark. It will be interesting to see, in future years, how perceptions change and which bacterial pathogens enter and leave the Top 10. PMID:22672649

  12. Expression of a single-chain variable-fragment antibody against a Fusarium virguliforme toxin peptide enhances tolerance to sudden death syndrome in transgenic soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Hargeet K; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2012-06-01

    Plants do not produce antibodies. However, plants can correctly assemble functional antibody molecules encoded by mammalian antibody genes. Many plant diseases are caused by pathogen toxins. One such disease is the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). SDS is a serious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium virguliforme. The pathogen, however, has never been isolated from diseased foliar tissues. Thus, one or more toxins produced by the pathogen have been considered to cause foliar SDS. One of these possible toxins, FvTox1, was recently identified. We investigated whether expression of anti-FvTox1 single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) antibody in transgenic soybean can confer resistance to foliar SDS. We have created two scFv antibody genes, Anti-FvTox1-1 and Anti-FvTox1-2, encoding anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies from RNAs of a hybridoma cell line that expresses mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Both anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies interacted with an antigenic site of FvTox1 that binds to mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Binding of FvTox1 by the anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies, expressed in either Escherichia coli or transgenic soybean roots, was initially verified on nitrocellulose membranes. Expression of anti-FvTox1-1 in stable transgenic soybean plants resulted in enhanced foliar SDS resistance compared with that in nontransgenic control plants. Our results suggest that i) FvTox1 is an important pathogenicity factor for foliar SDS development and ii) expression of scFv antibodies against pathogen toxins could be a suitable biotechnology approach for protecting crop plants from toxin-induced diseases. PMID:22397408

  13. Migration of Fusarium verticillioides between inoculated and non-inoculated ears of field-grown corn plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consequences of Fusarium verticillioides colonization of corn kernels may be plant disease and/or mycotoxin production. Plant disease may reduce crop production and mycotoxins may cause harmful, and often fatal, effects on humans and animals. Understanding migration patterns of F. verticillioides ...

  14. Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic

  15. Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development.

    PubMed

    Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B Gillian

    2014-01-01

    Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic

  16. Fusarium graminearum pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (FgPDK1) Is Critical for Conidiation, Mycelium Growth, and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Tao; Chen, Jian; Shi, Zhiqi

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is an important mitochondrial enzyme that blocks the production of acetyl-CoA by selectively inhibiting the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) through phosphorylation. PDK is an effectively therapeutic target in cancer cells, but the physiological roles of PDK in phytopathogens are largely unknown. To address these gaps, a PDK gene (FgPDK1) was isolated from Fusarium graminearum that is an economically important pathogen infecting cereals. The deletion of FgPDK1 in F. graminearum resulted in the increase in PDH activity, coinciding with several phenotypic defects, such as growth retardation, failure in perithecia and conidia production, and increase in pigment formation. The ΔFgPDK1 mutants showed enhanced sensitivity to osmotic stress and cell membrane-damaging agent. Physiological detection indicated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and plasma membrane damage (indicated by PI staining, lipid peroxidation, and electrolyte leakage) occurred in ΔFgPDK1 mutants. The deletion of FgPDK1 also prohibited the production of deoxynivalenol (DON) and pathogenicity of F. graminearum, which may resulted from the decrease in the expression of Tri6. Taken together, this study firstly identified the vital roles of FgPDK1 in the development of phytopathogen F. graminearum, which may provide a potentially novel clue for target-directed development of agricultural fungicides. PMID:27341107

  17. Soybean SDS in South Africa is caused by Fusarium brasiliense and a novel undescribed Fusarium sp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) was detected in South Africa for the first time during pathogen surveys conducted in 2013-2014. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the 16 slow-growing Fusarium strains that were isolated from the roots of symptomatic plants. Molecular phylogen...

  18. Phenylpropanoid pathway is potentiated by silicon in the roots of banana plants during the infection process of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense.

    PubMed

    Fortunato, Alessandro Antônio; da Silva, Washington Luís; Rodrigues, Fabrício Ávila

    2014-06-01

    Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a disease that causes large reductions in banana yield worldwide. Considering the importance of silicon (Si) to potentiate the resistance of several plant species to pathogen infection, this study aimed to investigate, at the histochemical level, whether this element could enhance the production of phenolics on the roots of banana plants in response to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection. Plants of cultivar Maçã, which is susceptible to F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense, were grown in plastic pots amended with 0 (-Si) or 0.39 g of Si (+Si) per kilogram of soil and inoculated with race 1 of F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense. The root Si concentration was increased by 35.6% for +Si plants in comparison to the -Si plants, which contributed to a 27% reduction in the symptoms of Fusarium wilt on roots. There was an absence of fluorescence for the root sections of the -Si plants treated with the Neu and Wilson's reagents. By contrast, for the root sections obtained from the +Si plants treated with Neu's reagent, strong yellow-orange fluorescence was observed in the phloem, and lemon-yellow fluorescence was observed in the sclerenchyma and metaxylem vessels, indicating the presence of flavonoids. For the root sections of the +Si plants treated with Wilson's reagent, orange-yellowish autofluorescence was more pronounced around the phloem vessels, and yellow fluorescence was more pronounced around the metaxylem vessels, also indicating the presence of flavonoids. Lignin was more densely deposited in the cortex of the roots of the +Si plants than for the -Si plants. Dopamine was barely detected in the roots of the -Si plants after using the lactic and glyoxylic acid stain, but was strongly suspected to occur on the phloem and metaxylem vessels of the roots of the +Si plants as confirmed by the intense orange-yellow fluorescence. The present study provides new evidence of the pivotal role of the phenylpropanoid pathway in

  19. Bacillus velezensis RC 218 as a biocontrol agent to reduce Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus velezensis RC 218 was originally isolated for the anthers of wheat as a potential antagonist of Fusarium graminearium, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight. It was demonstrated to have antagonist activity against the plant pathogen with in vitro and greenhouse assays. The current study ...

  20. Genomic analysis of Bacillus subtilis OH 131.1 and coculturing with Cryptococcus flavescens for control of fusarium head blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus subtilis OH131.1 is a bacterial antagonist of Fusarium graminearum, a plant pathogen which causes Fusarium head blight in wheat. The genome of B. subtilis OH131.1 was sequenced, annotated and analyzed to understand its potential to produce bioactive metabolites. The analysis identified 6 sy...

  1. Antagonistic and Biocontrol Potential of Trichoderma asperellum ZJSX5003 Against the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogen Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaqian; Sun, Ruiyan; Yu, Jia; Saravanakumar, Kandasamy; Chen, Jie

    2016-09-01

    The efficacy of seven strains of Trichoderma asperellum collected from the fields in Southern China was assessed against Fusarium graminearum (FG) the causal agent of corn stalk rot of maize were in vitro for their antagonistic properties followed by statistical model of principal compound analysis to identify the beneficial antagonist T. asperellum strain. The key factors of antagonist activity were attributed to a total of 13 factors including cell wall degrading enzymes (chitnase, protease and β-glucanases), secondary metabolites and peptaibols and these were analyzed from eight strains of Trichoderma. A linear regression model demonstrated that interaction of enzymes and secondary metabolites of T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 enhanced the antagonist activity against FG. Further, this strain displayed a disease reduction of 71 % in maize plants inoculated with FG compared to negative control. Pointing out that the T. asperellum strain ZJSX5003 is a potential source for the development of a biocontrol agent against corn stalk rot. PMID:27407296

  2. Phylogenetic relationships of the soybean sudden death syndrome pathogen Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli inferred from rDNA sequence data and PCR primers for its identification.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K; Gray, L E

    1995-01-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of several species within the Fusarium solani-complex were investigated using characters from the nuclear ribosomal DNA. Genetic variation within 24 isolates, including 5 soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) strains, was assessed using rDNA sequence data and restriction fragment length polymorphic markers. By these techniques, the causal agent of soybean SDS was identified as F. solani f. sp. phaseoli. In separate cladistic analyses, Plectosphaerella cucumerina and Nectria cinnabarina or F. ventricosum were used for rooting purposes. Monophyly of the F. solani-complex was strongly supported by bootstrap and decay analyses. Parsimony analysis indicates that this complex is composed of a number of phylogenetically distinct species, including Neocosmospora vasinfecta, F. solani f. sp. phaseoli, and biological species designated as MPI, MPV, and MPVI of N. haematococca. The results demonstrate complete congruence between biological and phylogenetic species within the N. haematococca-complex. In addition, DNA sequence data were used to design a PCR primer pair which could specifically amplify DNA from isolates of the SDS pathogen from infected plants. PMID:7579615

  3. Wheat kernel black point and fumonisin contamination by Fusarium Proliferatum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by several Fusarium species, especially Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides, which are common pathogens of maize worldwide. Consumption of fumonisins has been shown to cause a number of mycotoxicoses, including leucoencephalomalacia in horses, pulmon...

  4. Involvement of the salicylic acid signaling pathway in the systemic resistance induced in Arabidopsis by plant growth-promoting fungus Fusarium equiseti GF19-1.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Hanae; Hossain, Md Motaher; Kubota, Mayumi; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting fungi (PGPF) are effective biocontrol agents for a number of soil-borne diseases and are known for their ability to trigger induced systemic resistance (ISR). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms triggered by PGPF Fusarium equiseti GF19-1, which is known to increase pathogen resistance in plants, by using GF19-1 spores and the culture filtrate (CF) to treat the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Subsequently, the leaves were challenged with Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) bacteria. Arabidopsis plants treated with GF19-1 spores or the CF elicited ISR against the Pst pathogen, resulting in a restriction of disease severity and suppression of pathogen proliferation. Examination of ISR in various signaling mutants and transgenic plants showed that GF19-1-induced protection was observed in the jasmonate response mutant jar1 and the ethylene response mutant etr1, whereas it was blocked in Arabidopsis plants expressing the NahG transgene or demonstrating a disruption of the NPR1 gene (npr1). Analysis of systemic gene expression revealed that GF19-1 modulates the expression of salicylic acid (SA)-responsive PR-1, PR-2, and PR-5 genes. Moreover, transient accumulation of SA was observed in GF19-1-treated plant, whereas the level was further enhanced after Pst infection of GF19-1-pretreated plants, indicating that accumulation of SA was potentiated when Arabidopsis plants were primed for disease resistance by GF19-1. In conclusion, these findings imply that the induced protective effect conferred by F. equiseti GF19-1 against the leaf pathogen Pst requires responsiveness to an SA-dependent pathway. PMID:23728333

  5. Phytohormone mediation of interactions between herbivores and plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lazebnik, Jenny; Frago, Enric; Dicke, Marcel; van Loon, Joop J A

    2014-07-01

    Induced plant defenses against either pathogens or herbivore attackers are regulated by phytohormones. These phytohormones are increasingly recognized as important mediators of interactions between organisms associated with plants. In this review, we discuss the role of plant defense hormones in sequential tri-partite interactions among plants, pathogenic microbes, and herbivorous insects, based on the most recent literature. We discuss the importance of pathogen trophic strategy in the interaction with herbivores that exhibit different feeding modes. Plant resistance mechanisms also affect plant quality in future interactions with attackers. We discuss exemplary evidence for the hypotheses that (i) biotrophic pathogens can facilitate chewing herbivores, unless plants exhibit effector-triggered immunity, but (ii) facilitate or inhibit phloem feeders. (iii) Necrotrophic pathogens, on the other hand, can inhibit both phloem feeders and chewers. We also propose herbivore feeding mode as predictor of effects on pathogens of different trophic strategies, providing evidence for the hypotheses that (iv) phloem feeders inhibit pathogen attack by increasing SA induction, whereas (v) chewing herbivores tend not to affect necrotrophic pathogens, while they may either inhibit or facilitate biotrophic pathogens. Putting these hypotheses to the test will increase our understanding of phytohormonal regulation of plant defense to sequential attack by plant pathogens and insect herbivores. This will provide valuable insight into plant-mediated ecological interactions among members of the plant-associated community. PMID:25059974

  6. Fusarium Oxysporum Volatiles Enhance Plant Growth Via Affecting Auxin Transport and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bitas, Vasileios; McCartney, Nathaniel; Li, Ningxiao; Demers, Jill; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hye-Seon; Brown, Kathleen M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption. PMID:26617587

  7. Diversity of Fusarium head blight populations and trichothecene toxin types reveals regional differences in pathogen composition and temporal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amy C; Clear, Randall M; O'Donnell, Kerry; McCormick, Susan; Turkington, T Kelly; Tekauz, Andy; Gilbert, Jeannie; Kistler, H Corby; Busman, Mark; Ward, Todd J

    2015-09-01

    Analyses of genetic diversity, trichothecene genotype composition, and population structure were conducted using 4086 Fusarium graminearum isolates collected from wheat in eight Canadian provinces over a three year period between 2005 and 2007. The results revealed substantial regional differences in Fusarium head blight pathogen composition and temporal population dynamics. The 3ADON trichothecene type consistently predominated in Maritime provinces (91%) over the sampled years, and increased significantly (P<0.05) between 2005 and 2007 in western Canada, accounting for 66% of the isolates in Manitoba by the end of the sampling period. In contrast, 3ADON frequency was lower (22%, P<0.001) in the eastern Canadian provinces of Ontario and Québec and did not change significantly between 2005 and 2007, resulting in two distinct longitudinal clines in 3ADON frequency across Canada. Overall, genetic structure was correlated with toxin type, as the endemic population (NA1) was dominated by 15ADON isolates (86%), whereas a second population (NA2) consisted largely of 3ADON isolates (88%). However, the percentage of isolates with trichothecene genotypes that were not predictive of their genetic population assignment (recombinant genotypes) increased from 10% in 2005 to 17% in 2007, indicating that trichothecene type became an increasingly unreliable marker of population identity over time. In addition, there were substantial regional differences in the composition of recombinant genotypes. In western and maritime provinces, NA2 isolates with 15ADON genotypes were significantly more common than NA1 isolates with 3ADON genotypes (P<0.001), and the reverse was true in the eastern provinces of Québec and Ontario. Temporal trends in recombinant genotype composition also varied regionally, as the percentage of 15ADON isolates with NA2 genetic backgrounds increased approximately three fold in western and Maritime provinces, while the opposite trends were observed in Québec and

  8. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea. PMID:26190927

  9. First Report on Fusarium Wilt of Zucchini Caused by Fusarium oxysporum, in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Kim, Ju-Hee; Lee, Wang-Hyu; Park, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Fusarium wilt of zucchini in Jeonju, Korea, was first noticed in May 2013. Symptoms included wilting of the foliage, drying and withering of older leaves, and stunting of plants. Infected plants eventually died during growth. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of the molecular markers (internal transcribed spacer rDNA and translation elongation factor 1α), the fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum. Pathogenicity of a representative isolate was demonstrated via artificial inoculation, and it satisfied Koch's postulates. To our knowledge, this is the first report of F. oxysporum causing wilt of zucchini in Korea. PMID:26190927

  10. Plant pathogenic RNAs and RNA catalysis.

    PubMed Central

    Symons, R H

    1997-01-01

    The rolling circle replication of small circular plant pathogenic RNAs requires a processing step to convert multimeric intermediates to monomers which are then circularized. Eleven such RNAs are known so far, two are viroids, one is viroid-like and the remainder are satellite RNAs dependent on a helper virus for replication. The processing step is RNA-catalysed in all cases, at least in vitro. All plus forms of these RNAs self-cleave via the hammerhead structure whereas only eight of the minus RNAs self-cleave, five via the hammerhead structure and three via the hairpin structure. There are about 20 other viroids where the processing mechanism has yet to be determined but they are likely candidates for a new type of self-cleavage reaction which is predicted to be conserved in all these viroids. Hepatitis delta RNA is the only circular pathogenic RNA known to self-cleave in the animal kingdom. It is feasible that more single-stranded circular pathogenic RNAs are waiting to be discovered and these could be prospective for new types of self-cleavage reactions. PMID:9207012

  11. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible. PMID:24816267

  12. An adaptive evolutionary shift in Fusarium head blight pathogen populations is driving the rapid spread of more toxigenic Fusarium graminerarum in North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxigenic fungi responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) place significant constraints on the production of cereals worldwide and contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety. A fraction of the global FHB species and trichothecene chemotype diversity i...

  13. Genomic Basis of Plant Pathogen Suppression by Biocontrol Pseudomonas Species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various plant commensal bacterial species, which naturally colonize the plant rhizosphere, are able to suppress fungal, bacterial, viral and even insect plant pathogens. These biocontrol activities are elicited primarily through the production of secreted exoenzymes and secondary metabolites that ma...

  14. Targeting Iron Acquisition Blocks Infection with the Fungal Pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Sixto M.; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S.; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections. PMID:23853581

  15. Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

    2011-01-01

    The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and

  16. Fusarium proliferatum strains change fumonisin biosynthesis and accumulation when exposed to host plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Górna, Karolina; Pawłowicz, Izabela; Waśkiewicz, Agnieszka; Stępień, Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Fumonisin concentrations in mycelia and media were studied in liquid Fusarium proliferatum cultures supplemented with host plant extracts. Furthermore, the kinetics of fumonisin accumulation in media and mycelia collected before and after extract addition was analysed as well as the changes in the expression of the FUM1 gene. Fumonisin content in culture media increased in almost all F. proliferatum strains shortly after plant extracts were added. The asparagus extract induced the highest FB level increase and the garlic extract was the second most effective inducer. Fumonisin level decreased constantly until 14th day of culturing, though for some strains also at day 8th an elevated FB level was observed. Pineapple extract induced the highest increase of fum1 transcript levels as well as fumonisin synthesis in many strains, and the peas extract inhibited fungal growth and fumonisin biosynthesis. Moreover, fumonisins were accumulated in mycelia of studied strains and in the respective media. PMID:27268248

  17. Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmüller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ≤ 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus . PMID:24714966

  18. The rhizosphere microbiome: significance of plant beneficial, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Rodrigo; Garbeva, Paolina; Raaijmakers, Jos M

    2013-09-01

    Microbial communities play a pivotal role in the functioning of plants by influencing their physiology and development. While many members of the rhizosphere microbiome are beneficial to plant growth, also plant pathogenic microorganisms colonize the rhizosphere striving to break through the protective microbial shield and to overcome the innate plant defense mechanisms in order to cause disease. A third group of microorganisms that can be found in the rhizosphere are the true and opportunistic human pathogenic bacteria, which can be carried on or in plant tissue and may cause disease when introduced into debilitated humans. Although the importance of the rhizosphere microbiome for plant growth has been widely recognized, for the vast majority of rhizosphere microorganisms no knowledge exists. To enhance plant growth and health, it is essential to know which microorganism is present in the rhizosphere microbiome and what they are doing. Here, we review the main functions of rhizosphere microorganisms and how they impact on health and disease. We discuss the mechanisms involved in the multitrophic interactions and chemical dialogues that occur in the rhizosphere. Finally, we highlight several strategies to redirect or reshape the rhizosphere microbiome in favor of microorganisms that are beneficial to plant growth and health. PMID:23790204

  19. Uncovering plant-pathogen crosstalk through apoplastic proteomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Delaunois, Bertrand; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogens have evolved by developing different strategies to infect their host, which in turn have elaborated immune responses to counter the pathogen invasion. The apoplast, including the cell wall and extracellular space outside the plasma membrane, is one of the first compartments where pathogen-host interaction occurs. The plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of polysaccharides polymers and glycoproteins and serves as a natural physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The apoplastic fluid, circulating through the cell wall and intercellular spaces, provides a means for delivering molecules and facilitating intercellular communications. Some plant-pathogen interactions lead to plant cell wall degradation allowing pathogens to penetrate into the cells. In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall. The establishment of defense requires the regulation of a wide variety of proteins that are involved at different levels, from receptor perception of the pathogen via signaling mechanisms to the strengthening of the cell wall or degradation of the pathogen itself. A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity. This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:24917874

  20. First report of Fusarium graminearum, F. asiaticum and F. cortaderiae as head blight pathogens of annual ryegrass in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grains and several grasses, including annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), an important forage crop, but also a common weed in wheat, rice and maize agroecosystem in southern Brazil. Although i...

  1. Fusarium symbionts of an ambrosia beetle (Euwallacea sp.) in southern Florida are pathogens of avocado, Persea americana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium dieback, a destructive disease of avocado (Persea americana), was reported in California and Israel in 2012. It is associated with an ambrosia beetle, Euwallacea sp., and damage caused by an unnamed symbiont of the beetle in Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) designated p...

  2. Clonality, recombination, and hybridization in the plumbing-inhabiting human pathogen Fusarium keratoplasticum inferred from multilocus sequence typing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work has shown that Fusarium species and genotypes most commonly associated with human infections, particularly of the cornea (mycotic keratitis), are the same as those most commonly isolated from plumbing systems. The species most dominant in plumbing biofilms is Fusarium keratoplasticum, a ...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ISOLATES FROM COMMON BEAN AND SUGAR BEET USIG PATHOGENICITY ASSAYS AND RANDOM AMPLIFIED POLYMORPHIC DNA MARKERS.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract. Fusarium wilt is an economically important fungal disease of common bean and Fusarium yellows of sugar beet in the Central High Plains (CHP) region of the United States with yield losses approaching 30% under appropriate environmental conditions. The objective of this study was ...

  4. Multilocus Genotyping and Molecular Phylogenetics Resolve a Novel Head Blight Pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...

  5. SNARE protein FgVam7 controls growth, asexual and sexual development, and plant infection in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Bing; Fang, Qin; Li, Ying; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-01-01

    Soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins play critical and conserved roles in membrane fusion and vesicle transport of eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have shown that various homologues of SNARE proteins are also important in the infection of host plants by pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the characterization of a SNARE homologue, FgVam7, from Fusarium graminearum that causes head blight in wheat and barley worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis and domain comparison reveal that FgVam7 is homologous to Vam7 proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ScVam7), Magnaporthe oryzae (MoVam7) and several additional fungi by containing a PhoX homology (PX) domain and a SNARE domain. We show that FgVam7 plays a regulatory role in cellular differentiation and virulence in F. graminearum. Deletion of FgVAM7 significantly reduces vegetative growth, conidiation and conidial germination, sexual reproduction and virulence. The ΔFgvam7 mutant also exhibits a defect in vacuolar maintenance and delayed endocytosis. Moreover, the ΔFgvam7 mutant is insensitive to salt and osmotic stresses, and hypersensitive to cell wall stressors. Further characterization of FgVam7 domains indicate that the PX and SNARE domains are conserved in controlling Vam7 protein localization and function, respectively. Finally, FgVam7 has been shown to positively regulate the expression of several deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis genes TRI5, TRI6 and TRI101, and DON production. Our studies provide evidence for SNARE proteins as an additional means of regulatory mechanisms that govern growth, differentiation and virulence of pathogenic fungi. PMID:25880818

  6. [Antimicrobial activities of ant Ponericin W1 against plant pathogens in vitro and the disease resistance in its transgenic Arabidopsis].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Fang; Sun, Peng-Wei; Tang, Ding-Zhong

    2013-08-01

    The antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) exhibit a broad antimicrobial spectrum. The application of AMPs from non-plant organisms attracts considerable attention in plant disease resistance engineering. Ponericin W1, isolated from the venom of ant (Pachycondyla goeldii), shows antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and the budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae); however, it is not clear whether Ponericin W1 is effective against plant pathogens. The results of this study indicated synthesized Ponericin W1 inhibited mycelial growth of Magnaporthe oryzae and Botrytis cinerea, as well as hyphal growth and spore production of Fusarium graminearum. Besides, Ponericin W1 exhibited antibacterial activities against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. After codon optimization, Ponericin W1 gene was constructed into plant expression vector, and transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana by floral dip method. The Ponericin W1 was located in intercellular space of the transgenic plants as expected. Compared with the wild-type plants, there were ungerminated spores and less hyphal, conidia on the leaves of transgenic plants after innoculation with the powdery mildew fungus Golovinomyces cichoracearum. After innoculation with the pathogenic bac-terium Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, the baceria in the leaves of transgenic plants was significantly less than the wild-type plants, indicating that the transgenic plants displayed enhanced disease resistance to pathogens. These results demonstrate a potential use of Ponericin W1 in genetic engineering for broad-spectrum plant disease resistance. PMID:23956091

  7. Multiplex Detection of Plant Pathogens Using a Microsphere Immunoassay Technology

    PubMed Central

    Charlermroj, Ratthaphol; Himananto, Orawan; Seepiban, Channarong; Kumpoosiri, Mallika; Warin, Nuchnard; Oplatowska, Michalina; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Grant, Irene R.; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Elliott, Christopher T.

    2013-01-01

    Plant pathogens are a serious problem for seed export, plant disease control and plant quarantine. Rapid and accurate screening tests are urgently required to protect and prevent plant diseases spreading worldwide. A novel multiplex detection method was developed based on microsphere immunoassays to simultaneously detect four important plant pathogens: a fruit blotch bacterium Acidovorax avenae subsp. citrulli (Aac), chilli vein-banding mottle virus (CVbMV, potyvirus), watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV, tospovirus serogroup IV) and melon yellow spot virus (MYSV, tospovirus). An antibody for each plant pathogen was linked on a fluorescence-coded magnetic microsphere set which was used to capture corresponding pathogen. The presence of pathogens was detected by R-phycoerythrin (RPE)-labeled antibodies specific to the pathogens. The assay conditions were optimized by identifying appropriate antibody pairs, blocking buffer, concentration of RPE-labeled antibodies and assay time. Once conditions were optimized, the assay was able to detect all four plant pathogens precisely and accurately with substantially higher sensitivity than enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) when spiked in buffer and in healthy watermelon leaf extract. The assay time of the microsphere immunoassay (1 hour) was much shorter than that of ELISA (4 hours). This system was also shown to be capable of detecting the pathogens in naturally infected plant samples and is a major advancement in plant pathogen detection. PMID:23638044

  8. RNA-Seq for Plant Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kimbrel, Jeffrey A; Di, Yanming; Cumbie, Jason S; Chang, Jeff H

    2011-01-01

    The throughput and single-base resolution of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) have contributed to a dramatic change in transcriptomic-based inquiries and resulted in many new insights into the complexities of bacterial transcriptomes. RNA-Seq could contribute to similar advances in our understanding of plant pathogenic bacteria but it is still a technology under development with limitations and unknowns that need to be considered. Here, we review some new developments for RNA-Seq and highlight recent findings for host-associated bacteria. We also discuss the technical and statistical challenges in the practical application of RNA-Seq for studying bacterial transcriptomes and describe some of the currently available solutions. PMID:24710287

  9. RNA-Seq for Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kimbrel, Jeffrey A.; Di, Yanming; Cumbie, Jason S.; Chang, Jeff H.

    2011-01-01

    The throughput and single-base resolution of RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) have contributed to a dramatic change in transcriptomic-based inquiries and resulted in many new insights into the complexities of bacterial transcriptomes. RNA-Seq could contribute to similar advances in our understanding of plant pathogenic bacteria but it is still a technology under development with limitations and unknowns that need to be considered. Here, we review some new developments for RNA-Seq and highlight recent findings for host-associated bacteria. We also discuss the technical and statistical challenges in the practical application of RNA-Seq for studying bacterial transcriptomes and describe some of the currently available solutions. PMID:24710287

  10. Fungal control of pathogenic fungi isolated from wild plants in Taif Governorate, Saudia Arabia.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, A M; Altalhi, A D; Abd El-Fattah, R I

    2007-01-01

    Twenty two plants were collected from Taif Governorate and identified as: Euphorbia glomerifera, Juniperus procera, Launaea mucronata, Capparis dcidua, Punica granatum, Opuntia ficus, Prunus persica, Eucalyptus globulus, Medicago sativa, Artemisia monosperma, Trichodesma calathiforme, Artemisia judaica, Foeniculum vulgare, Phagnalon sinaicum, Rumex dentatus, Asphodelus aestives, Pulicaria crispa, Launae sonchoides, Forsskaolea tenacissima, Arnebia hispidissima, Avena spp and Aerva lanata. Pathogenic fungi were isolated from some of these plants and identified as Alternaria alternate, Ulocladium botrytis, Cladosporium spp, Cephalosporium spp, Penicillium chrysogenum, Fusarium oxysporum and Humicola grisea. Four antagonistic isolates were tested, 2 from Gliocladium fungus and 2 from Trichoderma fungus. We found that all the four antagonistic isolates (G. deliquescens, G. virens, T. viride and T. hamatum) significantly inhibited the radial growth of the pathogenic fungi tested, with different ratios. The results indicated that the antibiotics produced by the antagonists were more effective than the fungus itself and differ with different fungi. Coating plant stems with antagonists or with antagonist extracts reduce the severity of the disease but not prevent it in all tested pathogens. PMID:18928069

  11. Field Demonstration of a Multiplexed Point-of-Care Diagnostic Platform for Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lau, Han Yih; Wang, Yuling; Wee, Eugene J H; Botella, Jose R; Trau, Matt

    2016-08-16

    Effective disease management strategies to prevent catastrophic crop losses require rapid, sensitive, and multiplexed detection methods for timely decision making. To address this need, a rapid, highly specific and sensitive point-of-care method for multiplex detection of plant pathogens was developed by taking advantage of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) labeled nanotags and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), which is a rapid isothermal amplification method with high specificity. In this study, three agriculturally important plant pathogens (Botrytis cinerea, Pseudomonas syringae, and Fusarium oxysporum) were used to demonstrate potential translation into the field. The RPA-SERS method was faster, more sensitive than polymerase chain reaction, and could detect as little as 2 copies of B. cinerea DNA. Furthermore, multiplex detection of the three pathogens was demonstrated for complex systems such as the Arabidopsis thaliana plant and commercial tomato crops. To demonstrate the potential for on-site field applications, a rapid single-tube RPA/SERS assay was further developed and successfully performed for a specific target outside of a laboratory setting. PMID:27403651

  12. [Effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium poae moulds].

    PubMed

    Tequida-Meneses, Martín; Cortez-Rocha, Mario; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; López-Sandoval, Susana; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo

    2002-06-01

    Fungicidal activity of wild plants Larrea tridentata, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus globulus, Ambrosia ambrosioides, Nicotiana glauca, Ambrosia confertiflora, Datura discolor, Baccharis glutinosa, Proboscidea parviflora, Solanum rostratum, Jatropha cinerea, Salpianthus macrodonthus y Sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium poae y Fusarium moniliforme moulds species. Alcoholic extracts 6% (w/v) were prepared using six grams of dried plant powders (leaves and stems) and alcohol (70% ethanol or 70% methanol). A spore suspension (1x10(6); ufc/ml) of each mould was prepared by adding saline solution (0.85%) and 0.1% tween 80. The extracts were mixed with Czapeck yeast agar (CYA) at 45-50 degrees C in 1:10 relation on Petri dishes. Triplicate Petri dishes of each treatment and for each mould were centrally inoculated and three Petri dishes were used without treatment as controls. The inoculated dishes and controls were incubated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C for eight days. The incubated dishes were examined each 48 h and after the colony diameter (radial growth) was measured. Two mould species were controlled by L. tridentata, B. glutinosa and P. parviflora. Extracts of L. tridentata in methanol or ethanol at 41.5-100% inhibited all six species of moulds. PMID:12828509

  13. Fungal pathogen uses sex pheromone receptor for chemotropic sensing of host plant signals.

    PubMed

    Turrà, David; El Ghalid, Mennat; Rossi, Federico; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2015-11-26

    For more than a century, fungal pathogens and symbionts have been known to orient hyphal growth towards chemical stimuli from the host plant. However, the nature of the plant signals as well as the mechanisms underlying the chemotropic response have remained elusive. Here we show that directed growth of the soil-inhabiting plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum towards the roots of the host tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is triggered by the catalytic activity of secreted class III peroxidases, a family of haem-containing enzymes present in all land plants. The chemotropic response requires conserved elements of the fungal cell integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade and the seven-pass transmembrane protein Ste2, a functional homologue of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae sex pheromone α receptor. We further show that directed hyphal growth of F. oxysporum towards nutrient sources such as sugars and amino acids is governed by a functionally distinct MAPK cascade. These results reveal a potentially conserved chemotropic mechanism in root-colonizing fungi, and suggest a new function for the fungal pheromone-sensing machinery in locating plant hosts in a complex environment such as the soil. PMID:26503056

  14. Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium: three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics and knowledge sharing.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jongsun; Cheong, Kyeong-Chae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Ward, Todd J; O'Donnell, Kerry; Geiser, David M; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate species identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on well-preserved culture collections, have established a robust foundation for Fusarium classification. Genomes of four Fusarium species have been published with more being currently sequenced. The Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF; http://www.fusariumdb.org/) was built to support archiving and utilization of rapidly increasing data and knowledge and consists of Fusarium-ID, Fusarium Comparative Genomics Platform (FCGP) and Fusarium Community Platform (FCP). The Fusarium-ID archives phylogenetic marker sequences from most known species along with information associated with characterized isolates and supports strain identification and phylogenetic analyses. The FCGP currently archives five genomes from four species. Besides supporting genome browsing and analysis, the FCGP presents computed characteristics of multiple gene families and functional groups. The Cart/Favorite function allows users to collect sequences from Fusarium-ID and the FCGP and analyze them later using multiple tools without requiring repeated copying-and-pasting of sequences. The FCP is designed to serve as an online community forum for sharing and preserving accumulated experience and knowledge to support future research and education. PMID:21087991

  15. Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium: three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics and knowledge sharing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Bongsoo; Park, Jongsun; Cheong, Kyeong-Chae; Choi, Jaeyoung; Jung, Kyongyong; Kim, Donghan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Ward, Todd J.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Geiser, David M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2011-01-01

    The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate species identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on well-preserved culture collections, have established a robust foundation for Fusarium classification. Genomes of four Fusarium species have been published with more being currently sequenced. The Cyber infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF; http://www.fusariumdb.org/) was built to support archiving and utilization of rapidly increasing data and knowledge and consists of Fusarium-ID, Fusarium Comparative Genomics Platform (FCGP) and Fusarium Community Platform (FCP). The Fusarium-ID archives phylogenetic marker sequences from most known species along with information associated with characterized isolates and supports strain identification and phylogenetic analyses. The FCGP currently archives five genomes from four species. Besides supporting genome browsing and analysis, the FCGP presents computed characteristics of multiple gene families and functional groups. The Cart/Favorite function allows users to collect sequences from Fusarium-ID and the FCGP and analyze them later using multiple tools without requiring repeated copying-and-pasting of sequences. The FCP is designed to serve as an online community forum for sharing and preserving accumulated experience and knowledge to support future research and education. PMID:21087991

  16. A major locus for fusarium wilt race 4 resistance identified in Gossypium Hirsutum Acala NemX using an interspecific progeny with g barbadense

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt, caused by the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum race 4 (FOV4), is a vascular disease of cotton (Gossypium spp.) which causes plant injury and yield loss in most Pima (G. barbadense L.) and Acala or Upland (G. hirsutum L.) cultivars without co-infection with roo...

  17. ChsVb, a class VII chitin synthase involved in septation, is critical for pathogenicity in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Martín-Urdíroz, Magdalena; Roncero, M Isabel G; González-Reyes, José Antonio; Ruiz-Roldán, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    A new myosin motor-like chitin synthase gene, chsVb, has been identified in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of the chsVb chitin synthase 2 domain (CS2) revealed that ChsVb belongs to class VII chitin synthases. The ChsVb myosin motor-like domain (MMD) is shorter than the MMD of class V chitin synthases and does not contain typical ATP-binding motifs. Targeted disrupted single (DeltachsVb) and double (DeltachsV DeltachsVb) mutants were unable to infect and colonize tomato plants or grow invasively on tomato fruit tissue. These strains were hypersensitive to compounds that interfere with fungal cell wall assembly, produced lemon-like shaped conidia, and showed swollen balloon-like structures in hyphal subapical regions, thickened walls, aberrant septa, and intrahyphal hyphae. Our results suggest that the chsVb gene is likely to function in polarized growth and confirm the critical importance of cell wall integrity in the complex infection process of this fungus. PMID:17993572

  18. Control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping.

    PubMed

    Blok, W J; Lamers, J G; Termorshuizen, A J; Bollen, G J

    2000-03-01

    ABSTRACT A new method for the control of soilborne plant pathogens was tested for its efficacy in two field experiments during two years. Plots were amended with fresh broccoli or grass (3.4 to 4.0 kg fresh weight m(-2)) or left nonamended, and covered with an airtight plastic cover (0.135 mm thick) or left noncovered. In plots amended with broccoli or grass and covered with plastic sheeting, anaerobic and strongly reducing soil conditions developed quickly, as indicated by rapid depletion of oxygen and a decrease in redox potential values to as low as -200 mV. After 15 weeks, survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi, Rhizoctonia solani, and Verticillium dahliae in inoculum samples buried 15 cm deep was strongly reduced in amended, covered plots in both experiments. The pathogens were not or hardly inactivated in amended, noncovered soil or nonamended, covered soil. The latter indicates that thermal inactivation due to increased soil temperatures under the plastic cover was not involved in pathogen inactivation. The results show the potential for this approach to control various soilborne pathogens and that it may serve as an alternative to chemical soil disinfestation for high-value crops under conditions where other alternatives, such as solarization or soil flooding, are not effective or not feasible. PMID:18944617

  19. Insights into Cross-Kingdom Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Kirzinger, Morgan W.B.; Nadarasah, Geetanchaly; Stavrinides, John

    2011-01-01

    Plant and human pathogens have evolved disease factors to successfully exploit their respective hosts. Phytopathogens utilize specific determinants that help to breach reinforced cell walls and manipulate plant physiology to facilitate the disease process, while human pathogens use determinants for exploiting mammalian physiology and overcoming highly developed adaptive immune responses. Emerging research, however, has highlighted the ability of seemingly dedicated human pathogens to cause plant disease, and specialized plant pathogens to cause human disease. Such microbes represent interesting systems for studying the evolution of cross-kingdom pathogenicity, and the benefits and tradeoffs of exploiting multiple hosts with drastically different morphologies and physiologies. This review will explore cross-kingdom pathogenicity, where plants and humans are common hosts. We illustrate that while cross-kingdom pathogenicity appears to be maintained, the directionality of host association (plant to human, or human to plant) is difficult to determine. Cross-kingdom human pathogens, and their potential plant reservoirs, have important implications for the emergence of infectious diseases. PMID:24710301

  20. The top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens that threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant pathogenic oomycete taxa based on scientific and economic importance. In total, ...

  1. Currency notes and coins as a possible source of transmitting fungal pathogens of man and plants.

    PubMed

    Wanule, Dinesh; Jalander, Vaghmare; Gachande, B D; Sirsikar, A N

    2011-10-01

    Currency (notes and coins) handling by people during transaction is one of the most mobile objects within the community, which has a potential of transmitting pathogens. A survey carried out recently in Nanded city (Maharashtra) revealed heavy contamination of currency notes and coins by important fungal pathogens of plants and man, i.e. Aspergillus niger (60.37%), A. flavus (3.98%), A.nidulans (0.2%), Penicillium citrinum (17.80%), Alternaria tenuis (0.20%), Curvularia pallescens (0.20%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (10.69%), Rhizopus stolonifer (1.04%), an unidentified Aspergillus species .1 (0.20%) and another unidentified Aspergillus species.2 (3.14%), Fusarium sp. (0.20%), Trichoderma viride (0.20%),white sterile mycelium (0.62%) and brown sterile mycelium (0.62%). The study highlights the importance of preventing and controlling fungal contamination of currency notes and coins in public health and plant protection. Currency notes or coins are rarely suspected as infection sources and often not quarantined at airport or seaport terminal. Possible transmission of pathogens or "alien", invasive species through currency across borders or across countries needs to be taken into consideration especially under circumstances of serious outbreak of important disease or when there is a threat of biological warfare. PMID:23505834

  2. Physiological and biochemical characterization of Trichoderma harzianum, a biological control agent against soilborne fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Grondona, I; Hermosa, R; Tejada, M; Gomis, M D; Mateos, P F; Bridge, P D; Monte, E; Garcia-Acha, I

    1997-01-01

    Monoconidial cultures of 15 isolates of Trichoderma harzianum were characterized on the basis of 82 morphological, physiological, and biochemical features and 99 isoenzyme bands from seven enzyme systems. The results were subjected to numerical analysis which revealed four distinct groups. Representative sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1)-ITS 2 region in the ribosomal DNA gene cluster were compared between groups confirming this distribution. The utility of the groupings generated from the morphological, physiological, and biochemical data was assessed by including an additional environmental isolate in the electrophoretic analysis. The in vitro antibiotic activity of the T. harzianum isolates was assayed against 10 isolates of five different soilborne fungal plant pathogens: Aphanomyces cochlioides, Rhizoctonia solani, Phoma betae, Acremonium cucurbitacearum, and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis lycopersici. Similarities between levels and specificities of biological activity and the numerical characterization groupings are both discussed in relation to antagonist-specific populations in known and potential biocontrol species. PMID:9251205

  3. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the Fusarium dimerum species group.

    PubMed

    Schroers, Hans-Josef; O'Donnell, Kerry; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Kammeyer, Patricia L; Johnson, Stuart; Sutton, Deanna A; Rinaldi, Michael G; Geiser, David M; Summerbell, Richard C

    2009-01-01

    The morphospecies Fusarium dimerum, known only from its anamorph, comprises at least 12 phylogenetically distinct species. Analyses of the large subunit ribosomal DNA (LSU rDNA) show they are taxa of the Nectriaceae (Hypocreales), related to F. domesticum and form a phylogenetically distinct clade within Fusarium. Fusarium dimerum, for which no herbarium material could be located, is characterized by macroconidia with a single, median septum, according to the original description and illustration. Fusarium lunatum (= F. dimerum var. violaceum) forms similar but longer macroconidia and purple, catenate or clustered chlamydospores. Fusarium delphinoides sp. nov., F. biseptatum sp. nov., F. penzigii sp. nov., F. nectrioides comb. nov. (= F. dimerum var. nectrioides) and two unnamed Fusarium spp. produce macroconidia with mostly two or rarely three septa. The name F. dimerum, which originally was applied to a fungus from a citron, is used for a taxon including isolates causing infections in immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Fusarium nectrioides, F. delphinoides, F. penzigii and F. biseptatum are known from soil and dead plant substrata or rarely as agents of trauma-related eye infections of humans. Fusarium lunatum is an inhabitant of the cladodes of species within the cactus genera Opuntia and Gymnocalycium. Its unnamed closest sister taxon, which also forms 1-septate macroconidia and purple, clustered chlamydospores, was isolated from a human sinus. Fusarium delphinoides is a pathogen of the cactus-like African species Hoodia gordonii (Apocynaceae). Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region, LSU rDNA and partial sequences of the elongation factor 1-alpha and beta-tubulin genes identified a clade of several species producing predominately 2-septate macroconidia as the reciprocally monophyletic sister of F. dimerum. The basal sister group of the two aforementioned clades includes Fusarium lunatum and two

  4. DNA sequence-based identification of Fusarium: Current status and future directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium easily ranks as one of the most important mycotoxigenic plant pathogens and emergent opportunistic pathogen of immunologically impaired humans. Informed disease management and infection control are heavily reliant on an accurate identification of the toxigenic and/or etiological agent. Howe...

  5. PLEXdb: gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sudhansu; Van Hemert, John; Hong, Lu; Wise, Roger P; Dickerson, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    PLEXdb (http://www.plexdb.org), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facilitate the interpretation of structure, function and regulation of genes in economically important plants. A list of Gene Atlas experiments highlights data sets that give responses across different developmental stages, conditions and tissues. Tools at PLEXdb allow users to perform complex analyses quickly and easily. The Model Genome Interrogator (MGI) tool supports mapping gene lists onto corresponding genes from model plant organisms, including rice and Arabidopsis. MGI predicts homologies, displays gene structures and supporting information for annotated genes and full-length cDNAs. The gene list-processing wizard guides users through PLEXdb functions for creating, analyzing, annotating and managing gene lists. Users can upload their own lists or create them from the output of PLEXdb tools, and then apply diverse higher level analyses, such as ANOVA and clustering. PLEXdb also provides methods for users to track how gene expression changes across many different experiments using the Gene OscilloScope. This tool can identify interesting expression patterns, such as up-regulation under diverse conditions or checking any gene's suitability as a steady-state control. PMID:22084198

  6. A phage-displayed chicken single-chain antibody fused to alkaline phosphatase detects Fusarium pathogens and their presence in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zu-Quan; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Huang, Tao; Liu, Jin-Long; Xue, Sheng; Wu, Ai-Bo; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2013-02-18

    Fusarium and its poisonous mycotoxins are distributed worldwide and are of particular interest in agriculture and food safety. A simple analytical method to detect pathogens is essential for forecasting diseases and controlling mycotoxins. This article describes a proposed method for convenient and sensitive detection of Fusarium pathogens that uses the fusion of single-chain variable fragment (scFv) and alkaline phosphatase (AP). A highly reactive scFv antibody specific to soluble cell wall-bound proteins (SCWPs) of F. verticillioides was selected from an immunized chicken phagemid library by phage display. The antibody was verified to bind on the surface of ungerminated conidiospores and mycelia of F. verticillioides. The scFv-AP fusion was constructed, and soluble expression in bacteria was confirmed. Both the antibody properties and enzymatic activity were retained, and the antigen-binding capacity of the fusion was enhanced by the addition of a linker. Surface plasmon resonance measurements confirmed that the fusion displayed 4-fold higher affinity compared with the fusion's parental scFv antibody. Immunoblot analyses showed that the fusion had good binding capacity to the components from SCWPs of F. verticillioides, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays revealed that the detection limit of the fungus was below 10(-2) μg mL(-1), superior to the scFv antibody. The fusion protein was able to detect fungal concentrations as low as 10(-3) mg g(-1) of maize grains in both naturally and artificially contaminated samples. Thus, the fusion can be applied in rapid and simple diagnosis of Fusarium contamination in field and stored grain or in food. PMID:23374219

  7. The Role of the Jasmonate Response in Plant Susceptibility to Diverse Pathogens with a Range of Lifestyles1[w

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Jennifer S.; Owen, Blythe; Higgins, Verna J.

    2004-01-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack from insects and pathogens with various resistance strategies. The jasmonate and salicylate signaling pathways are two induced responses that protect plants against these attackers. Knowledge of the range of organisms that are affected by each response is important for understanding how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attackers and the generality of effect of different resistance mechanisms. The jasmonate response is known to protect plants against a wide range of insect herbivores; in this study, we examined the role of the jasmonate response in susceptibility to eight pathogens with diverse lifestyles in the laboratory and field. Recent biochemical models suggest that the lifestyle of the pathogen (necrotroph versus biotroph) should predict whether the jasmonate response will be involved in resistance. We tested this by examining the susceptibility of wild-type (cv Castlemart with no known genes for resistance to the pathogens used) and jasmonate-deficient mutant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants (def1) and by employing rescue treatments of the mutant. Plant susceptibility to five of the eight pathogens we examined was reduced by the jasmonate response, including two bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris), two fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici), and an oomycete (Phytophthora infestans). Susceptibility to three fungi was unaffected (Cladosporium fulvum, Oidium neolycopersici, and Septoria lycopersici). Our results indicate that the jasmonate response reduces damage by a wide range of pathogens from different lifestyles, a result that contrasts with the emerging picture of diseases on Arabidopsis. Thus, the generality of jasmonate-based resistance of tomato challenges the view that ecologically distinct plant parasites are resisted via different mechanisms. PMID:15133157

  8. The role of the jasmonate response in plant susceptibility to diverse pathogens with a range of lifestyles.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Jennifer S; Owen, Blythe; Higgins, Verna J

    2004-05-01

    Plants defend themselves against attack from insects and pathogens with various resistance strategies. The jasmonate and salicylate signaling pathways are two induced responses that protect plants against these attackers. Knowledge of the range of organisms that are affected by each response is important for understanding how plants coordinate their defenses against multiple attackers and the generality of effect of different resistance mechanisms. The jasmonate response is known to protect plants against a wide range of insect herbivores; in this study, we examined the role of the jasmonate response in susceptibility to eight pathogens with diverse lifestyles in the laboratory and field. Recent biochemical models suggest that the lifestyle of the pathogen (necrotroph versus biotroph) should predict whether the jasmonate response will be involved in resistance. We tested this by examining the susceptibility of wild-type (cv Castlemart with no known genes for resistance to the pathogens used) and jasmonate-deficient mutant tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants (def1) and by employing rescue treatments of the mutant. Plant susceptibility to five of the eight pathogens we examined was reduced by the jasmonate response, including two bacteria (Pseudomonas syringae and Xanthomonas campestris), two fungi (Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici), and an oomycete (Phytophthora infestans). Susceptibility to three fungi was unaffected (Cladosporium fulvum, Oidium neolycopersici, and Septoria lycopersici). Our results indicate that the jasmonate response reduces damage by a wide range of pathogens from different lifestyles, a result that contrasts with the emerging picture of diseases on Arabidopsis. Thus, the generality of jasmonate-based resistance of tomato challenges the view that ecologically distinct plant parasites are resisted via different mechanisms. PMID:15133157

  9. Combinatorially selected defense peptides protect plant roots from pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Zhiwei David; Laskey, James G.; Huang, Shaoxing; Bilyeu, Kristin D.; Morris, Roy O.; Schmidt, Francis J.; English, James T.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural productivity and sustainability are continually challenged by emerging and indigenous pathogens. Currently, many pathogens can be combated only with biocides or environmentally dangerous fumigants. Here, we report a rapid and pathogen-specific strategy to reduce infection by organisms that target plant roots. Combinatorially selected defense peptides, previously shown to effect premature encystment of Phytophthora capsici zoospores, were fused to maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase as a display scaffold. When expressed in tomato roots, the peptide-scaffold constructs were secreted and accumulated to sufficient concentrations in the rhizosphere to induce zoospore encystment and thereby deter taxis to the root surface. Pathogen infection was significantly inhibited in roots expressing bioactive peptides fused to the maize cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase scaffold. This peptide-delivery technology is broadly applicable for rapid development of plant defense attributes against plant pathogens. PMID:17030803

  10. Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species. PMID:24743166

  11. The cuticle and plant defense to pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Coluccia, Fania; Torres, Martha; L’Haridon, Floriane; Métraux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The cuticle provides a physical barrier against water loss and protects against irradiation, xenobiotics, and pathogens. Components of the cuticle are perceived by invading fungi and activate developmental processes during pathogenesis. In addition, cuticle alterations of various types induce a syndrome of reactions that often results in resistance to necrotrophs. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of the cuticle in relation to the perception of pathogens and activation of defenses. PMID:24982666

  12. The transmembrane protein Sho1 cooperates with the mucin Msb2 to regulate invasive growth and plant infection in Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Perez-Nadales, Elena; Di Pietro, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    In the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fmk1 is essential for plant infection. The mucin-like membrane protein Msb2 regulates a subset of Fmk1-dependent functions. Here, we examined the role of the tetraspan transmembrane protein Sho1 as an additional regulator of the Fmk1 pathway and determined its genetic interaction with Msb2. Targeted Δsho1 mutants were generated in wild-type and Δmsb2 backgrounds to test possible interactions between the two genes. The mutants were examined for hyphal growth under different stress conditions, phosphorylation of the MAPK Fmk1 and an array of Fmk1-dependent virulence functions. Similar to Msb2, Sho1 was required for the activation of Fmk1 phosphorylation, as well as Fmk1-dependent gene expression and invasive growth functions, including extracellular pectinolytic activity, cellophane penetration, plant tissue colonization and virulence on tomato plants. Δsho1 mutants were hypersensitive to the cell wall-perturbing compound Calcofluor White, and this phenotype was exacerbated in the Δmsb2 Δsho1 double mutant. These results highlight that Sho1 and Msb2 have partially overlapping functions upstream of the Fmk1 MAPK cascade, to promote invasive growth and plant infection, as well as cell wall integrity, in F. oxysporum. PMID:25382187

  13. Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Dana; Mitchell, Charles E.; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojtěch

    2009-01-01

    Why do some exotic plant species become invasive? Two common hypotheses, increased resource availability and enemy release, may more effectively explain invasion if they favor the same species, and therefore act in concert. This would be expected if plant species adapted to high levels of available resources in their native range are particularly susceptible to enemies, and therefore benefit most from a paucity of enemies in their new range. We tested this possibility by examining how resource adaptations influence pathogen richness and release among 243 European plant species naturalized in the United States. Plant species adapted to higher resource availability hosted more pathogen species in their native range. Plants from mesic environments hosted more fungi than plants from xeric environments, and plants from nitrogen-rich environments hosted more viruses than plants from nitrogen-poor environments. Furthermore, plants classified as competitors hosted more than 4 times as many fungi and viruses as did stress tolerators. Patterns of enemy release mirrored those of pathogen richness: competitors and species from mesic and nitrogen-rich environments were released from many pathogen species, while stress tolerators and species from xeric and nitrogen-poor environments were released from relatively few pathogen species. These results suggest that enemy release contributes most to invasion by fast-growing species adapted to resource-rich environments. Consequently, enemy release and increases in resource availability may act synergistically to favor exotic over native species. PMID:19416888

  14. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight

    PubMed Central

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  15. Alterations in Kernel Proteome after Infection with Fusarium culmorum in Two Triticale Cultivars with Contrasting Resistance to Fusarium Head Blight.

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Góral, Tomasz; Ochodzki, Piotr; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Augustyniak, Adam; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Highlight: The level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to Fusarium head blight. Triticale was used here as a model to recognize new components of molecular mechanism of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals. Fusarium-damaged kernels (FDK) of two lines distinct in levels of resistance to FHB were applied into a proteome profiling using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to create protein maps and mass spectrometry (MS) to identify the proteins differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines. This proteomic research was supported by a measurement of alpha- and beta-amylase activities, mycotoxin content, and fungal biomass in the analyzed kernels. The 2-DE analysis indicated a total of 23 spots with clear differences in a protein content between the more resistant and more susceptible triticale lines after infection with Fusarium culmorum. A majority of the proteins were involved in a cell carbohydrate metabolism, stressing the importance of this protein group in a plant response to Fusarium infection. The increased accumulation levels of different isoforms of plant beta-amylase were observed for a more susceptible triticale line after inoculation but these were not supported by a total level of beta-amylase activity, showing the highest value in the control conditions. The more resistant line was characterized by a higher abundance of alpha-amylase inhibitor CM2 subunit and simultaneously a lower activity of alpha-amylase after inoculation. We suggest that the level of pathogen alpha-amylase and plant beta-amylase activities could be components of plant-pathogen interaction associated with the resistance of triticale to FHB. PMID:27582751

  16. Pathogen perception by NLRs in plants and animals: Parallel worlds.

    PubMed

    Duxbury, Zane; Ma, Yan; Furzer, Oliver J; Huh, Sung Un; Cevik, Volkan; Jones, Jonathan D G; Sarris, Panagiotis F

    2016-08-01

    Intracellular NLR (Nucleotide-binding domain and Leucine-rich Repeat-containing) receptors are sensitive monitors that detect pathogen invasion of both plant and animal cells. NLRs confer recognition of diverse molecules associated with pathogen invasion. NLRs must exhibit strict intramolecular controls to avoid harmful ectopic activation in the absence of pathogens. Recent discoveries have elucidated the assembly and structure of oligomeric NLR signalling complexes in animals, and provided insights into how these complexes act as scaffolds for signal transduction. In plants, recent advances have provided novel insights into signalling-competent NLRs, and into the myriad strategies that diverse plant NLRs use to recognise pathogens. Here, we review recent insights into the NLR biology of both animals and plants. By assessing commonalities and differences between kingdoms, we are able to develop a more complete understanding of NLR function. PMID:27339076

  17. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Staskawicz, Brian J.; Bent, Andrew F.; Innes, Roger W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described.

  18. Method of identifying plant pathogen tolerance

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, J.R.; Staskawicz, B.J.; Bent, A.F.; Innes, R.W.

    1997-10-07

    A process for identifying a plant having disease tolerance comprising administering to a plant an inhibitory amount of ethylene and screening for ethylene insensitivity, thereby identifying a disease tolerant plant, is described. Plants identified by the foregoing process are also described. 7 figs.

  19. Fusarium nail and skin infection: a report of eight cases from Natal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Calado, Nicácia Barbosa; Sousa, Francisco; Gomes, Nadja Oliveira; Cardoso, Fernando Ramos; Zaror, Luis Conrado; Milan, Eveline Pipolo

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium spp. are non-dermatophytic hyaline moulds distributed worldwide and recovered from the nature as soil saprophytes and plant pathogens. Human infections are usually precipitated by local or systemic predisposing factors and disseminated infection is associated with impaired immune responses. We report eight cases of cutaneous lesions caused by Fusarium spp. All patients were immunocompetent. Seven cases with presented onychomycosis and one patient with interdigital intertrigo. It is important to alert the medical community about the relevance of the opportunistic fungi, such as Fusarium spp., which have emerged as human infectious agents, emphasizing the importance of correct etiological identification, allowing for appropriate treatment. PMID:16389481

  20. Diversity of Fusarium head blight populations and trichothecene toxin types reveals regional differences in pathogen composition and temporal dynamics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analyses of genetic diversity, trichothecene genotype composition, and population structure were conducted using 4,086 Fusarium graminearum isolates collected from wheat in eight Canadian provinces over a three year period between 2005 and 2007. The results revealed substantial regional differences ...

  1. A meiotic drive element in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides is located within a 102-kb region of chromosome V

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (SkK) that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny f...

  2. Fusarium praegraminearum sp. nov. is a novel nivalenol mycotoxin-producing head blight pathogen from New Zealand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report on the molecular and morphological characterization of a novel B-type trichothecene toxin-producing species (i.e., B clade) recovered from litter in a maize field near Wellington, New Zealand, which is described as Fusarium praegraminearum sp. nov. This species was initially identified as ...

  3. FUBT, a putative MFS transporter, promotes secretion of fusaric acid in the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusaric acid (FA) is a key component in virulence and symptom development in cotton during infection by Fusarium oxysporum. A putative MFS transporter gene was identified upstream of the polyketide synthase gene responsible for the biosynthesis of FA. Disruption of the transporter gene, designated...

  4. Omics Approaches for the Engineering of Pathogen Resistant Plants.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Casati, Diego F; Pagani, María A; Busi, María V; Bhadauria, Vijai

    2016-01-01

    The attack of different pathogens, such as bacteria, fungi and viruses has a negative impact on crop production. In counter such attacks, plants have developed different strategies involving the modification of gene expression, activation of several metabolic pathways and post-translational modification of proteins, which culminate into the accumulation of primary and secondary metabolites implicated in plant defense responses. The recent advancement in omics techniques allows the increase coverage of plants transcriptomes, proteomes and metabolomes during pathogen attack, and the modulation of the response after the infection. Omics techniques also allow us to learn more about the biological cycle of the pathogens in addition to the identification of novel virulence factors in pathogens and their host targets. Both approaches become important to decipher the mechanism underlying pathogen attacks and to develop strategies for improving disease-resistant plants. In this review, we summarize some of the contribution of genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and metallomics in devising the strategies to obtain plants with increased resistance to pathogens. These approaches constitute important research tools in the development of new technologies for the protection against diseases and increase plant production. PMID:26363625

  5. The plant pathogen Phytophthora andina emerged via hybridization of an unknown Phytophthora species and the Irish famine pathogen, P. infestans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global movement of plant pathogens threatens natural ecosystems, food security, and commercial interests. Introduction of a plant pathogen to new geographic regions has been the primary mechanism by which new pathogens have emerged. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathoge...

  6. Regulation of primary plant metabolism during plant-pathogen interactions and its contribution to plant defense

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Clemencia M.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa; Tzin, Vered; Mysore, Kirankumar S.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are constantly exposed to microorganisms in the environment and, as a result, have evolved intricate mechanisms to recognize and defend themselves against potential pathogens. One of these responses is the downregulation of photosynthesis and other processes associated with primary metabolism that are essential for plant growth. It has been suggested that the energy saved by downregulation of primary metabolism is diverted and used for defense responses. However, several studies have shown that upregulation of primary metabolism also occurs during plant-pathogen interactions. We propose that upregulation of primary metabolism modulates signal transduction cascades that lead to plant defense responses. In support of this thought, we here compile evidence from the literature to show that upon exposure to pathogens or elicitors, plants induce several genes associated with primary metabolic pathways, such as those involved in the synthesis or degradation of carbohydrates, amino acids and lipids. In addition, genetic studies have confirmed the involvement of these metabolic pathways in plant defense responses. This review provides a new perspective highlighting the relevance of primary metabolism in regulating plant defense against pathogens with the hope to stimulate further research in this area. PMID:24575102

  7. Reactive oxygen species, essential molecules, during plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Camejo, Daymi; Guzmán-Cedeño, Ángel; Moreno, Alexander

    2016-06-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are continually generated as a consequence of the normal metabolism in aerobic organisms. Accumulation and release of ROS into cell take place in response to a wide variety of adverse environmental conditions including salt, temperature, cold stresses and pathogen attack, among others. In plants, peroxidases class III, NADPH oxidase (NOX) locates in cell wall and plasma membrane, respectively, may be mainly enzymatic systems involving ROS generation. It is well documented that ROS play a dual role into cells, acting as important signal transduction molecules and as toxic molecules with strong oxidant power, however some aspects related to its function during plant-pathogen interactions remain unclear. This review focuses on the principal enzymatic systems involving ROS generation addressing the role of ROS as signal molecules during plant-pathogen interactions. We described how the chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes perceive the external stimuli as pathogen invasion, and trigger resistance response using ROS as signal molecule. PMID:26950921

  8. Emerging Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Global Warming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several bacteria, previously classified as non-fluorescent, oxidase positive pseudomonads, Ralstonia, Acidovorax, and Burkholdria have emerged as serious problems world-wide. Perhaps the most destructive is R. solanacearum (RS), a soilborne pathogen with a very wide host range. RS race 3, biovar 2...

  9. The effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on interactions between plant roots, arbuscular-mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Rillig, M.C.; Klironomos, J.N.; Allen, M.F.

    1995-09-01

    Of all effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on plants and ecosystems, the least is known about plant rhizosphere responses. Rhizosphere fungi are fed primarily by root-derived substrates, and fulfill functions such as immobilization, decomposition, pathogeneity, and improvement of plant nutrition. This study describes the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on the interaction between the pathogen Fusarium solani and the AM fungus Glomus intraradices in the rhizosphere of Artemisia tridentata. We measured intraradical infection and extraradical growth by the two fungi under elevated and ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations. We found a strong interaction between the two fungi. Root infection by and extraradical hyphal length of solani did not differ significantly between CO{sub 2} treatments in the presence of G. intraradices. In the absence of G. intraradices, however, infection by F. solani and its extraradical hyphal length increased under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that pathogenic fungi do respond to elevated CO{sub 2} by increased hyphal growth and root infection (potential response), but also show that mycorrhizal fungi can profit more from the new conditions and serve to suppress the pathogen.

  10. Plant-Pathogen Effectors: Cellular Probes Interfering with Plant Defenses in Spatial and Temporal Manners.

    PubMed

    Toruño, Tania Y; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Coaker, Gitta

    2016-08-01

    Plants possess large arsenals of immune receptors capable of recognizing all pathogen classes. To cause disease, pathogenic organisms must be able to overcome physical barriers, suppress or evade immune perception, and derive nutrients from host tissues. Consequently, to facilitate some of these processes, pathogens secrete effector proteins that promote colonization. This review covers recent advances in the field of effector biology, focusing on conserved cellular processes targeted by effectors from diverse pathogens. The ability of effectors to facilitate pathogen entry into the host interior, suppress plant immune perception, and alter host physiology for pathogen benefit is discussed. Pathogens also deploy effectors in a spatial and temporal manner, depending on infection stage. Recent advances have also enhanced our understanding of effectors acting in specific plant organs and tissues. Effectors are excellent cellular probes that facilitate insight into biological processes as well as key points of vulnerability in plant immune signaling networks. PMID:27359369

  11. Molecular battles between plant and pathogenic bacteria in the phyllosphere

    PubMed Central

    Baker, C.M.; Chitrakar, R.; Obulareddy, N.; Panchal, S.; Williams, P.; Melotto, M.

    2011-01-01

    The phyllosphere, i.e., the aerial parts of the plant, provides one of the most important niches for microbial colonization. This niche supports the survival and, often, proliferation of microbes such as fungi and bacteria with diverse lifestyles including epiphytes, saprophytes, and pathogens. Although most microbes may complete the life cycle on the leaf surface, pathogens must enter the leaf and multiply aggressively in the leaf interior. Natural surface openings, such as stomata, are important entry sites for bacteria. Stomata are known for their vital role in water transpiration and gas exchange between the plant and the environment that is essential for plant growth. Recent studies have shown that stomata can also play an active role in limiting bacterial invasion of both human and plant pathogenic bacteria as part of the plant innate immune system. As counter-defense, plant pathogens such as Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 use the virulence factor coronatine to suppress stomata-based defense. A novel and crucial early battleground in host-pathogen interaction in the phyllosphere has been discovered with broad implications in the study of bacterial pathogenesis, host immunity, and molecular ecology of bacterial diseases. PMID:20602017

  12. Fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium spp. However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi. Beauveria produces an array of bioactive metabolit...

  13. Plants, Pathogens, and People: Extending the Classroom to the Web

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Bertram C.; Dowd, Heather; Eastburn, Darin M.; D'arcy, Cleora J.

    2005-01-01

    Plants, Pathogens, and People is a Web site promoting agricultural awareness via multimedia lectures about plant diseases and online lab activities in which students investigate phenomena. The use of the site in large-enrollment classes for 6-plus years affords a well-documented case of Web-enhanced instruction. Qualitative and quantitative data…

  14. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies on the biosynthesis of fusaric acid from Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium oxysporum is a fungal pathogen that attacks many economically important plants. Uniquely pathogenic strains of F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were inadvertently imported into the United States on live cottonseed for dairy cattle feed. These strains produce exceptionally high concentratio...

  15. Natural Phenolic Inhibitors of Trichothecene Biosynthesis by the Wheat Fungal Pathogen Fusarium culmorum: A Computational Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationship.

    PubMed

    Pani, Giovanna; Dessì, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Scherm, Barbara; Azara, Emanuela; Delogu, Giovanna; Migheli, Quirico

    2016-01-01

    A model of the trichodiene synthase (TRI5) of the wheat fungal pathogen and type-B trichothecene producer Fusarium culmorum was developed based on homology modelling with the crystallized protein of F. sporotrichioides. Eight phenolic molecules, namely ferulic acid 1, apocynin 2, propyl gallate 3, eugenol 4, Me-dehydrozingerone 5, eugenol dimer 6, magnolol 7, and ellagic acid 8, were selected for their ability to inhibit trichothecene production and/or fungal vegetative growth in F. culmorum. The chemical structures of phenols were constructed and partially optimised based on Molecular Mechanics (MM) studies and energy minimisation by Density Functional Theory (DFT). Docking analysis of the phenolic molecules was run on the 3D model of F. culmorum TRI5. Experimental biological activity, molecular descriptors and interacting-structures obtained from computational analysis were compared. Besides the catalytic domain, three privileged sites in the interaction with the inhibitory molecules were identified on the protein surface. The TRI5-ligand interactions highlighted in this study represent a powerful tool to the identification of new Fusarium-targeted molecules with potential as trichothecene inhibitors. PMID:27294666

  16. Identification of a cis-acting factor modulating the transcription of FUM1, a key fumonisin-biosynthetic gene in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Montis, V; Pasquali, M; Visentin, I; Karlovsky, P; Cardinale, F

    2013-02-01

    Fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus niger, have strong agro-economic and health impacts. The genes needed for their biosynthesis, named FUM, are clustered and co-expressed in fumonisin producers. In eukaryotes, coordination of transcription can be attained through shared transcription factors, whose specificity relies on the recognition of cis-regulatory elements on target promoters. A bioinformatic analysis on FUM promoters in the maize pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger identified a degenerated, over-represented motif potentially involved in the cis-regulation of FUM genes, and of fumonisin biosynthesis. The same motif was not found in various FUM homologues of fungi that do not produce fumonisins. Comparison of the transcriptional strength of the intact FUM1 promoter with a synthetic version, where the motif had been mutated, was carried out in vivo and in planta for F. verticillioides. The results showed that the motif is important for efficient transcription of the FUM1 gene. PMID:23219667

  17. Natural Phenolic Inhibitors of Trichothecene Biosynthesis by the Wheat Fungal Pathogen Fusarium culmorum: A Computational Insight into the Structure-Activity Relationship

    PubMed Central

    Pani, Giovanna; Dessì, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Scherm, Barbara; Azara, Emanuela; Delogu, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    A model of the trichodiene synthase (TRI5) of the wheat fungal pathogen and type-B trichothecene producer Fusarium culmorum was developed based on homology modelling with the crystallized protein of F. sporotrichioides. Eight phenolic molecules, namely ferulic acid 1, apocynin 2, propyl gallate 3, eugenol 4, Me-dehydrozingerone 5, eugenol dimer 6, magnolol 7, and ellagic acid 8, were selected for their ability to inhibit trichothecene production and/or fungal vegetative growth in F. culmorum. The chemical structures of phenols were constructed and partially optimised based on Molecular Mechanics (MM) studies and energy minimisation by Density Functional Theory (DFT). Docking analysis of the phenolic molecules was run on the 3D model of F. culmorum TRI5. Experimental biological activity, molecular descriptors and interacting-structures obtained from computational analysis were compared. Besides the catalytic domain, three privileged sites in the interaction with the inhibitory molecules were identified on the protein surface. The TRI5-ligand interactions highlighted in this study represent a powerful tool to the identification of new Fusarium-targeted molecules with potential as trichothecene inhibitors. PMID:27294666

  18. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics.

    PubMed

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D; Staines, Daniel M; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  19. PhytoPath: an integrative resource for plant pathogen genomics

    PubMed Central

    Pedro, Helder; Maheswari, Uma; Urban, Martin; Irvine, Alistair George; Cuzick, Alayne; McDowall, Mark D.; Staines, Daniel M.; Kulesha, Eugene; Hammond-Kosack, Kim Elizabeth; Kersey, Paul Julian

    2016-01-01

    PhytoPath (www.phytopathdb.org) is a resource for genomic and phenotypic data from plant pathogen species, that integrates phenotypic data for genes from PHI-base, an expertly curated catalog of genes with experimentally verified pathogenicity, with the Ensembl tools for data visualization and analysis. The resource is focused on fungi, protists (oomycetes) and bacterial plant pathogens that have genomes that have been sequenced and annotated. Genes with associated PHI-base data can be easily identified across all plant pathogen species using a BioMart-based query tool and visualized in their genomic context on the Ensembl genome browser. The PhytoPath resource contains data for 135 genomic sequences from 87 plant pathogen species, and 1364 genes curated for their role in pathogenicity and as targets for chemical intervention. Support for community annotation of gene models is provided using the WebApollo online gene editor, and we are working with interested communities to improve reference annotation for selected species. PMID:26476449

  20. Gall midges (hessian flies) as plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gall midges constitute an important group of plant-parasitic insects. The Hessian fly (HF, Mayetiola destructor), the most investigated gall midge, was the first insect hypothesized to have a gene-for-gene interaction with its host plant, wheat (Triticum spp.). Recent investigations support that h...

  1. Potential of Pseudomonas putida PCI2 for the Protection of Tomato Plants Against Fungal Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Nicolás; Masciarelli, Oscar; Fischer, Sonia; Luna, Virginia; Rovera, Marisa

    2016-09-01

    Tomato is one of the most economically attractive vegetable crops due to its high yields. Diseases cause significant losses in tomato production worldwide. We carried out Polymerase Chain Reaction studies to detect the presence of genes encoding antifungal compounds in the DNA of Pseudomonas putida strain PCI2. We also used liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to detect and quantify the production of compounds that increase the resistance of plants to diseases from culture supernatants of PCI2. In addition, we investigated the presence of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase in PCI2. Finally, PCI2 was used for inoculation of tomato seeds to study its potential biocontrol activity against Fusarium oxysporum MR193. The obtained results showed that no fragments for the encoding genes of hydrogen cyanide, pyoluteorin, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, pyrrolnitrin, or phenazine-1-carboxylic acid were amplified from the DNA of PCI2. On the other hand, PCI2 produced salicylic acid and jasmonic acid in Luria-Bertani medium and grew in a culture medium containing ACC as the sole nitrogen source. We observed a reduction in disease incidence from 53.33 % in the pathogen control to 30 % in tomato plants pre-inoculated with PCI2 as well as increases in shoot and root dry weights in inoculated plants, as compared to the pathogenicity control. This study suggests that inoculation of tomato seeds with P. putida PCI2 increases the resistance of plants to root rot caused by F. oxysporum and that PCI2 produces compounds that may be involved at different levels in increasing such resistance. Thus, PCI2 could represent a non-contaminating management strategy potentially applicable in vegetable crops such as tomato. PMID:27246499

  2. Antifungal activity of essential oil and its constituents from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana Florin leaf against plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hui-Ting; Cheng, Ying-Hung; Wu, Chi-Lin; Chang, Shang-Tzen; Chang, Tun-Tschu; Su, Yu-Chang

    2008-09-01

    Resistance to conventional fungicides causes the poor disease control of agriculture. Natural products from plants have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. In this study antipathogenic activity of the leaf essential oil and its constituents from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana Florin were evaluated in vitro against six plant pathogenic fungi. Chemical analysis of leaf oil by GC/MS allowed identification of alpha-pinene (44.2%), limonene (21.6%), beta-myrcene (8.9%), beta-caryophyllene (8.2%), caryophyllene oxide (2.4%), alpha-cadinol (1.6%), beta-pinene (1.2%), and T-muurolol (1.1%) as main components. Sesquiterpenoid components of the oil were more effective than monoterpenoid components of the oil. In particular, T-muurolol and alpha-cadinol strongly inhibited the growth of Rhizoctonia solani and Fusarium oxysporum, with the IC(50) values < 50 microg ml(-1). These compounds also efficiently inhibited the mycelial growths of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, P. funerea, Ganoderma australe and F. solani. These results showed that T-muurolol and alpha-cadinol possess antifungal activities against a broad spectrum of tested plant pathogenic fungi and could be used as potential antifungal agents for the control of fungal diseases in plants. PMID:18206367

  3. Caterpillars and fungal pathogens: two co-occurring parasites of an ant-plant mutualism.

    PubMed

    Roux, Olivier; Céréghino, Régis; Solano, Pascal J; Dejean, Alain

    2011-01-01

    In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia) and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae) as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs) whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes), that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth. PMID:21655182

  4. Caterpillars and Fungal Pathogens: Two Co-Occurring Parasites of an Ant-Plant Mutualism

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Olivier; Céréghino, Régis; Solano, Pascal J.; Dejean, Alain

    2011-01-01

    In mutualisms, each interacting species obtains resources from its partner that it would obtain less efficiently if alone, and so derives a net fitness benefit. In exchange for shelter (domatia) and food, mutualistic plant-ants protect their host myrmecophytes from herbivores, encroaching vines and fungal pathogens. Although selective filters enable myrmecophytes to host those ant species most favorable to their fitness, some insects can by-pass these filters, exploiting the rewards supplied whilst providing nothing in return. This is the case in French Guiana for Cecropia obtusa (Cecropiaceae) as Pseudocabima guianalis caterpillars (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae) can colonize saplings before the installation of their mutualistic Azteca ants. The caterpillars shelter in the domatia and feed on food bodies (FBs) whose production increases as a result. They delay colonization by ants by weaving a silk shield above the youngest trichilium, where the FBs are produced, blocking access to them. This probable temporal priority effect also allows female moths to lay new eggs on trees that already shelter caterpillars, and so to occupy the niche longer and exploit Cecropia resources before colonization by ants. However, once incipient ant colonies are able to develop, they prevent further colonization by the caterpillars. Although no higher herbivory rates were noted, these caterpillars are ineffective in protecting their host trees from a pathogenic fungus, Fusarium moniliforme (Deuteromycetes), that develops on the trichilium in the absence of mutualistic ants. Therefore, the Cecropia treelets can be parasitized by two often overlooked species: the caterpillars that shelter in the domatia and feed on FBs, delaying colonization by mutualistic ants, and the fungal pathogen that develops on old trichilia. The cost of greater FB production plus the presence of the pathogenic fungus likely affect tree growth. PMID:21655182

  5. DNA barcoding, MALDI-TOF, and AFLP data support Fusarium ficicrescens as a distinct species within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex.

    PubMed

    Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Mirabolfathy, Mansoureh; Hagen, Ferry; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Stielow, J Benjamin; Karami-Osbo, Rouhollah; van Diepeningen, Anne D; Meis, Jacques F; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2016-02-01

    The Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) is one of the most common groups of fusaria associated with plant diseases, mycotoxin production and traumatic and disseminated human infections. Here we present the description and taxonomy of a new taxon, Fusarium ficicrescens sp. nov., collected from contaminated fig fruits in Iran. Initially this species was identified as Fusarium andiyazi by morphology. In the present study the species was studied by multilocus sequence analysis, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and phenotypic characters. Multilocus analyses were based on translation elongation factor 1α (TEF1), RNA polymerase subunit (RPB2) and beta-tubulin (BT2) and proved F. ficicrescens as a member of the FFSC. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the fungus is closely related to Fusarium lactis, Fusarium ramigenum, and Fusarium napiforme; known plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and occasionally occurring multidrug resistant opportunists. The new species differed by being able to grow at 37 °C and by the absence of mycotoxin production. TEF1 was confirmed as an essential barcode for identifying Fusarium species. In addition to TEF1, we evaluated BT2 and RPB2 in order to provide sufficient genetic and species boundaries information for recognition of the novel species. PMID:26781381

  6. Antifungal mechanisms of a plant defensin MtDef4 are not conserved between the ascomycete fungi Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    El-Mounadi, Kaoutar; Islam, Kazi T; Hernández-Ortiz, Patricia; Read, Nick D; Shah, Dilip M

    2016-05-01

    Defensins play an important role in plant defense against fungal pathogens. The plant defensin, MtDef4, inhibits growth of the ascomycete fungi, Neurospora crassa and Fusarium graminearum, at micromolar concentrations. We have reported that MtDef4 is transported into the cytoplasm of these fungi and exerts its antifungal activity on intracellular targets. Here, we have investigated whether the antifungal mechanisms of MtDef4 are conserved in these fungi. We show that N. crassa and F. graminearum respond differently to MtDef4 challenge. Membrane permeabilization is required for the antifungal activity of MtDef4 against F. graminearum but not against N. crassa. We find that MtDef4 is targeted to different subcellular compartments in each fungus. Internalization of MtDef4 in N. crassa is energy-dependent and involves endocytosis. By contrast, MtDef4 appears to translocate into F. graminearum autonomously using a partially energy-dependent pathway. MtDef4 has been shown to bind to the phospholipid phosphatidic acid (PA). We provide evidence that the plasma membrane localized phospholipase D, involved in the biosynthesis of PA, is needed for entry of this defensin in N. crassa, but not in F. graminearum. To our knowledge, this is the first example of a defensin which inhibits the growth of two ascomycete fungi via different mechanisms. PMID:26801962

  7. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation.

    PubMed

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  8. Antioxidant Secondary Metabolites in Cereals: Potential Involvement in Resistance to Fusarium and Mycotoxin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Atanasova-Penichon, Vessela; Barreau, Christian; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Gibberella and Fusarium Ear Rot and Fusarium Head Blight are major diseases affecting European cereals. These diseases are mainly caused by fungi of the Fusarium genus, primarily Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium verticillioides. These Fusarium species pose a serious threat to food safety because of their ability to produce a wide range of mycotoxins, including type B trichothecenes and fumonisins. Many factors such as environmental, agronomic or genetic ones may contribute to high levels of accumulation of mycotoxins in the grain and there is an urgent need to implement efficient and sustainable management strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination. Actually, fungicides are not fully efficient to control the mycotoxin risk. In addition, because of harmful effects on human health and environment, their use should be seriously restricted in the near future. To durably solve the problem of mycotoxin accumulation, the breeding of tolerant genotypes is one of the most promising strategies for cereals. A deeper understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant resistance to both Fusarium and mycotoxin contamination will shed light on plant-pathogen interactions and provide relevant information for improving breeding programs. Resistance to Fusarium depends on the plant ability in preventing initial infection and containing the development of the toxigenic fungi while resistance to mycotoxin contamination is also related to the capacity of plant tissues in reducing mycotoxin accumulation. This capacity can result from two mechanisms: metabolic transformation of the toxin into less toxic compounds and inhibition of toxin biosynthesis. This last mechanism involves host metabolites able to interfere with mycotoxin biosynthesis. This review aims at gathering the latest scientific advances that support the contribution of grain antioxidant secondary metabolites to the mechanisms of plant resistance to Fusarium and mycotoxin accumulation. PMID:27148243

  9. Arabidopsis defense response against Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Berrocal-Lobo, Marta; Molina, Antonio

    2008-03-01

    The plant fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum (Fox) is the causal agent of root rot or wilt diseases in several plant species, including crops such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), banana (Musa sapientum) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis). Colonization of plants by Fox leads to the necrosis of the infected tissues, a subsequent collapse of vascular vessels and decay of the plant. Plant resistance to Fox appears to be monogenic or oligogenic depending on the host. Perception of Fox by plants follows the concept of elicitor-induced immune response, which in turn activates several plant defense signaling pathways. Here, we review the Fox-derived elicitors identified so far and the interaction among the different signaling pathways mediating plant resistance to Fox. PMID:18289920

  10. Retrograde trafficking from the endosome to the trans-Golgi network mediated by the retromer is required for fungal development and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenhui; Zheng, Huawei; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Ying; Xie, Qiurong; Lin, Xiaolian; Chen, Ahai; Yu, Wenying; Lu, Guodong; Shim, Won-Bo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Zonghua

    2016-06-01

    In eukaryotes, the retromer is an endosome-localized complex involved in protein retrograde transport. However, the role of such intracellular trafficking events in pathogenic fungal development and pathogenicity remains unclear. The role of the retromer complex in Fusarium graminearum was investigated using cell biological and genetic methods. We observed the retromer core component FgVps35 (Vacuolar Protein Sorting 35) in the cytoplasm as fast-moving puncta. FgVps35-GFP co-localized with both early and late endosomes, and associated with the trans-Golgi network (TGN), suggesting that FgVps35 functions at the donor endosome membrane to mediate TGN trafficking. Disruption of microtubules with nocodazole significantly restricted the transportation of FgVps35-GFP and resulted in severe germination and growth defects. Mutation of FgVPS35 not only mimicked growth defects induced by pharmacological treatment, but also affected conidiation, ascospore formation and pathogenicity. Using yeast two-hybrid assays, we determined the interactions among FgVps35, FgVps26, FgVps29, FgVps17 and FgVps5 which are analogous to the yeast retromer complex components. Deletion of any one of these genes resulted in similar phenotypic defects to those of the ΔFgvps35 mutant and disrupted the stability of the complex. Overall, our results provide the first clear evidence of linkage between the retrograde transport mediated by the retromer complex and virulence in F. graminearum. PMID:26875543

  11. Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

    1981-06-01

    Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

  12. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  13. Pathogen infection drives patterns of nutrient resorption in citrus plants

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jirong; Cheng, Chunzhen; Yang, Junjie; Wang, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient resorption processes in the plants infected by pathogen remain poorly understood. Huanglongbing (HLB) is a destructive disease of citrus. HLB-pathogen ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ grows specifically in the phloem of hosts and may cause problems in the plant vascular system after infection. Therefore, it brings a great concern about the phloem nutrient transport and nutrient intra-cycling in HLB-affected plants. We investigated the effects of ‘Ca. L. asiaticus’ infection on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and resorption in different citrus species (i.e. Citrus reticulata, Citrus limon and Citrus maxima). HLB-pathogen infection had distinctive impacts on nutrient resorption in different species. P resorption efficiency substantially decreased in infected C. reticulata plants relative to the healthy plants in summer, which may account for the marked decrease in the average fruit yield. P resorption was more efficient in infected C. limon plants than in the healthy plants. However, for C. maxima plants, HLB had no significant effects on N:P ratio in live leaves and resorption efficiency as well as on fruit yield. Keeping efficient internal nutrient cycling can be a strategy of citrus species being tolerant to HLB. PMID:26419510

  14. Fungal pathogens of plants in the Homogocene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance and susceptibility of plants to phytopathogenic fungi are examined in the context of invasion biology of the past 500 years. This time period is sometimes called the Homogocene, dating from about 1500 AD. In particular, genetic mechanisms are evoked to explain 'exapted resistance', the ...

  15. Brassinosteroid enhances resistance to fusarium diseases of barley.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shahin S; Kumar, G B Sunil; Khan, Mojibur; Doohan, Fiona M

    2013-12-01

    Fusarium pathogens are among the most damaging pathogens of cereals. These pathogens have the ability to attack the roots, seedlings, and flowering heads of barley and wheat plants with disease, resulting in yield loss and head blight disease and also resulting in the contamination of grain with mycotoxins harmful to human and animal health. There is increasing evidence that brassinosteroid (BR) hormones play an important role in plant defense against both biotic and abiotic stress agents and this study set out to determine if and how BR might affect Fusarium diseases of barley. Application of the epibrassinolide (epiBL) to heads of 'Lux' barley reduced the severity of Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium culmorum by 86% and reduced the FHB-associated loss in grain weight by 33%. Growth of plants in soil amended with epiBL resulted in a 28 and 35% reduction in Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) symptoms on the Lux and 'Akashinriki' barley, respectively. Microarray analysis was used to determine whether growth in epiBL-amended soil changed the transcriptional profile in stem base tissue during the early stages of FSB development. At 24 and 48 h post F. culmorum inoculation, there were 146 epiBL-responsive transcripts, the majority being from the 48-h time point (n = 118). Real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis validated the results for eight transcripts, including five defense genes. The results of gene expression studies show that chromatin remodeling, hormonal signaling, photosynthesis, and pathogenesis-related genes are activated in plants as a result of growth in epiBL. PMID:23777406

  16. Grain from sorghum plants impaired in lignin biosynthesis have reduced colonization by some Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sorghum is commonly infected by multiple members of the Gibberella fujikuroi and Fusarium incarnatum-F. equiseti species complexes (GFSC and FIESC, respectively). We had developed reduced lignin sorghum lines, usable for bioenergy feedstock, by incorporating two mutations in genes in the lignin bios...

  17. Can Host Plant Resistance Protect the Quality of Wheat from Fusarium Head Blight?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) infection reduces the amount of millable grain from an infected field, reduces mill yields, and generally degrades end-use quality. In 2009, the Logan County, KY, wheat trial had extended conditions for infection with FHB resulting in extensive and uniform infection withi...

  18. Pathogens and insect herbivores drive rainforest plant diversity and composition.

    PubMed

    Bagchi, Robert; Gallery, Rachel E; Gripenberg, Sofia; Gurr, Sarah J; Narayan, Lakshmi; Addis, Claire E; Freckleton, Robert P; Lewis, Owen T

    2014-02-01

    Tropical forests are important reservoirs of biodiversity, but the processes that maintain this diversity remain poorly understood. The Janzen-Connell hypothesis suggests that specialized natural enemies such as insect herbivores and fungal pathogens maintain high diversity by elevating mortality when plant species occur at high density (negative density dependence; NDD). NDD has been detected widely in tropical forests, but the prediction that NDD caused by insects and pathogens has a community-wide role in maintaining tropical plant diversity remains untested. We show experimentally that changes in plant diversity and species composition are caused by fungal pathogens and insect herbivores. Effective plant species richness increased across the seed-to-seedling transition, corresponding to large changes in species composition. Treating seeds and young seedlings with fungicides significantly reduced the diversity of the seedling assemblage, consistent with the Janzen-Connell hypothesis. Although suppressing insect herbivores using insecticides did not alter species diversity, it greatly increased seedling recruitment and caused a marked shift in seedling species composition. Overall, seedling recruitment was significantly reduced at high conspecific seed densities and this NDD was greatest for the species that were most abundant as seeds. Suppressing fungi reduced the negative effects of density on recruitment, confirming that the diversity-enhancing effect of fungi is mediated by NDD. Our study provides an overall test of the Janzen-Connell hypothesis and demonstrates the crucial role that insects and pathogens have both in structuring tropical plant communities and in maintaining their remarkable diversity. PMID:24463522

  19. Identification of Ina proteins from Fusarium acuminatum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Jan Frederik; Kunert, Anna Theresa; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2015-04-01

    Freezing of water above -36° C is based on ice nucleation activity (INA) mediated by ice nucleators (IN) which can be of various origins. Beside mineral IN, biological particles are a potentially important source of atmospheric IN. The best-known biological IN are common plant-associated bacteria. The IN activity of these bacteria is induced by a surface protein on the outer cell membrane, which is fully characterized. In contrast, much less is known about the nature of fungal IN. The fungal genus Fusarium is widely spread throughout the earth. It belongs to the Ascomycota and is one of the most severe fungal pathogens. It can affect a variety of organisms from plants to animals including humans. INA of Fusarium was already described about 30 years ago and INA of Fusarium as well as other fungal genera is assumed to be mediated by proteins or at least to contain a proteinaceous compound. Although many efforts were made the precise INA machinery of Fusarium and other fungal species including the proteins and their corresponding genes remain unidentified. In this study preparations from living fungal samples of F. acuminatum were fractionated by liquid chromatography and IN active fractions were identified by freezing assays. SDS-page and de novo sequencing by mass spectrometry were used to identify the primary structure of the protein. Preliminary results show that the INA protein of F. acuminatum is contained in the early size exclusion chromatography fractions indicating a high molecular size. Moreover we could identify a single protein band from IN active fractions at 130-145 kDa corresponding to sizes of IN proteins from bacterial species. To our knowledge this is for the first time an isolation of a single protein from in vivo samples, which can be assigned as IN active from Fusarium.

  20. Effect of biofumigation with manure amendments and repeated biosolarization on Fusarium densities in pepper crops.

    PubMed

    Martínez, M A; Martínez, M C; Bielza, P; Tello, J; Lacasa, A

    2011-01-01

    In the region of Murcia (southeast Spain), sweet pepper has been grown as a monoculture in greenhouses for many years. Until 2005, when it was banned, soils were disinfested with methyl bromide (MB) to control pathogens and to prevent soil fatigue effects. The genus Fusarium plays an important role in the microbiological component associated with yield decline in pepper monocultures. In the present study, soils were treated with manure amendments, alone (biofumigation, B) or in combination with solarization (biosolarization, BS), with or without the addition of pepper plant residues. The B and BS treatments were compared with a treatment using MB. The extent of disinfestation was measured from the density of Fusarium spp. isolated from the soil before and after the respective treatments. Three different species were systematically isolated: Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium equiseti. The repeated use of manure amendments with pepper crop residues, without solarization, was unable to decrease the Fusarium spp. density (which increased from 2,047.17 CFU g(-1) to 3,157.24 CFU g(-1) before and after soil disinfestation, respectively), unlike MB-treated soil (in which the fungi decreased from 481.39 CFU g(-1) to 23.98 CFU g(-1)). However, the effectiveness of the repeated application of BS in diminishing doses (with or without adding plant residues) on Fusarium populations (reductions greater than 72%) was similar to or even greater than the effect of MB. PMID:20820866

  1. An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

  2. Enzymatic response of cotton plants to the pathogen, Verticillium dahliae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen infection initiates a set of local and systemic responses in plants. These responses include local oxidative burst, which may lead to death of infected cells, and changes of cell walls composition in neighbouring tissues, and de novo synthesis of antimicrobial compounds (phytoalexins) and P...

  3. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  4. EFFECTS OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ON SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested soil, the effect of appl...

  5. Evidence that a Secondary Metabolic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster has Grown by Gene Relocation During Evolution of the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of medical and agricultural interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis ...

  6. Functional characterization, sequence comparisons and distribution of a polyketide synthase gene required for perithecial pigmentation in some Fusarium species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyketides are a structurally diverse class of secondary metabolites that are produced by bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. The fungal genus Fusarium includes agronomically important plant pathogenic and mycotoxin-producing species, and produces numerous polyketides. In this study, we further ...

  7. Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Rutkowska-Krause, I; Mankowska, G; Lukaszewicz, M; Szopa, J

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. Anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than somatic cell cultures. However, regenerants derived from anther cells showed valuable breeding features, including increased resistance to fungal wilt. The age of the donor plants and the season they grew in had a noticeable effect on their anther callusing and subsequent plant regeneration. Low temperature had a negative effect and dark pre-treatment a positive effect on callusing and plant regeneration. Different media were most effective for callus induction, shoot induction and rooting. For callus induction two carbon sources (2.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) were most effective; for shoots, only sucrose at lower concentration (2%) was effective. Rooting was most efficient in 1% sucrose and reduced (50%) mineral concentration in the medium. It was found that the length of in vitro cultivation significantly increases the ploidy and affects such features as regenerant morphological characteristics, petal colour, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum-induced fungal wilt. The established plant regeneration system provides a basis for the creation of transgenic flax. PMID:12827441

  8. Clonality, recombination, and hybridization in the plumbing-inhabiting human pathogen Fusarium keratoplasticum inferred from multilocus sequence typing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent work has shown that Fusarium species and genotypes most commonly associated with human infections, particularly of the cornea (mycotic keratitis), are the same as those most commonly isolated from plumbing systems. The species most dominant in plumbing biofilms is Fusarium keratoplasticum, a cosmopolitan fungus known almost exclusively from animal infections and biofilms. To better understand its diversity and population dynamics, we developed and utilized a nine-locus sequence-based typing system to make inferences about clonality, recombination, population structure, species boundaries and hybridization. Results High levels of genetic diversity and evidence for recombination and clonality were detected among 75 clinical and 156 environmental isolates of Fusarium keratoplasticum. The multilocus sequence typing system (MLST) resolved 111 unique nine-locus sequence types (STs). The single locus bifactorial determinants of mating compatibility (mating types MAT1-1 and MAT1-2), were found in a ratio of 70:30. All but one of the 49 isolates of the most common ST (FSSC 2d-2) came from human infections, mostly of the cornea, and from biofilms associated with contact lenses and plumbing surfaces. Significant levels of phylogenetic incongruence were found among loci. Putative clonal relationships among genotypes were estimated, showing a mixture of large clonal complexes and unrelated singletons. Discordance between the nuclear ribosomal rRNA and other gene genealogies is consistent with introgression of ribosomal RNA alleles of phylogenetic species FSSC 9 into F. keratoplasticum. No significant population subdivision based on clinical versus non-clinical sources was found. Conclusions Incongruent phylogenetic trees and the presence of both mating types within otherwise identical STs were observed, providing evidence for sexuality in F. keratoplasticum. Cryptic speciation suggested in a published three-locus MLST system was not supported with the addition

  9. Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Davidsson, Pär R.; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E. T.

    2013-01-01

    Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights

  10. Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

    2006-06-01

    ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

  11. Evaluation of nitric oxide detoxifying flavohaemoglobin in the Fusarium verticillioides – maize interaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a non-obligate pathogen causing a number of maize diseases. Apart from these diseases, F. verticillioides is also known to asymptomatically infect most tissues of the plant. The production of the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 by F. verticillioides and other complexities of the i...

  12. Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

  13. Population structure and dynamics among fusarium oxysprium isolates causing wilt of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    From 1992 to 2015 nearly 3,000 isolates of Fusarium species from wilted cotton plants, seed, or cotton field soils were tested for pathogenesis using root-dip, stem-puncture, and soil-infestation assays. The greatest numbers of pathogens were identified by the root-dip assay. These were divided in...

  14. Insights into the evolution of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the fungus Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Collectively species of Fusarium are pathogens of almost all economically important plants and produce over 50 structurally distinct families of secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins (e.g. fumonisins and trichothecenes) of greatest concern to food and feed safety. In fungi, g...

  15. Effects of the Fusarium verticillioides mycotoxin, fumonisin B1, on maize stomatal behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides is a non-obligate plant pathogen causing a number of maize diseases and is responsible for the production of fumonisin B1 (FB1), a potential human carcinogen and agent of fatal farm animal diseases. The effect of FB1 on the health and development of maize seedlings was recen...

  16. Antibacterial activity of caffeine against plant pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Sledz, Wojciech; Los, Emilia; Paczek, Agnieszka; Rischka, Jacek; Motyka, Agata; Zoledowska, Sabina; Piosik, Jacek; Lojkowska, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of a plant secondary metabolite - caffeine. Caffeine is present in over 100 plant species. Antibacterial activity of caffeine was examined against the following plant-pathogenic bacteria: Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsol), Clavibacter michiganesis subsp. sepedonicus (Cms), Dickeya solani (Dsol), Pectobacterium atrosepticum (Pba), Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (Pcc), Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst), and Xanthomonas campestris subsp. campestris (Xcc). MIC and MBC values ranged from 5 to 20 mM and from 43 to 100 mM, respectively. Caffeine increased the bacterial generation time of all tested species and caused changes in cell morphology. The influence of caffeine on the synthesis of DNA, RNA and proteins was investigated in cultures of plant pathogenic bacteria with labelled precursors: [(3)H]thymidine, [(3)H]uridine or (14)C leucine, respectively. RNA biosynthesis was more affected than DNA or protein biosynthesis in bacterial cells treated with caffeine. Treatment of Pba with caffeine for 336 h did not induce resistance to this compound. Caffeine application reduced disease symptoms caused by Dsol on chicory leaves, potato slices, and whole potato tubers. The data presented indicate caffeine as a potential tool for the control of diseases caused by plant-pathogenic bacteria, especially under storage conditions. PMID:26307771

  17. List of New Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (2008-2010)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010 the International Society of Plant Pathology Committee on the Taxonomy of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria published the Comprehensive List of Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 1980-2007 to provide an authoritative register of names of plant pathogens. In this manuscript we up-date the list of na...

  18. Exploring laccase genes from plant pathogen genomes: a bioinformatic approach.

    PubMed

    Feng, B Z; Li, P Q; Fu, L; Yu, X M

    2015-01-01

    To date, research on laccases has mostly been focused on plant and fungal laccases and their current use in biotechnological applications. In contrast, little is known about laccases from plant pathogens, although recent rapid progress in whole genome sequencing of an increasing number of organisms has facilitated their identification and ascertainment of their origins. In this study, a comparative analysis was performed to elucidate the distribution of laccases among bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes, and, through comparison of their amino acids, to determine the relationships between them. We retrieved the laccase genes for the 20 publicly available plant pathogen genomes. From these, 125 laccase genes were identified in total, including seven in bacterial genomes, 101 in fungal genomes, and 17 in oomycete genomes. Most of the predicted protein models of these genes shared typical fungal laccase characteristics, possessing four conserved domains with one cysteine and ten histidine residues at these domains. Phylogenetic analysis illustrated that laccases from bacteria and oomycetes were grouped into two distinct clades, whereas fungal laccases clustered in three main clades. These results provide the theoretical groundwork regarding the role of laccases in plant pathogens and might be used to guide future research into these enzymes. PMID:26535716

  19. Surface sensing and signaling networks in plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kou, Yanjun; Naqvi, Naweed I

    2016-09-01

    Pathogenic fungi have evolved highly varied and remarkable strategies to invade and infect their plant hosts. Typically, such fungal pathogens utilize highly specialized infection structures, morphologies or cell types produced from conidia or ascospores on the cognate host surfaces to gain entry therein. Such diverse infection strategies require intricate coordination in cell signaling and differentiation in phytopathogenic fungi. Here, we present an overview of our current understanding of cell signaling and infection-associated development that primes host penetration in the top ten plant pathogenic fungi, which utilize specific receptors to sense and respond to different surface cues, such as topographic features, hydrophobicity, hardness, plant lipids, phytohormones, and/or secreted enzymes. Subsequently, diverse signaling components such as G proteins, cyclic AMP/Protein Kinase A and MAP kinases are activated to enable the differentiation of infection structures. Recent studies have also provided fascinating insights into the spatio-temporal dynamics and specialized sequestration and trafficking of signaling moieties required for proper development of infection structures in phytopathogenic fungi. Molecular insight in such infection-related morphogenesis and cell signaling holds promise for identifying novel strategies for intervention of fungal diseases in plants. PMID:27133541

  20. Germin-like protein 2 gene promoter from rice is responsive to fungal pathogens in transgenic potato plants.

    PubMed

    Munir, Faiza; Hayashi, Satomi; Batley, Jacqueline; Naqvi, Syed Muhammad Saqlan; Mahmood, Tariq

    2016-01-01

    Controlled transgene expression via a promoter is particularly triggered in response to pathogen infiltration. This is significant for eliciting disease-resistant features in crops through genetic engineering. The germins and germin-like proteins (GLPs) are known to be associated with plant and developmental stages. The 1107-bp Oryza sativa root GLP2 (OsRGLP2) gene promoter fused to a β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene was transformed into potato plants through an Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The OsRGLP2 promoter was activated in response to Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. and Alternaria solani Sorauer. Quantitative real-time PCR results revealed 4-5-fold increase in promoter activity every 24 h following infection. There was a 15-fold increase in OsRGLP2 promoter activity after 72 h of F. solani (Mart.) Sacc. treatment and a 12-fold increase observed with A. solani Sorauer. Our results confirmed that the OsRGLP2 promoter activity was enhanced under fungal stress. Furthermore, a hyperaccumulation of H2O2 in transgenic plants is a clear signal for the involvement of OsRGLP2 promoter region in the activation of specific genes in the potato genome involved in H2O2-mediated defense response. The OsRGLP2 promoter evidently harbors copies of GT-I and Dof transcription factors (AAAG) that act in response to elicitors generated in the wake of pathogen infection. PMID:26277722

  1. Fusarium Wilt of Banana.

    PubMed

    Ploetz, Randy C

    2015-12-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is one of the world's most important fruits. In 2011, 145 million metric tons, worth an estimated $44 billion, were produced in over 130 countries. Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most destructive diseases of this crop. It devastated the 'Gros Michel'-based export trades before the mid-1900s, and threatens the Cavendish cultivars that were used to replace it; in total, the latter cultivars are now responsible for approximately 45% of all production. An overview of the disease and its causal agent, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is presented below. Despite a substantial positive literature on biological, chemical, or cultural measures, management is largely restricted to excluding F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense from noninfested areas and using resistant cultivars where the pathogen has established. Resistance to Fusarium wilt is poor in several breeding targets, including important dessert and cooking cultivars. Better resistance to this and other diseases is needed. The history and impact of Fusarium wilt is summarized with an emphasis on tropical race 4 (TR4), a 'Cavendish'-killing variant of the pathogen that has spread dramatically in the Eastern Hemisphere. PMID:26057187

  2. Lifestyles of the effector-rich: genome-enabled characterization of bacterial plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genome sequencing of bacterial plant pathogens is providing transformative insights into the complex network of molecular plant-microbe interactions mediated by extracellular effectors during pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens sequenced to completion are phylogenetically diverse and vary significant...

  3. Candidate genes associated with QTL controlling resistance to fusarium root rot in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot (FRR) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a serious pathogen in the USA and Europe and genetic resistance offers an effective and economical control for this pathogen. Fusarium root rot is caused by the fungus pathogen (Haematonectria haematococca (Berk. & Broome) (Anamorph): Fusarium sol...

  4. The Top 10 oomycete pathogens in molecular plant pathology.

    PubMed

    Kamoun, Sophien; Furzer, Oliver; Jones, Jonathan D G; Judelson, Howard S; Ali, Gul Shad; Dalio, Ronaldo J D; Roy, Sanjoy Guha; Schena, Leonardo; Zambounis, Antonios; Panabières, Franck; Cahill, David; Ruocco, Michelina; Figueiredo, Andreia; Chen, Xiao-Ren; Hulvey, Jon; Stam, Remco; Lamour, Kurt; Gijzen, Mark; Tyler, Brett M; Grünwald, Niklaus J; Mukhtar, M Shahid; Tomé, Daniel F A; Tör, Mahmut; Van Den Ackerveken, Guido; McDowell, John; Daayf, Fouad; Fry, William E; Lindqvist-Kreuze, Hannele; Meijer, Harold J G; Petre, Benjamin; Ristaino, Jean; Yoshida, Kentaro; Birch, Paul R J; Govers, Francine

    2015-05-01

    Oomycetes form a deep lineage of eukaryotic organisms that includes a large number of plant pathogens which threaten natural and managed ecosystems. We undertook a survey to query the community for their ranking of plant-pathogenic oomycete species based on scientific and economic importance. In total, we received 263 votes from 62 scientists in 15 countries for a total of 33 species. The Top 10 species and their ranking are: (1) Phytophthora infestans; (2, tied) Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis; (2, tied) Phytophthora ramorum; (4) Phytophthora sojae; (5) Phytophthora capsici; (6) Plasmopara viticola; (7) Phytophthora cinnamomi; (8, tied) Phytophthora parasitica; (8, tied) Pythium ultimum; and (10) Albugo candida. This article provides an introduction to these 10 taxa and a snapshot of current research. We hope that the list will serve as a benchmark for future trends in oomycete research. PMID:25178392

  5. Evidence that a secondary metabolic biosynthetic gene cluster has grown by gene relocation during evolution of the filamentous fungus Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Robert H; McCormick, Susan P; Alexander, Nancy J; Desjardins, Anne E

    2009-12-01

    Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis of Fusarium on some crop species. Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides have trichothecene biosynthetic genes (TRI) at three loci: a 12-gene TRI cluster and two smaller TRI loci that consist of one or two genes. Here, comparisons of additional Fusarium species have provided evidence that TRI loci have a complex evolutionary history that has included loss, non-functionalization and rearrangement of genes as well as trans-species polymorphism. The results also indicate that the TRI cluster has expanded in some species by relocation of two genes into it from the smaller loci. Thus, evolutionary forces have driven consolidation of TRI genes into fewer loci in some fusaria but have maintained three distinct TRI loci in others. PMID:19843228

  6. Molecular Analysis of Plant Defense Responses to Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, P. B.; Jakobek, J. L.; Smith, J. A.

    1992-01-01

    A number of inducible plant responses are believed to contribute to disease resistance. These responses include the hypersensitive reaction, phytoalexin synthesis, and the production of chitinase, glucanase, and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Because of the coordinate induction of these responses, it has been difficult to determine whether they are functional defense responses, and if they are, how they specifically contribute to disease resistance. Recent developments in molecular biology have provided experimental techniques that will reveal the specific contribution of each response to disease resistance. In this paper, we describe a strategy to determine if the hypersensitive reaction is a functional plant defense mechanism. PMID:19283005

  7. Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, Jürgen; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

    2015-01-01

    As the number of biogas plants has grown rapidly in the last decade, the amount of potentially contaminated wastes with pathogenic Clostridium spp. has increased as well. This study reports the results from examining 203 biogas plant wastes (BGWs). The following Clostridium spp. with different frequencies could be isolated via a new enrichment medium (Krüne medium) and detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): Clostridium perfringens (58 %) then Clostridium bifermentans (27 %), Clostridium tertium (23 %) and Clostridium butyricum (19 %), Clostridium cadaveris (15 %), Clostridium parapurificum (6 %), Clostridium glycolicum (5 %), Clostridium baratii (4 %), Clostridium sporogenes (2 %), Clostridium sordellii (1 %) and Clostridium subterminale (0.5 %). The mean most probable number (MPN) count of sulfite reducing bacteria was between 10(3) and 10(4)/mL, and the higher the MPN, the more pathogenic Clostridium spp. were present. Also, real-time PCR was used to be compared with culture method for C. perfringens, C. bifermentans, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes/Clostridium botulinum and C. sordellii. Although real-time PCR was more sensitive than the culture method, both systems improve the recovery rate but in different ways and are useful to determine pathogenic clostridia in biogas plants. In conclusion, BGWs could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals. PMID:24984829

  8. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  9. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we provide a diagnostic guide that describes: the taxonomy of the pathogen, signs and symptoms of the pathogen, host range, geographic distribution, methods used to isolate ...

  10. Inhibition of human pathogenic fungi by ethnobotanically selected plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Ficker, Christine E; Arnason, J T; Vindas, P S; Alvarez, L P; Akpagana, K; Gbéassor, M; De Souza, C; Smith, M L

    2003-02-01

    In this study, 36 extracts derived from 29 plant species selected using an ethnobotanical approach were tested for antifungal activity against a taxonomically diverse group of 13 human pathogenic fungi. We compared the inhibitory characteristics of these plant extracts with those of the commonly used antifungals, amphotericin B and ketoconazole, and the plant-derived antifungal, berberine. Several plant extracts, notably those from Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Juglans cinerea (butternut), had pronounced antifungal activity against a wide variety of fungi, including strains that were highly resistant to amphotericin B and ketoconazole. Further exploration of Z. officinale as an antifungal is warranted as this species is generally regarded as safe for human consumption. PMID:12588480

  11. TRANSFORMATION TO PRODUCE BARLEY RESISTANT TO FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum destroys barley and wheat crops by causing scab disease (Fusarium head blight, FHB). Spores infect seed spike tissues, leading to production of mycotoxins. There are no known barleys with biochemical resistance to Fusarium, although some have various levels ...

  12. Plant pathogens as a source of diverse enzymes for lignocellulose digestion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plant cell wall is a major barrier that many plant pathogens must surmount for successful invasion of their plant hosts. Full genome sequencing of a number of plant pathogens has revealed often large, complex, and redundant enzyme systems for degradation of plant cell walls. Recent surveys have ...

  13. A Meiotic Drive Element in the Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides Is Located Within a 102 kb Region of Chromosome V

    PubMed Central

    Pyle, Jay; Patel, Tejas; Merrill, Brianna; Nsokoshi, Chabu; McCall, Morgan; Proctor, Robert H.; Brown, Daren W.; Hammond, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (SkK) that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny from an SkK × Spore killer-susceptible (SkS) cross to inherit the SkK allele. SkK has been mapped to chromosome V but the genetic element responsible for meiotic drive has yet to be identified. In this study, we used cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to genotype individual progeny from an SkK × SkS mapping population. We also sequenced the genomes of three progeny from the mapping population to determine their single nucleotide polymorphisms. These techniques allowed us to refine the location of SkK to a contiguous 102 kb interval of chromosome V, herein referred to as the Sk region. Relative to SkS genotypes, SkK genotypes have one extra gene within this region for a total of 42 genes. The additional gene in SkK genotypes, herein named SKC1 for Spore Killer Candidate 1, is the most highly expressed gene from the Sk region during early stages of sexual development. The Sk region also has three hyper-variable regions, the longest of which includes SKC1. The possibility that SKC1, or another gene from the Sk region, is an essential component of meiotic drive and spore killing is discussed. PMID:27317777

  14. The role of MADS-box transcription factors in secondary metabolism and sexual development in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Carlos S; Shim, Won-Bo

    2013-11-01

    MADS-box transcription factors (TFs) regulate functionally diverse gene targets in eukaryotes. In select ascomycetes, MADS-box TFs have been shown to play a role in virulence, and vegetative and sexual development. Here, we characterized Fusarium verticillioides MADS-box TFs, Mads1 and Mads2, in terms of their roles in secondary metabolism and sexual mating. Sequence analyses showed that MADS1 and MADS2 encode TFs with a SRF-type dimerization domain and a MEF2-type dimerization domain, respectively. The MADS1 and MADS2 knockout mutants (Fmt1 and Fmt2 strains, respectively) exhibited decreased vegetative growth and FB1 production when compared to the wild-type. Fmt1 showed reduced expression of 14 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes present in the organism, whereas Fmt2 did not display a change in PKS gene expression. Significantly, the deletion of MADS1 and MADS2 in the MAT1-2 genotype (Fmt4 and Fmt5 strains, respectively) led to strains that failed to produce perithecia and ascospores when crossed with the MAT1-1 wild-type strain. Notably, deletion of either gene did not have an effect on the ability of the fungus to colonize maize stalk or kernels. FB1 production and PKS expression data suggest that Mads1 is a broad regulator of secondary metabolism in F. verticillioides, and may target regulons upstream of Mads2 to influence FB1 production. In addition, MADS-box TFs in F. verticillioides play a critical role in the perithecia development. PMID:23985144

  15. RNA-Seq analysis reveals new gene models and alternative splicing in the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The genome of Fusarium graminearum has been sequenced and annotated previously, but correct gene annotation remains a challenge. In addition, posttranscriptional regulations, such as alternative splicing and RNA editing, are poorly understood in F. graminearum. Here we took advantage of RNA-Seq to improve gene annotations and to identify alternative splicing and RNA editing in F. graminearum. Results We identified and revised 655 incorrectly predicted gene models, including revisions of intron predictions, intron splice sites and prediction of novel introns. 231 genes were identified with two or more alternative splice variants, mostly due to intron retention. Interestingly, the expression ratios between different transcript isoforms appeared to be developmentally regulated. Surprisingly, no RNA editing was identified in F. graminearum. Moreover, 2459 novel transcriptionally active regions (nTARs) were identified and our analysis indicates that many of these could be missed genes. Finally, we identified the 5′ UTR and/or 3′ UTR sequences of 7666 genes. A number of representative novel gene models and alternatively spliced genes were validated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the generated amplicons. Conclusions We have developed novel and efficient strategies to identify alternatively spliced genes and incorrect gene models based on RNA-Seq data. Our study identified hundreds of alternatively spliced genes in F. graminearum and for the first time indicated that alternative splicing is developmentally regulated in filamentous fungi. In addition, hundreds of incorrect predicted gene models were identified and revised and thousands of nTARs were discovered in our study, which will be helpful for the future genomic and transcriptomic studies in F. graminearum. PMID:23324402

  16. A Meiotic Drive Element in the Maize Pathogen Fusarium verticillioides Is Located Within a 102 kb Region of Chromosome V.

    PubMed

    Pyle, Jay; Patel, Tejas; Merrill, Brianna; Nsokoshi, Chabu; McCall, Morgan; Proctor, Robert H; Brown, Daren W; Hammond, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides is an agriculturally important fungus because of its association with maize and its propensity to contaminate grain with toxic compounds. Some isolates of the fungus harbor a meiotic drive element known as Spore killer (Sk(K)) that causes nearly all surviving meiotic progeny from an Sk(K) × Spore killer-susceptible (Sk(S)) cross to inherit the Sk(K) allele. Sk(K) has been mapped to chromosome V but the genetic element responsible for meiotic drive has yet to be identified. In this study, we used cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers to genotype individual progeny from an Sk(K) × Sk(S) mapping population. We also sequenced the genomes of three progeny from the mapping population to determine their single nucleotide polymorphisms. These techniques allowed us to refine the location of Sk(K) to a contiguous 102 kb interval of chromosome V, herein referred to as the Sk region. Relative to Sk(S) genotypes, Sk(K) genotypes have one extra gene within this region for a total of 42 genes. The additional gene in Sk(K) genotypes, herein named SKC1 for Spore Killer Candidate 1, is the most highly expressed gene from the Sk region during early stages of sexual development. The Sk region also has three hyper-variable regions, the longest of which includes SKC1 The possibility that SKC1, or another gene from the Sk region, is an essential component of meiotic drive and spore killing is discussed. PMID:27317777

  17. Molecular defense responses in roots and the rhizosphere against Fusarium oxysporum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi Chung; Kidd, Brendan N; Carvalhais, Lilia C; Schenk, Peer M

    2014-01-01

    Plants face many different concurrent and consecutive abiotic and biotic stresses during their lifetime. Roots can be infected by numerous pathogens and parasitic organisms. Unlike foliar pathogens, root pathogens have not been explored enough to fully understand root-pathogen interactions and the underlying mechanism of defense and resistance. PR gene expression, structural responses, secondary metabolite and root exudate production, as well as the recruitment of plant defense-assisting "soldier" rhizosphere microbes all assist in root defense against pathogens and herbivores. With new high-throughput molecular tools becoming available and more affordable, now is the opportune time to take a deep look below the ground. In this addendum, we focus on soil-borne Fusarium oxysporum as a pathogen and the options plants have to defend themselves against these hard-to-control pathogens. PMID:25482759

  18. The Adenylyl Cyclase Plays a Regulatory Role in the Morphogenetic Switch from Vegetative to Pathogenic Lifestyle of Fusarium graminearum on Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Bormann, Jörg; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Brückner, Elena; Firat, Demet; Schäfer, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a nucleotide derived from adenosine triphosphate that acts as a second messenger throughout all kingdoms. Intracellular cAMP levels are synthesized by a membrane-bound protein, the adenylyl cyclase. In order to analyze the function of this gene and the importance of cAMP in the life cycle of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the adenylyl cyclase gene (FGSG_01234) was deleted by gene replacement (ΔFgac1). The ΔFgac1 mutant displayed a drastically reduced growth on agar medium which could be rescued by a cAMP analogon. Furthermore, the ΔFgac1 mutant was unable to produce perithecia on detached wheat nodes. However, artificial conditions like carrot agar allowed perithecia development. Pathogenicity towards wheat was drastically reduced in ΔFgac1 compared to the wild type. Point-inoculated spikelets showed only small lesions but no typical head blight disease symptoms. Fluorescence microscopy using dsRed-expressing strains revealed that the ΔFgac1 strain was unable to develop any complex infection structures like lobate appressoria and infection cushions. Instead, hyphal anastomosis occurs frequently. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the lack of fungal penetration. Hence, the formation of compound appressoria seems to be essential for infection of wheat. Hyphae on flower leaves produced huge amounts of new conidia, thereby circumventing the infection cycle. This abundant sporulation on wheat epidermis was not observed in wild type. Intriguingly, the Fgac1 deletion mutant was able to infect maize cobs as wild type, indicating that cAMP signaling is not important for maize infection. The ΔFgac1 mutant was unable to produce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol both in vitro and during wheat infection. In this study, we show that cAMP signaling controls important cellular processes such as development of infection structures, pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production and sexual reproduction. For the

  19. Resistance to Fusarium wilt in chickpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium wilt of chickpea, caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc), is a destructive disease and is distributed in almost all chickpea producing regions of the world. Foc has eight physiological races designated as 0, 1A, 1B/C, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. The races are different...

  20. Characterization of Novel Di-, Tri-, and Tetranucleotide Microsatellite Primers Suitable for Genotyping Various Plant Pathogenic Fungi with Special Emphasis on Fusaria and Mycospherella graminicola

    PubMed Central

    Bahkali, Ali H.; Abd-Elsalam, Kamel A.; Guo, Jian-Rong; Khiyami, Mohamed A.; Verreet, Joseph-Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this investigation were to identify and evaluate the use of polymorphic microsatellite marker (PMM) analysis for molecular typing of seventeen plant pathogenic fungi. Primers for di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide loci were designed directly from the recently published genomic sequence of Mycospherlla graminicola and Fusarium graminearum. A total of 20 new microsatellite primers as easy-to-score markers were developed. Microsatellite primer PCR (MP-PCR) yielded highly reproducible and complex genomic fingerprints, with several bands ranging in size from 200 to 3000 bp. Of the 20 primers tested, only (TAGG)4, (TCC)5 and (CA)7T produced a high number of polymorphic bands from either F. graminearum or F. culmorum. (ATG)5 led to successful amplifications in M. graminicola isolates collected from Germany. Percentage of polymorphic bands among Fusarium species ranged from 9 to 100%. Cluster analysis of banding patterns of the isolates corresponded well to the established species delineations based on morphology and other methods of phylogenetic analysis. The current research demonstrates that the newly designed microsatellite primers are reliable, sensitive and technically simple tools for assaying genetic variability in plant pathogenic fungi. PMID:22489135

  1. COLONIZATION OF SUBTERRANEAN PLANT SURFACES AND SUPPRESSION OF SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS: STUDIES WITH ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is generally assumed that biocontrol organisms must colonize subterranean plant parts for effective suppression of soilborne plant pathogens in many biocontrol interactions. Unfortunately our knowledge of the processes that lead to effective colonization is unclear. Also unclear is our knowledg...

  2. A Single-Step Purification of Cauliflower Lysozyme and Its Dual Role Against Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Balasubramaniam, R; Chun, Se-Chul

    2015-09-01

    A novel lysozyme from cauliflower was purified in a single step, for the first time, using Sephadex G100 column chromatography. The purified lysozyme exhibited a homogenized single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and its molecular mass was calculated to be 22.0 kDa. The purified lysozyme showed activity between 30 to 60 °C with 40 °C as the optimum temperature for its maximal activity. Although the purified lysozyme was functional at pH ranges between 3.0 and 9.0, the optimum pH for the enzyme activity was 8.0. By Michaelis-Menten equation, the threshold substrate concentration for the optimal enzyme activity was calculated to be 133.0 μg. The purified lysozyme showed extraordinary activity against plant pathogenic bacteria and fungi. At 10-μg concentrations, it inhibited the growth of plant pathogenic bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas campestris, and Erwinia carotovora exhibiting 4.28, 5.90, and 3.88-fold inhibition, respectively. Further, it also completely inhibited the conidial germination of Archemonium obclavatum and, to a very large extent, other fungal species such as Fusarium solani (79.3 %), Leptosphaeria maculans (88.6 %), Botrytis cinera (73.3 %), Curvularia lunata (68 %), Rhizoctonia solani (79.6 %), and Alternaria alternata (83.6 %). PMID:26208688

  3. Pathogen-Secreted Proteases Activate a Novel Plant Immune Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Li, Jian-Feng; Niu, Yajie; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Woody, Owen Z.; Xiong, Yan; Djonović, Slavica; Millet, Yves; Bush, Jenifer; McConkey, Brendan J.; Sheen, Jen; Ausubel, Frederick M.

    2015-01-01

    Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signaling networks in plants and animals1,2. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive1. We report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signaling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the Gα, Gβ and Gγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of a MAPK cascade. In this pathway, Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the Gβ subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G protein signaling to downstream activation of a MAPK cascade. The protease-G protein-RACK1-MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signaling pathways such as the one elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to a MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the novel protease-mediated immune signaling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel types of immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems. PMID:25731164

  4. Deciphering the dual effect of lipopolysaccharides from plant pathogenic Pectobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Kettani-Halabi; Daniel, Tran; Aurélien, Dauphin; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Rafik, Errakhi; Arbelet-Bonnin, Delphine; Biligui, Bernadette; Florence, Val; Mustapha, Ennaji Moulay; François, Bouteau

    2015-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are a component of the outer cell surface of almost all Gram-negative bacteria and play an essential role for bacterial growth and survival. Lipopolysaccharides represent typical microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecules and have been reported to induce defense-related responses, including the expression of defense genes and the suppression of the hypersensitive response in plants. However, depending on their origin and the challenged plant, LPS were shown to have complex and different roles. In this study we showed that LPS from plant pathogens Pectobacterium atrosepticum and Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum induce common and different responses in A. thaliana cells when compared to those induced by LPS from non-phytopathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among common responses to both types of LPS are the transcription of defense genes and their ability to limit of cell death induced by Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp carotovorum. However, the differential kinetics and amplitude in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation seemed to regulate defense gene transcription and be determinant to induce programmed cell death in response to LPS from the plant pathogenic Pectobacterium. These data suggest that different signaling pathways could be activated by LPS in A. thaliana cells. PMID:25760034

  5. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pythium ultimum is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species. Results The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under abiotic stress and in the presence of a host. The predicted proteome includes a large repertoire of proteins involved in plant pathogen interactions, although, surprisingly, the P. ultimum genome does not encode any classical RXLR effectors and relatively few Crinkler genes in comparison to related phytopathogenic oomycetes. A lower number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were present compared to Phytophthora species, with the notable absence of cutinases, suggesting a significant difference in virulence mechanisms between P. ultimum and more host-specific oomycete species. Although we observed a high degree of orthology with Phytophthora genomes, there were novel features of the P. ultimum proteome, including an expansion of genes involved in proteolysis and genes unique to Pythium. We identified a small gene family of cadherins, proteins involved in cell adhesion, the first report of these in a genome outside the metazoans. Conclusions Access to the P. ultimum genome has revealed not only core pathogenic mechanisms within the oomycetes but also lineage-specific genes associated with the alternative virulence and lifestyles found within the pythiaceous lineages compared to the Peronosporaceae. PMID:20626842

  6. The FgHOG1 Pathway Regulates Hyphal Growth, Stress Responses, and Plant Infection in Fusarium graminearum

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Chenfang; Xiang, Ping; Zheng, Qian; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2012-01-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum. PMID:23166686

  7. Small RNAs regulate plant responses to filamentous pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Tung; Zhai, Yi; Ma, Wenbo

    2016-08-01

    Small RNAs are central players of RNA silencing in eukaryotes. These short RNA molecules (20-25 nucleotides in length) repress target gene expression based on sequence complementarity. While small RNAs are well-known for their essential function in regulating growth and development, recent research has revealed that they also influence plant immunity. Extensive changes in small RNA accumulation have been observed during infection. This review focuses on specific small RNA changes that are involved in plant responses to filamentous eukaryotic pathogens including fungi and oomycetes. We describe how changes in small RNA accumulation influence plant immunity and summarize the cellular processes affected by these small RNAs. In particular, we discuss secondary small interfering RNAs that directly modulate the expression of defense-related genes. PMID:27208726

  8. Novel taxa in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex from Pinus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Herron, D.A.; Wingfield, M.J.; Wingfield, B.D.; Rodas, C.A.; Marincowitz, S.; Steenkamp, E.T.

    2015-01-01

    The pitch canker pathogen Fusarium circinatum has caused devastation to Pinus spp. in natural forests and non-natives in commercially managed plantations. This has drawn attention to the potential importance of Fusarium species as pathogens of forest trees. In this study, we explored the diversity of Fusarium species associated with diseased Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. kesiya and P. maximinoi in Colombian plantations and nurseries. Plants displaying symptoms associated with a F. circinatum-like infection (i.e., stem cankers and branch die-back on trees in plantations and root or collar rot of seedlings) were sampled. A total of 57 isolates were collected and characterised based on DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-α and β-tubulin gene regions. Phylogenetic analyses of these data allowed for the identification of more than 10 Fusarium species. These included F. circinatum, F. oxysporum, species within the Fusarium solani species complex and seven novel species in the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (formerly the Gibberella fujikuroi species complex), five of which are described here as new. Selected isolates of the new species were tested for their pathogenicity on Pinus patula and compared with that of F. circinatum. Of these, F. marasasianum, F. parvisorum and F. sororula displayed levels of pathogenicity to P. patula that were comparable with that of F. circinatum. These apparently emerging pathogens thus pose a significant risk to forestry in Colombia and other parts of the world. PMID:26955193

  9. Regulation by light in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Avalos, Javier; Estrada, Alejandro F

    2010-11-01

    The genus Fusarium stands out as research model for pathogenesis and secondary metabolism. Light stimulates the production of some Fusarium metabolites, such as the carotenoids, and in many species it influences the production of asexual spores and sexual fruiting bodies. As found in other fungi with well-known photoresponses, the Fusarium genomes contain several genes for photoreceptors, among them a set of White Collar (WC) proteins, a cryptochrome, a photolyase, a phytochrome and two presumably photoactive opsins. The mutation of the opsin genes produced no apparent phenotypic alterations, but the loss of the only WC-1 orthologous protein eliminated the photoinduced expression of the photolyase and opsin genes. In contrast to other carotenogenic species, lack of the WC photoreceptor did not impede the light-induced accumulation of carotenoids, but produced alterations in conidiation, animal pathogenicity and nitrogen-regulated secondary metabolism. The regulation and functional role of other Fusarium photoreceptors is currently under investigation. PMID:20460165

  10. Autophagy-related lipase FgATG15 of Fusarium graminearum is important for lipid turnover and plant infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Long Nam; Bormann, Jörg; Le, Giang Thi Thu; Stärkel, Cornelia; Olsson, Stefan; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Giese, Henriette; Schäfer, Wilhelm

    2011-03-01

    Autophagy is a non-selective degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells that is conserved from yeasts to humans. Autophagy is involved in the virulence of several pathogenic fungi such as Magnaporthe grisea or Colletotrichum orbiculare. In the current study, we identified and disrupted an autophagy-like lipase FgATG15 in Fusarium graminearum. We showed that FgATG15 exhibits lipase activity when heterologously expressed in P. pastoris. We used a gene deletion approach to characterize the function of the enzyme. We demonstrate that FgATG15 is involved in fungal growth and aerial hyphae production. FgATG15 is also involved in conidia production and germination, and disruption of FgATG15 led to aberrant conidia shapes. FgATG15 disruptants were reduced in storage lipid degradation under starvation conditions, implicating FgATG15's involvement in lipid turnover. Moreover, wheat head infection by the disruptants was severely attenuated, indicating the involvement of FgATG15 in pathogenesis. Additionally, we found that the deoxynivalenol levels of FgATG15 disruptants were significantly decreased compared with the wild type strain. Taken together, we show that FgATG15 is involved in numerous developmental processes and could be exploited as an antifungal target. PMID:21094265

  11. Identification and biocontrol efficacy of Streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin III against Fusarium wilt.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Do; Han, Jae Woo; Hwang, In Cheon; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Beom Seok

    2012-04-01

    A number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of Trapa japonica. Of these, strain KPE62302H, which had a 16S rDNA sequence identical to that of Streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. Treatment of seeds with strain KPE62302H induced a significant reduction in the incidence of Fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. An antifungal substance (FP-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain KPE62302H using C18 flash and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and reverse phase HPLC. Extensive spectrometric analysis using MS and NMR identified this as filipin III. FP-1 inhibited the mycelial growth of plant pathogenic fungi such as Alternaria mali, Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, C. orbiculare, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Diaporthe citiri, Fusarium oxysporum at 1-10 μg ml(-1) and also markedly inhibited the development of Fusarium wilt caused by F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici in tomato plants by treatment with 10 μg ml(-1) under greenhouse conditions. The efficacy of FP-1 against Fusarium wilt was comparable to that of the synthetic fungicide benomyl. An egfp -tagged strain of KPE62302H confirmed its ability to colonize tomato plants. PMID:22460913

  12. Relationship of substrate and surfactin production by Bacillus mojavensis strains and their antagonistical response to Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis, RRC 101 controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. An antifungal lipopeptide produced by B. mojavensi...

  13. Genome-wide analysis and functional characterization of candidate effector proteins potentially involved in Fusarium graminearum-wheat interactions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal pathogens often produce certain small secreted cysteine-rich proteins (SSCPs) during pathogenesis that may function in triggering resistance or susceptibility in specific host plants. We have identified a total of 190 SSCPs encoded in the genome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum a...

  14. GENOME-WIDE RNA EXPRESSION ANALYSIS DURING CONIDIAL MATURATION AND GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS, FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal plant pathogen, F. graminearum, causes Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand the early infection cycle of this organism, we monitored the RNA expression profiles in newly formed spores (macroconidia), in maturing spores and during the early stages of spore germin...

  15. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection. PMID:27185548

  16. Temporal interactions of plant - insect - predator after infection of bacterial pathogen on rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ze; Liu, Zhuang; Zhou, Wen; Jin, Huanan; Liu, Hao; Zhou, Aiming; Zhang, Aijun; Wang, Man-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic infection on plants may affect interactions of host-plants with their herbivores, as well as the herbivores with their predators. In this study, the effects of infection by pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), which causes a vascular disease in rice, on rice plants and consequent interactions with a rice herbivore, brown rice planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, and its major predator, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, were investigated. The results showed that the rice plants exhibited increased resistance to BPH only at 3 d post-inoculation of Xoo, while the Xoo infection did not affect the development and fecundity of BPH. BPH exhibited a higher preference to Xoo infected rice plants, whereas C. lividipennis preferred the Xoo infected rice plants after BPH fed, but preferred healthy rice plants without BPH fed. Volatile organic compounds emitted from Xoo rice were significantly higher than those from healthy rice plants, Xoo infection on BPH fed plants caused rice plants to emit more the herbivore-induced plant volatiles, while all of these changes correlated to the temporal dimension. These results demonstrated that Xoo infection significantly influenced the interactions of rice plants with two non-vectors, BPH and its predator, although these effects exhibited in a temporal pattern after infection. PMID:27185548

  17. Development of a powder formulation based on Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25 spores for biological control of Fusarium verticillioides in maize plants.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, Juan C; Castro-Martínez, Claudia; Sánchez-Peña, Pedro; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Maldonado-Mendoza, Ignacio E

    2016-05-01

    Maize is an economically important crop in northern Mexico. Different fungi cause ear and root rot in maize, including Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg. Crop management of this pathogen with chemical fungicides has been difficult. By contrast, the recent use of novel biocontrol strategies, such as seed bacterization with Bacillus cereus sensu lato strain B25, has been effective in field trials. These approaches are not without their problems, since insufficient formulation technology, between other factors, can limit success of biocontrol agents. In response to these drawbacks, we have developed a powder formulation based on Bacillus B25 spores and evaluated some of its characteristics, including shelf life and efficacy against F. verticillioides, in vitro and in maize plants. A talc-based powder formulation containing 1 × 10(9) c.f.u. g(-1) was obtained and evaluated for seed adherence ability, seed germination effect, shelf life and antagonism against F. verticillioides in in vitro and in planta assays. Seed adherence of viable bacterial spores ranged from 1.0 to 1.41 × 10(7) c.f.u. g(-1). Bacteria did not display negative effects on seed germination. Spore viability for the powder formulation slowly decreased over time, and was 53 % after 360 days of storage at room temperature. This formulation was capable of controlling F. verticillioides in greenhouse assays, as well as eight other maize phytopathogenic fungi in vitro. The results suggest that a talc-based powder formulation of Bacillus B25 spores may be sufficient to produce inoculum for biocontrol of maize ear and root rots caused by F. verticillioides. PMID:27038945

  18. Oxidative burst: an early plant response to pathogen infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wojtaszek, P

    1997-01-01

    As plants are confined to the place where they grow, they have to develop a broad range of defence responses to cope with pathogenic infections. The oxidative burst, a rapid, transient, production of huge amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is one of the earliest observable aspects of a plant's defence strategy. First this Review describes the chemistry of ROS (superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical). Secondly, the role of ROS in defence responses is demonstrated, and some important issues are considered, such as: (1) which of the ROS is a major building element of the oxidative burst; (2) the spatial and temporal regulation of the oxidative burst; and (3) differences in the plant's responses to biotic and abiotic elicitation. Thirdly, the relationships between the oxidative burst and other plant defence responses are indicated. These include: (1) an oxygen consumption, (2) the production of phytoalexins, (3) systemic acquired resistance, (4) immobilization of plant cell wall proteins, (5) changes in membrane permeability and ion fluxes and (6) a putative role in hypersensitive cell death. Wherever possible, the comparisons with models applicable to animal systems are presented. Finally, the question of the origin of ROS in the oxidative burst is considered, and two major hypotheses, (1) the action of NADPH oxidase system analogous to that of animal phagocytes, and (2) the pH-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide by a cell wall peroxidase, are presented. On the basis of this material, a third 'unifying' hypothesis is presented, where transient changes in the pH of the cell wall compartment are indicated as a core phenomenon in evoking ROS production. Additionally, a germin/oxalate oxidase system which generates H2O2 in response to pathogenic infection is also described. PMID:9148737

  19. A Theoretical Assessment of Methods to Reduce the Spread of Insect Vectored Plant Pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insect vectored plant pathogen systems share several common features. Specifically, insect vectors often prefer habitats outside the affected crop and acquire the pathogen from a non-crop plant host. Inoculative vectors then move into the crop, causing primary pathogen spread. This may or ma...

  20. Draft genome sequence of Streptomyces acidiscabies 84-104, an emergent plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Huguet-Tapia, José C; Loria, Rosemary

    2012-04-01

    A draft genome sequence of the plant pathogen Streptomyces acidiscabies 84-104, an emergent plant pathogen, is presented here. The genome is among the largest of streptomycetes, at more than 11 Mb, and encodes a 100-kb pathogenicity island (PAI) shared with other plant-pathogenic streptomycetes. The presence of this conserved PAI, and the remnants of a conserved integrase/recombinase at its 3' end, supports the hypothesis that S. acidiscabies emerged as a plant pathogen as a result of this acquisition. PMID:22408247

  1. Disrupting the Transmission of a Vector-Borne Plant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

  2. Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil; Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2012-02-01

    Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

  3. Fungal cell wall polymer based nanoparticles in protection of tomato plants from wilt disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici.

    PubMed

    Sathiyabama, M; Charles, R Einstein

    2015-11-20

    Cell wall polymer (chitosan) was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici. They were cross linked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) to synthesize nanoparticles (CWP-NP). The nanoparticles were characterized by FTIR, DLS, SEM, XRD and NMR analyses. The isolated CWP-NP exhibit antifungal activity under in vitro condition. The foliar application of the CWP-NP to tomato plants challenged with F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici showed delay in wilt disease symptom expression and reduce the wilt disease severity. Treated plants also showed enhanced yield. These results suggested the role of the CWP-NP in protecting tomato plants from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici infection. PMID:26344296

  4. Variations in grain lipophilic phytochemicals, proteins and resistance to Fusarium spp. growth during grain storage as affected by biological plant protection with Aureobasidium pullulans (de Bary).

    PubMed

    Wachowska, Urszula; Tańska, Małgorzata; Konopka, Iwona

    2016-06-16

    Modern agriculture relies on an integrated approach, where chemical treatment is reduced to a minimum and replaced by biological control that involves the use of active microorganisms. The effect of the antagonistic yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans on proteins and bioactive compounds (alkylresorcinols, sterols, tocols and carotenoids) in winter wheat grain and on the colonization of wheat kernels by fungal microbiota, mainly Fusarium spp. pathogens, was investigated. Biological treatment contributed to a slight increase contents of tocols, alkylresorcinols and sterols in grain. At the same time, the variation of wheat grain proteins was low and not significant. Application of A. pullulans enhanced the natural yeast colonization after six months of grain storage and inhibited growth of F. culmorum pathogens penetrating wheat kernel. This study demonstrated that an integrated approach of wheat grain protection with the use of the yeast-like fungus A. pullulans reduced kernel colonization by Fusarium spp. pathogens and increased the content of nutritionally beneficial phytochemicals in wheat grain without a loss of gluten proteins responsible for baking value. PMID:27055191

  5. Evolutionary History of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis

    PubMed Central

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Saux, Marion Fischer-Le; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes – geographical and ecological speciation – that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25 000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar. PMID:23505513

  6. Evolutionary history of the plant pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis.

    PubMed

    Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier; Lemaire, Christophe; Jacques, Marie-Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes--geographical and ecological speciation--that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25,000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar. PMID:23505513

  7. Vector-Borne Bacterial Plant Pathogens: Interactions with Hemipteran Insects and Plants.

    PubMed

    Perilla-Henao, Laura M; Casteel, Clare L

    2016-01-01

    Hemipteran insects are devastating pests of crops due to their wide host range, rapid reproduction, and ability to transmit numerous plant-infecting pathogens as vectors. While the field of plant-virus-vector interactions has flourished in recent years, plant-bacteria-vector interactions remain poorly understood. Leafhoppers and psyllids are by far the most important vectors of bacterial pathogens, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of their feeding behavior, salivary secretions, and plant responses as compared to important viral vectors, such as whiteflies and aphids. Even with an incomplete understanding of plant-bacteria-vector interactions, some common themes have emerged: (1) all known vector-borne bacteria share the ability to propagate in the plant and insect host; (2) particular hemipteran families appear to be incapable of transmitting vector-borne bacteria; (3) all known vector-borne bacteria have highly reduced genomes and coding capacity, resulting in host-dependence; and (4) vector-borne bacteria encode proteins that are essential for colonization of specific hosts, though only a few types of proteins have been investigated. Here, we review the current knowledge on important vector-borne bacterial pathogens, including Xylella fastidiosa, Spiroplasma spp., Liberibacter spp., and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.'. We then highlight recent approaches used in the study of vector-borne bacteria. Finally, we discuss the application of this knowledge for control and future directions that will need to be addressed in the field of vector-plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:27555855

  8. Fusarium inhibition by wild populations of the medicinal plant Salvia africana-lutea L. linked to metabolomic profiling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Salvia africana-lutea L., an important medicinal sage used in the Western Cape (South Africa), can be termed a ‘broad-spectrum remedy’ suggesting the presence of a multiplicity of bioactive metabolites. This study aimed at assessing wild S. africana-lutea populations for chemotypic variation and anti-Fusarium properties. Methods Samples were collected from four wild growing population sites (Yzerfontein, Silwerstroomstrand, Koeberg and Brackenfell) and one garden growing location in Stellenbosch. Their antifungal activities against Fusarium verticillioides (strains: MRC 826 and MRC 8267) and F. proliferatum (strains: MRC 6908 and MRC 7140) that are aggressive mycotoxigenic phytopathogens were compared using an in vitro microdilution assay. To correlate antifungal activity to chemical profiles, three techniques viz. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were employed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the NMR data. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to integrate LC-MS and NMR data sets. All statistics were performed with the SIMCA-P + 12.0 software. Results The dichloromethane:methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts of the plant species collected from Stellenbosch demonstrated the strongest inhibition of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.031 mg ml-1 and 0.063 mg ml-1 respectively. GC-MS showed four compounds which were unique to the Stellenbosch extracts. By integrating LC-MS and 1H NMR analyses, large chemotype differences leading to samples grouping by site when a multivariate analysis was performed, suggested strong plant-environment interactions as factors influencing metabolite composition. Signals distinguishing the Stellenbosch profile were in the aromatic part of the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusions This study shows the potential of chemotypes of

  9. Plant Antimicrobial Agents and Their Effects on Plant and Human Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    González-Lamothe, Rocío; Mitchell, Gabriel; Gattuso, Mariza; Diarra, Moussa S.; Malouin, François; Bouarab, Kamal

    2009-01-01

    To protect themselves, plants accumulate an armoury of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Some metabolites represent constitutive chemical barriers to microbial attack (phytoanticipins) and others inducible antimicrobials (phytoalexins). They are extensively studied as promising plant and human disease-controlling agents. This review discusses the bioactivity of several phytoalexins and phytoanticipins defending plants against fungal and bacterial aggressors and those with antibacterial activities against pathogens affecting humans such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus involved in respiratory infections of cystic fibrosis patients. The utility of plant products as “antibiotic potentiators” and “virulence attenuators” is also described as well as some biotechnological applications in phytoprotection. PMID:20111686

  10. Water relations in the interaction of foliar bacterial pathogens with plants.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Gwyn A

    2011-01-01

    This review examines the many ways in which water influences the relations between foliar bacterial pathogens and plants. As a limited resource in aerial plant tissues, water is subject to manipulation by both plants and pathogens. A model is emerging that suggests that plants actively promote localized desiccation at the infection site and thus restrict pathogen growth as one component of defense. Similarly, many foliar pathogens manipulate water relations as one component of pathogenesis. Nonvascular pathogens do this using effectors and other molecules to alter hormonal responses and enhance intercellular watersoaking, whereas vascular pathogens use many mechanisms to cause wilt. Because of water limitations on phyllosphere surfaces, bacterial colonists, including pathogens, benefit from the protective effects of cellular aggregation, synthesis of hygroscopic polymers, and uptake and production of osmoprotective compounds. Moreover, these bacteria employ tactics for scavenging and distributing water to overcome water-driven barriers to nutrient acquisition, movement, and signal exchange on plant surfaces. PMID:21438680

  11. Host-induced gene silencing of an essential chitin synthase gene confers durable resistance to Fusarium head blight and seedling blight in wheat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Song, Xiu-Shi; Li, He-Ping; Cao, Le-Hui; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Xiao-Li; Xu, Yu-Bin; Yang, Peng; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Qu, Bo; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2015-12-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) and Fusarium seedling blight (FSB) of wheat, caused by Fusarium pathogens, are devastating diseases worldwide. We report the expression of RNA interference (RNAi) sequences derived from an essential Fusarium graminearum (Fg) virulence gene, chitin synthase (Chs) 3b, as a method to enhance resistance of wheat plants to fungal pathogens. Deletion of Chs3b was lethal to Fg; disruption of the other Chs gene family members generated knockout mutants with diverse impacts on Fg. Comparative expression analyses revealed that among the Chs gene family members, Chs3b had the highest expression levels during Fg colonization of wheat. Three hairpin RNAi constructs corresponding to the different regions of Chs3b were found to silence Chs3b in transgenic Fg strains. Co-expression of these three RNAi constructs in two independent elite wheat cultivar transgenic lines conferred high levels of stable, consistent resistance (combined type I and II resistance) to both FHB and FSB throughout the T3 to T5 generations. Confocal microscopy revealed profoundly restricted mycelia in Fg-infected transgenic wheat plants. Presence of the three specific short interfering RNAs in transgenic wheat plants was confirmed by Northern blotting, and these RNAs efficiently down-regulated Chs3b in the colonizing Fusarium pathogens on wheat seedlings and spikes. Our results demonstrate that host-induced gene silencing of an essential fungal chitin synthase gene is an effective strategy for enhancing resistance in crop plants under field test conditions. PMID:25735638

  12. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on Selected Bean Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    France, R. A.; S.Abawi, G.

    1994-01-01

    Four bean genotypes (IPA-1, A-107, A-211, and Calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) and Meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. Calima and A-107 were resistant to Fop; A-107 and A-211 were resistant to M. incognita; and IPA-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. In Fop-susceptible lines (IPA-1 and A-211), the presence of M. incognita contributed to an earlier onset and increased severity of Fusarium wilt symptoms and plant stunting. However, the Fop-resistant Calima developed symptoms of Fusarium wilt only in the presence of M. incognita. Genotype A-107 (resistant to both M. incognita and Fop) exhibited Fusarium wilt symptoms and a moderately susceptible reaction to Fop only after the breakdown of its M. incognita resistance by elevated incubation temperatures (27 C). Root galling and reproduction of M. incognita was generally increased as inoculum density of M. incognita was increased on the M. incognita susceptible cultivars. However, these factors were decreased as the inoculum density of Fop was increased. It was concluded that severe infections of bean roots by M. incognita increase the severity of Fusarium wilt on Fop-susceptible genotypes and may modify the resistant reaction to Fop. PMID:19279917

  13. Modeling the spread of insect transmitted plant pathogens: roguing in perennial crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roguing (the removal of infected plants) is commonly used to manage the spread of insect-transmitted plant pathogens. In the case of perennial crops, rogued plants are often replaced with healthy plants. Replacement of infected plants has two potential benefits. First, removing an infected plant e...

  14. Indirect effects of one plant pathogen on the transmission of a second pathogen and the behavior of its potato psyllid vector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant pathogens can influence the behavior and performance of insect herbivore vectors. Studies of these associations typically focus on tripartite interactions between a plant host, a plant pathogen, and its insect vector. However, an unrelated herbivore or pathogen also could influence host-pathog...

  15. Genetic Variability Among Isolates of Fusarium oxysporum from Sugar Beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Yellows, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae (FOB), can lead to significant yield losses for sugar beet growers. This fungus is variable in pathogenicity, morphology, host range, and symptoms; and, it is not a well characterized pathogen on sugar beet. From 1998 – 2003, 8...

  16. GENOMIC ANALYSIS OF FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the ...

  17. Analysis of Quality-Related Parameters in Mature Kernels of Polygalacturonase Inhibiting Protein (PGIP) Transgenic Bread Wheat Infected with Fusarium graminearum.

    PubMed

    Masci, Stefania; Laino, Paolo; Janni, Michela; Botticella, Ermelinda; Di Carli, Mariasole; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Danieli, Pier Paolo; Lilley, Kathryn S; Lafiandra, Domenico; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-04-22

    Fusarium head blight, caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum, has a detrimental effect on both productivity and qualitative properties of wheat. To evaluate its impact on wheat flour, we compared its effect on quality-related parameters between a transgenic bread wheat line expressing a bean polygalacturonase inhibiting protein (PGIP) and its control line. We have compared metabolic proteins, the amounts of gluten proteins and their relative ratios, starch content, yield, extent of pathogen contamination, and deoxynivalenol (DON) accumulation. These comparisons showed that Fusarium significantly decreases the amount of starch in infected control plants, but not in infected PGIP plants. The flour of PGIP plants contained also a lower amount of pathogen biomass and DON accumulation. Conversely, both gluten and metabolic proteins were not significantly influenced either by the transgene or by fungal infection. These results indicate that the transgenic PGIP expression reduces the level of infection, without changing significantly the wheat seed proteome and other quality-related parameters. PMID:25823882

  18. Adenylyl cyclase regulates heavy metal sensitivity, bikaverin production and plant tissue colonization in Fusarium proliferatum.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Gábor; Oláh, Brigitta; Adám, Attila L; García-Martínez, Jorge; Hornok, László

    2010-02-01

    A homologue of the adenylyl cyclase (AC) gene of Neurospora crassa, named Fpacy1 was cloned from the genomic library of Fusarium proliferatum ITEM 2287 by screening the library with a DNA fragment amplified by using PCR primers designed from conserved sequences of the catalytic domain of AC genes from other fungi. The deduced FPACY1 protein had 53-77% identity with the AC proteins of other fungi. DeltaFpacy1 mutants obtained by targeted gene disruption showed retarded vegetative growth, increased conidiation and delayed conidial germination. Colonization capability of the mutants, assessed on maize seedlings and tomato fruits also was adversely affected. In sexual crosses the AC mutants retained full male fertility, but their female fertility decreased significantly. Disruption of Fpacy1 abolished vegetative self-incompatibility, suggesting that the AC gene is involved in multiple developmental processes related to vegetative growth, as well as sexual and parasexual events. The elevated thermo- and H(2)O(2)-tolerance of the DeltaFpacy1 mutants was coupled to an increased sensitivity towards Cd and Cu, indicating that the cAMP signaling pathway may have both negative and positive regulatory roles on the stress response mechanisms of fungal cells. When grown under nitrogen limitation conditions, the DeltaFpacy1 mutants produced an average of approximately 274 microg g(-1) bikaverin, whereas only traces of this metabolite was detected in the wild type. This finding provides further evidence of the role of the cAMP-PKA pathway in regulating bikaverin production. PMID:20082366

  19. Chitinase modifying proteins from phylogenetically distinct lineages of Brassica pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chitinase modifying proteins (CMPs) are secreted fungal proteases that truncate specific plant class IV chitinases by cleaving peptide bonds in their amino termini. We recently identified a CMP from the Zea mays (maize) pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and found that it is a member of the fungalysi...

  20. The changes in pectin metabolism in flax infected with Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Wojtasik, Wioleta; Kulma, Anna; Kostyn, Kamil; Szopa, Jan

    2011-08-01

    Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium oxysporum are the most common fungal pathogens of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), thus leading to the greatest losses in crop yield. A subtractive cDNA library was constructed from flax seedlings exposed for two days to F. oxysporum. This revealed a set of genes that are potentially involved in the flax defense responses. Two of those genes directly participate in cell wall sugar polymer metabolism: UDP-D-glucuronate 4-epimerase (GAE; EC 5.1.3.6) and formate dehydrogenase (FDH; EC 1.2.1.2). GAE delivers the main substrate for pectin biosynthesis, and decreases were detected in its mRNA level after Fusarium infection. FDH participates in the metabolism of formic acid, and the expression level of its gene increased after Fusarium infection. However, metabolite profiling analysis disclosed that the pectin content in the infected plants remained unchanged, but that there were reductions in both the levels of the soluble sugars that serve as pectin precursors, and in the level of formic acid. Since formic acid is the product of pectin demethylesterification, the level of mRNAs coding for pectin methylesterase (EC 3.1.1.11) in the infected flax was measured, revealing a decrease in its expression upon plant infection. Transgenic flax plants overexpressing fungal polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15) and rhamnogalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.-) showed a decrease in the pectin content and an elevated level of formic acid, but the level of expression of the FDH gene remained unchanged. It is suspected that the expression of the formate dehydrogenase gene is directly controlled by the pathogen in the early stage of infection, and additionally by pectin degradation in the later stages. PMID:21435891

  1. Microbial pathogens in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Hamburg.

    PubMed

    Ajonina, Caroline; Buzie, Christopher; Rubiandini, Rafi Herfini; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Microbial pathogens are among the major health problems associated with water and wastewater. Classical indicators of fecal contamination include total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens. These fecal indicators were monitored in order to obtain information regarding their evolution during wastewater treatment processes. Helminth eggs survive for a long duration in the environment and have a high potential for waterborne transmission, making them reliable contaminant indicators. A large quantity of helminth eggs was detected in the wastewater samples using the Bailanger method. Eggs were found in the influent and effluent with average concentration ranging from 11 to 50 eggs/L. Both E. coli and total coliforms concentrations were significantly 1- to 3-fold higher in influent than in effluent. The average concentrations of E. coli ranged from 2.5×10(3) to 4.4×10(5) colony-forming units (CFU)/100 ml. Concentrations of total coliforms ranged from 3.6×10(3) to 7.9×10(5) CFU/100 ml. Clostridium perfringens was also detected in influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) at average concentrations ranging from 5.4×10(2) to 9.1×10(2) most probable number (MPN)/100 ml. Significant Spearman rank correlations were found between helminth eggs and microbial indicators (total coliform, E. coli, and C. perfringens) in the WWTP. There is therefore need for additional microbial pathogen monitoring in the WWTP to minimize public health risk. PMID:25734765

  2. Interaction of antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis influences their effect on spore germination and membrane permeability in fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiajie; Hagberg, Ingrid; Novitsky, Laura; Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Avis, Tyler J

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis cyclic lipopeptides are known to have various antimicrobial effects including different types of interactions with the cell membranes of plant pathogenic fungi. The various spectra of activities of the three main lipopeptide families (fengycins, iturins, and surfactins) seem to be linked to their respective mechanisms of action on the fungal biomembrane. Few studies have shown the combined effect of more than one family of lipopeptides on fungal plant pathogens. In an effort to understand the effect of producing multiple lipopeptide families, sensitivity and membrane permeability of spores from four fungal plant pathogens (Alternaria solani, Fusarium sambucinum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Verticillium dahliae) were assayed in response to lipopeptides, both individually and as combined treatments. Results showed that inhibition of spores was highly variable depending on the tested fungus-lipopeptide treatment. Results also showed that inhibition of the spores was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption suggesting effects of efficient treatments on membrane permeability. Combined lipopeptide treatments revealed additive, synergistic or sometimes mutual inhibition of beneficial effects. PMID:25442289

  3. Apicidin F: Characterization and Genetic Manipulation of a New Secondary Metabolite Gene Cluster in the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, Christian M. K.; Harrer, Henning; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    The fungus F. fujikuroi is well known for its production of gibberellins causing the ‘bakanae’ disease of rice. Besides these plant hormones, it is able to produce other secondary metabolites (SMs), such as pigments and mycotoxins. Genome sequencing revealed altogether 45 potential SM gene clusters, most of which are cryptic and silent. In this study we characterize a new non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene cluster that is responsible for the production of the cyclic tetrapeptide apicidin F (APF). This new SM has structural similarities to the known histone deacetylase inhibitor apicidin. To gain insight into the biosynthetic pathway, most of the 11 cluster genes were deleted, and the mutants were analyzed by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-HRMS for their ability to produce APF or new derivatives. Structure elucidation was carried out be HPLC-HRMS and NMR analysis. We identified two new derivatives of APF named apicidin J and K. Furthermore, we studied the regulation of APF biosynthesis and showed that the cluster genes are expressed under conditions of high nitrogen and acidic pH in a manner dependent on the nitrogen regulator AreB, and the pH regulator PacC. In addition, over-expression of the atypical pathway-specific transcription factor (TF)-encoding gene APF2 led to elevated expression of the cluster genes under inducing and even repressing conditions and to significantly increased product yields. Bioinformatic analyses allowed the identification of a putative Apf2 DNA-binding (“Api-box”) motif in the promoters of the APF genes. Point mutations in this sequence motif caused a drastic decrease of APF production indicating that this motif is essential for activating the cluster genes. Finally, we provide a model of the APF biosynthetic pathway based on chemical identification of derivatives in the cultures of deletion mutants. PMID:25058475

  4. Current status of the taxonomic position of Fusarium oxysporum formae specialis cubense within the Fusarium oxysporum complex.

    PubMed

    Fourie, G; Steenkamp, E T; Ploetz, R C; Gordon, T R; Viljoen, A

    2011-04-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is an asexual fungal species that includes human and animal pathogens and a diverse range of nonpathogens. Pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains of this species can be distinguished from each other with pathogenicity tests, but not with morphological analysis or sexual compatibility studies. Substantial genetic diversity among isolates has led to the realization that F. oxysporum represents a complex of cryptic species. F. oxysporum f. sp cubense (Foc), causal agent of Fusarium wilt of banana, is one of the more than 150 plant pathogenic forms of F. oxysporum. Multi-gene phylogenetic studies of Foc revealed at least eight phylogenetic lineages, a finding that was supported by random amplified polymorphic DNAs, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Most of these lineages consist of isolates in closely related vegetative compatibility groups, some of which possess opposite mating type alleles, MAT-1 and MAT-2; thus, the evolutionary history of this fungus may have included recent sexual reproduction. The ability to cause disease on all or some of the current race differential cultivars has evolved convergently in the taxon, as members of some races appear in different phylogenetic lineages. Therefore, various factors including co-evolution the plant host and horizontal gene transfer are thought to have shaped the evolutionary history of Foc. This review discusses the evolution of Foc as a model formae specialis in F. oxysporum in relation to recent research findings involving DNA-based studies. PMID:21256980

  5. Diversity of polyketide synthases in Fusarium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can produce a structurally diverse array of secondary metabolites (SMs) with a range of biological activities, including pigmentation, plant growth regulation, and toxicity to humans and other animals. Contamination of grain-based food and feed with toxic SMs produced by Fusarium is associa...

  6. No hormone to rule them all: Interactions of plant hormones during the responses of plants to pathogens.

    PubMed

    Shigenaga, Alexandra M; Argueso, Cristiana T

    2016-08-01

    Plant hormones are essential regulators of plant growth and immunity. In the last few decades, a vast amount of information has been obtained detailing the role of different plant hormones in immunity, and how they work together to ultimately shape the outcomes of plant pathogen interactions. Here we provide an overview on the roles of the main classes of plant hormones in the regulation of plant immunity, highlighting their metabolic and signaling pathways and how plants and pathogens utilize these pathways to activate or suppress defence. PMID:27312082

  7. Use of a passive bioreactor to reduce water-borne plant pathogens, nitrate, and sulfate in greenhouse effluent.

    PubMed

    Gruyer, Nicolas; Dorais, Martine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Zagury, Gérald J

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of passive bioreactors to reduce water-borne plant pathogens (Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum) and nutrient load (NO(-) 3 and SO(2-) 4) in greenhouse effluent. Sterilized and unsterilized passive bioreactors filled with a reactive mixture of organic carbon material were used in three replicates. After a startup period of 2 (sterilized) or 5 (unsterilized) weeks, the bioreactor units received for 14 weeks a reconstituted commercial greenhouse effluent composed of 500 mg L(-1) SO(2-) 4 and 300 mg L(-1) NO(-) 3 and were inoculated three times with P. ultimum and F. oxysporum (10(6) CFU mL(-1)). Efficacy in removing water-borne plant pathogens and nitrate reached 99.9% for both the sterilized and unsterilized bioreactors. However, efficacy in reducing the SO(2-) 4 load sharply decreased from 89% to 29% after 2 weeks of NO(-) 3-supply treatment for the unsterilized bioreactors. Although SO(2-) 4 removal efficacy for the sterilized bioreactors did not recover after 4 weeks of NO(-) 3-supply treatment, the unsterilized bioreactor nearly reached a similar level of SO(2-) 4 removal after 4 weeks of NO(-) 3-supply treatment compared with affluent loaded only with SO(2-) 4, where no competition for the carbohydrate source occurred between the denitrification process and sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. Performance differences between the sterilized and unsterilized bioreactors clearly show the predominant importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Consequently, when sulfate-reducing bacteria reach their optimal activity, passive bioreactors may constitute a cheap, low-maintenance method of treating greenhouse effluent to recycle wastewater and eliminate nutrient runoff, which has important environmental impacts. PMID:23947714

  8. Dual metabolomics: a novel approach to understanding plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Allwood, J William; Clarke, Andrew; Goodacre, Royston; Mur, Luis A J

    2010-04-01

    One of the most well-characterised plant pathogenic interactions involves Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst). The standard Pst inoculation procedure involves infiltration of large populations of bacteria into plant leaves which means that metabolite changes cannot be readily assigned to the host or pathogen. A plant cell-pathogen co-culture based approach has been developed where the plant and pathogen cells are separated after 12h of co-culture via differential filtering and centrifugation. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the intracellular metabolomes (metabolic fingerprints) of both host and pathogen and their extruded (extracellular) metabolites (metabolic footprints) under conditions relevant to disease and resistance. We propose that this system will enable the metabolomic profiling of the separated host and pathogen (i.e. 'dual metabolomics') and will facilitate the modelling of reciprocal responses. PMID:20138320

  9. Trophic network architecture of root-associated bacterial communities determines pathogen invasion and plant health

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zhong; Yang, Tianjie; Friman, Ville-Petri; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong; Jousset, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Host-associated bacterial communities can function as an important line of defence against pathogens in animals and plants. Empirical evidence and theoretical predictions suggest that species-rich communities are more resistant to pathogen invasions. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we experimentally test how the underlying resource competition networks of resident bacterial communities affect invasion resistance to the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in microcosms and in tomato plant rhizosphere. We find that bipartite resource competition networks are better predictors of invasion resistance compared with resident community diversity. Specifically, communities with a combination of stabilizing configurations (low nestedness and high connectance), and a clear niche overlap with the pathogen, reduce pathogen invasion success, constrain pathogen growth within invaded communities and have lower levels of diseased plants in greenhouse experiments. Bacterial resource competition network characteristics can thus be important in explaining positive diversity–invasion resistance relationships in bacterial rhizosphere communities. PMID:26400552

  10. Trophic network architecture of root-associated bacterial communities determines pathogen invasion and plant health.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhong; Yang, Tianjie; Friman, Ville-Petri; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong; Jousset, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Host-associated bacterial communities can function as an important line of defence against pathogens in animals and plants. Empirical evidence and theoretical predictions suggest that species-rich communities are more resistant to pathogen invasions. Yet, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here, we experimentally test how the underlying resource competition networks of resident bacterial communities affect invasion resistance to the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum in microcosms and in tomato plant rhizosphere. We find that bipartite resource competition networks are better predictors of invasion resistance compared with resident community diversity. Specifically, communities with a combination of stabilizing configurations (low nestedness and high connectance), and a clear niche overlap with the pathogen, reduce pathogen invasion success, constrain pathogen growth within invaded communities and have lower levels of diseased plants in greenhouse experiments. Bacterial resource competition network characteristics can thus be important in explaining positive diversity-invasion resistance relationships in bacterial rhizosphere communities. PMID:26400552

  11. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides

    PubMed Central

    Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

  12. Isolation and characterization of Leu[7]-Surfactin from the endophytic bacterium Bacillus mojavensis RRC 101, a biocontrol agent for Fusarium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bacillus mojavensis is an endophytic bacterium patented for control of fungal diseases in maize and other plants. Culture extracts and filtrates from this bacterium were antagonistic to the pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. However, the identity of the inhibitory substance ...

  13. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Gold, S E; Blacutt, A A; Meinersmann, R J; Bacon, C W

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

  14. NPS6, Encoding a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Involved in Siderophore-Mediated Iron Metabolism, Is a Conserved Virulence Determinant of Plant Pathogenic Ascomycetes[W

    PubMed Central

    Oide, Shinichi; Moeder, Wolfgang; Krasnoff, Stuart; Gibson, Donna; Haas, Hubertus; Yoshioka, Keiko; Turgeon, B. Gillian

    2006-01-01

    NPS6, encoding a nonribosomal peptide synthetase, is a virulence determinant in the maize (Zea mays) pathogen Cochliobolus heterostrophus and is involved in tolerance to H2O2. Deletion of NPS6 orthologs in the rice (Oryza sativa) pathogen, Cochliobolus miyabeanus, the wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogen, Fusarium graminearum, and the Arabidopsis thaliana pathogen, Alternaria brassicicola, resulted in reduced virulence and hypersensitivity to H2O2. Introduction of the NPS6 ortholog from the saprobe Neurospora crassa to the Δnps6 strain of C. heterostrophus restored wild-type virulence to maize and tolerance to H2O2, demonstrating functional conservation in filamentous ascomycete phytopathogens and saprobes. Increased sensitivity to iron depletion was identified as a conserved phenotype of Δnps6 strains. Exogenous application of iron enhanced the virulence of Δnps6 strains of C. heterostrophus, C. miyabeanus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola to each host. NPS6 is responsible for the biosynthesis of extracellular siderophores by C. heterostrophus, F. graminearum, and A. brassicicola. Application of the extracellular siderophore of A. brassicicola restored wild-type virulence of the ΔAbnps6 strain to Arabidopsis. It is proposed that the role of extracellular siderophores in fungal virulence to plants is to supply an essential nutrient, iron, to their producers in planta and not to act as phytotoxins, depriving their hosts of iron. PMID:17056706

  15. A Novel Asian Clade Within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Includes a Newly Discovered Cereal Head Blight Pathogen from the Far East of Russia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated B-trichothecene toxin-producing Fusarium head blight (B-FHB) species and their toxin potential in European and Asian regions of the Russian Federation, and adjoining regions to the Northwest in Finland and the South near Harbin, in the Heilongjiang Province of China to expand our kno...

  16. Survey and competition assay data suggest species-specific difference in host/niche adaptation influence the distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex pathogens in Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) comprises at least 16 toxigenic species of economic concern to cereal crops. In Brazil, six species of the FGSC have been identified, but their frequencies vary according to the host species. Although F. graminearum (Fgra) is dominant in wheat (>90%) a...

  17. Deciphering the cryptic genome: Genome-wide analyses of the rice pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi reveal complex regulation of secondary metabolism and novel metabolites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi is agriculturally important because it produces the phytohormones gibberellic acids (GAs) and causes bakanae (“foolish seedling”) disease of rice. The fungus also produces multiple other secondary metabolites, including pigments and mycotoxins. Here, we present a high-q...

  18. Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were fou...

  19. Involvement of fub4, a putative serine hydrolase, in fusaric acid biosynthesis in the cotton pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work has determined that fusaric acid is required for virulence in the Australian isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum (Fov), which produce copious amounts of fusaric acid. Race 4 isolates, identified in the San Joaquin Valley of California, has caused serious losses and is a p...

  20. Vector-Borne Bacterial Plant Pathogens: Interactions with Hemipteran Insects and Plants

    PubMed Central

    Perilla-Henao, Laura M.; Casteel, Clare L.

    2016-01-01

    Hemipteran insects are devastating pests of crops due to their wide host range, rapid reproduction, and ability to transmit numerous plant-infecting pathogens as vectors. While the field of plant–virus–vector interactions has flourished in recent years, plant–bacteria–vector interactions remain poorly understood. Leafhoppers and psyllids are by far the most important vectors of bacterial pathogens, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of their feeding behavior, salivary secretions, and plant responses as compared to important viral vectors, such as whiteflies and aphids. Even with an incomplete understanding of plant–bacteria–vector interactions, some common themes have emerged: (1) all known vector-borne bacteria share the ability to propagate in the plant and insect host; (2) particular hemipteran families appear to be incapable of transmitting vector-borne bacteria; (3) all known vector-borne bacteria have highly reduced genomes and coding capacity, resulting in host-dependence; and (4) vector-borne bacteria encode proteins that are essential for colonization of specific hosts, though only a few types of proteins have been investigated. Here, we review the current knowledge on important vector-borne bacterial pathogens, including Xylella fastidiosa, Spiroplasma spp., Liberibacter spp., and ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.’. We then highlight recent approaches used in the study of vector-borne bacteria. Finally, we discuss the application of this knowledge for control and future directions that will need to be addressed in the field of vector–plant–bacteria interactions. PMID:27555855

  1. The two-speed genomes of filamentous pathogens: waltz with plants.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Raffaele, Sylvain; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-12-01

    Fungi and oomycetes include deep and diverse lineages of eukaryotic plant pathogens. The last 10 years have seen the sequencing of the genomes of a multitude of species of these so-called filamentous plant pathogens. Already, fundamental concepts have emerged. Filamentous plant pathogen genomes tend to harbor large repertoires of genes encoding virulence effectors that modulate host plant processes. Effector genes are not randomly distributed across the genomes but tend to be associated with compartments enriched in repetitive sequences and transposable elements. These findings have led to the 'two-speed genome' model in which filamentous pathogen genomes have a bipartite architecture with gene sparse, repeat rich compartments serving as a cradle for adaptive evolution. Here, we review this concept and discuss how plant pathogens are great model systems to study evolutionary adaptations at multiple time scales. We will also introduce the next phase of research on this topic. PMID:26451981

  2. Molecular mechanisms associated with xylan degradation by Xanthomonas plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Santos, Camila Ramos; Hoffmam, Zaira Bruna; de Matos Martins, Vanesa Peixoto; Zanphorlin, Leticia Maria; de Paula Assis, Leandro Henrique; Honorato, Rodrigo Vargas; Lopes de Oliveira, Paulo Sérgio; Ruller, Roberto; Murakami, Mario Tyago

    2014-11-14

    Xanthomonas pathogens attack a variety of economically relevant plants, and their xylan CUT system (carbohydrate utilization with TonB-dependent outer membrane transporter system) contains two major xylanase-related genes, xynA and xynB, which influence biofilm formation and virulence by molecular mechanisms that are still elusive. Herein, we demonstrated that XynA is a rare reducing end xylose-releasing exo-oligoxylanase and not an endo-β-1,4-xylanase as predicted. Structural analysis revealed that an insertion in the β7-α7 loop induces dimerization and promotes a physical barrier at the +2 subsite conferring this unique mode of action within the GH10 family. A single mutation that impaired dimerization became XynA active against xylan, and high endolytic activity was achieved when this loop was tailored to match a canonical sequence of endo-β-1,4-xylanases, supporting our mechanistic model. On the other hand, the divergent XynB proved to be a classical endo-β-1,4-xylanase, despite the low sequence similarity to characterized GH10 xylanases. Interestingly, this enzyme contains a calcium ion bound nearby to the glycone-binding region, which is required for catalytic activity and structural stability. These results shed light on the molecular basis for xylan degradation by Xanthomonas and suggest how these enzymes synergistically assist infection and pathogenesis. Our findings indicate that XynB contributes to breach the plant cell wall barrier, providing nutrients and facilitating the translocation of effector molecules, whereas the exo-oligoxylanase XynA possibly participates in the suppression of oligosaccharide-induced immune responses. PMID:25266726

  3. PLEXdb: Plant and Pathogen Expression Database and Tools for Comparative and Functional Genomics Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PLEXdb is a plant expression database that supports all Affymetrix microarray designs for plants and plant pathogens. PLEXdb provides annotation and hand-curated microarray data. Experiments deposited in PLEXdb are checked for MIAME/Plant compliance and completeness, then processed by normalizing th...

  4. Pathogen Propagation Model with Superinfection in Vegetatively Propagated Plants on Lattice Space.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Yuma; Takada, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Many clonal plants have two reproductive patterns, seed propagation and vegetative propagation. By vegetative propagation, plants reproduce the genetically identical offspring with a low mortality, because resources are supplied from the other individuals through interconnected ramets at vegetative-propagated offspring. However, the ramets transport not only resources but also systemic pathogen. Pathogens evolve to establish and spread widely within the plant population. The superinfection, which is defined as the ability that an established pathogen spreads widely by infecting to already-infected individuals with other strains of a pathogen, is important to the evolution of pathogens. We examine the dynamics of plant reproduction and pathogen propagation considering spatial structure and the effect of superinfection on genetic diversity of pathogen by analysis of several models, 1-strain and multiple-strain models, on two-dimensional square lattice. In the analysis of 1-strain model, we derive equilibrium value by mean-field approximation and pair approximation, and its local stability by Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. In the multiple-strain models, we analyze the dynamics by numerical simulation of mean-field approximation, pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. Through the analyses, we show the effect of parameter values to dynamics of models, such as transition of dominant strain of pathogen, competition between plants and pathogens and density of individuals. As a result, (i) The strain with intermediate cost becomes dominant when both superinfection rate and growth rate are low. (ii) The competition between plants and pathogens occurs in the phase of coexistence of various strains by pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. (iii) Too high growth rate leads to the decrease of plant population in all models. (iv) Pathogens are easy to maintain their genetic diversity with low superinfection rate. However, if they do not superinfect, the

  5. Pathogen Propagation Model with Superinfection in Vegetatively Propagated Plants on Lattice Space

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Yuma; Takada, Takenori

    2016-01-01

    Many clonal plants have two reproductive patterns, seed propagation and vegetative propagation. By vegetative propagation, plants reproduce the genetically identical offspring with a low mortality, because resources are supplied from the other individuals through interconnected ramets at vegetative-propagated offspring. However, the ramets transport not only resources but also systemic pathogen. Pathogens evolve to establish and spread widely within the plant population. The superinfection, which is defined as the ability that an established pathogen spreads widely by infecting to already-infected individuals with other strains of a pathogen, is important to the evolution of pathogens. We examine the dynamics of plant reproduction and pathogen propagation considering spatial structure and the effect of superinfection on genetic diversity of pathogen by analysis of several models, 1-strain and multiple-strain models, on two-dimensional square lattice. In the analysis of 1-strain model, we derive equilibrium value by mean-field approximation and pair approximation, and its local stability by Routh-Hurwitz stability criterion. In the multiple-strain models, we analyze the dynamics by numerical simulation of mean-field approximation, pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. Through the analyses, we show the effect of parameter values to dynamics of models, such as transition of dominant strain of pathogen, competition between plants and pathogens and density of individuals. As a result, (i) The strain with intermediate cost becomes dominant when both superinfection rate and growth rate are low. (ii) The competition between plants and pathogens occurs in the phase of coexistence of various strains by pair approximation and Monte Carlo simulation. (iii) Too high growth rate leads to the decrease of plant population in all models. (iv) Pathogens are easy to maintain their genetic diversity with low superinfection rate. However, if they do not superinfect, the

  6. Evolution of host range in Coleosporium ipomoeae, a plant pathogen with multiple hosts.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Thomas M; Rausher, Mark D

    2016-05-10

    Plants and their pathogens coevolve locally. Previous investigations of one host-one pathogen systems have demonstrated that natural selection favors pathogen genotypes that are virulent on a broad range of host genotypes. In the present study, we examine a system consisting of one pathogen species that infects three host species in the morning glory genus Ipomoea. We show that many pathogen genotypes can infect two or three of the host species when tested on plants from nonlocal communities. By contrast, pathogen genotypes are highly host-specific, infecting only one host species, when tested on host species from the local community. This pattern indicates that within-community evolution narrows the host breadth of pathogen genotypes. Possible evolutionary mechanisms include direct selection for narrow host breadth due to costs of virulence and evolution of ipomoea resistance in the host species. PMID:27114547

  7. The Role of Hybridization in the Evolution and Emergence of New Fungal Plant Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-02-01

    Hybridization in fungi has recently been recognized as a major force in the generation of new fungal plant pathogens. These include the grass pathogen Zymoseptoria pseudotritici and the powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis triticale of triticale. Hybridization also plays an important role in the transfer of genetic material between species. This process is termed introgressive hybridization and involves extensive backcrossing between hybrid and the parental species. Introgressive hybridization has contributed substantially to the successful spread of plant pathogens such as Ophiostoma ulmi and O. novo-ulmi, the causal agents of Dutch elm disease, and other tree pathogens such as the rust pathogen Melampsora. Hybridization occurs more readily between species that have previously not coexisted, so-called allopatric species. Reproductive barriers between allopatric species are likely to be more permissive allowing interspecific mating to occur. The bringing together of allopatric species of plant pathogens by global agricultural trade consequently increases the potential for hybridization between pathogen species. In light of global environmental changes, agricultural development, and the facilitated long-distance spread of fungal plant pathogens, hybridization should be considered an important mechanism whereby new pathogens may emerge. Recent studies have gained insight into the genetics and biology of fungal hybrids. Here I summarize current knowledge about hybrid speciation and introgressive hybridization. I propose that future studies will benefit greatly from the availability of large genome data sets and that genome data provide a powerful resource in combination with experimental approaches for analyses of hybrid species. PMID:26824768

  8. Arranging the bouquet of disease: floral traits and the transmission of plant and animal pathogens.

    PubMed

    McArt, Scott H; Koch, Hauke; Irwin, Rebecca E; Adler, Lynn S

    2014-05-01

    Several floral microbes are known to be pathogenic to plants or floral visitors such as pollinators. Despite the ecological and economic importance of pathogens deposited in flowers, we often lack a basic understanding of how floral traits influence disease transmission. Here, we provide the first systematic review regarding how floral traits attract vectors (for plant pathogens) or hosts (for animal pathogens), mediate disease establishment and evolve under complex interactions with plant mutualists that can be vectors for microbial antagonists. Attraction of floral visitors is influenced by numerous phenological, morphological and chemical traits, and several plant pathogens manipulate floral traits to attract vectors. There is rapidly growing interest in how floral secondary compounds and antimicrobial enzymes influence disease establishment in plant hosts. Similarly, new research suggests that consumption of floral secondary compounds can reduce pathogen loads in animal pollinators. Given recent concerns about pollinator declines caused in part by pathogens, the role of floral traits in mediating pathogen transmission is a key area for further research. We conclude by discussing important implications of floral transmission of pathogens for agriculture, conservation and human health, suggesting promising avenues for future research in both basic and applied biology. PMID:24528408

  9. Plant mitochondria under pathogen attack: a sigh of relief or a last breath?

    PubMed

    Colombatti, Francisco; Gonzalez, Daniel H; Welchen, Elina

    2014-11-01

    Plants constitute excellent sources for pathogen nutrition and survival. To fight against pathogen attack, higher plants have developed a sophisticated immune system responsible for pathogen recognition and activation of downstream defense responses. After pathogen perception, mitochondria play an important role in the defense strategy of the plant cell, integrating and amplifying diverse signals such as salicylic acid, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) or pathogen elicitors. Signals perceived by mitochondria usually impact on their normal function, destabilizing the organelle, generating changes in respiration, membrane potential and ROS production. At this stage, mitochondria produce several signals influencing the redox state of the cell and promoting changes in the expression of nuclear genes by mitochondrial retrograde regulation. At more advanced stages, they promote programmed cell death in order to avoid pathogen propagation to the whole plant. Recent evidence indicates that plants and pathogens have evolved mechanisms to modulate the immune response by acting on mitochondrial functions. In this review, we summarize knowledge about the involvement of mitochondria in different aspects of the response of plants to pathogen attack. PMID:24704804

  10. Highways in the sky: scales of atmospheric transport of plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Schmale, David G; Ross, Shane D

    2015-01-01

    Many high-risk plant pathogens are transported over long distances (hundreds of meters to thousands of kilometers) in the atmosphere. The ability to track the movement of these pathogens in the atmosphere is essential for forecasting disease spread and establishing effective quarantine measures. Here, we discuss the scales of atmospheric dispersal of plant pathogens along a transport continuum (pathogen scale, farm scale, regional scale, and continental scale). Growers can use risk information at each of these dispersal scales to assist in making plant disease management decisions, such as the timely application of appropriate pesticides. Regional- and continental-scale atmospheric features known as Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) may shuffle plant pathogens along highways in the sky. A promising new method relying on overlapping turbulent back-trajectories of pathogen-laden parcels of air may assist in localizing potential inoculum sources, informing local and/or regional management efforts such as conservation tillage. The emergence of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs, or drones) to sample plant pathogens in the lower atmosphere, coupled with source localization efforts, could aid in mitigating the spread of high-risk plant pathogens. PMID:26047561

  11. Endophytic Fusarium verticillioides reduces disease severity caused by Ustilago maydis on maize.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keunsub; Pan, Jean J; May, Georgiana

    2009-10-01

    Endophytic fungi represent diverse taxa that inhabit plant hosts without causing disease symptoms. We used endophytic isolates of Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg to understand how endophytic fungi interact with pathogens, in this case, the corn smut pathogen, Ustilago maydis DC (Corda). Endophytic F. verticillioides strains were inoculated onto maize seedlings before, simultaneously, or after inoculation with U. maydis, and the effects on smut disease severity and on plant growth were assessed. When F. verticillioides is simultaneously coinoculated with U. maydis, smut disease severity is significantly decreased and plant growth is increased, compared with other treatments. Controls show that F. verticillioides by itself does not have measurable effects on plant growth. Together, our results suggest that a commonly occurring fungal endophyte on maize, F. verticillioides, ameliorates the effects of a host-specific pathogen, U. maydis, by interfering with the early infection process and limiting disease development, resulting in increased plant growth. PMID:19694816

  12. Antifungal Effects of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) against Various Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang Woo; Jung, Jin Hee; Lamsal, Kabir; Kim, Yun Seok; Min, Ji Seon

    2012-01-01

    This research is concerned with the fungicidal properties of nano-size silver colloidal solution used as an agent for antifungal treatment of various plant pathogens. We used WA-CV-WA13B, WA-AT-WB13R, and WA-PR-WB13R silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at concentrations of 10, 25, 50, and 100 ppm. Eighteen different plant pathogenic fungi were treated with these AgNPs on potato dextrose agar (PDA), malt extract agar, and corn meal agar plates. We calculated fungal inhibition in order to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of silver nanoparticles against pathogens. The results indicated that AgNPs possess antifungal properties against these plant pathogens at various levels. Treatment with WA-CV-WB13R AgNPs resulted in maximum inhibition of most fungi. Results also showed that the most significant inhibition of plant pathogenic fungi was observed on PDA and 100 ppm of AgNPs. PMID:22783135

  13. Co-infection of Wilt-Resistant Chickpeas by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, T. Uma; Sharma, S. B.; Reddy, D. D. R.; Haware, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica are important pathogens of chickpea. Interrelationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and M. javanica were investigated on 53 Fusarium wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes in pot experiments. All of the genotypes were susceptible to M. javanica. Fusarium wilt resistance in one genotype (ICC 12275) was ineffective in the presence of M. javanica, and all the plants completely wilted. Resistance in four genotypes (ICCs 11319, 11322, 12254, 12272) was reduced in the presence of the nematode. Vascular discoloration above the collar region of the plants, an indication of susceptibility to the fungus, was observed. Wilt resistance in 48 genotypes was not modified by M. javanica. The effects of interactions between the pathogens on shoot and root weights, gall index, and galled area of root were significant only on 10-28% of the genotypes. Presence of the fungus reduced the adverse effects of nematodes on growth of 15% of the genotypes. Appraisal of wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes for their reactions to combinations of the two pathogens would help to identify and develop chickpea cultivars with wilt resistance stable in presence of M. javanica. PMID:19277336

  14. Separating the inseparable: the metabolomic analysis of plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Allwood, J William; Heald, Jim; Lloyd, Amanda J; Goodacre, Royston; Mur, Luis A J

    2012-01-01

    Plant-microbe interactions-whether pathogenic or symbiotic-exert major influences on plant physiology and productivity. Analysis of such interactions represents a particular challenge to metabolomic approaches due to the intimate association between the interacting partners coupled with a general commonality of metabolites. We here describe an approach based on co-cultivation of Arabidopsis cell cultures and bacterial plant pathogens to assess the metabolomes of both interacting partners, which we refer to as dual metabolomics. PMID:22351169

  15. The Nuclear Protein Sge1 of Fusarium oxysporum Is Required for Parasitic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Reijnen, Linda; Manders, Erik M. M.; Boas, Sonja; Olivain, Chantal; Alabouvette, Claude; Rep, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Dimorphism or morphogenic conversion is exploited by several pathogenic fungi and is required for tissue invasion and/or survival in the host. We have identified a homolog of a master regulator of this morphological switch in the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. This non-dimorphic fungus causes vascular wilt disease in tomato by penetrating the plant roots and colonizing the vascular tissue. Gene knock-out and complementation studies established that the gene for this putative regulator, SGE1 (SIX Gene Expression 1), is essential for pathogenicity. In addition, microscopic analysis using fluorescent proteins revealed that Sge1 is localized in the nucleus, is not required for root colonization and penetration, but is required for parasitic growth. Furthermore, Sge1 is required for expression of genes encoding effectors that are secreted during infection. We propose that Sge1 is required in F. oxysporum and other non-dimorphic (plant) pathogenic fungi for parasitic growth. PMID:19851506

  16. The xylem as battleground for plant hosts and vascular wilt pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Yadeta, Koste A.; J. Thomma, Bart P. H.

    2013-01-01

    Vascular wilts are among the most destructive plant diseases that occur in annual crops as well as in woody perennials. These diseases are generally caused by soil-borne bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes that infect through the roots and enter the water-conducting xylem vessels where they proliferate and obstruct the transportation of water and minerals. As a consequence, leaves wilt and die, which may lead to impairment of the whole plant and eventually to death of the plant. Cultural, chemical, and biological measures to control this group of plant pathogens are generally ineffective, and the most effective control strategy is the use of genetic resistance. Owing to the fact that vascular wilt pathogens live deep in the interior of their host plants, studies into the biology of vascular pathogens are complicated. However, to design novel strategies to combat vascular wilt diseases, understanding the (molecular) biology of vascular pathogens and the molecular mechanisms underlying plant defense against these pathogens is crucial. In this review, we discuss the current knowledge on interactions of vascular wilt pathogens with their host plants, with emphasis on host defense responses against this group of pathogens. PMID:23630534

  17. Exserohilum rostratum: Characterization of a Cross-Kingdom Pathogen of Plants and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M.; Dickstein, Ellen R.; Smith, Matthew E.; Johnson, Judith A.; Southwick, Frederick S.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

  18. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Continual use of fungicides in agriculture often results in development of resistance in pathogens. A new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides by chemosensitization. This involves combining fungicides with certain non-fungicida...

  19. Impact of Vector Dispersal and Host-Plant Fidelity on the Dissemination of an Emerging Plant Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Johannesen, Jes; Foissac, Xavier; Kehrli, Patrik; Maixner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector. PMID:23284774

  20. Genes determining pathogenicity to pea are clustered on a supernumerary chromosome in the fungal plant pathogen Nectria haematococca.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Liu, X; Benny, U; Kistler, H C; VanEtten, H D

    2001-02-01

    Three genes that contribute to the ability of the fungus Nectria haematococca to cause disease on pea plants have been identified. These pea pathogenicity (PEP) genes are within 25 kb of each other and are located on a supernumerary chromosome. Altogether, the PEP gene cluster contains six transcriptional units that are expressed during infection of pea tissue. The biochemical function of only one of the genes is known with certainty. This gene, PDA1, encodes a specific cytochrome P450 that confers resistance to pisatin, an antibiotic produced by pea plants. The three new PEP genes, in addition to PDA1, can independently increase the ability of the fungus to cause lesions on pea when added to an isolate lacking the supernumerary chromosome. Based on predicted amino acid sequences, functions for two of these three genes are hypothesized. The deduced amino acid sequence of another transcribed portion of the PEP cluster, as well as four other open reading frames in the cluster, have a high degree of similarity to known fungal transposases. Several of the features of the PEP cluster -- a cluster of pathogenicity genes, the presence of transposable elements, and differences in codon usage and GC content from other portions of the genome -- are shared by pathogenicity islands in pathogenic bacteria of plants and animals. PMID:11208022

  1. Combating Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Plant-Derived Antimicrobials: A Minireview of the Mechanistic Basis

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy to combat microbial infections. Historically, plant extracts have been used as a safe, effective, and natural remedy for ailments and diseases in traditional medicine. Extensive research in the last two decades has identified a plethora of PDAs with a wide spectrum of activity against a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. Active components of many plant extracts have been characterized and are commercially available; however, research delineating the mechanistic basis of their antimicrobial action is scanty. This review highlights the potential of various plant-derived compounds to control pathogenic bacteria, especially the diverse effects exerted by plant compounds on various virulence factors that are critical for pathogenicity inside the host. In addition, the potential effect of PDAs on gut microbiota is discussed. PMID:25298964

  2. Modulating host homeostasis as a strategy in the plant-pathogen arms race.

    PubMed

    Gottig, Natalia; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Daurelio, Lucas D; Valentine, Alex; Gehring, Chris; Orellano, Elena G; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2009-01-01

    In plant-pathogen interactions, pathogens aim to overcome host defense responses while plants employ a battery of responses to limit pathogen growth and thus disease. In this "arms race" between hosts and pathogens, horizontal gene transfer is a potent source of 'pathogenic innovation' for viruses and bacteria. However, bacteria rarely acquire 'eukaryotic-like' genes from their hosts, and where they appear to, evidence for a role of the acquired genes remains outstanding. We have recently reported experimental evidence that the citrus canker causing pathogen Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri contains a plant natriuretic peptide-like gene (XacPNP) that encodes a protein that modulates host homeostasis to its advantage. We argue that Xanthomonas PNP has been acquired in an ancient horizontal gene transfer, and given that plant and bacterial PNPs trigger a number of similar physiological responses, we make a case of molecular mimicry. Released XacPNP mimics host PNP and results in a suppressed host response, "improved" host tissue health and consequently better pathogen survival in the lesions. Finally, we propose that Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri host interactions can serve as model system to study the role of host homeostasis in plant defense against biotrophic pathogens. PMID:19704897

  3. Genomic analysis of Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Brown, D W; Butchko, R A E; Proctor, R H

    2008-09-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) can be either an endophyte of maize, causing no visible disease, or a pathogen-causing disease of ears, stalks, roots and seedlings. At any stage, this fungus can synthesize fumonisins, a family of mycotoxins structurally similar to the sphingolipid sphinganine. Ingestion of fumonisin-contaminated maize has been associated with a number of animal diseases, including cancer in rodents, and exposure has been correlated with human oesophageal cancer in some regions of the world, and some evidence suggests that fumonisins are a risk factor for neural tube defects. A primary goal of the authors' laboratory is to eliminate fumonisin contamination of maize and maize products. Understanding how and why these toxins are made and the F. verticillioides-maize disease process will allow one to develop novel strategies to limit tissue destruction (rot) and fumonisin production. To meet this goal, genomic sequence data, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and microarrays are being used to identify F. verticillioides genes involved in the biosynthesis of toxins and plant pathogenesis. This paper describes the current status of F. verticillioides genomic resources and three approaches being used to mine microarray data from a wild-type strain cultured in liquid fumonisin production medium for 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120h. Taken together, these approaches demonstrate the power of microarray technology to provide information on different biological processes. PMID:19238625

  4. The role of effectors in nonhost resistance to filamentous plant pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Stam, Remco; Mantelin, Sophie; McLellan, Hazel; Thilliez, Gaëtan

    2014-01-01

    In nature, most plants are resistant to a wide range of phytopathogens. However, mechanisms contributing to this so-called nonhost resistance (NHR) are poorly understood. Besides constitutive defenses, plants have developed two layers of inducible defense systems. Plant innate immunity relies on recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In compatible interactions, pathogenicity effector molecules secreted by the invader can suppress host defense responses and facilitate the infection process. Additionally, plants have evolved pathogen-specific resistance mechanisms based on recognition of these effectors, which causes secondary defense responses. The current effector-driven hypothesis is that NHR in plants that are distantly related to the host plant is triggered by PAMP recognition that cannot be efficiently suppressed by the pathogen, whereas in more closely related species, nonhost recognition of effectors would play a crucial role. In this review we give an overview of current knowledge of the role of effector molecules in host and NHR and place these findings in the context of the model. We focus on examples from filamentous pathogens (fungi and oomycetes), discuss their implications for the field of plant-pathogen interactions and relevance in plant breeding strategies for development of durable resistance in crops. PMID:25426123

  5. Nitric Oxide in the Offensive Strategy of Fungal and Oomycete Plant Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Arasimowicz-Jelonek, Magdalena; Floryszak-Wieczorek, Jolanta

    2016-01-01

    In the course of evolutionary changes pathogens have developed many invasion strategies, to which the host organisms responded with a broad range of defense reactions involving endogenous signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide (NO). There is evidence that pathogenic microorganisms, including two most important groups of eukaryotic plant pathogens, also acquired the ability to synthesize NO via non-unequivocally defined oxidative and/or reductive routes. Although the both kingdoms Chromista and Fungi are remarkably diverse, the experimental data clearly indicate that pathogen-derived NO is an important regulatory molecule controlling not only developmental processes, but also pathogen virulence and its survival in the host. An active control of mitigation or aggravation of nitrosative stress within host cells seems to be a key determinant for the successful invasion of plant pathogens representing different lifestyles and an effective mode of dispersion in various environmental niches. PMID:26973690

  6. Contributions of host cellular trafficking and organization to the outcomes of plant-pathogen interactions.

    PubMed

    Underwood, William

    2016-08-01

    In recent years it has become increasingly apparent that dynamic changes in protein localization, membrane trafficking pathways, and cellular organization play a major role in determining the outcome of interactions between plants and pathogenic microorganisms. Plants have evolved sophisticated perception systems to recognize the presence of potentially pathogenic microorganisms via the detection of non-self or modified-self elicitor molecules, pathogen virulence factors, or the activities of such virulence factors. Dynamic changes to host cellular organization and membrane trafficking pathways play pivotal roles in detection and signaling by plant immune receptors and are vital for the execution of spatially targeted defense responses to thwart invasion by potential pathogens. Conversely, from the perspective of the pathogen, the ability to manipulate plant cellular organization and trafficking processes to establish infection structures and deliver virulence factors is a major determinant of pathogen success. This review summarizes selected topics that illustrate how dynamic changes in host cellular trafficking and organization shape the outcomes of diverse plant-pathogen interactions and addresses ways in which our rapidly expanding knowledge of the cell biological processes that contribute to immunity or infection may influence efforts to improve plant disease resistance. PMID:27216829

  7. Validation of real-time PCR assays for bioforensic detection of model plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    James, Mindy; Blagden, Trenna; Moncrief, Ian; Burans, James P; Schneider, Katherine; Fletcher, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. agricultural sector is vulnerable to intentionally introduced microbial threats because of its wide and open distribution and economic importance. To investigate such events, forensically valid assays for plant pathogen detection are needed. In this work, real-time PCR assays were developed for three model plant pathogens: Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato, Xylella fastidiosa, and Wheat streak mosaic virus. Validation included determination of the linearity and range, limit of detection, sensitivity, specificity, and exclusivity of each assay. Additionally, positive control plasmids, distinguishable from native signature by restriction enzyme digestion, were developed to support forensic application of the assays. Each assay displayed linear amplification of target nucleic acid, detected 100 fg or less of target nucleic acid, and was specific to its target pathogen. Results obtained with these model pathogens provide the framework for development and validation of similar assays for other plant pathogens of high consequence. PMID:24261870

  8. Genome Sequence of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, a Quarantine Plant-Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ruifang; Cheng, Yinghui; Wang, Ying; Wang, Ying; Guo, Liyun

    2015-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae is a serious plant-pathogenic fungus causing red core disease in strawberries, resulting in a larger number of fruit produced, and the fungus has been regulated as a quarantine pest of many countries and regions. Here, we announce the genome sequence of P. fragariae var. fragariae, and this information might provide insight into the mechanism of pathogenicity and host specificity of this pathogen, as well as help us further identify targets for fungicides. PMID:25814589

  9. Fusarium seed stalk blight and rot in sugar beet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium can cause damage to seed stalks that can cause reductions or complete loss of seed production. Fusarium oxysporum has been the reported cause of seed stalk blight, which is characterized by vascular discoloration. We sampled diseased seed stalks and examined isolates for their pathogenicity...

  10. Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

  11. Transmission of bacterial plant pathogens by Hemipteran vectors: The intersection of genomics and classical vector biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects that are classified in the Order Hemiptera have become one of the most important plant-associated insect taxa, mainly because of their ability to transmit plant pathogens. The glassy-winged sharpshooter is the primary vector of the plant-infecting bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, the causal age...

  12. Roles of Arabidopsis WRKY3 and WRKY4 Transcription Factors in Plant Responses to Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Zhibing; Vinod, KM; Zheng, Zuyu; Fan, Baofang; Chen, Zhixiang

    2008-01-01

    Background Plant WRKY DNA-binding transcription factors are involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic responses. It has been previously shown that Arabidopsis WRKY3 and WRKY4, which encode two structurally similar WRKY transcription factors, are induced by pathogen infection and salicylic acid (SA). However, the role of the two WRKY transcription factors in plant disease resistance has not been directly analyzed. Results Both WRKY3 and WRKY4 are nuclear-localized and specifically recognize the TTGACC W-box sequences in vitro. Expression of WRKY3 and WRKY4 was induced rapidly by stress conditions generated by liquid infiltration or spraying. Stress-induced expression of WRKY4 was further elevated by pathogen infection and SA treatment. To determine directly their role in plant disease resistance, we have isolated T-DNA insertion mutants and generated transgenic overexpression lines for WRKY3 and WRKY4. Both the loss-of-function mutants and transgenic overexpression lines were examined for responses to the biotrophic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea. The wrky3 and wrky4 single and double mutants exhibited more severe disease symptoms and support higher fungal growth than wild-type plants after Botrytis infection. Although disruption of WRKY3 and WRKY4 did not have a major effect on plant response to P. syringae, overexpression of WRKY4 greatly enhanced plant susceptibility to the bacterial pathogen and suppressed pathogen-induced PR1 gene expression. Conclusion The nuclear localization and sequence-specific DNA-binding activity support that WRKY3 and WRKY4 function as transcription factors. Functional analysis based on T-DNA insertion mutants and transgenic overexpression lines indicates that WRKY3 and WRKY4 have a positive role in plant resistance to necrotrophic pathogens and WRKY4 has a negative effect on plant resistance to biotrophic pathogens. PMID:18570649

  13. Commonalities and differences of T3SSs in rhizobia and plant pathogenic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P.

    2014-01-01

    Plant pathogenic bacteria and rhizobia infect higher plants albeit the interactions with their hosts are principally distinct and lead to completely different phenotypic outcomes, either pathogenic or mutualistic, respectively. Bacterial protein delivery to plant host plays an essential role in determining the phenotypic outcome of plant-bacteria interactions. The involvement of type III secretion systems (T3SSs) in mediating animal- and plant-pathogen interactions was discovered in the mid-80's and is now recognized as a multiprotein nanomachine dedicated to trans-kingdom movement of effector proteins. The discovery of T3SS in bacteria with symbiotic lifestyles broadened its role beyond virulence. In most T3SS-positive bacterial pathogens, virulence is largely dependent on functional T3SSs, while in rhizobia the system is dispensable for nodulation and can affect positively or negatively the mutualistic associations with their hosts. This review focuses on recent comparative genome analyses in plant pathogens and rhizobia that uncovered similarities and variations among T3SSs in their genetic organization, regulatory networks and type III secreted proteins and discusses the evolutionary adaptations of T3SSs and type III secreted proteins that might account for the distinguishable phenotypes and host range characteristics of plant pathogens and symbionts. PMID:24723933

  14. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants.

    PubMed

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-10-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  15. Foliar endophytic fungi as potential protectors from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia; Jiménez-Alemán, Guillermo H; Boland, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    In defensive ant-plant interactions myrmecophytic plants express reduced chemical defense in their leaves to protect themselves from pathogens, and it seems that mutualistic partners are required to make up for this lack of defensive function. Previously, we reported that mutualistic ants confer plants of Acacia hindsii protection from pathogens, and that the protection is given by the ant-associated bacteria. Here, we examined whether foliar endophytic fungi may potentially act as a new partner, in addition to mutualistic ants and their bacteria inhabitants, involved in the protection from pathogens in myrmecophytic Acacia plants. Fungal endophytes were isolated from the asymptomatic leaves of A. hindsii plants for further molecular identification of 18S rRNA gene. Inhibitory effects of fungal endophytes were tested against Pseudomonas plant pathogens. Our findings support a potential role of fungal endophytes in pathogen the protection mechanisms against pathogens in myrmecophytic plants and provide the evidence of novel fungal endophytes capable of biosynthesizing bioactive metabolites. PMID:26843901

  16. Antibacterial activity of two plant extracts on eight burn pathogens.

    PubMed

    Gnanamani, A; Priya, K Shanmuga; Radhakrishnan, N; Babu, Mary

    2003-05-01

    Antibacterial activity of crude alcoholic extract of Datura alba and Celosia argentea leaves were studied against pathogens isolated from infected burn patients. The disc-diffusion method showed significant zone of lysis against all the pathogens studied and the results are comparable to the conventional antibiotic cream namely Silver Sulphadiazine (SSD). On comparing the efficiency of the two extracts, extract of D. alba exhibited more than 50% increase in antibacterial activity compared to C. argentea. PMID:12686442

  17. Biofilm formation by enteric pathogens and its role in plant colonization and persistence

    PubMed Central

    Yaron, Sima; Römling, Ute

    2014-01-01

    The significant increase in foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, such as alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, melons, tomatoes and spinach, during the last 30 years stimulated investigation of the mechanisms of persistence of human pathogens on plants. Emerging evidence suggests that Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, which cause the vast majority of fresh produce outbreaks, are able to adhere to and to form biofilms on plants leading to persistence and resistance to disinfection treatments, which subsequently can cause human infections and major outbreaks. In this review, we present the current knowledge about host, bacterial and environmental factors that affect the attachment to plant tissue and the process of biofilm formation by S. enterica and E. coli, and discuss how biofilm formation assists in persistence of pathogens on the plants. Mechanisms used by S. enterica and E. coli to adhere and persist on abiotic surfaces and mammalian cells are partially similar and also used by plant pathogens and symbionts. For example, amyloid curli fimbriae, part of the extracellular matrix of biofilms, frequently contribute to adherence and are upregulated upon adherence and colonization of plant material. Also the major exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix, cellulose, is an adherence factor not only of S. enterica and E. coli, but also of plant symbionts and pathogens. Plants, on the other hand, respond to colonization by enteric pathogens with a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which can effectively inhibit biofilm formation. Consequently, plant compounds might be investigated for promising novel antibiofilm strategies. PMID:25351039

  18. Disentangling effects of vector birth rate, mortality rate, and abundance on spread of a plant pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insect-transmitted plant pathogens, rates of pathogen spread are a function of vector abundance. While vector abundance is recognized to be important, parameters that govern vector population size receive little attention. For example, epidemiological models often fix vector population size by a...

  19. How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants; the ins and outs of eukaryotic effectors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on effectors secreted by pathogens during host attack has dominated the field of molecular plant-microbe interactions over recent years. Functional analysis of type III secreted effectors that are injected by pathogenic bacteria into host cells has significantly advanced the field and demon...

  20. Mycosphaerella graminicola sequencing heads towards the first finished genome of a filamentous plant pathogenic fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mycosphaerella is one of the largest genera of plant pathogenic fungi with more than 1,000 named species, a few of which cause disease in humans and other vertebrates. The genomes of M. graminicola and M. fijiensis, two of the most economically important pathogens of wheat and banana, respectively, ...

  1. Plant Pathogens at Work: Progress and Possibilities for Weed Biocontrol Part 2. Improving Weed Control Efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development of plant pathogenic weed biological control agents can be approached using two strategies, termed the classical and biological approaches. The classical involves the search for pathogens in the native range of an invasive weed and its importation and release into the area of introdu...

  2. A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as Sudden Oak Death in the Western US and Ash Dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly in...

  3. Fusarium Infection

    PubMed Central

    Muhammed, Maged; Anagnostou, Theodora; Desalermos, Athanasios; Kourkoumpetis, Themistoklis K.; Carneiro, Herman A.; Glavis-Bloom, Justin; Coleman, Jeffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Fusarium species is a ubiquitous fungus that causes opportunistic infections. We present 26 cases of invasive fusariosis categorized according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) criteria of fungal infections. All cases (20 proven and 6 probable) were treated from January 2000 until January 2010. We also review 97 cases reported since 2000. The most important risk factors for invasive fusariosis in our patients were compromised immune system, specifically lung transplantation (n = 6) and hematologic malignancies (n = 5), and burns (n = 7 patients with skin fusariosis), while the most commonly infected site was the skin in 11 of 26 patients. The mortality rates among our patients with disseminated, skin, and pulmonary fusariosis were 50%, 40%, and 37.5%, respectively. Fusarium solani was the most frequent species, isolated from 49% of literature cases. Blood cultures were positive in 82% of both current study and literature patients with disseminated fusariosis, while the remaining 16% had 2 noncontiguous sites of infection but negative blood cultures. Surgical removal of focal lesions was effective in both current study and literature cases. Skin lesions in immunocompromised patients should raise the suspicion for skin or disseminated fusariosis. The combination of medical monotherapy with voriconazole or amphotericin B and surgery in such cases is highly suggested. PMID:24145697

  4. Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

    2004-08-01

    Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

  5. Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...

  6. Life-style transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colletotrichum species are devastating fungal pathogens of major crop plants worldwide. Infection involves differentiation of specialized cell-types associated with host surface penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). Here we report genome and t...

  7. Plant pathogenic bacteria target the actin microfilament network involved in the trafficking of disease defense components

    PubMed Central

    Jelenska, Joanna; Kang, Yongsung; Greenberg, Jean T

    2014-01-01

    Cells of infected organisms transport disease defense-related molecules along actin filaments to deliver them to their sites of action to combat the pathogen. To accommodate higher demand for intracellular traffic, plant F-actin density increases transiently during infection or treatment of Arabidopsis with pathogen-associated molecules. Many animal and plant pathogens interfere with actin polymerization and depolymerization to avoid immune responses. Pseudomonas syringae, a plant extracellular pathogen, injects HopW1 effector into host cells to disrupt the actin cytoskeleton and reduce vesicle movement in order to elude defense responses. In some Arabidopsis accessions, however, HopW1 is recognized and causes resistance via an actin-independent mechanism. HopW1 targets isoform 7 of vegetative actin (ACT7) that is regulated by phytohormones and environmental factors. We hypothesize that dynamic changes of ACT7 filaments are involved in plant immunity. PMID:25551177

  8. Cello-oligosaccharides released from host plants induce pathogenicity in scab-causing Streptomyces species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thaxtomin, a phytotoxic dipeptide that inhibits cellulose synthesis in expanding plant cells, is a pathogenicity determinant in scab-causing Streptomyces species. Cellobiose and cellotriose, the smallest subunits of cellulose, stimulated thaxtomin production in a defined medium, while other oligosa...

  9. Characterization of strains of Bacillus mojavensis for biocontrol of a maize pathogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic bacterium, Bacillus mojavensis controls fungal diseases in maize and other plants. The bacterium and its cultural extracts have been shown to be antagonistic to a pathogenic and mycotoxic fungus, Fusarium verticillioides. Extracts prepared from cultures of B. mojavensis contained an...

  10. An Overview of Proteomics Tools for Understanding Plant Defense Against Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Grandellis, Carolina; Vranych, Cecilia V; Piazza, Ainelén; Garavaglia, Betiana S; Gottig, Natalia; Ottado, Jorgelina

    2016-01-01

    Plant diseases are responsible for important losses in crops and cause serious impacts in agricultural production. In the last years, proteomics has been used to examine plant defense responses against pathogens. Such studies may be pioneer in the generation of crops with enhanced resistance. In this review, we focus on proteomics advances in the understanding of host and non-host resistance against pathogens. PMID:26364117

  11. Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings.

    PubMed

    Afifi, A F

    1977-01-01

    Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. was found to be the causal pathogen of Fusarium wilt of Prunus armeniaca seedlings. The fungus pathogenicity could be correlated with the increase in its mycelial growth and conidial germination under the influence of the host root exudates, volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots, and the content of the host seedlings. Chromatographic and biological detection for indol derivatives in host root exudates indicated the presence of beta-indolacetic acid and indol-3-carbonic acid. Benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, ethylene, in addition to carbon dioxide, were among the volatile and gaseous exudates of either germinating seeds or roots of the host. PMID:878711

  12. Effects of Phospholipase C on Fusarium graminearum Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qili; Zhou, Benguo; Gao, Zhengliang; Liang, Yuancun

    2015-12-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) plays important roles in regulating various biological processes in eukaryotes. Currently, little is known about the function of PLC in filamentous fungi, especially the plant pathogenic fungi. Fusarium graminearum is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in many cereal crops. BLAST search revealed that Fusarium genome contains six FgPLC genes. Using quantitative RT-PCR, different FgPLC gene expressions in mycelia were analyzed. To investigate the role of FgPLC in F. graminearum biology, a pharmacological study using a known inhibitor of PLC (U73122) was conducted. Results showed that inhibition of FgPLC resulted in significant alterations of mycelial growth, conidiation, conidial germination, perithecium formation, and expressions of Tri5 and Tri6 genes. As expected, the treatment of F. graminearum with U73343, an inactive analog of U73122, showed no effect on F. graminearum biology. Our results suggested strongly that FgPLC plays important roles in F. graminearum growth and development. PMID:26316232

  13. Peptidotriazoles with antimicrobial activity against bacterial and fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Güell, Imma; Micaló, Lluís; Cano, Laura; Badosa, Esther; Ferre, Rafael; Montesinos, Emilio; Bardají, Eduard; Feliu, Lidia; Planas, Marta

    2012-01-01

    We designed and prepared peptidotriazoles based on the antimicrobial peptide BP100 (LysLysLeuPheLysLysIleLeuLysTyrLeu-NH(2)) by introducing a triazole ring in the peptide backbone or onto the side chain of a selected residue. These compounds were screened for their in vitro growth inhibition of bacterial and fungal phytopathogens, and for their cytotoxic effects on eukaryotic cells and tobacco leaves. Their proteolytic susceptibility was also analyzed. The antibacterial activity and the hemolysis were influenced by the amino acid that was modified with the triazole as well as by the absence of presence of a substituent in this heterocyclic ring. We identified sequences active against the bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria, Erwinia amylovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (MIC of 1.6-12.5 μM), and against the fungi Fusarium oxysporum (MIC<6.2-12.5 μM) with low hemolytic activity (0-23% at 50 μM), high stability to protease digestion and no phytotoxicity. These peptidotriazoles constitute good candidates to design new antimicrobial agents. PMID:22198367

  14. Integrated decoys and effector traps: how to catch a plant pathogen.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Jeffrey G

    2016-01-01

    Plant immune receptors involved in disease resistance and crop protection are related to the animal Nod-like receptor (NLR) class, and recognise the virulence effectors of plant pathogens, whereby they arm the plant's defensive response. Although plant NLRs mainly contain three protein domains, about 10% of these receptors identified by extensive cross-plant species data base searches have now been shown to include novel and highly variable integrated domains, some of which have been shown to detect pathogen effectors by direct interaction. Sarris et al. have identified a large number of integrated domains that can be used to detect effector targets in host plant proteomes and identify unknown pathogen effectors.Please see related Research article: Comparative analysis of plant immune receptor architectures uncovers host proteins likely targeted by pathogens, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-016-0228-7 Since the time of writing, a closely related paper has been released: Kroj T, Chanclud E, Michel-Romiti C, Grand X, Morel J-B. Integration of decoy domains derived from protein targets of pathogen effectors into plant immune receptors is widespread. New Phytol. 2016 (ahead of print). PMID:26896088

  15. Plant pathogenic anaerobic bacteria use aromatic polyketides to access aerobic territory.

    PubMed

    Shabuer, Gulimila; Ishida, Keishi; Pidot, Sacha J; Roth, Martin; Dahse, Hans-Martin; Hertweck, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Around 25% of vegetable food is lost worldwide because of infectious plant diseases, including microbe-induced decay of harvested crops. In wet seasons and under humid storage conditions, potato tubers are readily infected and decomposed by anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium puniceum). We found that these anaerobic plant pathogens harbor a gene locus (type II polyketide synthase) to produce unusual polyketide metabolites (clostrubins) with dual functions. The clostrubins, which act as antibiotics against other microbial plant pathogens, enable the anaerobic bacteria to survive an oxygen-rich plant environment. PMID:26542569

  16. Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The P. ultimum DAOM BR144 (=CBS 805.95 = ATCC200006) genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes, and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora spp., including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86 % o...

  17. A Proteomic Approach Provides New Insights into the Control of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens by Bacillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Han-Hong; Siragusa, Mirko; Çalışkan, Mikail; Carimi, Francesco; da Silva, Jaime A. Teixeira.; Tör, Mahmut

    2013-01-01

    Beneficial microorganisms (also known as biopesticides) are considered to be one of the most promising methods for more rational and safe crop management practices. We used Bacillus strains EU07, QST713 and FZB24, and investigated their inhibitory effect on Fusarium. Bacterial cell cultures, cell-free supernatants and volatiles displayed varying degrees of suppressive effect. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from EU07 and FZB24 revealed the presence of lytic enzymes, cellulases, proteases, 1,4-β-glucanase and hydrolases, all of which contribute to degradation of the pathogen cell wall. Further proteomic investigations showed that proteins involved in metabolism, protein folding, protein degradation, translation, recognition and signal transduction cascade play an important role in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Our findings provide new knowledge on the mechanism of action of Bacillus species and insight into biocontrol mechanisms. PMID:23301041

  18. Antimicrobial peptide inhibition of fungalysin proteases that target plant type 19 Family IV defense chitinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cereal crops and other plants produce secreted seed chitinases that reduce pathogenic infection, most likely by targeting the fungal chitinous cell wall. We have shown that corn (Zea mays) produces three GH family 19, plant class IV chitinases, that help in protecting the plant against Fusarium and ...

  19. Conservation of plasmids among plant-pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae isolates of diverse origins.

    PubMed

    von Bodman, S B; Shaw, P D

    1987-05-01

    Thirty isolates of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci, pv. angulata (pathogens on tobacco), pv. coronafaciens, and pv. striafaciens (pathogens on oats) were examined for plasmid DNAs. The strains were obtained from plants throughout the world, some over 50 years ago. Of the 22 tobacco pathogens, 16 contain predominantly one type of plasmid, the pJP27.00 type. The remaining six tobacco-specific strains do not harbor detectable plasmids. The oat pathogens contain one, two, or three plasmids. DNA homology studies indicate that the plasmid DNAs are highly conserved. More importantly, the plasmids harbored by strains isolated from one host plant are conserved most stringently; e.g., the plasmids from the tobacco pathogens are, with one exception, indistinguishable by restriction endonuclease digestion and Southern hybridization. There is also extensive homology among plasmids indigenous to the oat-specific P. syringae pv. coronafaciens and pv. striafaciens strains. PMID:3628554

  20. Regulation of Pathogenic Spore Germination by CgRac1 in the Fungal Plant Pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides ▿ ‡

    PubMed Central

    Nesher, Iris; Minz, Anna; Kokkelink, Leonie; Tudzynski, Paul; Sharon, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a facultative plant pathogen: it can live as a saprophyte on dead organic matter or as a pathogen on a host plant. Different patterns of conidial germination have been recognized under saprophytic and pathogenic conditions, which also determine later development. Here we describe the role of CgRac1 in regulating pathogenic germination. The hallmark of pathogenic germination is unilateral formation of a single germ tube following the first cell division. However, transgenic strains expressing a constitutively active CgRac1 (CA-CgRac1) displayed simultaneous formation of two germ tubes, with nuclei continuing to divide in both cells after the first cell division. CA-CgRac1 also caused various other abnormalities, including difficulties in establishing and maintaining cell polarity, reduced conidial and hyphal adhesion, and formation of immature appressoria. Consequently, CA-CgRac1 isolates were completely nonpathogenic. Localization studies with cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-CgRac1 fusion protein showed that the CgRac1 protein is abundant in conidia and in hyphal tips. Although the CFP signal was equally distributed in both cells of a germinating conidium, reactive oxygen species accumulated only in the cell that produced a germ tube, indicating that CgRac1 was active only in the germinating cell. Collectively, our results show that CgRac1 is a major regulator of asymmetric development and that it is involved in the regulation of both morphogenesis and nuclear division. Modification of CgRac1 activity disrupts the morphogenetic program and prevents fungal infection. PMID:21460190