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1

A Fungal Symbiont of Plant-Roots Modulates Mycotoxin Gene Expression in the Pathogen Fusarium sambucinum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens. In this study, we isolated and characterized sixteen Fusarium strains from naturally infected potato plants in the field. Pathogenicity tests were carried

Youssef Ismail; Susan McCormick; Mohamed Hijri; Ching-Hong Yang

2011-01-01

2

A Fungal Symbiont of Plant-Roots Modulates Mycotoxin Gene Expression in the Pathogen Fusarium sambucinum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium trichothecenes are fungal toxins that cause disease on infected plants and, more importantly, health problems for humans and animals that consume infected fruits or vegetables. Unfortunately, there are few methods for controlling mycotoxin production by fungal pathogens. In this study, we isolated and characterized sixteen Fusarium strains from naturally infected potato plants in the field. Pathogenicity tests were carried out in the greenhouse to evaluate the virulence of the strains on potato plants as well as their trichothecene production capacity, and the most aggressive strain was selected for further studies. This strain, identified as F. sambucinum, was used to determine if trichothecene gene expression was affected by the symbiotic Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus irregulare. AMF form symbioses with plant roots, in particular by improving their mineral nutrient uptake and protecting plants against soil-borne pathogens. We found that that G. irregulare significantly inhibits F. sambucinum growth. We also found, using RT-PCR assays to assess the relative expression of trichothecene genes, that in the presence of the AMF G. irregulare, F. sambucinum genes TRI5 and TRI6 were up-regulated, while TRI4, TRI13 and TRI101 were down-regulated. We conclude that AMF can modulate mycotoxin gene expression by a plant fungal pathogen. This previously undescribed effect may be an important mechanism for biological control and has fascinating implications for advancing our knowledge of plant-microbe interactions and controlling plant pathogens. PMID:21455305

Ismail, Youssef; McCormick, Susan; Hijri, Mohamed

2011-01-01

3

Host extract modulates metabolism and fumonisin biosynthesis by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium proliferatum.  

PubMed

Fusarium proliferatum is a common pathogen able to infect a broad range of agriculturally important crops. Recently, some evidence for genetic variance among the species genotypes in relation to their plant origin has been reported. Mycotoxin contamination of plant tissues is the most important threat caused by F. proliferatum and fumonisins B (FBs) are the principal mycotoxins synthesized. The toxigenic potential of the pathogen genotypes is variable and also the reaction of different host plant species on the infection by pathogen is different. The objective of present study was to evaluate the impact of the extracts on the growth and fumonisin biosynthesis by 32 F. proliferatum strains originating from different host species (A-asparagus, M-maize, G-garlic, PS-pea and P-pineapple), and how it changes the secondary metabolism measured by fumonisin biosynthesis. The average strain dry weight was 65.2 mg for control conditions and it reached 180.7 mg, 100.5 mg, 76.6 mg, 126.2 mg and 51.1 mg when pineapple, asparagus, maize, garlic and pea extracts were added, respectively. In the second experiment the extracts were added after 5 days of culturing of the representative group of strains, displaying diverse reaction to the extract presence. Also, the influence of stationary vs. shaken culture was examined. Mean biomass amounts for shaken cultures of 15 chosen strains were as follows: 37.4 mg of dry weight for control culture (C), 219.6 mg (P), 113 mg (A), 93.6 mg (M), 62 mg (G) and 48 mg (PS), respectively. For stationary cultures, the means were as follows: C-57.4 mg, P-355.6 mg, A-291.6 mg, M-191.1 mg, G-171.1 mg and PS-58.9 mg. Few strains showed differential growth when stationary/shaken culture conditions were applied. Almost all strains synthesized moderate amounts of fumonisins in control conditions-less than 10 ng/?L, regardless of the origin and host species. Few strains were able to produce over 100 ng/?L of FBs when pineapple extract was added, twelve strains synthesized more than 10 ng/?L under asparagus extract induction and the pea extract was the most efficient inhibitor of fumonisin biosynthesis. The general impact of the extracts on the fungal biomass amounts was similar, regardless of the host plant origin of the fungal genotypes studied. The evaluation of FBs content has shown differential reaction of some strains, which may contribute to their aggressiveness and pathogenicity. PMID:25462926

St?pie?, ?ukasz; Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; Wilman, Karolina

2015-01-16

4

Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Barley and Their Associated Mycotoxins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Salas, B., Steffenson, B. J., Casper, H. H., Tacke, B., Prom, L. K., Fetch, T. G., Jr., and Schwarz, P. B. 1999. Fusarium species pathogenic to barley and their associated mycotoxins. Plant Dis. 83:667-674. Epidemics of Fusarium head blight (FHB) occurred on barley in Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota from 1993 to 1998. The Red River Valley region was

B. Salas; B. J. Steffenson; H. H. Casper; B. Tacke; L. K. Prom; T. G. Fetch; P. B. Schwarz

1999-01-01

5

Effect of different ecological conditions on secondary metabolite production and gene expression in two mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium species: F. verticillioides and F. equiseti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The genus Fusarium includes many species that are plant pathogens and many produce harmful secondary metabolites including fumonisins and trichothecenes. These mycotoxins can cause disease in animals and have been associated with cancers and birth defects in humans. Many factors influence the produc...

6

The Predicted Secretome of the Plant Pathogenic Fungus Fusarium graminearum: A Refined Comparative Analysis  

PubMed Central

The fungus Fusarium graminearum forms an intimate association with the host species wheat whilst infecting the floral tissues at anthesis. During the prolonged latent period of infection, extracellular communication between live pathogen and host cells must occur, implying a role for secreted fungal proteins. The wheat cells in contact with fungal hyphae subsequently die and intracellular hyphal colonisation results in the development of visible disease symptoms. Since the original genome annotation analysis was done in 2007, which predicted the secretome using TargetP, the F. graminearum gene call has changed considerably through the combined efforts of the BROAD and MIPS institutes. As a result of the modifications to the genome and the recent findings that suggested a role for secreted proteins in virulence, the F. graminearum secretome was revisited. In the current study, a refined F. graminearum secretome was predicted by combining several bioinformatic approaches. This strategy increased the probability of identifying truly secreted proteins. A secretome of 574 proteins was predicted of which 99% was supported by transcriptional evidence. The function of the annotated and unannotated secreted proteins was explored. The potential role(s) of the annotated proteins including, putative enzymes, phytotoxins and antifungals are discussed. Characterisation of the unannotated proteins included the analysis of Pfam domains and features associated with known fungal effectors, for example, small size, cysteine-rich and containing internal amino acid repeats. A comprehensive comparative genomic analysis involving 57 fungal and oomycete genomes revealed that only a small number of the predicted F. graminearum secreted proteins can be considered to be either species or sequenced strain specific. PMID:22493673

Brown, Neil A.; Antoniw, John; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

2012-01-01

7

Molecular diagnostics on the toxigenic potential of Fusarium spp. plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Aims We propose and test an efficient and rapid protocol for the detection of toxigenic Fusarium isolates producing three main types of Fusarium-associated mycotoxins (fumonisins, trichothecenes and zearelanone). Methods and Results The novel approach utilizes partially multiplexed markers based on genes essential for mycotoxin biosynthesis (fumonisin—fum6, fum8; trichothecenes—tri5, tri6; zearalenone, zea2) in Fusarium spp. The protocol has been verified by screening a collection of 96 isolates representing diverse species of filamentous fungi. Each Fusarium isolate was taxonomically identified through both molecular and morphological techniques. The results demonstrate a reliable detection of toxigenic potential for trichothecenes (sensitivity 100%, specificity 95%), zearalenone (sensitivity 100%, specificity 100%) and fumonisins (sensitivity 94%, specificity 88%). Both presence and identity of toxin biosynthetic genes were further confirmed by direct sequencing of amplification products. Conclusions The cross-species-specific PCR markers for key biosynthetic genes provide a sensitive detection of toxigenic fungal isolates, contaminating biological material derived from agricultural fields. Significance and Impact of the Study The conducted study shows that a PCR-based assay of biosynthetic genes is a reliable, cost-effective, early warning system against Fusarium contamination. Its future use as a high-throughput detection strategy complementing chemical assays enables effective targeted application of crop protection products. PMID:24575830

Dawidziuk, A; Koczyk, G; Popiel, D; Kaczmarek, J; Bu?ko, M

2014-01-01

8

Fusarium and Scedosporium: Emerging Fungal Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fusarium spp. and Scedosporium spp. have emerged as important fungal pathogens during the last decades causing significant morbidity and mortality especially\\u000a in immunocompromised patients. The two fungal genera possess several biological and clinical characteristics in common, most\\u000a notably the very high mortality of the diseases caused by them, and thus they are discussed together.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Fusarium spp. are ubiquitus fungi commonly

Emmanuel Roilides; John Dotis; Aspasia Katragkou

9

Comparative Genomics Reveals Mobile Pathogenicity Chromosomes in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, strains of F. oxysporum exhibit wide host range and are pathogenic to both plant and animal species, reflecting remarkable genetic adapta...

10

Characterization of antagonistic and pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum isolates by random amplification of polymorphic DNA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium oxysporum is one of the most widespread and predominant species in natural and cultivated soils among the fungal genus Fusarium. It includes saprophytes as well as plant pathogens involved in serious vascular wilts, caused by severalformae speciales and races or pathotypes (1). Morphological similarities among pathogenic and saprophytic strains of F. oxysporum hamper diagnosis and clear discrimination among formae

Q. Migheli; L. Cavallarin

1994-01-01

11

Role of ethylene in the protection of tomato plants against soil-borne fungal pathogens conferred by an endophytic Fusarium solani strain.  

PubMed

An endophytic fungal isolate (Fs-K), identified as a Fusarium solani strain, was obtained from root tissues of tomato plants grown on a compost which suppressed soil and foliar pathogens. Strain Fs-K was able to colonize root tissues and subsequently protect plants against the root pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), and elicit induced systemic resistance against the tomato foliar pathogen Septoria lycopersici. Interestingly, attenuated expression of certain pathogenesis-related genes, i.e. PR5 and PR7, was detected in tomato roots inoculated with strain Fs-K compared with non-inoculated plants. The expression pattern of PR genes was either not affected or aberrant in leaves. A genetic approach, using mutant tomato plant lines, was used to determine the role of ethylene and jasmonic acid in the plant's response to infection by the soil-borne pathogen F. oxysporum f.sp. radicis-lycopersici (FORL), in the presence or absence of isolate Fs-K. Mutant tomato lines Never ripe (Nr) and epinastic (epi1), both impaired in ethylene-mediated plant responses, inoculated with FORL are not protected by isolate Fs-K, indicating that the ethylene signalling pathway is required for the mode of action used by the endophyte to confer resistance. On the contrary, def1 mutants, affected in jasmonate biosynthesis, show reduced susceptibility to FORL, in the presence Fs-K, which suggests that jasmonic acid is not essential for the mediation of biocontrol activity of isolate Fs-K. PMID:18048373

Kavroulakis, Nektarios; Ntougias, Spyridon; Zervakis, Georgios I; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Haralampidis, Kosmas; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K

2007-01-01

12

Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp pathogenic to pecan tree in Brazil.  

PubMed

The occurrence of Fusarium spp associated with pecan tree (Carya illinoinensis) diseases in Brazil has been observed in recent laboratory analyses in Rio Grande do Sul State. Thus, in this study, we i) obtained Fusarium isolates from plants with disease symptoms; ii) tested the pathogenicity of these Fusarium isolates to pecan; iii) characterized and grouped Fusarium isolates that were pathogenic to the pecan tree based on morphological characteristics; iv) identified Fusarium spp to the species complex level through TEF-1? sequencing; and v) compared the identification methods used in the study. Fifteen isolates collected from the inflorescences, roots, and seeds of symptomatic plants (leaf necrosis or root rot) were used for pathogenicity tests. Morphological characterization was conducted using only pathogenic isolates, for a total of 11 isolates, based on the mycelial growth rate, sporulation, colony pigmentation, and conidial length and width variables. Pathogenic isolates were grouped based on morphological characteristics, and molecular characterization was performed by sequencing TEF-1? genes. Pathogenic isolates belonging to the Fusarium chlamydosporum species complex, Fusarium graminearum species complex, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium oxysporum were identified based on the TEF-1? region. Morphological characteristics were used to effectively differentiate isolates and group the isolates according to genetic similarity, particularly conidial width, which emerged as a key morphological descriptor in this study. PMID:25501150

Lazarotto, M; Milanesi, P M; Muniz, M F B; Reiniger, L R S; Beltrame, R; Harakava, R; Blume, E

2014-01-01

13

Antifungal activity of ZnO nanoparticles and their interactive effect with a biocontrol bacterium on growth antagonism of the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fungal plant pathogens such as Fusarium graminearum cause severe global economic losses in cereals crops, and current control measures are limited. This work addresses the potential for ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) and biocontrol bacteria to be used in plant fungal control strategies. Growth of F. graminearum was significantly (p = 0.05) inhibited by inclusion of the NPs in a mung bean broth agar and in sand. Suspension in mung bean broth medium modified the surface charge, dissolution, and aggregation state of the ZnO NPs, in comparison to processes occurring in water suspension. The ZnO NPs were significantly more inhibitory to fungal growth than micro-sized particles of ZnO, although both types of particles released similar levels of soluble Zn, indicating size-dependent toxicity of the particles. Zn ions produced dose-dependent inhibition, noticeable at the level of soluble Zn released from NPs after seven-day suspension in medium; inhibitory levels caused acidification of the growth medium. Transfer of fungal inoculum after exposure to the ZnO NPs to fresh medium did not indicate adaptation to the stress because growth was still inhibited by the NPs. The ZnO NPs did not prevent metabolites from a biocontrol bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6, from inhibiting Fusarium growth: no synergism was observed in the mung bean agar. Because other studies find that soil amendment with ZnO NPs required high doses for inhibition of plant growth, the findings of pathogen growth control reported in this paper open the possibility of using ZnO NP-based formulations to complement existing strategies for improving crop health in field settings. PMID:23933719

Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Britt, David W; Anderson, Anne J

2013-12-01

14

Comparative genomics reveals mobile pathogenicity chromosomes in Fusarium  

SciTech Connect

Fusarium species are among the most important phytopathogenic and toxigenic fungi, having significant impact on crop production and animal health. Distinctively, members of the F. oxysporum species complex exhibit wide host range but discontinuously distributed host specificity, reflecting remarkable genetic adaptability. To understand the molecular underpinnings of diverse phenotypic traits and their evolution in Fusarium, we compared the genomes of three economically important and phylogenetically related, yet phenotypically diverse plant-pathogenic species, F. graminearum, F. verticillioides and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. Our analysis revealed greatly expanded lineage-specific (LS) genomic regions in F. oxysporum that include four entire chromosomes, accounting for more than one-quarter of the genome. LS regions are rich in transposons and genes with distinct evolutionary profiles but related to pathogenicity. Experimentally, we demonstrate for the first time the transfer of two LS chromosomes between strains of F. oxysporum, resulting in the conversion of a non-pathogenic strain into a pathogen. Transfer of LS chromosomes between otherwise genetically isolated strains explains the polyphyletic origin of host specificity and the emergence of new pathogenic lineages in the F. oxysporum species complex, putting the evolution of fungal pathogenicity into a new perspective.

Ma, Li Jun; van der Does, H. C.; Borkovich, Katherine A.; Coleman, Jeffrey J.; Daboussi, Marie-Jose; Di Pietro, Antonio; Dufresne, Marie; Freitag, Michael; Grabherr, Manfred; Henrissat, Bernard; Houterman, Petra M.; Kang, Seogchan; Shim, Won-Bo; Wolochuk, Charles; Xie, Xiaohui; Xu, Jin Rong; Antoniw, John; Baker, Scott E.; Bluhm, Burton H.; Breakspear, Andrew; Brown, Daren W.; Butchko, Robert A.; Chapman, Sinead; Coulson, Richard; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G.; Diener, Andrew; Gale, Liane R.; Gardiner, Donald; Goff, Steven; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Hilburn, Karen; Hua-Van, Aurelie; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kazan, Kemal; Kodira, Chinnappa D.; Koehrsen, Michael; Kumar, Lokesh; Lee, Yong Hwan; Li, Liande; Manners, John M.; Miranda-Saavedra, Diego; Mukherjee, Mala; Park, Gyungsoon; Park, Jongsun; Park, Sook Young; Proctor, Robert H.; Regev, Aviv; Ruiz-Roldan, M. C.; Sain, Divya; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Sykes, Sean; Schwartz, David C.; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Wapinski, Ilan; Yoder, Olen; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Zhou, Shiguo; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Kistler, H. Corby; Rep, Martijn

2010-03-18

15

The genome of the generalist plant pathogen Fusarium avenaceum is enriched with genes involved in redox, signaling and secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

Fusarium avenaceum is a fungus commonly isolated from soil and associated with a wide range of host plants. We present here three genome sequences of F. avenaceum, one isolated from barley in Finland and two from spring and winter wheat in Canada. The sizes of the three genomes range from 41.6-43.1 MB, with 13217-13445 predicted protein-coding genes. Whole-genome analysis showed that the three genomes are highly syntenic, and share>95% gene orthologs. Comparative analysis to other sequenced Fusaria shows that F. avenaceum has a very large potential for producing secondary metabolites, with between 75 and 80 key enzymes belonging to the polyketide, non-ribosomal peptide, terpene, alkaloid and indole-diterpene synthase classes. In addition to known metabolites from F. avenaceum, fuscofusarin and JM-47 were detected for the first time in this species. Many protein families are expanded in F. avenaceum, such as transcription factors, and proteins involved in redox reactions and signal transduction, suggesting evolutionary adaptation to a diverse and cosmopolitan ecology. We found that 20% of all predicted proteins were considered to be secreted, supporting a life in the extracellular space during interaction with plant hosts. PMID:25409087

Lysře, Erik; Harris, Linda J; Walkowiak, Sean; Subramaniam, Rajagopal; Divon, Hege H; Riiser, Even S; Llorens, Carlos; Gabaldón, Toni; Kistler, H Corby; Jonkers, Wilfried; Kolseth, Anna-Karin; Nielsen, Kristian F; Thrane, Ulf; Frandsen, Rasmus J N

2014-01-01

16

A Network Approach to Predict Pathogenic Genes for Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium graminearum is the pathogenic agent of Fusarium head blight (FHB), which is a destructive disease on wheat and barley, thereby causing huge economic loss and health problems to human by contaminating foods. Identifying pathogenic genes can shed light on pathogenesis underlying the interaction between F. graminearum and its plant host. However, it is difficult to detect pathogenic genes for this destructive pathogen by time-consuming and expensive molecular biological experiments in lab. On the other hand, computational methods provide an alternative way to solve this problem. Since pathogenesis is a complicated procedure that involves complex regulations and interactions, the molecular interaction network of F. graminearum can give clues to potential pathogenic genes. Furthermore, the gene expression data of F. graminearum before and after its invasion into plant host can also provide useful information. In this paper, a novel systems biology approach is presented to predict pathogenic genes of F. graminearum based on molecular interaction network and gene expression data. With a small number of known pathogenic genes as seed genes, a subnetwork that consists of potential pathogenic genes is identified from the protein-protein interaction network (PPIN) of F. graminearum, where the genes in the subnetwork are further required to be differentially expressed before and after the invasion of the pathogenic fungus. Therefore, the candidate genes in the subnetwork are expected to be involved in the same biological processes as seed genes, which imply that they are potential pathogenic genes. The prediction results show that most of the pathogenic genes of F. graminearum are enriched in two important signal transduction pathways, including G protein coupled receptor pathway and MAPK signaling pathway, which are known related to pathogenesis in other fungi. In addition, several pathogenic genes predicted by our method are verified in other pathogenic fungi, which demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results presented in this paper not only can provide guidelines for future experimental verification, but also shed light on the pathogenesis of the destructive fungus F. graminearum. PMID:20957229

Liu, Xiaoping; Tang, Wei-Hua; Zhao, Xing-Ming; Chen, Luonan

2010-01-01

17

A Two-locus DNA Sequence Database for Typing Plant and Human Pathogens Within the Fusarium oxysporum Species Complex  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We constructed a two-locus database, comprising partial translation elongation factor (EF-1alpha) gene sequences and nearly full-length sequences of the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region (IGS rDNA) for 850 isolates spanning the phylogenetic breadth of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex ...

18

Multilocus phylogenetic diversity of Fusarium avenaceum pathogenic on lisianthus.  

PubMed

Fusarium avenaceum is a globally distributed fungus commonly isolated from soil and a wide range of plants. Severe outbreaks of crown and stem rot of the flowering ornamental, lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), have been attributed to F. avenaceum. We sequenced portions of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef) and beta-tubulin (benA) protein coding genes as well as partial intergenic spacer (IGS) regions of the nuclear ribosomal genes in 37 Fusarium isolates obtained from lisianthus and other host plants. Isolates that were previously identified morphologically as F. acuminatum were included as an outgroup. Phylogenetic analyses of tef, benA, and IGS sequences showed that F. avenaceum isolates were an exclusive group with strong bootstrap support and no significant incongruence among gene genealogies. Isolates from lisianthus were scattered within this clade and did not form distinct groups based on host species or locality. Pathogenicity tests of F. avenaceum isolates obtained from several other hosts showed an ability to cause disease on lisianthus, suggesting that F. avenaceum may be pathogenic on lisianthus regardless of its phylogenetic origin. These findings have management implications and suggest that any host that supports F. avenaceum may serve as a source of inoculum for lisianthus growers. PMID:19271989

Nalim, F A; Elmer, W H; McGovern, R J; Geiser, D M

2009-04-01

19

The Wor1-like protein Fgp1 regulates pathogenicity, toxin synthesis and reproduction in the phytopathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

WOR1 is a gene for a conserved fungal regulatory protein controlling the dimorphic switch and pathogenicity in Candida albicans and its ortholog in the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, called SGE1, is also required for pathogenicity and expression of plant effector proteins. F. graminearum, an imp...

20

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Moths that Vector a Plant Pathogen also Transport Endophytic Fungi Abstract Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths

Arnold, A. Elizabeth

21

The genome of the of the generalist plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium avenaceum is enriched with genes involved in redox, signaling and secondary metabolism  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium avenaceum is a fungus commonly isolated from soil and with a wide range of host plants. We present here three genome sequences of F. avenaceum, one isolated from barley in Finland and two from spring and winter wheat in Canada. The physical sizes of the three genomes range from 41.6-43.2 MB...

22

The Molecular Pathogenicity of Fusarium Keratitis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The pathogenic mechanisms of fungal infection during human keratomycosis were investigated in an ex vivo corneal model that used strains of Fusarium oxysporum differing in the production of a fungal transcription factor. Methods A pacC- loss-of-function mutant and a pacCc dominant-activating mutant were constructed from a wild-type isolate of F. oxysporum, and the three strains were characterized by in vitro growth kinetics. Twenty-seven human donor corneas maintained in tissue culture were superficially scarified and topically inoculated with the wild-type, the pacC- loss-of-function mutant, or the pacCc dominant-activating strain. Relative hyphal invasion into the stroma was compared histopathologically in corneal sections. Results F. oxysporum strains demonstrated comparable exponential growth rates in vitro. Wild-type F. oxysporum invaded into corneal tissue within one day and penetrated through the anterior stroma during the next 4 days. The pacC- loss-of-function mutant invaded explanted corneas significantly less than the wild-type on day 1 (P<0.0001) and on day 3 (P=0.0003). The pacCc dominant-activating strain adhered and penetrated explanted corneas similar to the wild-type strain. Conclusion The PacC pathway regulating the transcription of fungal genes allows fungal adaptation to the ocular surface and enables invasion of the injured cornea by F. oxysporum. PMID:20856109

Hua, Xia; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Di Pietro, Antonio; Wilhelmus, Kirk R.

2010-01-01

23

The Fusarium graminearum species complex comprises at least 16 phylogenetically distinct head blight pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. FHB outbreaks and epidemics of wheat and barley cause significant reduction in yields; these pathogens also frequently contaminate grain with deoxynivalenol or nivalenol trich...

24

Interactions between Fusarium verticillioides, Ustilago maydis, and Zea mays: an endophyte, a pathogen, and their shared plant host  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Highly diverse communities of microbial symbionts occupy eukaryotic organisms, including plants. While many well-studied symbionts may be characterized as either parasites or as mutualists, the prevalent but cryptic endophytic fungi are less easily qualified because they do not cause observable symp...

25

Entomogenous Fusarium species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium species are known for their abundance in nature and their diverse associations with both living and dead plants and animals. Among animals Fusarium is found primarily in relationship with insects. This literature review of the past 50 years includes both non-pathogenic and pathogenic relationships between Fusarium and insects. Special attention is given to the host range, particularly between plant-

Gertrud H. Teetor-Barsch; Donald W. Roberts

1983-01-01

26

Cross Pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. betae on Sugar Beet and Common Bean  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt, also known as Fusarium yellows, is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. Fusarium oxysporum is a vascular pathogen with a broad host range including common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) with formae speciales (f. sp.) defined by the ability to cause ...

27

Fusarium pathogenomics.  

PubMed

Fusarium is a genus of filamentous fungi that contains many agronomically important plant pathogens, mycotoxin producers, and opportunistic human pathogens. Comparative analyses have revealed that the Fusarium genome is compartmentalized into regions responsible for primary metabolism and reproduction (core genome), and pathogen virulence, host specialization, and possibly other functions (adaptive genome). Genes involved in virulence and host specialization are located on pathogenicity chromosomes within strains pathogenic to tomato (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici) and pea (Fusarium 'solani' f. sp. pisi). The experimental transfer of pathogenicity chromosomes from F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici into a nonpathogen transformed the latter into a tomato pathogen. Thus, horizontal transfer may explain the polyphyletic origins of host specificity within the genus. Additional genome-scale comparative and functional studies are needed to elucidate the evolution and diversity of pathogenicity mechanisms, which may help inform novel disease management strategies against fusarial pathogens. PMID:24024636

Ma, Li-Jun; Geiser, David M; Proctor, Robert H; Rooney, Alejandro P; O'Donnell, Kerry; Trail, Frances; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2013-01-01

28

Expression in cereal plants of genes that inactivate Fusarium mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Trichothecene 3-O-acetyltransferase (encoded by Tri101) inactivates the virulence factor of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. Zearalenone hydrolase (encoded by zhd101) detoxifies the oestrogenic mycotoxin produced by the same pathogen. These genes were introduced into a model monocotyledon rice plant to evaluate their usefulness for decontamination of mycotoxins. The strong and constitutive rice Act1 promoter did not cause accumulation of TRI101 protein in transgenic rice plants. In contrast, the same promoter was suitable for transgenic production of ZHD101 protein; so far, five promising T0 plants have been generated. Low transgenic expression of Tri101 was suggested to be increased by addition of an omega enhancer sequence upstream of the start codon. PMID:12784641

Higa, Arisa; Kimura, Makoto; Mimori, Kouhei; Ochiai-Fukuda, Tetsuko; Tokai, Takeshi; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Nishiuchi, Takumi; Igawa, Tomoko; Fujimura, Makoto; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Usami, Ron; Yamaguchi, Isamu

2003-04-01

29

Effects of European and U.S. Strains of Fusarium spp. Pathogenic to Leafy Spurge on North American Grasses and Cultivated Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Host-range tests were conducted in a greenhouse using 9 European and 11 U.S. strains of Fusarium spp. pathogenic to Euphorbia spp. Plants of 12 grass species native to the rangelands of North America were raised from seed, planted in soil infested with each strain, and assessed for dry weight after 24 weeks. Five of 11 U.S. strains of Fusarium spp.

A. J Caesar; G Campobasso; G Terragitti

1999-01-01

30

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long-Distance Transport Model for Plant Pathogens:1  

E-print Network

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long to view linked References #12;Prussin et. al. 2 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Fusarium graminearum Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Keywords: Atmospheric transport, Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Fusarium head

Ross, Shane

31

Widespread occurrence of diverse human pathogenic types of the fungus Fusarium detected in plumbing drains  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates, and comparing...

32

Influence of Climatic Factors on Fusarium Species Pathogenic to Cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of small-grain cereals, ear rot of maize, seedling blight and foot rot of cereals are important diseases throughout the world. Fusarium graminearum, F. culmorum, F. poae, F. avenaceum and Microdochium nivale (formerly known as F. nivale) predominantly cause Fusarium diseases of small-grain cereals. Maize is predominantly attacked by F. graminearum, F. moniliforme, F. proliferatum and F. subglutinans.

F. M. Doohan; J. Brennan; B. M. Cooke

2003-01-01

33

THE PATHOGENICITY AND DNA POLYMORPHISM OF FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM ORIGINATING FROM DIANTHUS CARYOPHYLLUS, GYPSOPHILA SPP. AND SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of Fusarium oxysporum pathogenic isolates originating from Dianthus caryophyllus, Gypsophila paniculata, G. repens and non-pathogenic strains obtained from soil was screened for pathogenicity and genetic variation. RAPD analysis con- ducted with arbitrary 10-mer primers gave 23 RAPD markers resulted from the DNA polymorphism. Clustering analysis based on RAPD fingerprint data revealed several distinct groups within F. oxysporum which

M. Werner; L. Irzykowska

34

Tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of a fusion protein containing a Fusarium-specific antibody and a fungal chitinase protects wheat against Fusarium pathogens and mycotoxins.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) in wheat and other small grain cereals is a globally devastating disease caused by toxigenic Fusarium pathogens. Controlling FHB is a challenge because germplasm that is naturally resistant against these pathogens is inadequate. Current control measures rely on fungicides. Here, an antibody fusion comprised of the Fusarium spp.-specific recombinant antibody gene CWP2 derived from chicken, and the endochitinase gene Ech42 from the biocontrol fungus Trichoderma atroviride was introduced into the elite wheat cultivar Zhengmai9023 by particle bombardment. Expression of this fusion gene was regulated by the lemma/palea-specific promoter Lem2 derived from barley; its expression was confirmed as lemma/palea-specific in transgenic wheat. Single-floret inoculation of independent transgenic wheat lines of the T3 to T6 generations revealed significant resistance (type II) to fungal spreading, and natural infection assays in the field showed significant resistance (type I) to initial infection. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed marked reduction of mycotoxins in the grains of the transgenic wheat lines. Progenies of crosses between the transgenic lines and the FHB-susceptible cultivar Huamai13 also showed significantly enhanced FHB resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the tissue-specific expression of the antibody fusion was induced by salicylic acid drenching and induced to a greater extent by F. graminearum infection. Histochemical analysis showed substantial restriction of mycelial growth in the lemma tissues of the transgenic plants. Thus, the combined tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of this Fusarium-specific antibody fusion can effectively protect wheat against Fusarium pathogens and reduce mycotoxin content in grain. PMID:25418882

Cheng, Wei; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Du, Hong-Jie; Wei, Qi-Yong; Huang, Tao; Yang, Peng; Kong, Xian-Wei; Liao, Yu-Cai

2014-11-21

35

Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.  

PubMed

Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications. PMID:23889215

Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

2013-12-01

36

MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM SOLANI SPECIES COMPLEX CAUSING INFECTIONS IN BOTH HUMANS AND PLANTS ARE THOSE MOST COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED IN THE ENVIRONMENT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Members of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) are increasingly implicated as the causative agents of human mycoses, particularly in the expanding immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patient populations. Best known as ubiquitous plant pathogens and saprotrophs, members of FSSC comprise ov...

37

The Fusarium Graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization  

SciTech Connect

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain of F. graminearum contained more than 10,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms, which were frequently located near telomeres and within other discrete chromosomal segments. Many highly polymorphic regions contained sets of genes implicated in plant-fungus interactions and were unusually divergent, with higher rates of recombination. These regions of genome innovation may result from selection due to interactions of F. graminearum with its plant hosts.

Cuomo, Christina A.; Guldener, Ulrich; Xu, Jin Rong; Trail, Frances; Turgeon, Barbara G.; Di Pietro, Antonio; Walton, Johnathan D.; Ma, Li Jun; Baker, Scott E.; Rep, Martijn; Adam, Gerhard; Antoniw, John; Baldwin, Thomas; Calvo, Sarah; Chang, Yueh Long; DeCaprio, David; Gale, Liane R.; Gnerre, Sante; Goswami, Rubella S.; Hammond-Kossack, Kim; Harris, Linda J.; Hilburn, Karen; Kennell, John C.; Kroken, Scott; Magnuson, Jon K.; Mannhaupt, Gertrud; Mauceli, Evan; Mewes, Hans Werner; Mitterbauer, Rudolf; Muehlbauer, Gary; Munsterkotter, Martin; Nelson, David; O'Donnell, Kerry; Ouellet, Therese; Qi, Weihong; Quesneville, Hadi; Roncero, M. Isabel; Seong, Kye Yong; Tetko, Igor V.; Urban, Martin; Waalwijk, Cees; Ward, Todd J.; Yao, Jiqiang; Birren, Bruce W.; Kistler, H. Corby

2007-09-07

38

Systematics, phylogeny and trichothecene mycotoxin potential of fusarium head blight cereal pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight(FHB)or scab of cereals is one of the most economically devastating plant diseases in the world today. Prior to 2000, the primary etiological agent of FHB was thought to comprise a single panmictic species,Fusarium graminearum. However, a series of studies we conducted over the p...

39

Identification of the Infection Route of a Fusarium Seed Pathogen into Nondormant Bromus tectorum Seeds.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The genus Fusarium has a wide host range and causes many different forms of plant disease. These include seed rot and seedling blight diseases of cultivated plants. The diseases caused by Fusarium on wild plants are less well-known. In this study, we examined disease development caused by Fusarium sp. n on nondormant seeds of the important rangeland weed Bromus tectorum as part of broader studies of the phenomenon of stand failure or "die-off" in this annual grass. We previously isolated an undescribed species in the F. tricinctum species complex from die-off soils and showed that it is pathogenic on seeds. It can cause high mortality of nondormant B. tectorum seeds, especially under conditions of water stress, but rarely attacks dormant seeds. In this study, we used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to investigate the mode of attack used by this pathogen. Nondormant B. tectorum seeds (i.e., florets containing caryopses) were inoculated with isolate Skull C1 macroconidia. Seeds were then exposed to water stress conditions (-1.5 MPa) for 7 days and then transferred to free water. Time lapse SEM photographs of healthy versus infected seeds revealed that hyphae under water stress conditions grew toward and culminated their attack at the abscission layer of the floret attachment scar. A prominent infection cushion, apparent macroscopically as a white tuft of mycelium at the radicle end of the seed, developed within 48 h after inoculation. Seeds that lacked an infection cushion completed germination upon transfer to free water, whereas seeds with an infection cushion were almost always killed. In addition, hyphae on seeds that did not initiate germination lacked directional growth and did not develop the infection cushion. This strongly suggests that the fungal attack is triggered by seed exudates released through the floret attachment scar at the initiation of germination. Images of cross sections of infected seeds showed that the fungal hyphae first penetrated the caryposis wall, then entered the embryo, and later ramified throughout the endosperm, completely destroying the seed. PMID:25389704

Franke, JanaLynn; Geary, Brad; Meyer, Susan E

2014-12-01

40

Transgenic expression of polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins in Arabidopsis and wheat increases resistance to the flower pathogen Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide, resulting in yield losses and mycotoxin contamination. The molecular mechanisms regulating Fusarium penetration and infection are poorly understood. Beside mycotoxin production, cell wall degradation may play a role in the development of FHB. Many fungal pathogens secrete polygalacturonases (PGs) during the early stages of infection, and plants have evolved polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) to restrict pectin degradation during fungal infection. To investigate the role of plant PGIPs in restricting the development of FHB symptoms, we first used Arabidopsis thaliana, whose genome encodes two PGIPs (AtPGIP1 and AtPGIP2). Arabidopsis transgenic plants expressing either of these PGIPs under control of the CaMV 35S promoter accumulate inhibitory activity against F. graminearum PG in their inflorescences, and show increased resistance to FHB. Second, transgenic wheat plants expressing the bean PvPGIP2 in their flowers also had a significant reduction of symptoms when infected with F. graminearum. Our data suggest that PGs likely play a role in F. graminearum infection of floral tissues, and that PGIPs incorporated into wheat may be important for increased resistance to FHB. PMID:21974721

Ferrari, S; Sella, L; Janni, M; De Lorenzo, G; Favaron, F; D'Ovidio, R

2012-03-01

41

Microbiological and SYBR green real-time PCR detection of major Fusarium head blight pathogens on wheat ears.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by several Fusarium species is one of the most serious diseases affecting wheat throughout the world. The efficiency of microbiological assays and real-time PCRto quantify major FHB pathogens in wheat ears after inoculation with F. graminearum, F. culmorum, F. avenaceum and F. poae undergreenhouse and field conditions were evaluated. The frequency of infected kernel, content of fungal biomass, disease severity and kernel weight were determined. To measure the fungal biomass an improved DNA extraction method and a SYBR Green real-time PCR were developed. The SYBR Green real-time PCR proved to be highly specific for individual detection of the species in a matrix including fungal and plant DNA. The effect of Fusarium infection on visible FHB severity, frequency of infected kernels and thousand-kernel mass (TKM) significantly depended on the Fusarium species/isolate. F. graminearum resulted in highest disease level, frequency of infected kernels, content of fungal biomass, and TKM reduction followed by F. culmorum, EF avenaceum and F. poae, respectively. The comparison of frequency and intensity of kernel colonization proved differences in aggressiveness and development of the fungi in the kernels. Only for F. graminearum, the most aggressive isolate, application of microbiological and real-time PCR assays gave similar results. For the other species, the intensity of kernel colonization was lower than expected from the frequency of infection. PMID:21090507

Moradi, M; Oerke, E C; Steiner, U; Tesfaye, D; Schellander, K; Dehne, H-W

2010-01-01

42

The Fusarium graminearum Genome Reveals a Link Between Localized Polymorphism and Pathogen Specialization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sequenced and annotated the genome of the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum, a major pathogen of cultivated cereals. Very few repetitive sequences were detected, and the process of repeat-induced point mutation, in which duplicated sequences are subject to extensive mutation, may partially account for the reduced repeat content and apparent low number of paralogous (ancestrally duplicated) genes. A second strain

Christina A. Cuomo; Ulrich Güldener; Jin-Rong Xu; Frances Trail; B. Gillian Turgeon; Antonio Di Pietro; Jonathan D. Walton; Li-Jun Ma; Scott E. Baker; Martijn Rep; Gerhard Adam; John Antoniw; Thomas Baldwin; Sarah Calvo; Yueh-Long Chang; David DeCaprio; Liane R. Gale; Sante Gnerre; Rubella S. Goswami; Kim Hammond-Kosack; Linda J. Harris; Karen Hilburn; John C. Kennell; Scott Kroken; Jon K. Magnuson; Gertrud Mannhaupt; Evan Mauceli; Hans-Werner Mewes; Rudolf Mitterbauer; Gary Muehlbauer; Martin Münsterkötter; David Nelson; Kerry O'Donnell; Thérčse Ouellet; Weihong Qi; Hadi Quesneville; M. Isabel G. Roncero; Kye-Yong Seong; Igor V. Tetko; Martin Urban; Cees Waalwijk; Todd J. Ward; Jiqiang Yao; Bruce W. Birren; H. Corby Kistler

2007-01-01

43

Sexual reproduction in the soybean sudden death syndrome pathogen Fusarium tucumaniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The symptoms of soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) include leaf chlorosis and necrosis, root rot, defoliation and death. Four members of the Fusarium solani species complex are known to cause these symptoms on soybean. Thus far, three of these pathogens have only been found in South America (i.e....

44

The pathogenicities of Cylindrocarpon tonkinense and Fusarium solani in the rabbit cornea  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pathogenicity of Cylindrocarpon tonkinense in the cornea was evaluated and compared with that of Fusarium solani in rabbits. F. solani was inoculated into the right eyes of 14 rabbits and C. tonkinense was into the left eyes of same rabbits. The corneal lesions of both eyes were examined carefully by slit lamp every day for three weeks and the

Yasuhisa Ishibashi; Herbert E. Kaufman; Tadahiko Matsumoto; Saburo Kagawa

1986-01-01

45

BIOLOGICAL, PATHOGENIC, AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF FUSARIUM SOLANI F. SP. GLYCINES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS) is caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines (FSG). Over the last 5 years an internationsl collection of FSG isolates has been established and maintained at the National Soybean Pathogen Collection Center. FSG isolates grew slowly and appeared reddish light blue t...

46

The Fusarium graminearum genome reveals a link between localized polymorphism and pathogen specialization  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major destructive pathogen of cultivated cereals. We have sequenced and annotated the F. graminearum genome, and found it includes very few repetitive sequences. We experimentally demonstrate that repeats are mutated by the process of repeat-induced p...

47

Auxin signaling and transport promote susceptibility to the root-infecting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum is a root-infecting fungal pathogen that causes wilt disease on a broad range of plant species, including the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Currently, very little is known about the molecular or physiological processes that are activated in the host during infection and the roles these processes play in resistance and susceptibility to F. oxysporum. In this study, we analyzed global gene expression profiles of F. oxysporum-infected Arabidopsis plants. Genes involved in jasmonate biosynthesis as well as jasmonate-dependent defense were coordinately induced by F. oxysporum. Similarly, tryptophan pathway genes, including those involved in both indole-glucosinolate and auxin biosynthesis, were upregulated in both the leaves and the roots of inoculated plants. Analysis of plants expressing the DR5:GUS construct suggested that root auxin homeostasis was altered during F. oxysporum infection. However, Arabidopsis mutants with altered auxin and tryptophan-derived metabolites such as indole-glucosinolates and camalexin did not show an altered resistance to this pathogen. In contrast, several auxin-signaling mutants were more resistant to F. oxysporum. Chemical or genetic alteration of polar auxin transport also conferred increased pathogen resistance. Our results suggest that, similarly to many other pathogenic and nonpathogenic or beneficial soil organisms, F. oxysporum requires components of auxin signaling and transport to colonize the plant more effectively. Potential mechanisms of auxin signaling and transport-mediated F. oxysporum susceptibility are discussed. PMID:21281113

Kidd, Brendan N; Kadoo, Narendra Y; Dombrecht, Bruno; Tekeoglu, Mücella; Gardiner, Donald M; Thatcher, Louise F; Aitken, Elizabeth A B; Schenk, Peer M; Manners, John M; Kazan, Kemal

2011-06-01

48

Widespread Occurrence of Diverse Human Pathogenic Types of the Fungus Fusarium Detected in Plumbing Drains ? †  

PubMed Central

It has been proposed that plumbing systems might serve as a significant environmental reservoir of human-pathogenic isolates of Fusarium. We tested this hypothesis by performing the first extensive multilocus sequence typing (MLST) survey of plumbing drain-associated Fusarium isolates and comparing the diversity observed to the known diversity of clinical Fusarium isolates. We sampled 471 drains, mostly in bathroom sinks, from 131 buildings in the United States using a swabbing method. We found that 66% of sinks and 80% of buildings surveyed yielded at least one Fusarium culture. A total of 297 isolates of Fusarium collected were subjected to MLST to identify the phylogenetic species and sequence types (STs) of these isolates. Our survey revealed that the six most common STs in sinks were identical to the six most frequently associated with human infections. We speculate that the most prevalent STs, by virtue of their ability to form and grow in biofilms, are well adapted to plumbing systems. Six major Fusarium STs were frequently isolated from plumbing drains within a broad geographic area and were identical to STs frequently associated with human infections. PMID:21976755

Short, Dylan P. G.; O'Donnell, Kerry; Zhang, Ning; Juba, Jean H.; Geiser, David M.

2011-01-01

49

Expression of rice thaumatin-like protein gene in transgenic banana plants enhances resistance to fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants. PMID:22183565

Mahdavi, F; Sariah, M; Maziah, M

2012-02-01

50

Development of a Selective Medium for the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum Using Toxoflavin Produced by the Bacterial Pathogen Burkholderia glumae  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungus Fusarium graminearum is a major causal agent for Fusarium head blight in cereals and produces mycotoxins such as trichothecenes and zearalenone. Isolation of the fungal strains from air or cereals can be hampered by various other airborne fungal pathogens and saprophytic fungi. In this study, we developed a selective medium specific to F. graminearum using toxoflavin produced by the bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. F. graminearum was resistant to toxoflavin, while other fungi were sensitive to this toxin. Supplementing toxoflavin into medium enhanced the isolation of F. graminearum from rice grains by suppressing the growth of saprophytic fungal species. In addition, a medium with or without toxoflavin exposed to wheat fields for 1 h had 84% or 25%, respectively, of colonies identified as F. graminearum. This selection medium provides an efficient tool for isolating F. graminearum, and can be adopted by research groups working on genetics and disease forecasting. PMID:25288974

Jung, Boknam; Lee, Sehee; Ha, Jiran; Park, Jong-Chul; Han, Sung-Sook; Hwang, Ingyu; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

51

Adaptive Potential of Maritime Pine (Pinus pinaster) Populations to the Emerging Pitch Canker Pathogen, Fusarium circinatum  

PubMed Central

There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3–7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43–0.58 and 0.51–0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

2014-01-01

52

Adaptive potential of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster) populations to the emerging pitch canker pathogen, Fusarium circinatum.  

PubMed

There is a concern on how emerging pests and diseases will affect the distribution range and adaptability of their host species, especially due to different conditions derived from climate change and growing globalization. Fusarium circinatum, which causes pitch canker disease in Pinus species, is an exotic pathogen of recent introduction in Spain that threatens its maritime pine (P. pinaster) stands. To predict the impact this disease will have on the species, we examine host resistance traits and their genetic architecture. Resistance phenotyping was done in a clonal provenance/progeny trial, using three-year-old cuttings artificially inoculated with the pathogen and maintained under controlled environmental conditions. A total number of 670 ramets were assessed, distributed in 10 populations, with a total of 47 families, 2 to 5 half-sibs per family, and 3-7 ramets per clone. High genetic variation was found at the three hierarchical levels studied: population, family and clone, being both additive and non-additive effects important. Narrow-sense and broad-sense heritability estimates were relatively high, with respective values of 0.43-0.58 and 0.51-0.8, depending on the resistance traits measured (lesion length, lesion length rate, time to wilting, and survival). These values suggest the species' high capacity of evolutionary response to the F. circinatum pathogen. A population originated in Northern Spain was the most resistant, while another from Morocco was the most susceptible. The total number of plants that did not show lesion development or presented a small lesion (length<30 mm) was 224 out of 670, indicating a high proportion of resistant trees in the offspring within the analyzed populations. We found large differences among populations and considerable genetic variation within populations, which should allow, through natural or artificial selection, the successful adaptation of maritime pine to pitch canker disease. PMID:25500822

Elvira-Recuenco, Margarita; Iturritxa, Eugenia; Majada, Juan; Alia, Ricardo; Raposo, Rosa

2014-01-01

53

Fungal microbiota from rain water and pathogenicity of Fusarium species isolated from atmospheric dust and rainfall dust.  

PubMed

In order to determine the presence of Fusarium spp. in atmospheric dust and rainfall dust, samples were collected during September 2007, and July, August, and October 2008. The results reveal the prevalence of airborne Fusarium species coming from the atmosphere of the South East coast of Spain. Five different Fusarium species were isolated from the settling dust: Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. equiseti, F. dimerum, and F. proliferatum. Moreover, rainwater samples were obtained during significant rainfall events in January and February 2009. Using the dilution-plate method, 12 fungal genera were identified from these rainwater samples. Specific analyses of the rainwater revealed the presence of three species of Fusarium: F. oxysporum, F. proliferatum and F. equiseti. A total of 57 isolates of Fusarium spp. obtained from both rainwater and atmospheric rainfall dust sampling were inoculated onto melon (Cucumis melo L.) cv. Pińonet and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. San Pedro. These species were chosen because they are the main herbaceous crops in Almeria province. The results presented in this work indicate strongly that spores or propagules of Fusarium are able to cross the continental barrier carried by winds from the Sahara (Africa) to crop or coastal lands in Europe. Results show differences in the pathogenicity of the isolates tested. Both hosts showed root rot when inoculated with different species of Fusarium, although fresh weight measurements did not bring any information about the pathogenicity. The findings presented above are strong indications that long-distance transmission of Fusarium propagules may occur. Diseases caused by species of Fusarium are common in these areas. They were in the past, and are still today, a problem for greenhouses crops in Almería, and many species have been listed as pathogens on agricultural crops in this region. Saharan air masses dominate the Mediterranean regions. The evidence of long distance dispersal of Fusarium spp. by atmospheric dust and rainwater together with their proved pathogenicity must be taken into account in epidemiological studies. PMID:20820862

Palmero, D; Rodríguez, J M; de Cara, M; Camacho, F; Iglesias, C; Tello, J C

2011-01-01

54

Specific PCR-based marker for detection of pathogenic groups of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum pathogenic groups, a specific PCR-based marker was developed. Specific random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers which identified in four pathogenic groups I, II, III, and IV were cloned into PGem-Teasy vector. Cloned fragments were sequenced, and used for developing sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR) primers for detection of pathogenic groups. F.

Mousa Najafiniya; Pratibha Sharma

2011-01-01

55

Moths that vector a plant pathogen also transport endophytic fungi and mycoparasitic antagonists.  

PubMed

Claviceps paspali, a common fungal pathogen of Paspalum grasses, attracts moth vectors by producing sugary exudates in the grass florets it infects. These exudates also support mycoparasitic Fusarium species that may negatively influence C. paspali fitness. We examined the potential for moths on which C. paspali depends to also transmit mycoparasitic Fusarium and fungal endophytes, which inhabit asymptomatic plant tissue and may influence host susceptibility to pathogens. We quantified infections by C. paspali, Fusarium spp., and endophytic fungi associated with Paspalum spp. at focal sites in the southeastern USA and used data from the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (ITS rDNA) to compare communities of plant-associated and moth-borne fungi. ITS sequences of moth-borne fungi were identical to reference sequences of mycoparasitic Fusarium heterosporum and to three distinct endophytic fungi isolated from Paspalum species. Our results demonstrate an unexpected overlap of fungal communities between disparate locations and among plant species and plant tissues, and suggest an unexpected role of moths, which vector a plant pathogen, to transmit other guilds of fungi. In turn, the potential for insects to transmit plant pathogens as well as mycoparasites and endophytic fungi suggests complex interactions underlying a commonly observed grass-pathogen system. PMID:18491176

Feldman, Tracy S; O'Brien, Heath E; Arnold, A Elizabeth

2008-11-01

56

The rhizosphere microbial community in a multiple parallel mineralization system suppresses the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum  

PubMed Central

The rhizosphere microbial community in a hydroponics system with multiple parallel mineralization (MPM) can potentially suppress root-borne diseases. This study focused on revealing the biological nature of the suppression against Fusarium wilt disease, which is caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum, and describing the factors that may influence the fungal pathogen in the MPM system. We demonstrated that the rhizosphere microbiota that developed in the MPM system could suppress Fusarium wilt disease under in vitro and greenhouse conditions. The microbiological characteristics of the MPM system were able to control the population dynamics of F. oxysporum, but did not eradicate the fungal pathogen. The roles of the microbiological agents underlying the disease suppression and the magnitude of the disease suppression in the MPM system appear to depend on the microbial density. F. oxysporum that survived in the MPM system formed chlamydospores when exposed to the rhizosphere microbiota. These results suggest that the microbiota suppresses proliferation of F. oxysporum by controlling the pathogen's morphogenesis and by developing an ecosystem that permits coexistence with F. oxysporum. PMID:24311557

Fujiwara, Kazuki; Iida, Yuichiro; Iwai, Takashi; Aoyama, Chihiro; Inukai, Ryuya; Ando, Akinori; Ogawa, Jun; Ohnishi, Jun; Terami, Fumihiro; Takano, Masao; Shinohara, Makoto

2013-01-01

57

Screening of endophytic bacteria against fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Bacterial endophytes were found from 6 plant leaves among 35 plant leaves screened. Two of the isolated bacteria showed antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. An isolate named KL1 showed the clear inihibition against plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, on PDA as well as TSA plate. Supernatant of the bacterial culture also showed the clear inhibition against the fungal growth on the plate and the antibiotic substance was identified as iturin A by HPLC analysis. KL1 was identified as Bacillus sp. from the 16S rRNA gene analysis. Very thin hyphae of R. solani was miccroscopically observed when the fungus was co-cultivated with KL1. PMID:25078813

Ohike, Tatsuya; Makuni, Kohei; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

2013-12-01

58

Mycotoxins biosynthesized by plant-derived Fusarium isolates.  

PubMed

There is little information on secondary metabolites produced by Fusaria infecting crop plants other than cereals. Many members of Fusarium genus have the ability to colonise perennial crops with only scarce infection or disease symptoms or with no symptoms at all while still being detectable. Even in case of such asymptomatic infection, significant mycotoxin contamination of the plant tissues is possible. The aim of this study was to characterise the spectrum of Fusarium species isolates obtained from different plant hosts (like asparagus, garlic, pineapple, banana, rhubarb, peppers, rice, maize, wheat, and oncidium) and evaluate their ability to biosynthesize the most common mycotoxins in vitro. Among the F.proliferatum isolates, up to 57 % of them biosynthesized fumonisins at very high mass fractions, amounting to above 1000 ?g g(-1), while other Fusarium species such as F. verticillioides, F. lactis, F. polyphialydicum, F. concentricum, F. temperatum, and F. fujikuroi formed fumonisins mostly at much lower level. Only F. ananatum and F. oxysporum did not produce these toxins. Co-occurrence of FBs with other mycotoxins [moniliformin (MON) and beauvericin (BEA)] was often observed and it was mainly F. proliferatum species that formed both mycotoxins (0.4 ?g g(-1) to 41.1 ?g g(-1) BEA and 0.1 ?g g(-1) to 158.5 ?g g(-1) MON). PMID:23334038

Wa?kiewicz, Agnieszka; St?pie?, ?ukasz

2012-12-01

59

Response of plant growth to Collembola, arbuscular mycorrhizal and plant pathogenic fungi interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the effects of interactions among the springtail Protaphorura armata (Tulberg 1869) sensu Gisin 1952 (Collembola Onychiuridae), the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices Schenck et Smith, and the foot and root pathogenic fungus Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Sm.) Sacc. on the growth and health of durum wheat plants cv. Creso in modified Leonard plastic bot- tle-jars containing sterile soil added with

Gloria INNOCENTI; Sonia GANASSI; Matteo MONTANARI; Maria Barbara BRANZANTI; Maria Agnese SABATINI

60

Pathogenicity and mycotoxin production by Fusarium proliferatum isolated from onion and garlic in Serbia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium proliferatum can occur on a wide range of economically important vegetable plants but its role in disease is not always well established.\\u000a In 2000 and 2001, from forty-one field samples of wilting onion and garlic plants in Serbia, F. proliferatum as the predominant fungal species was isolated from root and bulbs. Seventy isolates were firstly characterized for their\\u000a sexual

S. Stankovic; J. Levic; T. Petrovic; A. Logrieco; A. Moretti

2007-01-01

61

Trichoderma asperellum Strain T34 Controls Fusarium Wilt Disease in Tomato Plants in Soilless Culture Through Competition for Iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness\\u000a of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000?µM provided as\\u000a EDTA\\/Fe(III)] in

Guillem Segarra; Eva Casanova; Manuel Avilés; Isabel Trillas

2010-01-01

62

Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection. PMID:20589070

González-Fernández, Raquel; Prats, Elena; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.

2010-01-01

63

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long-Distance Transport Model for Plant Pathogens:1  

E-print Network

Prussin et. al. 1 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Experimental Validation of a Long 18 19 20 21 22 23 #12;Prussin et. al. 2 Agricultural and Forest Meteorology Meteorology Keywords: Atmospheric transport, Plant Pathogenic Fungi, Fusarium head blight, Gaussian47

Ross, Shane

64

Identification and functional characterization of indole-3-acetamide-mediated IAA biosynthesis in plant-associated Fusarium species.  

PubMed

The plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) can be synthesized from tryptophan via the intermediate indole-3-acetamide (IAM). The two genes, IaaM (encoding tryptophan monooxygenase) and IaaH (encoding indole-3-acetamide hydrolase) that constitute the IAM pathway have been described in plant-associated bacteria. We have identified putative homologs of the bacterial IaaM and IaaH genes in four Fusarium species -Fusarium proliferatum, Fusarium verticillioides, Fusarium fujikuroi, and Fusarium oxysporum. In all four species the two genes are organized next to each other in a head to head orientation and are separated by a short non-coding region. However, the pathway is fully functional only in the orchid endophytic strain F. proliferatum ET1, which produces significant amounts of IAM and IAA. Minor amounts of IAM are produced by the corn pathogen F. verticillioides strain 149, while in the two other species, the rice pathogen F. fujikuroi strain m567 and the tomato pathogen F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain 42-87 the IAM pathway is inactive. Deletion of the entire gene locus in F. proliferatum ET1 resulted in drastic reduction of IAA production. Conversely, transgenic strains of F. fujikuroi over-expressing the F. proliferatum IAM genes produced elevated levels of both IAM and IAA. Analysis of the intergenic promoter region in F. proliferatum showed that transcriptional activation in direction of the IaaH gene is about 3-fold stronger than in direction of the IaaM gene. The regulation of the IAM genes and the limiting factors of IAA production via the IAM pathway are discussed. PMID:22079545

Tsavkelova, Elena; Oeser, Birgitt; Oren-Young, Liat; Israeli, Maayan; Sasson, Yehezkel; Tudzynski, Bettina; Sharon, Amir

2012-01-01

65

Detection of Fusarium wilt pathogens of Psidium guajava L. in soil using culture independent PCR (ciPCR).  

PubMed

Traditional culturing methods take a long time for identification of pathogenic isolates. A protocol has been developed for the detection of Fusarium from soil samples in the early stage of infection. Seventeen soil samples from different locations were collected before the onset of rains to find out the presence of Fusarium spp. population present in the soil of guava orchards and to correlate its presence with incidence of wilt. A PCR based method was developed for the molecular characterization of Fusarium using Fusarium spp. specific primer. DNA extracted by this method was free from protein and other contaminations and the yield was sufficient for PCR amplification. The primer developed in this study was amplifying ?230 bp in all infected samples while not in healthy soil. The specificity and sensitivity of primer were tested on several Fusarium spp. and found that this primer was amplifying 10(-6) dilution of the fungal DNA. The present study facilitates the rapid detection of Fusarium spp. from infected soil samples of guava collected from different agroclimatic regions in India. A rapid detection method for pathogens and a diagnostic assay for disease would facilitate an early detection of pathogen and lead to more effective control strategies. PMID:23961219

Mishra, Rupesh K; Pandey, Brajesh K; Muthukumar, M; Pathak, Neelam; Zeeshan, Mohammad

2013-01-01

66

The Endless Race Between Plant and Pathogen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article introduces a special issue on plant pathology, including new insights into the evolutionary forces driving plant-pathogen interactions, as well as the practical outcomes in terms of pathogen management.

Pamela Hines (AAAS;); Jean Marx (AAAS;)

2001-06-22

67

A case for re-inventory of Australia's plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Australia has efficient and visible plant quarantine measures, which through various border controls and survey activities attempt to prevent the entry of unwanted pests and diseases. The ability to successfully perform this task relies heavily on determining what pathogens are present and established in Australia as well as those pathogens that are exotic and threatening. There are detailed checklists and databases of fungal plant pathogens in Australia, compiled, in part, from surveys over many years sponsored by Federal and State programmes. These checklists and databases are mostly specimen-based, which enables validation of records with reference herbarium specimens and sometimes associated cultures. Most of the identifications have been based on morphological examination. The use of molecular methods, particularly the analysis of DNA sequence data, has recently shown that several well-known and important plant pathogenic species are actually complexes of cryptic species. We provide examples of this in the important plant pathogenic genera Botryosphaeria and its anamorphs, Colletotrichum, Fusarium, Phomopsis / Diaporthe and Mycosphaerella and its anamorphs. The discovery of these cryptic species indicates that many of the fungal names in checklists need scrutiny. It is difficult, and often impossible, to extract DNA for sequence analysis from herbarium specimens in order to validate identifications that may now be considered suspect. This validation can only be done if specimens are recollected, re-isolated and subjected to DNA analysis. Where possible, herbarium specimens as well as living cultures are needed to support records. Accurate knowledge of the plant pathogens within Australia's borders is an essential prerequisite for the effective discharge of plant quarantine activities that will prevent or delay the arrival of unwanted plant pathogens. PMID:21339966

Hyde, K D; Chomnunti, P; Crous, P W; Groenewald, J Z; Damm, U; Ko Ko, T W; Shivas, R G; Summerell, B A; Tan, Y P

2010-12-01

68

A Putative Transcription Factor pcs1 Positively Regulates Both Conidiation and Sexual Reproduction in the Cereal Pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

The plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes Fusarium head blight in cereal crops and produces mycotoxins that are harmful to animals and humans. For the initiation and spread of disease, asexual and sexual reproduction is required. Therefore, studies on fungal reproduction contribute to the development of new methods to control and maintain the fungal population. Screening a previously generated transcription factor mutant collection, we identified one putative C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor, pcs1, which is required for both sexual and asexual reproduction. Deleting pcs1 in F. graminearum resulted in a dramatic reduction in conidial production and a complete loss of sexual reproduction. The pathways and gene ontology of pcs1-dependent genes from microarray experiments showed that several G-protein related pathways, oxidase activity, ribosome biogenesis, and RNA binding and processing were highly enriched, suggesting that pcs1 is involved in several different biological processes. Further, overexpression of pcs1 increased conidial production and resulted in earlier maturation of ascospores compared to the wild-type strain. Additionally, the vegetative growth of the overexpression mutants was decreased in nutrient-rich conditions but was not different from the wild-type strain in nutrient-poor conditions. Overall, we discovered that the pcs1 transcription factor positively regulates both conidiation and sexual reproduction and confers nutrient condition-dependent vegetative growth. PMID:25289009

Jung, Boknam; Park, Jungwook; Son, Hokyoung; Lee, Yin-Won; Seo, Young-Su; Lee, Jungkwan

2014-01-01

69

Cyber-infrastructure for Fusarium (CiF): Three integrated platforms supporting strain identification, phylogenetics, comparative genomics, and knowledge sharing  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal genus Fusarium includes many plant and/or animal pathogenic species and produces diverse toxins. Although accurate identification is critical for managing such threats, it is difficult to identify Fusarium morphologically. Fortunately, extensive molecular phylogenetic studies, founded on ...

70

Shifts in banana root exudate profiles after colonization with the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162.  

PubMed

The non-pathogenic fungus Fusorium oxysporum strain Fo162 can efficiently colonize banana roots and reduce infecting by the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. It is assumed that the fungus triggers a systemic reaction in the plant, which is affecting the biochemical composition of the root exudates and is thus causing the reduction in nematode colonization. To characterize these shifts, a continuous flow experiment was set up to collect root metabolites on a matrix (XAD-4). Based on HPLC analysis, the extracts, collected from the XAD-4, showed no differences in the composition of the root exudates between plants colonized by the endophyte and the controls. However, the accumulation of several compounds differed significantly. When these extracts were used in a bioassay with Radopholus similis none of the sample-treatment combinations had a significant attracting or repelling effect on the nematodes. This experiment shows that non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 is able to upregulate the synthesis of at least some, so far unidentified compounds released by banana roots under hydroponic conditions. Further studies and optimization of the experimental setup are required to determine whether or not increase in metabolite concentration can affect nematode responses in vitro and ultimately in vivo. PMID:20222617

Kurtz, Andreas; Schouten, Alexander

2009-01-01

71

Interactions between rye (Secale cereale) root border cells (RBCs) and pathogenic and nonpathogenic rhizosphere strains of Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

Interactions of rye (Secale cereale) root border cells (RBCs), generated during plant growth and surrounding the root cap, with nonpathogenic rhizosphere Fusarium culmorum isolates: DEMFc2 (PGPF) and DEMFc5 (DRMO), and a pathogenic strain DEMFc37 were studied in test tube experiments. The effect of water-suspended RBCs released from the rye root cap on the rate of macroconidia germination and hyphae (mycelial) growth of F. culmorum strains was also examined. It was found that root caps of 3-d-old rye seedlings (with the root length of 20mm) were surrounded with a layer of RBCs generated in a number specific for this plant species of 1980+/-30. Introduction of the macroconidia of the tested F. culmorum strains into the root zone of 3-d-old seedlings resulted, after 3d of incubation, in the formation of mantle-like structures only in the rhizosphere of plants inoculated with the pathogenic DEMFc37 strain. The macroconidia were suspended in (1) water, (2) a water mixture with root caps deprived of RBCs, (3) Martin medium, (4) malt extract broth, and (5) a water mixture with rye RBCs, and their percentage germination was determined during 96-h incubation at 20 degrees C. Germination of the macroconidia of all the tested F. culmorum strains suspended in the rich growth media (Martin and malt extract broth) and in the mixture with RBCs was significantly speeded up. While only an average of 16.6 % of macroconidia suspended in water germinated after 96-h incubation, more than 90 % of those suspended in the growth media or in the mixture with RBCs germinated after 24h of incubation. In all the treatments, the highest rate of macroconidia germination was found in suspensions of the pathogenic strain and the lowest in macroconidial suspensions of the PGPF strain. The stimulatory effect of RBCs was not specific to the pathogenic strain. Nevertheless, microscopic observation revealed that it was only in the suspension containing a mixture of rye RBCs and macroconidia of the pathogenic strain that after 48-h incubation compact clusters of hyphae and RBCs, resembling mantle-like structures found in the root zone of plants inoculated only with the pathogenic strain but not inoculated with DRMO and PGPF strain, were formed. PMID:19591930

Jaroszuk-Scise?, Jolanta; Kurek, Ewa; Rodzik, Beata; Winiarczyk, Krystyna

2009-10-01

72

Signal perception in plant pathogen defense  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly sensitive and specific recognition systems for microbial pathogens are essential for disease resistance in plants. Structurally diverse elicitors from various pathogens have been identified and shown to trigger plant defense mechanisms. Elicitor recognition by the plant is assumed to be mediated by receptors. Plant receptors for fungus-derived elicitors appear to reside preferentially in the plasma membrane, whereas viral and

T. Nürnberger

1999-01-01

73

Assessing the pathogenic effect of Fusarium, Geosmithia and Ophiostoma fungi from broad-leaved trees.  

PubMed

Phytopathogenic effect of Geosmithia pallida, G. langdonii, Ophiostoma grandicarpum, O. querci, two isolates of O. piceae, and two isolates of Fusarium solani was compared using plant growth test (stem and root length of garden cress plants seeded on mycelium-covered potato carrot agar); Ophiostoma spp. and F. solani were isolated from oak, Geosmithia spp. from galleries of Scolytus intricatus on beech. All fungi inhibited more the root elongation than that of stems. F. solani led to plant collapse after briefly stimulating the growth of stem and in one case also root. G. langdonii inhibited stem and root growth to 20% and led to plant collapse. G. pallida inhibited root growth to 25% whereas stem growth was almost unimpaired. Ophiostoma spp. reduced stem growth to approximately 60-80% and root growth to 25-60%. O. piceae and O. querci caused plant collapse after 15-20 d. PMID:15954534

Cízková, D; Sr?tka, P; Kolarík, M; Kubátová, A; Pazoutová, S

2005-01-01

74

Biological efficiency of polyphenolic extracts from pecan nuts shell ( Carya Illinoensis), pomegranate husk ( Punica granatum) and creosote bush leaves ( Larrea tridentata Cov.) against plant pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioactive compounds extracted from plants or agro-industrial residues have great potential as novel fungicide sources for controlling pathogenic fungi. In this study antifungal activity of polyphenolic extracts from Larrea tridentata leaves, Carya illinoensis shells and Punica granatum husk were evaluated in vitro against eight different plant pathogenic fungi and ten isolates of Fusarium oxysporum. Phenolic solutions of gallic and ellagic

Eduardo Osorio; Mariano Flores; Daniel Hernández; Janeth Ventura; Raúl Rodríguez; Cristóbal N. Aguilar

2010-01-01

75

Phylogeny and pathogenicity of Fusarium oxysporum isolates from cottonseed imported from Australia into California for dairy cattle feed  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A unique biotype of the Fusarium wilt pathogen found in Australia in 1993 is favored by neutral or alkaline heavy soils and does not require nematodes to cause disease, making it a new threat to 4-6 million acres of USA Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). In 2001-2002, several shiploads of live ...

76

Distribution, Morphological Characterization and Pathogenicity of Fusarium sacchari Associated with Pokkah Boeng Disease of Sugarcane in Peninsular Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pokkah boeng disease on sugarcane has been recorded in almost all countries where sugarcane is grown commercially. The objectives of this study were to survey the distribution of Fusarium sacchari associated with pokkah boeng disease throughout Peninsular Malaysia, to isolate and identify the causal organisms by using morphological characteristics, and to ascertain the pathogenicity of F. sacchari based on Koch's

Siti Nordahliawate; Nur Ain Izzati

77

Evidence for a reversible drought induced shift in the species composition of mycotoxin producing Fusarium head blight pathogens isolated from symptomatic wheat heads.  

PubMed

Fusarium species are fungal plant pathogens producing toxic secondary metabolites such as deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15AcDON) and nivalenol (NIV). In Luxembourg, the Fusarium species composition isolated from symptomatic winter wheat heads was dominated by Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto strains (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) between the years 2009 and 2012, except for 2011, when Fusarium culmorum strains (genetic NIV chemotype) dominated the pathogen complex. Previous reports indicated that F. graminearum sensu stricto (genetic 15AcDON chemotype) was also most frequently isolated from randomly sampled winter wheat kernels including symptomatic as well as asymptomatic kernels in 2007 and 2008. The annual precipitation (average of 10 weather stations scattered across the country) decreased continuously from 924.31mm in 2007 over 917.15mm in 2008, to 843.38mm in 2009, 736.24mm in 2010, and 575.09mm in 2011. In 2012, the annual precipitation increased again to 854.70mm. Hardly any precipitation was recorded around the time of wheat anthesis in the years 2010 and 2011, whereas precipitation levels >50mm within the week preceding anthesis plus the week post anthesis were observed in the other years. The shift to genetic NIV chemotype F. culmorum strains in 2011 was accompanied by a very minor elevation of average NIV contents (2.9ngg(-1)) in the grain. Our data suggest that high NIV levels in Luxembourgish winter wheat are at present rather unlikely, because the indigenous F. culmorum strains with the genetic NIV chemotype seem to be outcompeted under humid in vivo conditions by F. graminearum DON producing strains on the one hand and seem to be inhibited - even though to a lower extent than DON producing strains - under dry in vivo conditions on the other hand. PMID:24859190

Beyer, Marco; Pogoda, Friederike; Pallez, Marine; Lazic, Joëlle; Hoffmann, Lucien; Pasquali, Matias

2014-07-16

78

Fusarium verticillioides chitin synthases CHS5 and CHS7 are required for normal growth and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is both an endophyte and a pathogen of maize and is a health threat in many areas of the world because it can contaminate maize with fumonisins, a toxic secondary metabolite. We identified eight putative chitin synthase (CHS) genes in F. verticillioides genomic sequence, and phylogenetic evidence shows that they group into seven established CHS gene classes. We targeted two CHSs (CHS5 and CHS7) for deletion analysis and found that both are required for normal hyphal growth and maximal disease of maize seedlings and ears. CHS5 and CHS7 encode a putative class V and class VII fungal chitin synthase, respectively; they are located adjacent to each other and are divergently transcribed. Fluorescent microscopy found that both CHS deficient strains produce balloon-shaped hyphae, while growth assays indicated that they were more sensitive to cell wall stressing compounds (e.g., the antifungal compound Nikkomycin Z) than wild type. Pathogenicity assays on maize seedlings and ears indicated that both strains were significantly reduced in their ability to cause disease. Our results demonstrate that both CHS5 and CHS7 are necessary for proper hyphal growth and pathogenicity of F. verticillioides on maize. PMID:21246198

Larson, Troy M; Kendra, David F; Busman, Mark; Brown, Daren W

2011-06-01

79

Characterization of the Maize Stalk Rot Pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum and the Effect of Fungicides on Their Mycelial Growth and Colony Formation.  

PubMed

Maize is a socioeconomically important crop in many countries. Recently, a high incidence of stalk rot disease has been reported in several maize fields in Gangwon province. In this report, we show that maize stalk rot is associated with the fungal pathogens Fusarium subglutinans and F. temperatum. Since no fungicides are available to control these pathogens on maize plants, we selected six fungicides (tebuconazole, difenoconazole, fluquinconazole, azoxystrobin, prochloraz and kresoxim-methyl) and examined their effectiveness against the two pathogens. The in vitro antifungal effects of the six fungicides on mycelial growth and colony formation were investigated. Based on the inhibition of mycelial growth, the most toxic fungicide was tebuconazole with 50% effective concentrations (EC50) of <0.1 ?g/ml and EC90 values of 0.9 ?g/ml for both pathogens, while the least toxic fungicide was azoxystrobin with EC50 values of 0.7 and 0.5 ?g/ml for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, and EC90 values of >3,000 ?g/ml for both pathogens. Based on the inhibition of colony formation by the two pathogens, kresoxim-methyl was the most toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.01 ?g/ml for F. subglutinans and F. temperatum, respectively, whereas azoxystrobin was the least toxic fungicide with complete inhibition of colony formation at concentrations >3,000 ?g/ml for both pathogens. PMID:25506304

Shin, Jong-Hwan; Han, Joon-Hee; Lee, Ju Kyong; Kim, Kyoung Su

2014-12-01

80

Variation in the Trichothecene Mycotoxin Biosynthetic Gene Cluster in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecene mycotoxins are produced by some plant pathogenic species of the fungus Fusarium and can contribute to its virulence on some plants. In Fusarium graminearum and F. sporotrichioides trichothecene biosynthetic enzymes are encoded at three loci: the single-gene TRI101 locus; the two-gene ...

81

LDS1-produced oxylipins are negative regulators of growth, conidiation and fumonisin synthesis in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Oxylipins are fatty acid-derived signaling compounds produced by all eukaryotes so far investigated; in mycotoxigenic fungi, they modulate toxin production and interactions with the host plants. Among the many enzymes responsible for oxylipin generation, Linoleate Diol Synthase 1 (LDS1) produces mainly 8-hydroperoxyoctadecenoic acid and subsequently different di-hydroxyoctadecenoic acids. In this study, we inactivated a copy of the putative LDS1 ortholog (acc. N. FVEG_09294.3) of Fusarium verticillioides, with the aim to investigate its influence on the oxylipin profile of the fungus, on its development, secondary metabolism and virulence. LC-MS/MS oxylipin profiling carried out on the selected mutant strain revealed significant quali-quantitative differences for several oxylipins when compared to the WT strain. The Fvlds1-deleted mutant grew better, produced more conidia, synthesized more fumonisins and infected maize cobs faster than the WT strain. We hypothesize that oxylipins may act as regulators of gene expression in the toxigenic plant pathogen F. verticillioides, in turn causing notable changes in its phenotype. These changes could relate to the ability of oxylipins to re-shape the transcriptional profile of F. verticillioides by inducing chromatin modifications and exerting a direct control on the transcription of secondary metabolism in fungi. PMID:25566199

Scala, Valeria; Giorni, Paola; Cirlini, Martina; Ludovici, Matteo; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca; Fabbri, Anna A.; Fanelli, Corrado; Reverberi, Massimo; Battilani, Paola; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

2014-01-01

82

LDS1-produced oxylipins are negative regulators of growth, conidiation and fumonisin synthesis in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Oxylipins are fatty acid-derived signaling compounds produced by all eukaryotes so far investigated; in mycotoxigenic fungi, they modulate toxin production and interactions with the host plants. Among the many enzymes responsible for oxylipin generation, Linoleate Diol Synthase 1 (LDS1) produces mainly 8-hydroperoxyoctadecenoic acid and subsequently different di-hydroxyoctadecenoic acids. In this study, we inactivated a copy of the putative LDS1 ortholog (acc. N. FVEG_09294.3) of Fusarium verticillioides, with the aim to investigate its influence on the oxylipin profile of the fungus, on its development, secondary metabolism and virulence. LC-MS/MS oxylipin profiling carried out on the selected mutant strain revealed significant quali-quantitative differences for several oxylipins when compared to the WT strain. The Fvlds1-deleted mutant grew better, produced more conidia, synthesized more fumonisins and infected maize cobs faster than the WT strain. We hypothesize that oxylipins may act as regulators of gene expression in the toxigenic plant pathogen F. verticillioides, in turn causing notable changes in its phenotype. These changes could relate to the ability of oxylipins to re-shape the transcriptional profile of F. verticillioides by inducing chromatin modifications and exerting a direct control on the transcription of secondary metabolism in fungi. PMID:25566199

Scala, Valeria; Giorni, Paola; Cirlini, Martina; Ludovici, Matteo; Visentin, Ivan; Cardinale, Francesca; Fabbri, Anna A; Fanelli, Corrado; Reverberi, Massimo; Battilani, Paola; Galaverna, Gianni; Dall'Asta, Chiara

2014-01-01

83

The Sfp-Type 4?-Phosphopantetheinyl Transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi Controls Development, Secondary Metabolism and Pathogenicity  

PubMed Central

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g. moniliformin. The key enzymes needed for their production belong to the family of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) that are generally known to be post-translationally modified by a Sfp-type 4?phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). In this study we provide evidence that the F. fujikuroi Sfp-type PPTase FfPpt1 is essentially involved in lysine biosynthesis and production of bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins, but not moniliformin as shown by analytical methods. Concomitantly, targeted Ffppt1 deletion mutants reveal an enhancement of terpene-derived metabolites like GAs and volatile substances such as ?-acorenol. Pathogenicity assays on rice roots using fluorescent labeled wild-type and Ffppt1 mutant strains indicate that lysine biosynthesis and iron acquisition but not PKS and NRPS metabolism is essential for establishment of primary infections of F. fujikuroi. Additionally, FfPpt1 is involved in conidiation and sexual mating recognition possibly by activating PKS- and/or NRPS-derived metabolites that could act as diffusible signals. Furthermore, the effect on iron acquisition of Ffppt1 mutants led us to identify a previously uncharacterized putative third reductive iron uptake system (FfFtr3/FfFet3) that is closely related to the FtrA/FetC system of A. fumigatus. Functional characterization provides evidence that both proteins are involved in iron acquisition and are liable to transcriptional repression of the homolog of the Aspergillus GATA-type transcription factor SreA under iron-replete conditions. Targeted deletion of the first Fusarium homolog of this GATA-type transcription factor-encoding gene, Ffsre1, strongly indicates its involvement in regulation of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance. PMID:22662164

Wiemann, Philipp; Albermann, Sabine; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Studt, Lena; von Bargen, Katharina W.; Brock, Nelson L.; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S.; Tudzynski, Bettina

2012-01-01

84

The Sfp-type 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase Ppt1 of Fusarium fujikuroi controls development, secondary metabolism and pathogenicity.  

PubMed

The heterothallic ascomycete Fusarium fujikuroi is a notorious rice pathogen causing super-elongation of plants due to the production of terpene-derived gibberellic acids (GAs) that function as natural plant hormones. Additionally, F. fujikuroi is able to produce a variety of polyketide- and non-ribosomal peptide-derived metabolites such as bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins as well as metabolites from yet unidentified biosynthetic pathways, e.g. moniliformin. The key enzymes needed for their production belong to the family of polyketide synthases (PKSs) and non-ribosomal peptide synthases (NRPSs) that are generally known to be post-translationally modified by a Sfp-type 4'phosphopantetheinyl transferase (PPTase). In this study we provide evidence that the F. fujikuroi Sfp-type PPTase FfPpt1 is essentially involved in lysine biosynthesis and production of bikaverins, fusarubins and fusarins, but not moniliformin as shown by analytical methods. Concomitantly, targeted Ffppt1 deletion mutants reveal an enhancement of terpene-derived metabolites like GAs and volatile substances such as ?-acorenol. Pathogenicity assays on rice roots using fluorescent labeled wild-type and Ffppt1 mutant strains indicate that lysine biosynthesis and iron acquisition but not PKS and NRPS metabolism is essential for establishment of primary infections of F. fujikuroi. Additionally, FfPpt1 is involved in conidiation and sexual mating recognition possibly by activating PKS- and/or NRPS-derived metabolites that could act as diffusible signals. Furthermore, the effect on iron acquisition of Ffppt1 mutants led us to identify a previously uncharacterized putative third reductive iron uptake system (FfFtr3/FfFet3) that is closely related to the FtrA/FetC system of A. fumigatus. Functional characterization provides evidence that both proteins are involved in iron acquisition and are liable to transcriptional repression of the homolog of the Aspergillus GATA-type transcription factor SreA under iron-replete conditions. Targeted deletion of the first Fusarium homolog of this GATA-type transcription factor-encoding gene, Ffsre1, strongly indicates its involvement in regulation of iron homeostasis and oxidative stress resistance. PMID:22662164

Wiemann, Philipp; Albermann, Sabine; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Studt, Lena; von Bargen, Katharina W; Brock, Nelson L; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Dickschat, Jeroen S; Tudzynski, Bettina

2012-01-01

85

Insight into mycoviruses infecting Fusarium species.  

PubMed

Most of the major fungal families including plant-pathogenic fungi, yeasts, and mushrooms are infected by mycoviruses, and many double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) mycoviruses have been recently identified from diverse plant-pathogenic Fusarium species. The frequency of occurrence of dsRNAs is high in Fusarium poae but low in other Fusarium species. Most Fusarium mycoviruses do not cause any morphological changes in the host but some mycoviruses like Fusarium graminearum virus 1 (FgV1) cause hypovirulence. Available genomic data for seven of the dsRNA mycoviruses infecting Fusarium species indicate that these mycoviruses exist as complexes of one to five dsRNAs. According to phylogenetic analysis, the Fusarium mycoviruses identified to date belong to four families: Chrysoviridae, Hypoviridae, Partitiviridae, and Totiviridae. Proteome and transcriptome analysis have revealed that FgV1 infection of Fusarium causes changes in host transcriptional and translational machineries. Successful transmission of FgV1 via protoplast fusion suggests the possibility that, as biological control agents, mycoviruses could be introduced into diverse species of fungal plant pathogens. Research is now needed on the molecular biology of mycovirus life cycles and mycovirus-host interactions. This research will be facilitated by the further development of omics technologies. PMID:23498910

Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yu, Jisuk; Son, Moonil; Kim, Kook-Hyung

2013-01-01

86

Incidence of Fusarium wilt of cotton as affected by pathogen propagule type, age and source  

E-print Network

for field infestation, it may be of great concern in a greenhouse environment. In one study, Fusarium spores were the fifth most common fungal airborne spore, after Cladosporium, Alternaria, Penicillium and Aspergillus (31). In a study on Fusarium stem...

McEntee, James Philip

2012-06-07

87

Phylogenetically marking the limits of the genus Fusarium for post-Article 59 usage  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic, plant pathogenic, and human pathogenic fungi. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial nucleotide sequences of genes encod...

88

Alginate Production by Plant-Pathogenic Pseudomonads  

PubMed Central

Eighteen plant-pathogenic and three non-plant-pathogenic pseudomonads were tested for the ability to produce alginic acid as an exopolysaccharide in vitro. Alginate production was demonstrated for 10 of 13 fluorescent plant-pathogenic pseudomonads tested with glucose or gluconate as the carbon source, but not for all 5 nonfluorescent plant pathogens and all 3 non-plant pathogens tested. With sucrose as the carbon source, some strains produced alginate while others produced both polyfructan (levan) and alginate. Alginates ranged from <1 to 28% guluronic acid, were acetylated, and had number-average molecular weights of 11.3 × 103 to 47.1 × 103. Polyfructans and alginates were not elicitors of the soybean phytoalexin glyceollin when applied to wounded cotyledon surfaces and did not induce prolonged water soaking of soybean leaf tissues. All or most pseudomonads in rRNA-DNA homology group I may be capable of synthesizing alginate as an exopolysaccharide. PMID:16347146

Fett, William F.; Osman, Stanley F.; Fishman, Marshall L.; Siebles, T. S.

1986-01-01

89

A transcription factor FgSte12 is required for pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

A conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade homologous to the yeast Fus3/Kss1 mating/filamentation pathway is involved in the regulation of vegetative development and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum. However, little is known about the downstream transcription factors of this pathway. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the homeodomain protein Ste12 is a key transcription factor activated by Fus3/Kss1. In this study, we characterized a Ste12 orthologue FgSte12 in F.?graminearum. The FgSTE12 deletion mutant (?FgSte12) was impaired in virulence and in the secretion of cellulase and protease, although it did not show recognizable phenotype changes in hyphal growth, conidiation or deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis. In addition, ?FgSte12 and the FgGPMK1 (a FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene) mutant shared several phenotypic traits. Furthermore, we found that FgGpmk1 controls the nuclear localization of FgSte12. Yeast two-hybrid and affinity capture assays indicated that FgSte12 interacts with the FgSte11-Ste7-Gpmk1 complex. Taken together, these results indicate that FgSte12 is a downstream target of FgSte11-Ste7-Gpmk1 and plays an important role in pathogenicity in F.?graminearum. PMID:24832137

Gu, Qin; Zhang, Chengqi; Liu, Xin; Ma, Zhonghua

2015-01-01

90

Biological Efficacy of Streptomyces sp. Strain BN1 against the Cereal Head Blight Pathogen Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum is one of the most severe diseases threatening the production of small grains. Infected grains are often contaminated with mycotoxins such as zearalenone and trichothecences. During survey of contamination by FHB in rice grains, we found a bacterial isolate, designated as BN1, antagonistic to F. graminearum. The strain BN1 had branching vegetative hyphae and spores, and its aerial hyphae often had long, straight filaments bearing spores. The 16S rRNA gene of BN1 had 100% sequence identity with those found in several Streptomyces species. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS regions showed that BN1 grouped with S. sampsonii with 77% bootstrap value, suggesting that BN1 was not a known Streptomyces species. In addition, the efficacy of the BN1 strain against F. graminearum strains was tested both in vitro and in vivo. Wheat seedling length was significantly decreased by F. graminearum infection. However, this effect was mitigated when wheat seeds were treated with BN1 spore suspension prior to F. graminearum infection. BN1 also significantly decreased FHB severity when it was sprayed onto wheat heads, whereas BN1 was not effective when wheat heads were point inoculated. These results suggest that spraying of BN1 spores onto wheat heads during the wheat flowering season can be efficient for plant protection. Mechanistic studies on the antagonistic effect of BN1 against F. graminearum remain to be analyzed. PMID:25288928

Jung, Boknam; Park, Sook-Young; Lee, Yin-Won; Lee, Jungkwan

2013-01-01

91

Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2015-01-01

92

Water balance altered in cucumber plants infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the infection and growth of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum in the xylem of host plants. The physiological responses of cucumbers that are infected with Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC) was studied in pot and hydroponic experiments in a greenhouse. The results showed that although water absorption and stem hydraulic conductance decreased markedly in infected plants, large amounts of red ink accumulated in the leaves of infected cucumber plants. The transpiration rate (E) and stomatal conductance (gs) of the infected plants were significantly reduced, but the E/gs was higher than healthy plants. We further found that there was a positive correlation between leaf membrane injury and E/gs, indicating that the leaf cell membrane injury increased the non-stomatal water loss from infected plants. The fusaric acid (FA), which was detected in the infected plant, resulted in damage to the leaf cell membranes and an increase in E/gs, suggesting that FA plays an important role in non-stomatal water loss. In conclusion, leaf cell membrane injury in the soil-borne Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants induced uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells. FA plays a critical role in accelerating the development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:25579504

Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Sun, Guomei; Liu, Xiaokang; Zhai, Luchong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

2015-01-01

93

Threats and opportunities of plant pathogenic bacteria.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic bacteria can have devastating effects on plant productivity and yield. Nevertheless, because these often soil-dwelling bacteria have evolved to interact with eukaryotes, they generally exhibit a strong adaptivity, a versatile metabolism, and ingenious mechanisms tailored to modify the development of their hosts. Consequently, besides being a threat for agricultural practices, phytopathogens may also represent opportunities for plant production or be useful for specific biotechnological applications. Here, we illustrate this idea by reviewing the pathogenic strategies and the (potential) uses of five very different (hemi)biotrophic plant pathogenic bacteria: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, A. rhizogenes, Rhodococcus fascians, scab-inducing Streptomyces spp., and Pseudomonas syringae. PMID:24216222

Tarkowski, Petr; Vereecke, Danny

2014-01-01

94

Phytophthora parasitica: a model oomycete plant pathogen  

PubMed Central

Oomycetes are eukaryotic microorganisms morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from true fungi. Most species in the genus Phytophthora of oomycetes are devastating plant pathogens, causing damages to both agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Tremendous progress has been achieved in recent years in diversity, evolution and lifestyles of oomycete plant pathogens, as well as on the understanding of genetic and molecular basis of oomycete-plant interactions. Phytophthora parasitica is a soilborne pathogen with a wide range of host plants and represents most species in the genus Phytophthora. In this review, we present some recent progress of P. parasitica research by highlighting important features that make it emerge as a model species of oomycete pathogens. The emerged model pathogen will facilitate improved understanding of oomycete biology and pathology that are crucial to the development of novel disease-control strategies and improved disease-control measures. PMID:24999436

Meng, Yuling; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Wei; Shan, Weixing

2014-01-01

95

Genetic and pathogenic variability of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae isolated from onion and Welsh onion in Japan.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC) causes Fusarium basal rot in onion (common onion) and Fusarium wilt in Welsh onion. Although these diseases have been detected in various areas in Japan, knowledge about the genetic and pathogenic variability of FOC is very limited. In this study, FOC was isolated from onion and Welsh onion grown in 12 locations in Japan, and a total of 55 FOC isolates (27 from onion and 28 from Welsh onion) were characterized based on their rDNA intergenic spacer (IGS) and translation elongation factor-1? (EF-1?) nucleotide sequences, vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs), and the presence of the SIX (secreted in xylem) homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of IGS sequences showed that these isolates were grouped into eight clades (A to H), and 20 onion isolates belonging to clade H were monophyletic and assigned to the same VCG. All the IGS-clade H isolates possessed homologs of SIX3, SIX5, and SIX7. The SIX3 homolog was located on a 4 Mb-sized chromosome in the IGS-clade H isolates. Pathogenicity tests using onion seedlings showed that all the isolates with high virulence were in the IGS-clade H. These results suggest that FOC isolates belonging to the IGS-clade H are genetically and pathogenically different from those belonging to the other IGS clades. PMID:25412011

Sasaki, Kazunori; Nakahara, Katsuya; Tanaka, Shuhei; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Ito, Shin-Ichi

2014-11-20

96

Pathogenic variability in Ethiopian isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris and reaction of chickpea improved varieties to the isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-four isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris were isolated from wilted chickpea plants obtained from different districts and ‘wilt sickplots’ of central Ethiopia to assess variability in pathogenecity of the populations. Each isolate was tested on 10 different chickpea lines and eight improved chickpea varieties. Isolates showed highly significant variation in wilt severity on the differential lines and improved

Meki Shehabu; Seid Ahmed; Parshotam K. Sakhuja

2008-01-01

97

A Multilocus Genealogical Concordance Approach to Species Delimitation within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex of Cereal Head Blight Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat and barley currently ranks as one of the most destructive and economically devastating plant diseases worldwide. Outbreaks and epidemics of FHB pose a double threat to cereal production: (i) the disease is frequently responsible for poor seed quality and reductio...

98

Resistance to Bacterial Pathogens in Plants  

E-print Network

with defense signaling. Bacteria overcome the third layer either by modifying or eliminating existing effectors must overcome to access cell nutrients. To breach these barriers, many plant pathogenic bacteria, pathogens must overcome three layers of defense: (1) preformed physical barriers; (2) a cell

Innes, Roger

99

Effect of neem (Azardirachta indica A. Juss) seeds and leaves extract on some plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

In this study plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were chosen to study the effect of ethanolic, hexane and methanolic extracts of neem seeds and leaves. Antifungal effects of neem leave and seed extracts obtained by ethanol, hexane and ptrolium ether were examined separately in vitro against Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani, Alternaria solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results indicated that seeds and leaves extracts could cause growth inhibition of tested fungi, although the rate of inhibition of tested fungi varied with different extracts and concentrations. But all these extracts and concentrations of extract inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi at a significant level. Azadirachtin, nimonol and expoxyazdirodione were detected from neem extract by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). We can conclude that neem leave and seed extracts were effective as antifungal against all tested fungi but F. oxysporum and R. solani were the most sensitive fungi. PMID:19947185

Moslem, M A; El-Kholie, E M

2009-07-15

100

Antibody-mediated resistance against plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Plant diseases have a significant impact on the yield and quality of crops. Many strategies have been developed to combat plant diseases, including the transfer of resistance genes to crops by conventional breeding. However, resistance genes can only be introgressed from sexually-compatible species, so breeders need alternative measures to introduce resistance traits from more distant sources. In this context, genetic engineering provides an opportunity to exploit diverse and novel forms of resistance, e.g. the use of recombinant antibodies targeting plant pathogens. Native antibodies, as a part of the vertebrate adaptive immune system, can bind to foreign antigens and eliminate them from the body. The ectopic expression of antibodies in plants can also interfere with pathogen activity to confer disease resistance. With sufficient knowledge of the pathogen life cycle, it is possible to counter any disease by designing expression constructs so that pathogen-specific antibodies accumulate at high levels in appropriate sub-cellular compartments. Although first developed to tackle plant viruses and still used predominantly for this purpose, antibodies have been targeted against a diverse range of pathogens as well as proteins involved in plant-pathogen interactions. Here we comprehensively review the development and implementation of antibody-mediated disease resistance in plants. PMID:21872654

Safarnejad, Mohammad Reza; Jouzani, Gholamreza Salehi; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Tabatabaie, Meisam; Twyman, Richard M; Schillberg, Stefan

2011-01-01

101

CONIDIAL GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ascomycetous fungus Fusarium graminearum is an important plant pathogen causing Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand early developmental stages of this organism, we followed the germination of macroconidia microscopically to understand the timing of key events. These e...

102

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L K; Cook, D J; Edwards, S G; Ray, R V

2014-06-01

103

The prevalence and impact of Fusarium head blight pathogens and mycotoxins on malting barley quality in UK  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium and Microdochium species can significantly affect the yield of barley grain as well as the quality and safety of malt and beer. The present study provides new knowledge on the impacts of the FHB pathogen complex on the malting and brewing quality parameters of naturally infected barley. Quantitative real-time PCR and liquid chromatography double mass spectrometry were used to quantify the predominant FHB pathogens and Fusarium mycotoxins, respectively, in commercially grown UK malting barley samples collected between 2007 and 2011. The predominant Fusarium species identified across the years were F. poae, F. tricinctum and F. avenaceum. Microdochium majus was the predominant Microdochium species in 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2011 whilst Microdochium nivale predominated in 2009. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone quantified in samples collected between 2007 and 2009 were associated with F. graminearum and F. culmorum, whilst HT-2 and T-2, and nivalenol in samples collected between 2010 and 2011 correlated positively with F. langsethiae and F. poae, respectively. Analysis of the regional distribution and yearly variation in samples from 2010 to 2011 showed significant differences in the composition of the FHB species complex. In most regions (Scotland, the South and North of England) the harvest in 2010 had higher concentrations of Fusarium spp. than in 2011, although no significant difference was observed in the Midlands between the two years. Microdochium DNA was significantly higher in 2011 and in the North of England and Scotland compared to the South or Midlands regions. Pathogens of the FHB complex impacted negatively on grain yield and quality parameters. Thousand grain weight of malting barley was affected significantly by M. nivale and M. majus whilst specific weight correlated negatively with F. avenaceum and F. graminearum. To determine the impact of sub-acute infections of the identified Fusarium and Microdochium species on malting and brewing quality of naturally infected samples, selected malting barley cultivars (Optic, Quench and Tipple) were micromalted and subjected to malt and wort analysis of key quality parameters. F. poae and M. nivale decreased germinative energy and increased water sensitivity of barley. The fungal biomass of F. poae and F. langsethiae correlated with increased wort free amino nitrogen and with decreased extract of malt. DNA of M. nivale correlated with increased malt friability as well as decreased wort filtration volume. The findings of this study indicate that the impact of species such as the newly emerging F. langsethiae, as well as F. poae and the two non-toxigenic Microdochium species should be considered when evaluating the quality of malting barley. PMID:24727381

Nielsen, L.K.; Cook, D.J.; Edwards, S.G.; Ray, R.V.

2014-01-01

104

Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens NJN-6-enriched bio-organic fertilizer suppressed Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants.  

PubMed

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJN-6 is an important plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) which can produce secondary metabolites antagonistic to several soil-borne pathogens. In this study, the ability of a bio-organic fertilizer (BIO) containing NJN-6 strain to promote the growth and suppress Fusarium wilt of banana plants was evaluated in a pot experiment. The results showed that the application of BIO significantly decreased the incidence of Fusarium wilt and promoted the growth of banana plants compared to that for the organic fertilizer (OF). To determine the beneficial mechanism of the strain, the colonization of NJN-6 strain on banana roots was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The plant growth-promoting hormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin A3 (GA3), along with antifungal lipopeptides iturin A, were detected when the NJN-6 strain was incubated in both Landy medium with additional l-tryptophan and in root exudates of banana plants. In addition, some antifungal volatile organic compounds and iturin A were also detected in BIO. In summary, strain NJN-6 could colonize the roots of banana plants after the application of BIO and produced active compounds which were beneficial for the growth of banana plants. PMID:23541032

Yuan, Jun; Ruan, Yunze; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Jian; Waseem, Raza; Huang, Qiwei; Shen, Qirong

2013-04-24

105

The velvet complex governs mycotoxin production and virulence of Fusarium oxysporum on plant and mammalian hosts.  

PubMed

Fungal pathogens provoke devastating losses in agricultural production, contaminate food with mycotoxins and give rise to life-threatening infections in humans. The soil-borne ascomycete Fusarium oxysporum attacks over 100 different crops and can cause systemic fusariosis in immunocompromised individuals. Here we functionally characterized VeA, VelB, VelC and LaeA, four components of the velvet protein complex which regulates fungal development and secondary metabolism. Deletion of veA, velB and to a minor extent velC caused a derepression of conidiation as well as alterations in the shape and size of microconidia. VeA and LaeA were required for full virulence of F.?oxysporum on tomato plants and on immunodepressed mice. A critical contribution of velvet consists in promoting chromatin accessibility and expression of the biosynthetic gene cluster for beauvericin, a depsipeptide mycotoxin that functions as a virulence determinant. These results reveal a conserved role of the velvet complex during fungal infection on plants and mammals. PMID:23106229

López-Berges, Manuel S; Hera, Concepción; Sulyok, Michael; Schäfer, Katja; Capilla, Javier; Guarro, Josep; Di Pietro, Antonio

2013-01-01

106

Induction of Systemic Resistance of Benzothiadiazole and Humic Acid in Soybean Plants Against Fusarium Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

The ability of benzothiadiazole (BTH) and/or humic acid (HA) used as seed soaking to induce systemic resistance against a pathogenic strain of Fusarium oxysporum was examined in four soybean cultivars under greenhouse conditions. Alone and in combination the inducers were able to protect soybean plants against damping-off and wilt diseases compared with check treatment. These results were confirmed under field conditions in two different locations (Minia and New Valley governorates). The tested treatments significantly reduced damping-off and wilt diseases and increased growth parameters, except the number of branches per plant and also increased seed yield. Application of BTH (0.25 g/L) + HA (4 g/L) was the most potent in this respect. Soybean seed soaking in BTH + HA produced the highest activities of the testes of oxidative enzymes followed by BTH in the four soybean cultivars. HA treatment resulted in the lowest increases of these oxidative enzymes. Similar results were obtained with total phenol but HA increased total phenol more than did BTH in all tested cultivars. PMID:22783118

Ismail, Mamdoh Ewis; Morsy, Kadry Mohamed

2011-01-01

107

Effect of combination of bio-agents and mineral nutrients for the management of alfalfa wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological and nutrient management of soil borne disease is increasingly gaining stature as a possible practical and safe approach. Inhibitory effects of fungal and bacterial antagonists were tested under in vitro conditions against the wilt pathogen of alfalfa Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. medicaginis. Trichoderma harzianum and Pseudomonas fluorescens (PI 5) were found to be effective against the alfalfa wilt pathogen.

M. Adhilakshmi; M. Karthikeyan; D. Alice

2008-01-01

108

Microbial Forensics and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

New awareness of the vulnerability of a nation's agricultural infrastructure to the intentional introduction of pathogens or pests has led to the enhancement of programs for prevention and preparedness. A necessary component of a balanced bio-security plan is the capability to determine whether an ...

109

Fungal Pathogens: The Battle for Plant Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The attempted infection of a plant by a pathogen, such as a fungus or an Oomycete, may be regarded as a battle whose major weapons are proteins and smaller chemical compounds produced by both organisms. Indeed, plants produce an astonishing plethora of defense compounds that are still being discovered at a rapid pace. This pattern arose from a multi-million year,

Ricardo B. Ferreira; Sara Monteiro; Regina Freitas; Cláudia N. Santos; Zhenjia Chen; Luís M. Batista; Joăo Duarte; Alexandre Borges; Artur R. Teixeira

2006-01-01

110

Histone Acetylation in Fungal Pathogens of Plants  

PubMed Central

Acetylation of histone lysine residues occurs in different organisms ranging from yeast to plants and mammals for the regulation of diverse cellular processes. With the identification of enzymes that create or reverse this modification, our understanding on histone acetylation has expanded at an amazing pace during the last two decades. In fungal pathogens of plants, however, the importance of such modification has only just begun to be appreciated in the recent years and there is a dearth of information on how histone acetylation is implicated in fungal pathogenesis. This review covers the current status of research related to histone acetylation in plant pathogenic fungi and considers relevant findings in the interaction between fungal pathogens and host plants. We first describe the families of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases. Then we provide the cases where histone acetylation was investigated in the context of fungal pathogenesis. Finally, future directions and perspectives in epigenetics of fungal pathogenesis are discussed. PMID:25288980

Jeon, Junhyun; Kwon, Seomun; Lee, Yong-Hwan

2014-01-01

111

MYT3, a Myb-like transcription factor, affects fungal development and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

We previously characterized members of the Myb protein family, MYT1 and MYT2, in Fusarium graminearum. MYT1 and MYT2 are involved in female fertility and perithecium size, respectively. To expand knowledge of Myb proteins in F. graminearum, in this study, we characterized the functions of the MYT3 gene, which encodes a putative Myb-like transcription factor containing two Myb DNA-binding domains and is conserved in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of Ascomycota. MYT3 proteins were localized in nuclei during most developmental stages, suggesting the role of MYT3 as a transcriptional regulator. Deletion of MYT3 resulted in impairment of conidiation, germination, and vegetative growth compared to the wild type, whereas complementation of MYT3 restored the wild-type phenotype. Additionally, the ?myt3 strain grew poorly on nitrogen-limited media; however, the mutant grew robustly on minimal media supplemented with ammonium. Moreover, expression level of nitrate reductase gene in the ?myt3 strain was decreased in comparison to the wild type and complemented strain. On flowering wheat heads, the ?myt3 strain exhibited reduced pathogenicity, which corresponded with significant reductions in trichothecene production and transcript levels of trichothecene biosynthetic genes. When the mutant was selfed, mated as a female, or mated as a male for sexual development, perithecia were not observed on the cultures, indicating that the ?myt3 strain lost both male and female fertility. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MYT3 is required for pathogenesis and sexual development in F. graminearum, and will provide a robust foundation to establish the regulatory networks for all Myb-like proteins in F. graminearum. PMID:24722578

Kim, Yongsoo; Kim, Hun; Son, Hokyoung; Choi, Gyung Ja; Kim, Jin-Cheol; Lee, Yin-Won

2014-01-01

112

Protein phosphatase 2A regulatory subunits perform distinct functional roles in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize causing ear rot and stalk rot. The fungus also produces fumonisins, a group of mycotoxins linked to disorders in animals and humans. A cluster of genes, designated FUM genes, plays a key role in the synthesis of fumonisins. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of fumonisin biosynthesis is still incomplete. We have demonstrated previously that Cpp1, a protein phosphatase type 2A (PP2A) catalytic subunit, negatively regulates fumonisin production and is involved in cell shape maintenance. In general, three PP2A subunits, structural A, regulatory B and catalytic C, make up a heterotrimer complex to perform regulatory functions. Significantly, we identified two PP2A regulatory subunits in the F.?verticillioides genome, Ppr1 and Ppr2, which are homologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae?Cdc55 and Rts1, respectively. In this study, we hypothesized that Ppr1 and Ppr2 are involved in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and/or cell development in F.?verticillioides, and generated a series of mutants to determine the functional role of Ppr1 and Ppr2. The PPR1 deletion strain (?ppr1) resulted in drastic growth defects, but increased microconidia production. The PPR2 deletion mutant strain (?ppr2) showed elevated fumonisin production, similar to the ?cpp1 strain. Germinating ?ppr1 conidia formed abnormally swollen cells with a central septation site, whereas ?ppr2 showed early hyphal branching during conidia germination. A kernel rot assay showed that the mutants were slow to colonize kernels, but this is probably a result of growth defects rather than a virulence defect. Results from this study suggest that two PP2A regulatory subunits in F.?verticillioides carry out distinct roles in the regulation of fumonisin biosynthesis and fungal development. PMID:23452277

Shin, Joon-Hee; Kim, Jung-Eun; Malapi-Wight, Martha; Choi, Yoon-E; Shaw, Brian D; Shim, Won-Bo

2013-06-01

113

Allelopathic effects of root exudates from watermelon and rice plants on Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. niveum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root exudates have a key role in communication between plants and microbes in the rhizosphere. Fusarium wilt of watermelon,\\u000a caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fusarium oxysporum), drastically reduces watermelon yields in continuous cultivation systems, but it can be significantly alleviated using watermelon\\/aerobic\\u000a rice intercropping system as shown by the research carried out in this laboratory. It is important

Wen-ya Hao; Li-xuan Ren; Wei Ran; Qi-rong Shen

2010-01-01

114

Pathogenicity of Fusarium semitectum against crop pests and its biosafety to non-target organisms.  

PubMed

Microbial control is receiving more attention, since these alternative tactics, compared to chemical control methods, are energy saving, non polluting, ecologically sound and sustainable. A mycopathogen, Fusarium semitectum Berk. and Rav. (ARSEF 7233) was isolated from diseased cadavers of aphid (Aphis gossypii) and cultured in Saboraud Maltose Agar supplemented with Yeast extract medium (SMAY). Being isolated first time from the chilli ecosystem its potential was evaluated. Experiments were conducted to understand its pathogenicity against crop pests as well as to ensure its safety to non target organisms such as silk worm (Bombyx mor), honey bee (Apis indica) and earthworm (Eisenia foetida). A paper-thrips-paper sandwich method for thrips and detached-leaf bioassay method for mites were used. Test insects and mites either reared in laboratory or obtained from the field were topically applied with spore suspension of F. semitectum (1x10(9) spores/ml). Mortality was recorded and dead animals were surface sterilized with 0.5% NaOCl and placed in SMAY medium to confirm pathogenicity. Mulberry leaves sprayed with the fungal suspension were fed to larvae of B. mori and reared. Newly emerged A. indica were topically applied with fungus. The fungus grown in cow dung for two weeks was used to assess the composting ability of E. foetida. F. semitectum produced mycosis and caused mortality to sucking pests such as chilli thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis), broad mite (Polyphagotarsonemus latus), sugarcane wooly aphid (Ceratavacuna lanigera), spiraling whitefly (Aleyrodicus disperses), whitefly (Bemisia tabaci, A. gossypii and coconut mite (Aceria guerroronis). The fungus did not cause mortality on larvae of lepidopteran insect pests and ladybird beetle (Menochilus sexmaculatus), predatory mite (Amblysius ovalis) and larval parasitoid (Goniozus nephantidis). F. semitectum failed to infect the larvae of B. mori and newly emerged A. indica and its brood. The mycopathogen had no influence on the composting ability and growth of E. foetida. F. semitectum, in general, expressed its selectivity against sucking pests and proved its eco-friendly characteristics to the beneficial organisms and especially safe to Sericulture, Apiculture and Vermiculture industries in Karnataka, India. This novel fungus can be well incorporated as a viable tactics into the integrated management programmes of crop pests. PMID:17385514

Mikunthan, G; Manjunatha, M

2006-01-01

115

MOLECULAR SYSTEMATICS OF FUNGAL PLANT PATHOGENS: GENERALISATIONS FROM FUSARIUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This presentation will focus on the importance of developing a robust phylogenetic framework for investigating species limits, evolution of virulence-associated factors such as toxins, host range, biogeography and global movement of agronomically important phytopathogens, drawing from examples of Fu...

116

Plant Pathogen Forensics: Capabilities, Needs, and Recommendations  

PubMed Central

A biological attack on U.S. crops, rangelands, or forests could reduce yield and quality, erode consumer confidence, affect economic health and the environment, and possibly impact human nutrition and international relations. Preparedness for a crop bioterror event requires a strong national security plan that includes steps for microbial forensics and criminal attribution. However, U.S. crop producers, consultants, and agricultural scientists have traditionally focused primarily on strategies for prevention and management of diseases introduced naturally or unintentionally rather than on responding appropriately to an intentional pathogen introduction. We assess currently available information, technologies, and resources that were developed originally to ensure plant health but also could be utilized for postintroduction plant pathogen forensics. Recommendations for prioritization of efforts and resource expenditures needed to enhance our plant pathogen forensics capabilities are presented. PMID:16760310

Fletcher, J.; Bender, C.; Budowle, B.; Cobb, W. T.; Gold, S. E.; Ishimaru, C. A.; Luster, D.; Melcher, U.; Murch, R.; Scherm, H.; Seem, R. C.; Sherwood, J. L.; Sobral, B. W.; Tolin, S. A.

2006-01-01

117

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 controls Fusarium wilt disease in tomato plants in soilless culture through competition for iron.  

PubMed

Trichoderma asperellum strain T34 has been reported to control the disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (Fol) on tomato plants. To study the importance of iron concentration in the growth media for the activity and competitiveness of T34 and the pathogen, we tested four iron concentrations in the nutrient solution [1, 10, 100, and 1000 microM provided as EDTA/Fe(III)] in a biological control experiment with T34 and Fol in tomato plants. The reduction of the Fusarium-infected shoot by T34 was only significant at 10 microM Fe. We hypothesized that Fe competition is one of the key factors in the biocontrol activity exerted by T34 against Fol, as an increase in Fe concentration over 10 microM would lead to the suppression of T34 siderophore synthesis and thus inhibition of Fe competition with Fol. T34 significantly reduced the populations of Fol at all the doses of Fe assayed. In contrast, Fol enhanced the populations of T34 at 1 and 10 microM Fe. Nevertheless, several plant physiological parameters like net CO(2) assimilation (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), relative quantum efficiency of PSII (Phi(PSII)), and efficiency of excitation energy capture by open PSII reactive centers (Fv'/Fm') demonstrated the protection against Fol damage by treatment with T34 at 100 microM Fe. The first physiological parameter affected by the disease progression was g(s). Plant dry weight was decreased by Fe toxicity at 100 and 1,000 microM. T34-treated plants had significantly greater heights and dry weights than control plants at 1,000 microM Fe, even though T34 did not reduce the Fe content in leaves or stems. Furthermore, T34 enhanced plant height even at the optimal Fe concentration (10 microM) compared to control plants. In conclusion, T. asperellum strain T34 protected tomato plants from both biotic (Fusarium wilt disease) and abiotic stress [Fe(III) toxic effects]. PMID:19536588

Segarra, Guillem; Casanova, Eva; Avilés, Manuel; Trillas, Isabel

2010-01-01

118

Induction of systemic resistance by Pseudomonas fluorescens in radish cultivars differing in susceptibility to fusarium wilt, using a novel bioassay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas fluorescens-mediated induction of systemic resistance in radish against fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f. sp.raphani) was studied in a newly developed bioassay using a rockwool system. In this bioassay the pathogen and bacterium were confirmed to be confined to spatially separate locations on the plant root, throughout the experiment. Pathogen inoculum obtained by mixing peat with microconidia and subsequent incubation

M. Leeman; J. A. van Pelt; F. M. den Ouden; M. Heinsbroek; P. A. H. M. Bakker; B. Schippers

1995-01-01

119

The Fusarium Mycotoxin Deoxynivalenol Can Inhibit Plant Apoptosis-Like Programmed Cell Death  

PubMed Central

The Fusarium genus of fungi is responsible for commercially devastating crop diseases and the contamination of cereals with harmful mycotoxins. Fusarium mycotoxins aid infection, establishment, and spread of the fungus within the host plant. We investigated the effects of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) on the viability of Arabidopsis cells. Although it is known to trigger apoptosis in animal cells, DON treatment at low concentrations surprisingly did not kill these cells. On the contrary, we found that DON inhibited apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) in Arabidopsis cells subjected to abiotic stress treatment in a manner independent of mitochondrial cytochrome c release. This suggested that Fusarium may utilise mycotoxins to suppress plant apoptosis-like PCD. To test this, we infected Arabidopsis cells with a wild type and a DON-minus mutant strain of F. graminearum and found that only the DON producing strain could inhibit death induced by heat treatment. These results indicate that mycotoxins may be capable of disarming plant apoptosis-like PCD and thereby suggest a novel way that some fungi can influence plant cell fate. PMID:23922734

Diamond, Mark; Reape, Theresa J.; Rocha, Olga; Doyle, Siamsa M.; Kacprzyk, Joanna; Doohan, Fiona M.; McCabe, Paul F.

2013-01-01

120

BIOTRANSFORMATION OF 2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE (TNT) BY A PLANT-ASSOCIATED FUNGUS FUSARIUM OXYSPORUM  

EPA Science Inventory

The capability of a plant-associated fungus, Fusarium oxyvorum, to transform TNT in liquid cultures was investigated. TNT was transformed into 2-amino-4, 6-dinitrotoluene (2-A-DNT), 4-amino-2, 6-dinitrotoluene (4-A- DNT), and 2, 4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene (2, 4-DAT) via 2- and 4-hy...

121

[RAPD analysis of plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria].  

PubMed

RAPD analysis was used for the taxonomy of plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria, especially for the classification of two new pathogens (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. basellae pv. nov. and Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. beticola pv. nov.). 20 random primers were screened from 50 ones to detect polymorphism among the total strains used. 80.4% were polymorphic bands among the 225 ones produced. The results of pairwise similarity and UPGMA cluster analysis suggest that the two new pathovars of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera) and malabar spinach (Basella rubra) are genetically close related with Curtobacterium flacumfaciens, and the minimal similarity coefficient is 0.6511. According to the RAPD analysis and previous research, some newly made taxonomic changes of the plant pathogenic coryneform bacteria are discussed. PMID:16496687

Yin, Yan-Ni; Chen, Yong-Fang; Li, Shi-Mo; Guo, Jian-Hua

2005-12-01

122

Comparative analysis of twelve Dothideomycete plant pathogens  

SciTech Connect

The Dothideomycetes are one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related Dothideomycete species can have very diverse host plants. Twelve Dothideomycete genomes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. They can be accessed via Mycocosm which has tools for comparative analysis

Ohm, Robin; Aerts, Andrea; Salamov, Asaf; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor

2011-03-11

123

Priming in plant–pathogen interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can acquire enhanced resistance to pathogens after treatment with necrotizing attackers, nonpathogenic root-colonizing pseudomonads, salicylic acid, ?-aminobutyric acid and many other natural or synthetic compounds. The induced resistance is often associated with an enhanced capacity to mobilize infection-induced cellular defence responses – a process called ‘priming’. Although the phenomenon has been known for years, most progress in our understanding

Uwe Conrath; Corné M. J. Pieterse; Brigitte Mauch-Mani

2002-01-01

124

Plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Over the course of evolution, fungi have adapted to occupy specific niches, from symbiotically inhabiting the flora of the intestinal tract of mammals to saprophytic growth on leaf litter resting on the forest floor. In plant Fungal Pathogens: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers in the field ...

125

Plant pathogens: how can molecular genetic information on plant pathogens assist in breeding disease resistant crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous phytopathogenic fungi and Oomycete species cause disease on crop plants. Over the past 17 years a combination of protein purification and forward and reverse genetics has lead to the identification of > 150 distinct pathogenicity and virulence genes required by pathogens to cause disease. Many conserved molecular mechanisms are now recognised that underpin the pathogenesis of very diverse species.

Kim Hammond-Kosack; Martin Urban; Thomas Baldwin; Arsalan Daudi; Jason Rudd; John Keon; John Lucas; Kerry Maguire; Dmitry Kornyukhin; Hai-Chun Jing; Chris Bass; John Antoniw

2004-01-01

126

Paleogene Radiation of a Plant Pathogenic Mushroom  

PubMed Central

Background The global movement and speciation of fungal plant pathogens is important, especially because of the economic losses they cause and the ease with which they are able to spread across large areas. Understanding the biogeography and origin of these plant pathogens can provide insights regarding their dispersal and current day distribution. We tested the hypothesis of a Gondwanan origin of the plant pathogenic mushroom genus Armillaria and the currently accepted premise that vicariance accounts for the extant distribution of the species. Methods The phylogeny of a selection of Armillaria species was reconstructed based on Maximum Parsimony (MP), Maximum Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian Inference (BI). A timeline was then placed on the divergence of lineages using a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock approach. Results Phylogenetic analyses of sequenced data for three combined nuclear regions provided strong support for three major geographically defined clades: Holarctic, South American-Australasian and African. Molecular dating placed the initial radiation of the genus at 54 million years ago within the Early Paleogene, postdating the tectonic break-up of Gondwana. Conclusions The distribution of extant Armillaria species is the result of ancient long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance due to continental drift. As these finding are contrary to most prior vicariance hypotheses for fungi, our results highlight the important role of long-distance dispersal in the radiation of fungal pathogens from the Southern Hemisphere. PMID:22216099

Coetzee, Martin P. A.; Bloomer, Paulette; Wingfield, Michael J.; Wingfield, Brenda D.

2011-01-01

127

Plant-pathogen interactions and elevated CO2: morphological changes in favour of pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crop losses caused by pests and weeds have been estimated at 42% worldwide, with plant pathogens responsible for almost $10 billion worth of damage in the USA in 1994 alone. Elevated carbon dioxide (ECO2) and associated climate change have the potential to accelerate plant pathogen evolution, which may, in turn, affect virulence. Plant- pathogen interactions under increasing CO2 concentrations have

Janice Ann Lake; Ruth Nicola Wade

2009-01-01

128

Species composition, toxigenic potential and pathogenicity of Fusarium graminearum species complex isolates from southern Brazilian rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study aimed to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in Brazilian rice. Four species and two trichothecene genotypes were found among 89 FGSC isolates obtained from infected seeds: F. asiaticum with the nivalenol (NIV) genotype (69%), F. gra...

129

In vitro generation of somaclonal variant plants of sugarcane for tolerance to Fusarium sacchari.  

PubMed

KEY MESSAGE : A combination of in vitro culture and mutagenesis using ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) followed by culture filtrate-mediated selection produced variant sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to Fusarium sacchari. Eldana saccharina is a destructive pest of the sugarcane crop in South Africa. Fusarium sacchari PNG40 (a fungal strain harmful to E. saccharina) has the potential to be an endophytic biological control agent of the stalk borer. However, the fungus causes Fusarium stalk rot in sugarcane. In the current study, sugarcane plants tolerant and resistant to F. sacchari PNG40 were produced by exposing embryogenic calli to the chemical mutagen ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), followed by in vitro selection during somatic embryogenesis and plantlet regeneration on media containing F. sacchari culture filtrates (CF). The incorporation of 100 ppm CF in the culture media at the embryo maturation stage, at germination, or at both, resulted in callus necrosis and consequent reduced plantlet yield. Subsequent trimming of the roots of regenerated plants and their exposure to 1,500 ppm CF served as a further selection treatment. Plants produced from EMS-treated calli displayed improved root re-growth in the presence of CF pressure compared with those from non-treated calli. The tolerance of CF-selected plants was confirmed in greenhouse tests by inoculation with F. sacchari PNG40, re-isolation of Fusarium spp. from undamaged tissue of asymptomatic plants and establishment of the identity of fungal isolates as PNG40 using molecular analysis. The restriction of PNG40 presence to the inoculation lesion in some plants suggested their resistance to the fungus. Genotypes exhibiting symptomless endophytic colonization by PNG40 were identified and will be utilised for testing biological control strategies against E. saccharina. PMID:23090725

Mahlanza, Tendekai; Rutherford, R Stuart; Snyman, Sandy J; Watt, M Paula

2013-02-01

130

Deciphering the Cryptic Genome: Genome-wide Analyses of the Rice Pathogen Fusarium fujikuroi Reveal Complex Regulation of Secondary Metabolism and Novel Metabolites  

PubMed Central

The fungus Fusarium fujikuroi causes “bakanae” disease of rice due to its ability to produce gibberellins (GAs), but it is also known for producing harmful mycotoxins. However, the genetic capacity for the whole arsenal of natural compounds and their role in the fungus' interaction with rice remained unknown. Here, we present a high-quality genome sequence of F. fujikuroi that was assembled into 12 scaffolds corresponding to the 12 chromosomes described for the fungus. We used the genome sequence along with ChIP-seq, transcriptome, proteome, and HPLC-FTMS-based metabolome analyses to identify the potential secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters and to examine their regulation in response to nitrogen availability and plant signals. The results indicate that expression of most but not all gene clusters correlate with proteome and ChIP-seq data. Comparison of the F. fujikuroi genome to those of six other fusaria revealed that only a small number of gene clusters are conserved among these species, thus providing new insights into the divergence of secondary metabolism in the genus Fusarium. Noteworthy, GA biosynthetic genes are present in some related species, but GA biosynthesis is limited to F. fujikuroi, suggesting that this provides a selective advantage during infection of the preferred host plant rice. Among the genome sequences analyzed, one cluster that includes a polyketide synthase gene (PKS19) and another that includes a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene (NRPS31) are unique to F. fujikuroi. The metabolites derived from these clusters were identified by HPLC-FTMS-based analyses of engineered F. fujikuroi strains overexpressing cluster genes. In planta expression studies suggest a specific role for the PKS19-derived product during rice infection. Thus, our results indicate that combined comparative genomics and genome-wide experimental analyses identified novel genes and secondary metabolites that contribute to the evolutionary success of F. fujikuroi as a rice pathogen. PMID:23825955

Studt, Lena; Niehaus, Eva-Maria; Espino, Jose J.; Huß, Kathleen; Michielse, Caroline B.; Albermann, Sabine; Wagner, Dominik; Bergner, Sonja V.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Fischer, Andreas; Reuter, Gunter; Kleigrewe, Karin; Bald, Till; Wingfield, Brenda D.; Ophir, Ron; Freeman, Stanley; Hippler, Michael; Smith, Kristina M.; Brown, Daren W.; Proctor, Robert H.; Münsterkötter, Martin; Freitag, Michael; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich; Güldener, Ulrich; Tudzynski, Bettina

2013-01-01

131

Pathogens promote plant diversity through a compensatory response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens are thought to promote diversity in plant communities by preventing competitive exclusion. Previous studies have focussed primarily on single-plant, single- pathogen interactions, yet the interactions between multiple pathogens and multiple hosts may have non-additive impacts on plant community composition. Here, we report that both a bacterial and a fungal pathogen maintained the diversity of a four-species plant community across

Devon J. Bradley; Gregory S. Gilbert; Jennifer B. H. Martiny

2008-01-01

132

Comparison of inoculation methods for characterizing relative aggressiveness of two soybean sudden-death syndrome pathogens, Fusarium virguliforme and F. tucumaniae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium tucumaniae and F. virguliforme are the primary etiological agents of sudden-death syndrome (SDS) of soybean in Argentina and the United States, respectively. Five isolates of F. tucumaniae and four of F. virguliforme were tested for pathogenicity to soybeans, by comparing a toothpick method...

133

Plants, plant pathogens, and microgravity--a deadly trio.  

PubMed

Plants grown in spaceflight conditions are more susceptible to colonization by plant pathogens. The underlying causes for this enhanced susceptibility are not known. Possibly the formation of structural barriers and the activation of plant defense response components are impaired in spaceflight conditions. Either condition would result from altered gene expression of the plant. Because of the tools available, past studies focused on a few physiological responses or biochemical pathways. With recent advances in genomics research, new tools, including microarray technologies, are available to examine the global impact of growth in the spacecraft on the plant's gene expression profile. In ground-based studies, we have developed cDNA subtraction libraries of rice that are enriched for genes induced during pathogen infection and the defense response. Arrays of these genes are being used to dissect plant defense response pathways in a model system involving wild-type rice plants and lesion mimic mutants. The lesion mimic mutants are ideal experimental tools because they erratically develop defense response-like lesions in the absence of pathogens. The gene expression profiles from these ground-based studies will provide the molecular basis for understanding the biochemical and physiological impacts of spaceflight on plant growth, development and disease defense responses. This, in turn, will allow the development of strategies to manage plant disease for life in the space environment. PMID:11865865

Leach, J E; Ryba-White, M; Sun, Q; Wu, C J; Hilaire, E; Gartner, C; Nedukha, O; Kordyum, E; Keck, M; Leung, H; Guikema, J A

2001-06-01

134

Hydrolysis of fungal and plant cell walls by enzymatic complexes from cultures of Fusarium isolates with different aggressiveness to rye (Secale cereale).  

PubMed

The efficiency of hydrolysis of fungal (Fusarium spp.) cell wall and rye root cell wall by crude enzymatic complexes from (42-day-old) cultures of three F. culmorum isolates, a plant growth-promoting rhizosphere isolate (PGPF) DEMFc2, a deleterious rhizosphere isolate (DRMO) DEMFc5, and a pathogenic isolate DEMFc37, as well as two other, pathogenic isolates belonging to F. oxysporum and F. graminearum species was studied. In the enzymatic complexes originating from the Fusarium spp. cultures, the activities of the following cell wall-degrading enzymes were identified: glucanases, chitinases, xylanases, endocellulases, exocellulases, pectinases, and polygalacturonases. The preparation originating from a culture of the PGPF isolate was the least efficient in plant cell wall (PCW) hydrolysis. There were no significant differences in the efficiency of PCW hydrolysis between preparations from cultures of the DRMO and the pathogenic isolates. PGPF was the most efficient in liberating reducing sugars and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) from fungal cell walls (FCW). Xylanase activities of the enzymatic complexes were strongly positively (R > +0.9) correlated with their efficiency in hydrolyzing PCW, whereas chitinase activities were correlated with the efficiency in FCW hydrolysis. PMID:22388990

Jaroszuk-?cise?, Jolanta; Kurek, Ewa

2012-08-01

135

Transcription factors spt3 and spt8 are associated with conidiation, mycelium growth, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: Gibberella zeae), the dominant pathogen of Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat, can cause substantial economic losses. The Spt-Ada-Gcn5-acetyltransferase (SAGA) transcription coactivator plays multiple roles in regulating transcription because of the presence of functionally independent modules of subunits within the complex. The transcription factors spt3 and spt8 are components of the SAGA complex and they are important in yeasts and filamentous fungi including F. graminearum. In this study, we identified Fgspt3 and Fgspt8, homologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae spt3 and spt8 from F. graminearum using the blastp program. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functions of Fgspt3 and Fgspt8 in F. graminearum. The deletion mutants grew significantly more slowly than the wild-type parent and did not produce conidia. Expression of the sporulation-related genes FgFlbC and FgRen1 were significantly down-regulated in the mutants. The mutants exhibited no sexual reproduction on infected wheat kernels and a 90% decrease in virulence on wheat. Pigment formation was also greatly altered in the mutants. All of the defects were restored by genetic complementation of the mutant with wild-type Fgspt3 and Fgspt8 genes. Overall, Fgspt3 and Fgspt8 are essential genes in F. graminearum. PMID:24289742

Gao, Tao; Zheng, Zhitian; Hou, Yiping; Zhou, Mingguo

2014-02-01

136

Acid and neutral trehalase activities in mutants of the corn rot fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen known to cause corn rot and other plant diseases and to contaminate grain with toxic metabolites. We are characterizing trehalose metabolism in F. verticillioides with the hope that this pathway might serve as a target for controlling Fusarium disease. T...

137

Npc1 is involved in sterol trafficking in the filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The ortholog of the human gene NPC1 was identified in the plant pathogenic, filamentous fungus Fusarium graminearum by shared amino acid sequence, protein domain structure and cellular localization of the mature fungal protein. The Fusarium Npc1 gene shares 34% amino acid sequence identity and 51% s...

138

A North American isolate of Fusarium graminearum: toxicity and biosynthesis of a new type A trichothecene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is one of the economically most important plant pathogens causing diseases such as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) of small grain cereals and ear rot of maize. The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) produced by F. graminearum is a virulence factor in wheat and probably also on other host...

139

A proteomic study of in-root interactions between chickpea pathogens: the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia and the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris race 5.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceris (Foc) is the main soil-borne disease limiting chickpea production. Management of this disease is achieved mainly by the use of resistant cultivars. However, co-infection of a Foc-resistant plant by the fungus and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne artiellia (Ma) causes breakdown of the resistance and thus limits its efficacy in the control of Fusarium wilt. In this work we aimed to reveal key aspects of chickpea:Foc:Ma interactions, studying fungal- and nematode-induced changes in root proteins, using chickpea lines 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' that show similar resistant (Foc race 5) and susceptible (Ma) responses to either pathogen alone but a differential response after co-infection with both pathogens. 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 'ICC 14216K' chickpea plants were challenged with Foc race 5 and Ma, either in single or in combined inoculations, and the root proteomes were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using three biological replicates. Pairwise comparisons of treatments indicated that 47 protein spots in 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 31 protein spots in 'ICC 14216K' underwent significant changes in intensity. The responsive protein spots tentatively identified by MALDI TOF-TOF MS (27 spots for 'CA 336.14.3.0' and 15 spots for 'ICC 14216K') indicated that same biological functions were involved in the responses of either chickpea line to Foc race 5 and Ma, although common as well as line-specific responsive proteins were found within the different biological functions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study at the root proteome level of chickpea response to a biotic stress imposed by single and joint infections by two major soil-borne pathogens. PMID:21640211

Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Castillo, Pablo; Navas-Cortés, Juan A; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M; Tena, Manuel

2011-09-01

140

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

141

Insights into Auxin Signaling in Plant–Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

The phytohormone auxin has been known to be a regulator of plant growth and development ever since its discovery. Recent studies on plant–pathogen interactions identify auxin as a key character in pathogenesis and plant defense. Like plants, diverse pathogens possess the capacity to synthesize indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the major form of auxin in plants. The emerging knowledge on auxin-signaling components, auxin metabolic processes, and indole-derived phytoalexins in plant responses to pathogen invasion has provided putative mechanisms of IAA in plant susceptibility and resistance to non-gall- or tumor-inducing pathogens. PMID:22639609

Fu, Jing; Wang, Shiping

2011-01-01

142

Investigating Spore killer of Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Maize is one of the most important crops in the world. Fusarium verticillioides may colonize maize as an endophyte or as a pathogen, causing disease at any life stage of the plant. During growth on maize, F. verticillioides can synthesis a number of mycotoxins including fumonisins, which have been l...

143

HISTOLOGY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF FUSARIUM HEAD BLIGHT  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat and barley in the 1990s in the midwestern U.S. Research efforts to control the disease have been hampered by limited knowledge of how the fungal head blight pathogens infect and damage head tissue and what natural defenses the plant h...

144

Icebergs and species in populations of Fusarium  

Microsoft Academic Search

(Accepted for publication August 2001 and published electronically 22 October 2001) ''Why is the name of the pathogen I work on changing?'' is a common question raised by plant pathologists. Species in the genus Fusarium (and the authors of this article) often are the target for such questions. Species descriptions, even very thorough ones, usually rely on a limited set

John F. Leslie; Kurt A. Zeller; Brett A. Summerell

2001-01-01

145

Genome and Transcriptome Analysis of the Fungal Pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Causing Banana Vascular Wilt Disease  

PubMed Central

Background The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana ‘Brazil’ in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety ‘Brazil’. Conclusions/Significance Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana. PMID:24743270

Zeng, Huicai; Fan, Dingding; Zhu, Yabin; Feng, Yue; Wang, Guofen; Peng, Chunfang; Jiang, Xuanting; Zhou, Dajie; Ni, Peixiang; Liang, Changcong; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun; Mao, Chao

2014-01-01

146

Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens and Plant Growth Promotion by Bacillus  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Numerous Bacillus strains have been investigated for their capacities to protect plants from pathogens and stimulate plant growth. Studying\\u000a the diversity of these bacteria provides clues to the distinctiveness of beneficial strains and raises questions regarding\\u000a the scale and evolutionary forces that led to the development of biocontrol activities. Soils harbor vast spore banks of Bacillus, subsets of which germinate,

Brian B. McSpadden Gardener

147

Active Oxygen Species in Plant Defense against Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant disease resistance to pathogens such as fungi, bac- teria, and viruses often depends on whether the plant is able to recognize the pathogen early in the infection process. The recognition event leads to a rapid tissue necrosis at the site of infection, which is called the HR. The HR deprives the pathogen of nutrients and\\/or releases toxic molecules, thereby

Mona C. Mehdy

1993-01-01

148

Integrated management strategies for tomato Fusarium wilt.  

PubMed

Fusarium wilt is caused by the fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum or Fusarium solani. It is a devastating disease that affects many important food and vegetable crops and a major source of loss to farmers worldwide. Initial strategies developed to combat this devastating plant disease include the use of cultural, physical and chemical control. None of these strategies have been able to give the best results of completely ameliorating the situation except for the cultural method which is mainly preventive. A good knowledge of the nature, behaviour and environmental conditions of growth of the disease agent is very important to controlling the disease development in that case. Biological control has been shown to be an environmentally friendly alternative. It makes use of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms that can survive and compete favourably well with the Fusarium wilt pathogen. They include plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. For PGPR to control or inhibit the growth of the Fusarium wilt pathogen, they make use of mechanisms such as indole acetic acid production, siderophore production, phosphate solublilization, systemic resistance induction and antifungal volatile production among others. PMID:24077535

Ajilogba, Caroline F; Babalola, Olubukola O

2013-01-01

149

Individual and combined roles of malonichrome, ferricrocin, and TAFC siderophores in Fusarium graminearum pathogenic and sexual development  

PubMed Central

Intra- and extracellular iron-chelating siderophores produced by fungal non-ribosomal peptide synthetases have been shown to be involved in reproductive and pathogenic developmental processes and in iron and oxidative stress management. Here we report individual and combined contributions of three of these metabolites to developmental success of the destructive cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. In previous work, we determined that deletion of the NPS2 gene, responsible for intracellular siderophore biosynthesis, results in inability to produce sexual spores when mutants of this homothallic ascomycete are selfed. Deletion of the NPS6 gene, required for extracellular siderophore biosynthesis, does not affect sexual reproduction but results in sensitivity to iron starvation and oxidative stress and leads to reduced virulence to the host. Building on this, we report that double mutants lacking both NPS2 and NPS6 are augmented in all collective phenotypes of single deletion strains (i.e., abnormal sexual and pathogenic development, hypersensitivity to oxidative and iron-depletion stress), which suggests overlap of function. Using comparative biochemical analysis of wild-type and mutant strains, we show that NPS1, a third gene associated with siderophore biosynthesis, is responsible for biosynthesis of a second extracellular siderophore, malonichrome. nps1 mutants fail to produce this metabolite. Phenotypic characterization reveals that, although single nps1 mutants are like wild-type with respect to sexual development, hypersensitivity to ROS and iron-depletion stress, and virulence to the host, triple nps1nps2nps6 deletion strains, lacking all three siderophores, are even more impaired in these attributes than double nps2nps6 strains. Thus, combinatorial mutants lacking key iron-associated genes uncovered malonichrome function. The intimate connection between presence/absence of siderophores and resistance/sensitivity to ROS is central to sexual and pathogenic development.

Oide, Shinichi; Berthiller, Franz; Wiesenberger, Gerlinde; Adam, Gerhard; Turgeon, B. Gillian

2015-01-01

150

ANALYSIS OF EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS FROM GIBBERELLA ZEAE (ANAMORPH FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is a broad host range pathogen that infects many crop plants, including wheat and barley, and causes head blight or rot diseases throughout the world. To better understand fungal development and pathogenicity in this important pathogen, we have now generated over 12,000 ESTs in...

151

Pathogen induced changes in the protein profile of human tears from Fusarium keratitis patients.  

PubMed

Fusarium is the major causative agent of fungal infections leading to corneal ulcer (keratitis) in Southern India and other tropical countries. Keratitis caused by Fusarium is a difficult disease to treat unless antifungal therapy is initiated during the early stages of infection. In this study tear proteins were prepared from keratitis patients classified based on the duration of infection. Among the patients recruited, early infection (n = 35), intermediate (n = 20), late (n = 11), samples from five patients in each group were pooled for analysis. Control samples were a pool of samples from 20 patients. Proteins were separated on difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and the differentially expressed proteins were quantified using DeCyder software analysis. The following differentially expressed proteins namely alpha-1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin ?2 chain, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, apolipoprotein, albumin, haptoglobin precursor - ? chain, lactoferrin, lacrimal lipocalin precursor, cystatin SA III precursor, lacritin precursor were identified using mass spectrometry. Variation in the expression level of some of the proteins was confirmed using western blot analysis. This is the first report to show stage specific tear protein profile in fungal keratitis patients. Validation of this data using a much larger sample set could lead to clinical application of these findings. PMID:23308132

Ananthi, Sivagnanam; Venkatesh Prajna, Namperumalsamy; Lalitha, Prajna; Valarnila, Murugesan; Dharmalingam, Kuppamuthu

2013-01-01

152

Uncovering plant-pathogen crosstalk through apoplastic proteomic studies  

PubMed Central

Plant pathogens have evolved by developing different strategies to infect their host, which in turn have elaborated immune responses to counter the pathogen invasion. The apoplast, including the cell wall and extracellular space outside the plasma membrane, is one of the first compartments where pathogen-host interaction occurs. The plant cell wall is composed of a complex network of polysaccharides polymers and glycoproteins and serves as a natural physical barrier against pathogen invasion. The apoplastic fluid, circulating through the cell wall and intercellular spaces, provides a means for delivering molecules and facilitating intercellular communications. Some plant-pathogen interactions lead to plant cell wall degradation allowing pathogens to penetrate into the cells. In turn, the plant immune system recognizes microbial- or damage-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs or DAMPs) and initiates a set of basal immune responses, including the strengthening of the plant cell wall. The establishment of defense requires the regulation of a wide variety of proteins that are involved at different levels, from receptor perception of the pathogen via signaling mechanisms to the strengthening of the cell wall or degradation of the pathogen itself. A fine regulation of apoplastic proteins is therefore essential for rapid and effective pathogen perception and for maintaining cell wall integrity. This review aims to provide insight into analyses using proteomic approaches of the apoplast to highlight the modulation of the apoplastic protein patterns during pathogen infection and to unravel the key players involved in plant-pathogen interaction. PMID:24917874

Delaunois, Bertrand; Jeandet, Philippe; Clément, Christophe; Baillieul, Fabienne; Dorey, Stéphan; Cordelier, Sylvain

2014-01-01

153

Comparative Genomics Yields Insights into Niche Adaptation of Plant Vascular Wilt Pathogens  

PubMed Central

The vascular wilt fungi Verticillium dahliae and V. albo-atrum infect over 200 plant species, causing billions of dollars in annual crop losses. The characteristic wilt symptoms are a result of colonization and proliferation of the pathogens in the xylem vessels, which undergo fluctuations in osmolarity. To gain insights into the mechanisms that confer the organisms' pathogenicity and enable them to proliferate in the unique ecological niche of the plant vascular system, we sequenced the genomes of V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum and compared them to each other, and to the genome of Fusarium oxysporum, another fungal wilt pathogen. Our analyses identified a set of proteins that are shared among all three wilt pathogens, and present in few other fungal species. One of these is a homolog of a bacterial glucosyltransferase that synthesizes virulence-related osmoregulated periplasmic glucans in bacteria. Pathogenicity tests of the corresponding V. dahliae glucosyltransferase gene deletion mutants indicate that the gene is required for full virulence in the Australian tobacco species Nicotiana benthamiana. Compared to other fungi, the two sequenced Verticillium genomes encode more pectin-degrading enzymes and other carbohydrate-active enzymes, suggesting an extraordinary capacity to degrade plant pectin barricades. The high level of synteny between the two Verticillium assemblies highlighted four flexible genomic islands in V. dahliae that are enriched for transposable elements, and contain duplicated genes and genes that are important in signaling/transcriptional regulation and iron/lipid metabolism. Coupled with an enhanced capacity to degrade plant materials, these genomic islands may contribute to the expanded genetic diversity and virulence of V. dahliae, the primary causal agent of Verticillium wilts. Significantly, our study reveals insights into the genetic mechanisms of niche adaptation of fungal wilt pathogens, advances our understanding of the evolution and development of their pathogenesis, and sheds light on potential avenues for the development of novel disease management strategies to combat destructive wilt diseases. PMID:21829347

Klosterman, Steven J.; Subbarao, Krishna V.; Kang, Seogchan; Veronese, Paola; Gold, Scott E.; Thomma, Bart P. H. J.; Chen, Zehua; Henrissat, Bernard; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Park, Jongsun; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D.; Barbara, Dez J.; Anchieta, Amy; de Jonge, Ronnie; Santhanam, Parthasarathy; Maruthachalam, Karunakaran; Atallah, Zahi; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Paz, Zahi; Inderbitzin, Patrik; Hayes, Ryan J.; Heiman, David I.; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Engels, Reinhard; Galagan, James; Cuomo, Christina A.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Ma, Li-Jun

2011-01-01

154

Fusarium graminearum Gene Deletion Mutants Map1 and tri5 Reveal Similarities and Differences in the Pathogenicity Requirements to Cause Disease on Arabidopsis and Wheat Floral Tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ascomycete pathogen Fusarium graminearum can infect all cereal species and lower grain yield, quality and safety. The fungus can also cause disease on Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, the disease-causing ability of two F. graminearum mutants was analysed to further explore the parallels between the wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Arabidopsis floral pathosystems. Wild-type F graminearum (strain PH-1) and two

Alayne Cuzick; Martin Urban; Kim Hammond-Kosack

2008-01-01

155

Genome Sequence of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis Strain NRRL 26406, a Fungus Causing Wilt Disease on Melon  

PubMed Central

Horizontal chromosome transfer introduces host-specific pathogenicity among members of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex and is responsible for some of the most destructive and intractable plant diseases. This paper reports the genome sequence of F. oxysporum f. sp. melonis (NRRL 26406), a causal agent of Fusarium wilt disease on melon. PMID:25081257

Shea, Terrance; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Kistler, H. Corby

2014-01-01

156

Wheat kernel black point and fumonisin contamination by Fusarium Proliferatum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fumonisins are mycotoxins produced by several Fusarium species, especially Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides, which are common pathogens of maize worldwide. Consumption of fumonisins has been shown to cause a number of mycotoxicoses, including leucoencephalomalacia in horses, pulmon...

157

Evidence for maintenance of sex by pathogens in plants.  

PubMed

The predominance of outcrossing despite the substantial transmission advantage of self-fertilization remains a paradox. Theory suggests that selection can favor outcrossing if it enables the production of offspring that are less susceptible to pathogen attack than offspring produced via self-fertilization. Thus, if pathogen pressure is contributing to the maintenance of outcrossing in plants, there may be a positive correlation between the number of pathogen species attacking plant species and the outcrossing rate of the plant species. We tested this hypothesis by examining the association between outcrossing rate and the number of fungal pathogen species that attack a large, taxonomically diverse set of seed plants. We show that plant species attacked by more fungal pathogen species have higher outcrossing rates than plants with fewer enemies. This relationship persists after correcting for study bias among natural and agricultural species of plants. We also accounted for the nested hierarchy of relationships among plant lineages by conducting phylogenetically independent contrasts (PICs) within genera and families that were adequately represented in our dataset. A meta-analysis of the correlation between pathogen and outcrossing PICs shows that there is a positive correlation between pathogen species number and outcrossing rates. This pattern is consistent with the hypothesis that pathogen-mediated selection may contribute to the maintenance of outcrossing in species of seed plants. PMID:15612300

Busch, Jeremiah W; Neiman, Maurine; Koslow, Jennifer M

2004-11-01

158

Targeting iron acquisition blocks infection with the fungal pathogens Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Filamentous fungi are an important cause of pulmonary and systemic morbidity and mortality, and also cause corneal blindness and visual impairment worldwide. Utilizing in vitro neutrophil killing assays and a model of fungal infection of the cornea, we demonstrated that Dectin-1 dependent IL-6 production regulates expression of iron chelators, heme and siderophore binding proteins and hepcidin in infected mice. In addition, we show that human neutrophils synthesize lipocalin-1, which sequesters fungal siderophores, and that topical lipocalin-1 or lactoferrin restricts fungal growth in vivo. Conversely, we show that exogenous iron or the xenosiderophore deferroxamine enhances fungal growth in infected mice. By examining mutant Aspergillus and Fusarium strains, we found that fungal transcriptional responses to low iron levels and extracellular siderophores are essential for fungal growth during infection. Further, we showed that targeting fungal iron acquisition or siderophore biosynthesis by topical application of iron chelators or statins reduces fungal growth in the cornea by 60% and that dual therapy with the iron chelator deferiprone and statins further restricts fungal growth by 75%. Together, these studies identify specific host iron-chelating and fungal iron-acquisition mediators that regulate fungal growth, and demonstrate that therapeutic inhibition of fungal iron acquisition can be utilized to treat topical fungal infections. PMID:23853581

Leal, Sixto M; Roy, Sanhita; Vareechon, Chairut; Carrion, Steven deJesus; Clark, Heather; Lopez-Berges, Manuel S; Di Pietro, Antonio; diPietro, Antonio; Schrettl, Marcus; Beckmann, Nicola; Redl, Bernhard; Haas, Hubertus; Pearlman, Eric

2013-01-01

159

An adaptive evolutionary shift in Fusarium head blight pathogen populations is driving the rapid spread of more toxigenic Fusarium graminerarum in North America  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Toxigenic fungi responsible for Fusarium head blight (FHB) place significant constraints on the production of cereals worldwide and contaminate grain with trichothecene mycotoxins that pose a serious threat to food safety. A fraction of the global FHB species and trichothecene chemotype diversity i...

160

Silver nanoparticle production by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum: nanoparticle characterisation and analysis of antifungal activity against pathogenic yeasts  

PubMed Central

The microbial synthesis of nanoparticles is a green chemistry approach that combines nanotechnology and microbial biotechnology. The aim of this study was to obtain silver nanoparticles (SNPs) using aqueous extract from the filamentous fungus Fusarium oxysporum as an alternative to chemical procedures and to evaluate its antifungal activity. SNPs production increased in a concentration-dependent way up to 1 mM silver nitrate until 30 days of reaction. Monodispersed and spherical SNPs were predominantly produced. After 60 days, it was possible to observe degenerated SNPs with in additional needle morphology. The SNPs showed a high antifungal activity against Candida and Cryptococcus , with minimum inhibitory concentration values ? 1.68 µg/mL for both genera. Morphological alterations of Cryptococcus neoformans treated with SNPs were observed such as disruption of the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and lost of the cytoplasm content. This work revealed that SNPs can be easily produced by F. oxysporum aqueous extracts and may be a feasible, low-cost, environmentally friendly method for generating stable and uniformly sized SNPs. Finally, we have demonstrated that these SNPs are active against pathogenic fungi, such as Candida and Cryptococcus . PMID:24714966

Ishida, Kelly; Cipriano, Talita Ferreira; Rocha, Gustavo Miranda; Weissmüller, Gilberto; Gomes, Fabio; Miranda, Kildare; Rozental, Sonia

2013-01-01

161

RESPONSE OF PLANT PATHOGENS AND HERBIVORES TO A WARMING EXPERIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pathogens and herbivores can severely reduce host fitness, potentially leading to altered succession rates and changes in plant community composition. Thus, to predict vegetation dynamics under climate change, it is necessary to understand how plant path- ogens and herbivores will respond. Pathogens and herbivores are predicted to increase under climate warming because the amount of time available for growth and

Bitty A. Roy; Sabine Güsewell; John Harte

2004-01-01

162

Coevolution of Plants and Their Pathogens in Natural Habitats  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Understanding of plant-pathogen coevolution in natural systems continues to develop as new theories at the population and species level are increasingly informed by studies unraveling the molecular basis of interactions between individual plants and their pathogens.

Jeremy J. Burdon (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)âÂÂPlant Industry;); Peter H. Thrall (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO)âÂÂPlant Industry;)

2009-05-08

163

Plant Pathogens in Irrigation Water: Challenges and Opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant pathogens in irrigation water were recognized early in the last century as a significant crop health issue. This issue has increased greatly in scope and degree of impact since that time and it will continue to be a problem as agriculture increasingly depends on the use of recycled water. Plant pathogens detected from water resources include 17 species of

C. X. Hong; G. W. Moorman

2005-01-01

164

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change  

E-print Network

Emerging infectious diseases of plants: pathogen pollution, climate change and agrotechnology, Boston, MA 02115, USA Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) pose threats to conservation and public health for the surveillance and control of plant EIDs. Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are caused by pathogens that: (i

Schweik, Charles M.

165

Plant immunity: towards an integrated view of plant–pathogen interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are engaged in a continuous co-evolutionary struggle for dominance with their pathogens. The outcomes of these interactions are of particular importance to human activities, as they can have dramatic effects on agricultural systems. The recent convergence of molecular studies of plant immunity and pathogen infection strategies is revealing an integrated picture of the plant–pathogen interaction from the perspective of

Peter N. Dodds; John P. Rathjen

2010-01-01

166

Control of soilborne plant pathogens by incorporating fresh organic amendments followed by tarping.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT A new method for the control of soilborne plant pathogens was tested for its efficacy in two field experiments during two years. Plots were amended with fresh broccoli or grass (3.4 to 4.0 kg fresh weight m(-2)) or left nonamended, and covered with an airtight plastic cover (0.135 mm thick) or left noncovered. In plots amended with broccoli or grass and covered with plastic sheeting, anaerobic and strongly reducing soil conditions developed quickly, as indicated by rapid depletion of oxygen and a decrease in redox potential values to as low as -200 mV. After 15 weeks, survival of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. asparagi, Rhizoctonia solani, and Verticillium dahliae in inoculum samples buried 15 cm deep was strongly reduced in amended, covered plots in both experiments. The pathogens were not or hardly inactivated in amended, noncovered soil or nonamended, covered soil. The latter indicates that thermal inactivation due to increased soil temperatures under the plastic cover was not involved in pathogen inactivation. The results show the potential for this approach to control various soilborne pathogens and that it may serve as an alternative to chemical soil disinfestation for high-value crops under conditions where other alternatives, such as solarization or soil flooding, are not effective or not feasible. PMID:18944617

Blok, W J; Lamers, J G; Termorshuizen, A J; Bollen, G J

2000-03-01

167

Multilocus Genotyping and Molecular Phylogenetics Resolve a Novel Head Blight Pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Ethiopia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...

168

PATHOGENICITY AND IN PLANTA MYCOTOXIN ACCUMULATION AMONG MEMBERS OF THE FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM SPECIES COMPLEX ON WHEAT AND RICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB), or scab, is a destructive disease of small grains caused by members of the Fusarium graminearum (Fg) species complex, comprised of at least nine distinct, cryptic species. Members of this complex are known to produce mycotoxins including the trichothecenes deoxynivalenol ...

169

Tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of plant pathogenic fungi and the effects of database composition on protein inferences  

PubMed Central

LC-MS/MS has demonstrated potential for detecting plant pathogens. Unlike PCR or ELISA, LC-MS/MS does not require pathogen-specific reagents for the detection of pathogen-specific proteins and peptides. However, the MS/MS approach we and others have explored does require a protein sequence reference database and database-search software to interpret tandem mass spectra. To evaluate the limitations of database composition on pathogen identification, we analyzed proteins from cultured Ustilago maydis, Phytophthora sojae, Fusarium graminearum, and Rhizoctonia solani by LC-MS/MS. When the search database did not contain sequences for a target pathogen, or contained sequences to related pathogens, target pathogen spectra were reliably matched to protein sequences from nontarget organisms, giving an illusion that proteins from nontarget organisms were identified. Our analysis demonstrates that when database-search software is used as part of the identification process, a paradox exists whereby additional sequences needed to detect a wide variety of possible organisms may lead to more cross-species protein matches and misidentification of pathogens. PMID:17922518

Padliya, Neerav D.; Garrett, Wesley M.; Campbell, Kimberly B.; Tabb, David L.; Cooper, Bret

2010-01-01

170

Highly Diverse Endophytic and Soil Fusarium oxysporum Populations Associated with Field-Grown Tomato Plants.  

PubMed

The diversity and genetic differentiation of populations of Fusarium oxysporum associated with tomato fields, both endophytes obtained from tomato plants and isolates obtained from soil surrounding the sampled plants, were investigated. A total of 609 isolates of F. oxysporum were obtained, 295 isolates from a total of 32 asymptomatic tomato plants in two fields and 314 isolates from eight soil cores sampled from the area surrounding the plants. Included in this total were 112 isolates from the stems of all 32 plants, a niche that has not been previously included in F. oxysporum population genetics studies. Isolates were characterized using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1? gene. A diverse population of 26 sequence types was found, although two sequence types represented nearly two-thirds of the isolates studied. The sequence types were placed in different phylogenetic clades within F. oxysporum, and endophytic isolates were not monophyletic. Multiple sequence types were found in all plants, with an average of 4.2 per plant. The population compositions differed between the two fields but not between soil samples within each field. A certain degree of differentiation was observed between populations associated with different tomato cultivars, suggesting that the host genotype may affect the composition of plant-associated F. oxysporum populations. No clear patterns of genetic differentiation were observed between endophyte populations and soil populations, suggesting a lack of specialization of endophytic isolates. PMID:25304514

Demers, Jill E; Gugino, Beth K; Jiménez-Gasco, María Del Mar

2015-01-01

171

Bacterial pathogen phytosensing in transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants.  

PubMed

Plants are subject to attack by a wide range of phytopathogens. Current pathogen detection methods and technologies are largely constrained to those occurring post-symptomatically. Recent efforts were made to generate plant sentinels (phytosensors) that can be used for sensing and reporting pathogen contamination in crops. Engineered phytosensors indicating the presence of plant pathogens as early-warning sentinels potentially have tremendous utility as wide-area detectors. We previously showed that synthetic promoters containing pathogen and/or defence signalling inducible cis-acting regulatory elements (RE) fused to a fluorescent protein (FP) reporter could detect phytopathogenic bacteria in a transient phytosensing system. Here, we further advanced this phytosensing system by developing stable transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants containing candidate constructs. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was examined in response to biotic (bacterial pathogens) or chemical (plant signal molecules salicylic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate) treatments using stably transgenic plants. The treated plants were visualized using epifluorescence microscopy and quantified using spectrofluorometry for FP synthesis upon induction. Time-course analyses of FP synthesis showed that both transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants were capable to respond in predictable ways to pathogen and chemical treatments. These results provide insights into the potential applications of transgenic plants as phytosensors and the implementation of emerging technologies for monitoring plant disease outbreaks in agricultural fields. PMID:23121613

Liu, Wusheng; Mazarei, Mitra; Rudis, Mary R; Fethe, Michael H; Peng, Yanhui; Millwood, Reginald J; Schoene, Gisele; Burris, Jason N; Stewart, C Neal

2013-01-01

172

The AMT1 arginine methyltransferase gene is important for plant infection and normal hyphal growth in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Arginine methylation of non-histone proteins by protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) has been shown to be important for various biological processes from yeast to human. Although PRMT genes are well conserved in fungi, none of them have been functionally characterized in plant pathogenic ascomycetes. In this study, we identified and characterized all of the four predicted PRMT genes in Fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat and barley. Whereas deletion of the other three PRMT genes had no obvious phenotypes, the ?amt1 mutant had pleiotropic defects. AMT1 is a predicted type I PRMT gene that is orthologous to HMT1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The ?amt1 mutant was slightly reduced in vegetative growth but normal in asexual and sexual reproduction. It had increased sensitivities to oxidative and membrane stresses. DON mycotoxin production and virulence on flowering wheat heads also were reduced in the ?amt1 mutant. The introduction of the wild-type AMT1 allele fully complemented the defects of the ?amt1 mutant and Amt1-GFP fusion proteins mainly localized to the nucleus. Hrp1 and Nab2 are two hnRNPs in yeast that are methylated by Hmt1 for nuclear export. In F. graminearum, AMT1 is required for the nuclear export of FgHrp1 but not FgNab2, indicating that yeast and F. graminearum differ in the methylation and nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of hnRNP components. Because AMT2 also is a predicted type I PRMT with limited homology to yeast HMT1, we generated the ?amt1 ?amt2 double mutants. The ?amt1 single and ?amt1 ?amt2 double mutants had similar defects in all the phenotypes assayed, including reduced vegetative growth and virulence. Overall, data from this systematic analysis of PRMT genes suggest that AMT1, like its ortholog in yeast, is the predominant PRMT gene in F. graminearum and plays a role in hyphal growth, stress responses, and plant infection. PMID:22693618

Wang, Guanghui; Wang, Chenfang; Hou, Rui; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Guotian; Zhang, Shijie; Xu, Jin-Rong

2012-01-01

173

Genomic variability as a driver of plant-pathogen coevolution?  

PubMed

Pathogens apply one of the strongest selective pressures in plant populations. Understanding plant-pathogen coevolution has therefore been a major research focus for at least sixty years [1]. Recent comparative genomic studies have revealed that the genes involved in plant defense and pathogen virulence are among the most polymorphic in the respective genomes. Which fraction of this diversity influences the host-pathogen interaction? Do coevolutionary dynamics maintain variation? Here we review recent literature on the evolutionary and molecular processes that shape this variation, focusing primarily on gene-for-gene interactions. In summarizing theoretical and empirical studies of the processes that shape this variation in natural plant and pathogen populations, we find a disconnect between the complexity of ecological interactions involving hosts and their myriad microbes, and the models that describe them. PMID:24491596

Karasov, Talia L; Horton, Matthew W; Bergelson, Joy

2014-04-01

174

Plant–pathogen interactions and elevated CO2: morphological changes in favour of pathogens  

PubMed Central

Crop losses caused by pests and weeds have been estimated at 42% worldwide, with plant pathogens responsible for almost $10 billion worth of damage in the USA in 1994 alone. Elevated carbon dioxide [ECO2] and associated climate change have the potential to accelerate plant pathogen evolution, which may, in turn, affect virulence. Plant–pathogen interactions under increasing CO2 concentrations have the potential to disrupt both agricultural and natural systems severely, yet the lack of experimental data and the subsequent ability to predict future outcomes constitutes a fundamental knowledge gap. Furthermore, nothing is known about the mechanistic bases of increasing pathogen agressiveness. In the absence of information on crop species, it is shown here that plant pathogen (Erysiphe cichoracearum) aggressiveness is increased under ECO2, together with changes in the leaf epidermal characteristics of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana L. Stomatal density, guard cell length, and trichome numbers on leaves developing post-infection are increased under ECO2 in direct contrast to non-infected responses. As many plant pathogens utilize epidermal features for successful infection, these responses provide a positive feedback mechanism facilitating an enhanced susceptibility of newly developed leaves to further pathogen attack. Furthermore, a screen of resistant and susceptible ecotypes suggest inherent differences in epidermal responses to ECO2. PMID:19470658

Lake, Janice Ann; Wade, Ruth Nicola

2009-01-01

175

Screenhouse and field persistence of nonpathogenic endophytic Fusarium oxysporum in Musa tissue culture plants.  

PubMed

Two major biotic constraints to highland cooking banana (Musa spp., genome group AAA-EA) production in Uganda are the banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus and the burrowing nematode Radopholus similis. Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets have shown control of the banana weevil and the nematode. We conducted screenhouse and field experiments to investigate persistence in the roots and rhizome of two endophytic Fusarium oxysporum strains, V2w2 and III4w1, inoculated into tissue-culture banana plantlets of highland cooking banana cultivars Kibuzi and Nabusa. Re-isolation of F. oxysporum showed that endophyte colonization decreased faster from the rhizomes than from the roots of inoculated plants, both in the screenhouse and in the field. Whereas rhizome colonization by F. oxysporum decreased in the screenhouse (4-16 weeks after inoculation), root colonization did not. However, in the field (17-33 weeks after inoculation), a decrease was observed in both rhizome and root colonization. The results show a better persistence in the roots than rhizomes of endophytic F. oxysporum strains V2w2 and III4w1. PMID:18058162

Paparu, Pamela; Dubois, Thomas; Gold, Clifford S; Niere, Björn; Adipala, Ekwamu; Coyne, Daniel

2008-04-01

176

Keratitis by Fusarium temperatum , a novel opportunist.  

PubMed

Background Fusarium species are among the most common fungi present in the environment and some species have emerged as major opportunistic fungal infection in human. However, in immunocompromised hosts they can be virulent pathogens and can cause death. The pathogenesis of this infection relies on three factors: colonization, tissue damage, and immunosuppression. A novel Fusarium species is reported for the first time from keratitis in an agriculture worker who acquired the infection from plant material of maize. Maize plants are the natural host of this fungus where it causes stalk rot and seeding malformation under temperate and humid climatic conditions. The clinical manifestation, microbiological morphology, physiological features and molecular data are described.MethodsDiagnosis was established by using polymerase chain reaction of fungal DNA followed by sequencing portions of translation elongation factor 1 alpha (TEF1 ż) and beta-tubulin (BT2) genes. Susceptibility profiles of this fungus were evaluated using CLSI broth microdilution method.ResultsThe analyses of these two genes sequences support a novel opportunist with the designation Fusarium temperatum. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the reported clinical isolate was nested within the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex. Antifungal susceptibility testing demonstrated that the fungus had low MICs of micafungin (0.031 żg/ml), posaconazole (0.25 żg/ml) and amphotericin B (0.5 żg/ml).ConclusionThe present case extends the significance of the genus Fusarium as agents of keratitis and underscores the utility of molecular verification of these emerging fungi in the human host. PMID:25388601

Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S; Bonifaz, Alexandro; de Hoog, G; Vazquez-Maya, Leticia; Garcia-Carmona, Karla; Meis, Jacques F; van Diepeningen, Anne D

2014-11-12

177

PLEXdb: gene expression resources for plants and plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

PLEXdb (http://www.plexdb.org), in partnership with community databases, supports comparisons of gene expression across multiple plant and pathogen species, promoting individuals and/or consortia to upload genome-scale data sets to contrast them to previously archived data. These analyses facilitate the interpretation of structure, function and regulation of genes in economically important plants. A list of Gene Atlas experiments highlights data sets that give responses across different developmental stages, conditions and tissues. Tools at PLEXdb allow users to perform complex analyses quickly and easily. The Model Genome Interrogator (MGI) tool supports mapping gene lists onto corresponding genes from model plant organisms, including rice and Arabidopsis. MGI predicts homologies, displays gene structures and supporting information for annotated genes and full-length cDNAs. The gene list-processing wizard guides users through PLEXdb functions for creating, analyzing, annotating and managing gene lists. Users can upload their own lists or create them from the output of PLEXdb tools, and then apply diverse higher level analyses, such as ANOVA and clustering. PLEXdb also provides methods for users to track how gene expression changes across many different experiments using the Gene OscilloScope. This tool can identify interesting expression patterns, such as up-regulation under diverse conditions or checking any gene’s suitability as a steady-state control. PMID:22084198

Dash, Sudhansu; Van Hemert, John; Hong, Lu; Wise, Roger P.; Dickerson, Julie A.

2012-01-01

178

Plant pathogens and integrated defence responses to infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants cannot move to escape environmental challenges. Biotic stresses result from a battery of potential pathogens: fungi, bacteria, nematodes and insects intercept the photosynthate produced by plants, and viruses use replication machinery at the host's expense. Plants, in turn, have evolved sophisticated mechanisms to perceive such attacks, and to translate that perception into an adaptive response. Here, we review the

Jeffery L. Dangl; Jonathan D. G. Jones

2001-01-01

179

Silicon and plant disease resistance against pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silicon (Si) is a bioactive element associated with beneficial effects on mechanical and physiological properties of plants. Silicon alleviates abiotic and biotic stresses, and increases the resistance of plants to pathogenic fungi. Several studies have suggested that Si activates plant defense mechanisms, yet the exact nature of the interaction between the element and biochemical pathways leading to resistance remains unclear.

James G. Menzies; Richard R. Bélanger

2005-01-01

180

Antifungal activity of nettle (Urtica dioica L.), colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), oleander (Nerium oleander L.) and konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) extracts on plants pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Anti-mycotic activity of the ethanol extracts from Nettle (Urtica dioica L.), Colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis L. Schrad), Konar (Ziziphus spina-christi L.) and Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) floral parts were screened in vitro against four important plant pathogenic fungi viz.; Alternaria alternate, Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Rizoctonia solani using agar dilution bioassay. Extracts showed antifungal activity against all the tested fungi. Among the plants, Nettle and Colocynth were the most effective against A. alternate and R. solani while Oleander possesses the best inhibition on F. oxysporum and F. solani. Konar was the most effective extract by reducing the growth of Rizoctonia solani than other fungi. These results showed that extracts could be considered suitable alternatives to chemical additives for the control of fungal diseases in plants. PMID:19579919

Hadizadeh, I; Peivastegan, B; Kolahi, M

2009-01-01

181

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea on avocado and other plant hosts.  

PubMed

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses, as evidenced by the 11 independent origins and 3500 species of ambrosia beetles. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusual in that some are plant pathogens that cause significant damage in naďve natural and cultivated ecosystems, and currently threaten avocado production in the United States, Israel and Australia. Most AFC fusaria produce unusual clavate macroconidia that serve as a putative food source for their insect mutualists. AFC symbionts were abundant in the heads of four Euwallacea spp., which suggests that they are transported within and from the natal gallery in mandibular mycangia. In a four-locus phylogenetic analysis, the AFC was resolved in a strongly supported monophyletic group within the previously described Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC). Divergence-time estimates place the origin of the AFC in the early Miocene ?21.2 Mya, which coincides with the hypothesized adaptive radiation of the Xyleborini. Two strongly supported clades within the AFC (Clades A and B) were identified that include nine species lineages associated with ambrosia beetles, eight with Euwallacea spp. and one reportedly with Xyleborus ferrugineus, and two lineages with no known beetle association. More derived lineages within the AFC showed fixation of the clavate (club-shaped) macroconidial trait, while basal lineages showed a mix of clavate and more typical fusiform macroconidia. AFC lineages consisted mostly of genetically identical individuals associated with specific insect hosts in defined geographic locations, with at least three interspecific hybridization events inferred based on discordant placement in individual gene genealogies and detection of recombinant loci. Overall, these data are consistent with a strong evolutionary trend toward obligate symbiosis coupled with secondary contact and interspecific hybridization. PMID:23608321

Kasson, Matthew T; O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Sink, Stacy; Ploetz, Randy C; Ploetz, Jill N; Konkol, Joshua L; Carrillo, Daniel; Freeman, Stanley; Mendel, Zvi; Smith, Jason A; Black, Adam W; Hulcr, Jiri; Bateman, Craig; Stefkova, Kristyna; Campbell, Paul R; Geering, Andrew D W; Dann, Elizabeth K; Eskalen, Akif; Mohotti, Keerthi; Short, Dylan P G; Aoki, Takayuki; Fenstermacher, Kristi A; Davis, Donald D; Geiser, David M

2013-07-01

182

Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion  

PubMed Central

Why do some exotic plant species become invasive? Two common hypotheses, increased resource availability and enemy release, may more effectively explain invasion if they favor the same species, and therefore act in concert. This would be expected if plant species adapted to high levels of available resources in their native range are particularly susceptible to enemies, and therefore benefit most from a paucity of enemies in their new range. We tested this possibility by examining how resource adaptations influence pathogen richness and release among 243 European plant species naturalized in the United States. Plant species adapted to higher resource availability hosted more pathogen species in their native range. Plants from mesic environments hosted more fungi than plants from xeric environments, and plants from nitrogen-rich environments hosted more viruses than plants from nitrogen-poor environments. Furthermore, plants classified as competitors hosted more than 4 times as many fungi and viruses as did stress tolerators. Patterns of enemy release mirrored those of pathogen richness: competitors and species from mesic and nitrogen-rich environments were released from many pathogen species, while stress tolerators and species from xeric and nitrogen-poor environments were released from relatively few pathogen species. These results suggest that enemy release contributes most to invasion by fast-growing species adapted to resource-rich environments. Consequently, enemy release and increases in resource availability may act synergistically to favor exotic over native species. PMID:19416888

Blumenthal, Dana; Mitchell, Charles E.; Pyšek, Petr; Jarošík, Vojt?ch

2009-01-01

183

The plant pathogen Phytophthora andina emerged via hybridization of an unknown Phytophthora species and the Irish famine pathogen, P. infestans  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The global movement of plant pathogens threatens natural ecosystems, food security, and commercial interests. Introduction of a plant pathogen to new geographic regions has been the primary mechanism by which new pathogens have emerged. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathoge...

184

Biogeography and phylogeography of Fusarium : a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium is a large, complex genus that causes a wide variety of plant diseases, produces a number of mycotoxins and is becoming increasingly\\u000a recognized as a significant human pathogen. These fungi occur in ecosystems in all parts of the globe, which makes them useful\\u000a as a model to better understand biogeographic processes affecting the distribution of fungi. Here we review

Brett A. Summerell; Matthew H. Laurence; Edward C. Y. Liew; John F. Leslie

2010-01-01

185

Recognition of bacterial plant pathogens: local, systemic and transgenerational immunity.  

PubMed

Bacterial pathogens can cause multiple plant diseases and plants rely on their innate immune system to recognize and actively respond to these microbes. The plant innate immune system comprises extracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial patterns and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize specific bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Plants lack the adaptive immune branch present in animals, but still afford flexibility to pathogen attack through systemic and transgenerational resistance. Here, we focus on current research in plant immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Recent studies shed light onto the activation and inactivation of pattern recognition receptors and systemic acquired resistance. New research has also uncovered additional layers of complexity surrounding NLR immune receptor activation, cooperation and sub-cellular localizations. Taken together, these recent advances bring us closer to understanding the web of molecular interactions responsible for coordinating defense responses and ultimately resistance. PMID:23909802

Henry, Elizabeth; Yadeta, Koste A; Coaker, Gitta

2013-09-01

186

Recognition of bacterial plant pathogens: local, systemic and transgenerational immunity  

PubMed Central

Summary Bacterial pathogens can cause multiple plant diseases and plants rely on their innate immune system to recognize and actively respond to these microbes. The plant innate immune system is comprised of extracellular pattern recognition receptors that recognize conserved microbial patterns and intracellular nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) proteins that recognize specific bacterial effectors delivered into host cells. Plants lack the adaptive immune branch present in animals, but still afford flexibility to pathogen attack through systemic and transgenerational resistance. Here, we focus on current research in plant immune responses against bacterial pathogens. Recent studies shed light onto the activation and inactivation of pattern recognition receptors and systemic acquired resistance. New research has also uncovered additional layers of complexity surrounding NLR immune receptor activation, cooperation, and sub-cellular localizations. Taken together, these recent advances bring us closer to understanding the web of inter-molecular interactions responsible for coordinating defense responses and ultimately resistance. PMID:23909802

Henry, Elizabeth; Yadeta, Koste A.; Coaker, Gitta

2013-01-01

187

GLOBAL GENE EXPRESSION DURING PLANT INFECTION AND TOXIN BIOSYNTHESIS IN FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

To understand trichothecene accumulation and the infection cycle of the head blight pathogen F. graminearum sensu stricto, fungal gene expression profiles were monitored during plant infection using the F. graminearum Affymetrix GeneChip. Strains containing mutations in genes for three transcription...

188

A Ligand-Receptor Mechanism in Plant-Pathogen Recognition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Two reports in this issue (p. 2060 and p. 2063) illustrate the molecular mechanism underlying the specificity of plant pathogens for certain plant species. In his Perspective, Lamb explains what these results teach us about signal transduction pathways in plants and how they provide a new tool for engineering crop plants.

Chris Lamb (Salk Institute for Biological Studies;Plant Biology Laboratory)

1996-12-20

189

Unravelling the Microbiome of Eggs of the Endangered Sea Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata Identifies Bacteria with Activity against the Emerging Pathogen Fusarium falciforme  

PubMed Central

Habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. For both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. Here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species Eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen Fusarium falciforme. Metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities associated with the shells of the sea turtle eggs revealed approximately 16,664 operational taxonomic units, with Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes as the most dominant phyla. Subsequent isolation of Actinobacteria from the eggshells led to the identification of several genera (Streptomyces, Amycolaptosis, Micromomospora Plantactinospora and Solwaraspora) that inhibit hyphal growth of the pathogen F. falciforme. These bacterial genera constitute a first set of microbial indicators to evaluate the potential role of microbiota in conservation of endangered sea turtle species. PMID:24743166

Sarmiento-Ramírez, Jullie M.; van der Voort, Menno; Raaijmakers, Jos M.; Diéguez-Uribeondo, Javier

2014-01-01

190

Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.  

PubMed

The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection. PMID:19259463

Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

2006-12-01

191

The effect of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on interactions between plant roots, arbuscular-mycorrhizal and pathogenic fungi  

SciTech Connect

Of all effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on plants and ecosystems, the least is known about plant rhizosphere responses. Rhizosphere fungi are fed primarily by root-derived substrates, and fulfill functions such as immobilization, decomposition, pathogeneity, and improvement of plant nutrition. This study describes the effect of elevated CO{sub 2} on the interaction between the pathogen Fusarium solani and the AM fungus Glomus intraradices in the rhizosphere of Artemisia tridentata. We measured intraradical infection and extraradical growth by the two fungi under elevated and ambient CO{sub 2} concentrations. We found a strong interaction between the two fungi. Root infection by and extraradical hyphal length of solani did not differ significantly between CO{sub 2} treatments in the presence of G. intraradices. In the absence of G. intraradices, however, infection by F. solani and its extraradical hyphal length increased under elevated CO{sub 2}. Our results indicate that pathogenic fungi do respond to elevated CO{sub 2} by increased hyphal growth and root infection (potential response), but also show that mycorrhizal fungi can profit more from the new conditions and serve to suppress the pathogen.

Rillig, M.C.; Klironomos, J.N.; Allen, M.F. [San Diego State Univ., CA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-01

192

Emerging Plant Pathogenic Bacteria and Global Warming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several bacteria, previously classified as non-fluorescent, oxidase positive pseudomonads, Ralstonia, Acidovorax, and Burkholdria have emerged as serious problems world-wide. Perhaps the most destructive is R. solanacearum (RS), a soilborne pathogen with a very wide host range. RS race 3, biovar 2...

193

Fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium spp. However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi. Beauveria produces an array of bioactive metabolit...

194

Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion  

E-print Network

Synergy between pathogen release and resource availability in plant invasion Dana Blumenthala,1Department of Ecology, Faculty of Science, Charles University Prague, Vinicna´ 7, CZ-128 44 Prague, Czech Republic for review December 10, 2008) Why do some exotic plant species become invasive? Two common hypotheses

Crews, Stephen

195

How Do Filamentous Pathogens Deliver Effector Proteins into Plant Cells?  

PubMed Central

Fungal and oomycete plant parasites are among the most devastating pathogens of food crops. These microbes secrete effector proteins inside plant cells to manipulate host processes and facilitate colonization. How these effectors reach the host cytoplasm remains an unclear and debated area of plant research. In this article, we examine recent conflicting findings that have generated discussion in the field. We also highlight promising approaches based on studies of both parasite and host during infection. Ultimately, this knowledge may inform future broad spectrum strategies for protecting crops from such pathogens. PMID:24586116

Petre, Benjamin; Kamoun, Sophien

2014-01-01

196

Enzyme-inhibitor interactions at the plant-pathogen interface.  

PubMed

The plant apoplast during plant-pathogen interactions is an ancient battleground that holds an intriguing range of attacking enzymes and counteracting inhibitors. Examples are pathogen xylanases and polygalacturonases that are inhibited by plant proteins like TAXI, XIP, and PGIP; and plant glucanases and proteases, which are targeted by pathogen proteins such as GIP1, EPI1, EPIC2B, and AVR2. These seven well-characterized inhibitors have different modes of action and many probably evolved from inactive enzymes themselves. Detailed studies of the structures, sequence variation, and mutated proteins uncovered molecular struggles between these enzymes and their inhibitors, resulting in positive selection for variant residues at the contact surface, where single residues determine the outcome of the interaction. PMID:18550418

Misas-Villamil, Johana C; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

2008-08-01

197

Genome sequence of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. It is a model system for the dissection of molecular determinants governing pathogenicity. We present here the complete genome sequence and its analysis of strain GMI1000. The 5.8-megabase (Mb) genome is organized into two replicons: a 3.7-Mb chromosome and a 2.1-Mb megaplasmid.

M. Salanoubat; S. Genin; F. Artiguenave; J. Gouzy; S. Mangenot; M. Arlat; A. Billault; P. Brottier; J. C. Camus; L. Cattolico; M. Chandler; N. Choisne; C. Claudel-Renard; S. Cunnac; N. Demange; C. Gaspin; M. Lavie; A. Moisan; C. Robert; W. Saurin; T. Schiex; P. Siguier; P. Thébault; M. Whalen; P. Wincker; M. Levy; J. Weissenbach; C. A. Boucher

2002-01-01

198

Transgenically enhanced expression of indole-3-acetic Acid confers hypervirulence to plant pathogens.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium oxysporum and F. arthrosporioides, pathogenic on Orobanche aegyptiaca, were transformed with two genes of the indole-3-acetamide (IAM) pathway leading to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) to attempt to enhance virulence. Transgenic F. oxysporum lines containing both the tryptophan-2-monooxyngenase (iaaM) and indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (iaaH) genes produced significantly more IAA than the wild type. IAM accumulated in culture extracts of F. oxysporum containing iaaM alone. F. arthrosporioides containing only iaaM accumulated IAM and an unidentified indole. Some transformants of F. oxysporum expressing only the iaaM gene also produced more IAA than the wild type. Sub-threshold levels (that barely infect Orobanche) of transgenic F. oxysporum expressing both genes and of F. arthrosporioides expressing iaaM were more effective in suppressing the number and size of Orobanche shoots than the wild type on tomato plants grown in soil mixed with Orobanche seed. Stimulating an auxin imbalance enhanced pathogen virulence by affecting the host in a manner similar to low doses of auxin herbicides such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid. PMID:18944254

Cohen, Barry A; Amsellem, Ziva; Maor, Rudy; Sharon, Amir; Gressel, Jonathan

2002-06-01

199

Pathogenic amoebae in power-plant cooling lakes. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Cooling waters and associated algae and sediments from four northern and four southern/western electric power plants were tested for the presence of pathogenic amoebae. Unheated control waters and algae/sediments from four northern and five southern/western sites were also tested. When comparing results from the test versus control sites, a significantly higher proportion (P less than or equal to 0.05) of the samples from the test sites were positive for thermophilic amoeba, thermophilic Naegleria and pathogenic Naegleria. The difference in number of samples positive for thermophilic Naegleria between heated and unheated waters, however, was attributable predominantly to the northern waters and algae/sediments. While two of four northern test sites yielded pathogenic Naegleria, seven of the eight isolates were obtained from one site. Seasonality effects relative to the isolation of the pathogen were also noted at this site. One pathogen was isolated from a southwestern test site. Pathogens were not isolated from any control sites. Some of the pathogenic isolates were analyzed serologically and classified as pathogenic Naegleria fowleri. Salinity, pH, conductivity, and bacteriological profiles did not obviously correlate with the presence or absence of pathogenic Naegleria. While thermal addition was significantly associated with the presence of thermophilic Naegleria (P less than or equal to 0.05), the data implicate other as yet undefined parameters associated with the presence of the pathogenic thermophile. Until further delineation of these parameters is effected, generalizations cannot be made concerning the effect of thermal impact on the growth of pathogenic amoeba in a particular cooling system.

Tyndall, R.L.; Willaert, E.; Stevens, A.R.

1981-06-01

200

IAA-producing Penicillium sp. NICS01 triggers plant growth and suppresses Fusarium sp.-induced oxidative stress in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).  

PubMed

Application of rhizospheric fungi is an effective and environmentally friendly method of improving plant growth and controlling many plant diseases. The current study was aimed to identify phytohormone-producing fungi from soil, to understand their roles in sesame plant growth, and to control Fusarium disease. Three predominant fungi (PNF1, PNF2, and PNF3) isolated from the rhizospheric soil of peanut plants were screened for their growth-promoting efficiency on sesame seedlings. Among these isolates, PNF2 significantly increased the shoot length and fresh weight of seedlings compared with controls. Analysis of the fungal culture filtrate showed a higher concentration of indole acetic acid in PNF2 than in the other isolates. PNF2 was identified as Penicillium sp. on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. The in vitro biocontrol activity of Penicillium sp. against Fusarium sp. was exhibited by a 49% inhibition of mycelial growth in a dual culture bioassay and by hyphal injuries as observed by scanning electron microscopy. In addition, greenhouse experiments revealed that Fusarium inhibited growth in sesame plants by damaging lipid membranes and reducing protein content. Co-cultivation with Penicillium sp. mitigated Fusarium-induced oxidative stress in sesame plants by limiting membrane lipid peroxidation, and by increasing the protein concentration, levels of antioxidants such as total polyphenols, and peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. Thus, our findings suggest that Penicillium sp. is a potent plant growthpromoting fungus that has the ability to ameliorate damage caused by Fusarium infection in sesame cultivation. PMID:23676921

Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Shim, Kang-Bo; Lee, Byeong-Won; Hwang, Chung-Dong; Pae, Suk-Bok; Park, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Up; Lee, Choon-Ki; Baek, In-Youl

2013-06-28

201

Development of TaqMan assays for the quantitative detection of Fusarium avenaceum/Fusarium tricinctum and Fusarium poae esyn1 genotypes from cereal grain.  

PubMed

Fungi of the genus Fusarium are important plant pathogens and contaminants of cereal grains producing different types of mycotoxins. Enniatins are a group of mycotoxins with ionophoric properties frequently detected in North European grains. Within the Fusarium complex responsible for grain infection, Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium poae and Fusarium tricinctum are the most potential enniatins producers. This study presents the development of two quantitative TaqMan MGB (Minor Groove Binder) assays for the specific quantification of F. avenaceum/F. tricinctum and F. poae esyn1 genotypes, respectively. Two sets of genotype-specific primers/probes were designed on the basis of esyn1 gene homologues encoding multifunctional enzyme enniatin synthetase. The specificity of the assays developed has been tested successfully on 111 Fusarium isolates from different geographical origins. The detection limits for F. avenaceum/F. tricinctum esyn1 genotype and F. poae genotype were 19 and 0.3?pg, respectively. The application of the assays developed on asymptomatic wheat grain samples revealed significant positive correlations between the enniatins levels and the amount of F. avenaceum/F. tricinctum esyn1 genotype (R=0.61) and F. poae esyn1 genotype (R=0.42). PMID:21059180

Kulik, Tomasz; Jestoi, Marika; Okorski, Adam

2011-01-01

202

New grower-friendly methods for plant pathogen monitoring.  

PubMed

Accurate plant disease diagnoses and rapid detection and identification of plant pathogens are of utmost importance for controlling plant diseases and mitigating the economic losses they incur. Technological advances have increasingly simplified the tools available for the identification of pathogens to the extent that, in some cases, this can be done directly by growers and producers themselves. Commercially available immunoprinting kits and lateral flow devices (LFDs) for detection of selected plant pathogens are among the first tools of what can be considered grower-friendly pathogen monitoring methods. Research efforts, spurned on by point-of-care needs in the medical field, are paving the way for the further development of on-the-spot diagnostics and multiplex technologies in plant pathology. Grower-friendly methods need to be practical, robust, readily available, and cost-effective. Such methods are not restricted to on-the-spot testing but extend to laboratory services, which are sometimes more practicable for growers, extension agents, regulators, and other users of diagnostic tests. PMID:22607454

De Boer, Solke H; López, María M

2012-01-01

203

Identification of a cis-acting factor modulating the transcription of FUM1, a key fumonisin-biosynthetic gene in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

Fumonisins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Fusarium spp. and Aspergillus niger, have strong agro-economic and health impacts. The genes needed for their biosynthesis, named FUM, are clustered and co-expressed in fumonisin producers. In eukaryotes, coordination of transcription can be attained through shared transcription factors, whose specificity relies on the recognition of cis-regulatory elements on target promoters. A bioinformatic analysis on FUM promoters in the maize pathogens Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger identified a degenerated, over-represented motif potentially involved in the cis-regulation of FUM genes, and of fumonisin biosynthesis. The same motif was not found in various FUM homologues of fungi that do not produce fumonisins. Comparison of the transcriptional strength of the intact FUM1 promoter with a synthetic version, where the motif had been mutated, was carried out in vivo and in planta for F. verticillioides. The results showed that the motif is important for efficient transcription of the FUM1 gene. PMID:23219667

Montis, V; Pasquali, M; Visentin, I; Karlovsky, P; Cardinale, F

2013-02-01

204

The potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in the bioprotection of plants against soil-borne pathogens in organic and/or other sustainable farming systems.  

PubMed

Sustainable farming systems strive to minimise the use of synthetic pesticides and to optimise the use of alternative management strategies to control soil-borne pathogens. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are ubiquitous in nature and constitute an integral component of terrestrial ecosystems, forming symbiotic associations with plant root systems of over 80% of all terrestrial plant species, including many agronomically important species. AM fungi are particularly important in organic and/or sustainable farming systems that rely on biological processes rather than agrochemicals to control plant diseases. Of particular importance is the bioprotection conferred to plants against many soil-borne pathogens such as species of Aphanomyces, Cylindrocladium, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Phytophthora, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinium, Verticillium and Thielaviopsis and various nematodes by AM fungal colonisation of the plant root. However, the exact mechanisms by which AM fungal colonisation confers the protective effect are not completely understood, but a greater understanding of these beneficial interactions is necessary for the exploitation of AM fungi within organic and/or sustainable farming systems. In this review, we aim to discuss the potential mechanisms by which AM fungi may contribute to bioprotection against plant soil-borne pathogens. Bioprotection within AM fungal-colonised plants is the outcome of complex interactions between plants, pathogens and AM fungi. The use of molecular tools in the study of these multifaceted interactions may aid the optimisation of the bioprotective responses and their utility within sustainable farming systems. PMID:14971681

Harrier, Lucy A; Watson, Christine A

2004-02-01

205

Induced defense-related proteins in soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) plants by Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation of Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of the present study was to analyze induced expression of defense-related proteins in the soybean plants by rhizobacterial stain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 upon challenge inoculation with Fusarium oxysporum. Determination of the enzymatic activity of the different defense-related enzymes, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), lipoxygenase (LOX), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) was performed in the major parts of Glycine max L. Merrill using spectrophotometric method. Native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of the POD and PPO was employed followed by activity staining to find out the isoforms of respective enzymes. Activities of the PAL, LOX, POD and PPO were found to be highest in the bacterized root tissue of the soybean plants challenged with F. oxysporum. Isoform analysis revealed that PPO1, PPO4 and POD2 isoforms were expressed at higher levels in bacterized soybean root tissues challenge inoculated with the pathogen. Conclusively it was found that bacterial strain Carnobacterium sp. SJ-5 protect soybean plants from wilt disease caused by F. oxysporum by elicitation of the defense-related enzymes. PMID:24504695

Jain, Shekhar; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

2014-05-01

206

Rerouting of plant late endocytic trafficking toward a pathogen interface.  

PubMed

A number of plant pathogenic and symbiotic microbes produce specialized cellular structures that invade host cells where they remain enveloped by host-derived membranes. The mechanisms underlying the biogenesis and functions of host-microbe interfaces are poorly understood. Here, we show that plant late endocytic trafficking is diverted toward the extrahaustorial membrane (EHM); a host-pathogen interface that develops in plant cells invaded by Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans. A late endosome and tonoplast marker protein Rab7 GTPase RabG3c, but not a tonoplast-localized sucrose transporter, is recruited to the EHM, suggesting specific rerouting of vacuole-targeted late endosomes to a host-pathogen interface. We revealed the dynamic nature of this process by showing that, upon activation, a cell surface immune receptor traffics toward the haustorial interface. Our work provides insight into the biogenesis of the EHM and reveals dynamic processes that recruit membrane compartments and immune receptors to this host-pathogen interface. PMID:25430691

Bozkurt, Tolga O; Belhaj, Khaoula; Dagdas, Yasin F; Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Wu, Chih-Hang; Cano, Liliana M; Kamoun, Sophien

2015-02-01

207

Zinc Improves Biocontrol of Fusarium Crown and Root Rot of Tomato by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Represses the Production of Pathogen Metabolites Inhibitory to Bacterial Antibiotic Biosynthesis.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Crown and root rot of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici is an increasing problem in Europe, Israel, Japan, and North America. The biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CHA0 provides only moderate control of this disease. A one-time amendment of zinc EDTA at 33 mug of Zn(2+)/ml to hydroponic nutrient solution in soilless rockwool culture did not reduce disease when used alone, but did reduce disease by 25% in the presence of CHA0. In in vitro studies with the pathogen, zinc at concentrations as low as 10 mug/ml abolished production of the phytotoxin fusaric acid, a Fusarium pathogenicity factor, and increased production of microconidia over 100-fold, but reduced total biomass. Copper EDTA at 33 mug of Cu(2+)/ml had a similar effect as zinc on the pathogen in vitro; it reduced disease when used alone, and increased the biocontrol activity of CHA0 in soilless culture. Ammonium-molybdate neither improved the biocontrol activity of CHA0 nor affected production of fusaric acid or microconidia. Strain CHA0 did not degrade fusaric acid. Fusaric acid at concentrations as low as 0.12 mug/ml repressed production by CHA0 of the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, a key factor in the biocontrol activity of this strain. Production of pyoluteorin by CHA0 was also reduced, but production of hydrogen cyanide and protease was not affected, suggesting that fusaric acid affects biosynthesis at a regulatory level downstream of gacA and apdA genes. Fusaric acid did not affect the recovery of preformed antibiotics nor did it affect bacterial growth even at concentrations as high as 200 mug/ml. When microbial meta-bolite production was measured in the rockwool bioassay, zinc amendments reduced fusaric acid production and enhanced 2,4-diacetylphloro-glucinol production. We suggest that zinc, which did not alleviate the repression of antibiotic biosynthesis by fusaric acid, improved biocontrol activity by reducing fusaric acid production by the pathogen, which resulted in increased antibiotic production by the biocontrol agent. This demonstrates that pathogens can have a direct negative impact on the mechanism(s) of biocontrol agents. PMID:18945026

Duffy, B K; Défago, G

1997-12-01

208

Arabidopsis GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK) transcription factors activate jasmonic acid (JA)-dependent disease susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis, as well as JA-independent plant immunity against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea.  

PubMed

Arabidopsis thaliana GOLDEN2-LIKE (GLK1 and 2) transcription factors regulate chloroplast development in a redundant manner. Overexpression of AtGLK1 (35S:AtGLK1) in Arabidopsis also confers resistance to the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. To further elucidate the role of GLK transcription factors in plant defence, the Arabidopsis glk1 glk2 double-mutant and 35S:AtGLK1 plants were challenged with the virulent oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) Noco2. Compared with Col-0, glk1 glk2 plants were highly resistant to Hpa Noco2, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants showed enhanced susceptibility to this pathogen. Genetic studies suggested that AtGLK-mediated plant defence to Hpa Noco2 was partially dependent on salicylic acid (SA) accumulation, but independent of the SA signalling protein NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED 1 (NPR1). Pretreatment with jasmonic acid (JA) dramatically reversed Hpa Noco2 resistance in the glk1 glk2 double mutant, but only marginally affected the 35S:AtGLK1 plants. In addition, overexpression of AtGLK1 in the JA signalling mutant coi1-16 did not increase susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. Together, our GLK gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments suggest that GLK acts upstream of JA signalling in disease susceptibility to Hpa Noco2. In contrast, glk1 glk2 plants were more susceptible to the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, whereas 35S:AtGLK1 plants exhibited heightened resistance which could be maintained in the absence of JA signalling. Together, the data reveal that AtGLK1 is involved in JA-dependent susceptibility to the biotrophic pathogen Hpa Noco2 and in JA-independent resistance to the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea. PMID:24393452

Murmu, Jhadeswar; Wilton, Michael; Allard, Ghislaine; Pandeya, Radhey; Desveaux, Darrell; Singh, Jas; Subramaniam, Rajagopal

2014-02-01

209

Fungal pathogens of plants in the Homogocene  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Resistance and susceptibility of plants to phytopathogenic fungi are examined in the context of invasion biology of the past 500 years. This time period is sometimes called the Homogocene, dating from about 1500 AD. In particular, genetic mechanisms are evoked to explain 'exapted resistance', the ...

210

EFFECTS OF RAINFALL ACIDIFICATION ON PLANT PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

Wind-blown rain, rain splash, and films of free moisture play important roles in the epidemiology of many plant diseases. The chemical nature of the aqueous microenvironment at the infection court is a potentially significant factor in the successful dissemination, establishment,...

211

Plant resistance signalling hijacked by a necrotrophic fungal pathogen  

PubMed Central

The strategies used by necrotrophic fungal pathogens to infect plants are often perceived as lacking the sophistication of their haustorium producing, host defence suppressing, biotrophic counterparts. There is also a relative paucity of knowledge regarding how effective gene-for-gene based resistance reactions might function against necrotrophic plant pathogens. However, recent data has emerged from a number of systems which has highlighted that particular species of necrotrophic (and/or hemibiotrophic) fungi, have evolved very sophisticated strategies for plant infection which appear, in fact, to hijack the host resistance responses that are commonly deployed against biotrophs. Both disease resistance (R) protein homologues and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades commonly associated with incompatible disease resistance responses; appear to be targeted by necrotrophic fungi during compatible disease interactions. These findings highlight an emerging sophistication in the strategies deployed by necrotrophic fungi to infect plants. PMID:19704431

Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

2008-01-01

212

EFFECTS OF COMPOSTED MUNICIPAL SLUDGE ON SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS  

EPA Science Inventory

The effect of composted municipal sludge (CMS) on soilborne plant pathogens was evaluated in three sets of experiments. Studies with soybeans over three growing seasons investigated the effect of CMS on root rot severity and yield in Phytophthora-infested soil, the effect of appl...

213

Enzymatic response of cotton plants to the pathogen, Verticillium dahliae  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pathogen infection initiates a set of local and systemic responses in plants. These responses include local oxidative burst, which may lead to death of infected cells, and changes of cell walls composition in neighbouring tissues, and de novo synthesis of antimicrobial compounds (phytoalexins) and P...

214

Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

215

Involvement of Type IV Pili in Pathogenicity of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Type IV pili (T4P) are hair-like appendages found on the surface of a wide range of bacteria belonging to the ?-, ?-, and ?-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. They constitute an efficient device for a particular type of bacterial surface motility, named twitching, and are involved in several other bacterial activities and functions, including surface adherence, colonization, biofilm formation, genetic material uptake and virulence. Tens of genes are involved in T4P synthesis and regulation, with the majority of them being generally named pil/fim genes. Despite the multiple functionality of T4P and their well-established role in pathogenicity of animal pathogenic bacteria, relatively little attention has been given to the role of T4P in plant pathogenic bacteria. Only in recent years studies have begun to examine with more attention the relevance of these surface appendages for virulence of plant bacterial pathogens. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about T4P genetic machinery and its role in the interactions between phytopathogenic bacteria and their plant hosts. PMID:24710288

Burdman, Saul; Bahar, Ofir; Parker, Jennifer K.; De La Fuente, Leonardo

2011-01-01

216

List of New Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria (2008-2010)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In 2010 the International Society of Plant Pathology Committee on the Taxonomy of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria published the Comprehensive List of Names of Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, 1980-2007 to provide an authoritative register of names of plant pathogens. In this manuscript we up-date the list of na...

217

Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria  

PubMed Central

Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

Davidsson, Pär R.; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E. T.

2013-01-01

218

Pathogenicity of and plant immunity to soft rot pectobacteria.  

PubMed

Soft rot pectobacteria are broad host range enterobacterial pathogens that cause disease on a variety of plant species including the major crop potato. Pectobacteria are aggressive necrotrophs that harbor a large arsenal of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes as their primary virulence determinants. These enzymes together with additional virulence factors are employed to macerate the host tissue and promote host cell death to provide nutrients for the pathogens. In contrast to (hemi)biotrophs such as Pseudomonas, type III secretion systems (T3SS) and T3 effectors do not appear central to pathogenesis of pectobacteria. Indeed, recent genomic analysis of several Pectobacterium species including the emerging pathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae has shown that many strains lack the entire T3SS as well as the T3 effectors. Instead, this analysis has indicated the presence of novel virulence determinants. Resistance to broad host range pectobacteria is complex and does not appear to involve single resistance genes. Instead, activation of plant innate immunity systems including both SA (salicylic acid) and JA (jasmonic acid)/ET (ethylene)-mediated defenses appears to play a central role in attenuation of Pectobacterium virulence. These defenses are triggered by detection of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or recognition of modified-self such as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and result in enhancement of basal immunity (PAMP/DAMP-triggered immunity or pattern-triggered immunity, PTI). In particular plant cell wall fragments released by the action of the degradative enzymes secreted by pectobacteria are major players in enhanced immunity toward these pathogens. Most notably bacterial pectin-degrading enzymes release oligogalacturonide (OG) fragments recognized as DAMPs activating innate immune responses. Recent progress in understanding OG recognition and signaling allows novel genetic screens for OG-insensitive mutants and will provide new insights into plant defense strategies against necrotrophs such as pectobacteria. PMID:23781227

Davidsson, Pär R; Kariola, Tarja; Niemi, Outi; Palva, E T

2013-01-01

219

Genome sequence of the plant pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum.  

PubMed

Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating, soil-borne plant pathogen with a global distribution and an unusually wide host range. It is a model system for the dissection of molecular determinants governing pathogenicity. We present here the complete genome sequence and its analysis of strain GMI1000. The 5.8-megabase (Mb) genome is organized into two replicons: a 3.7-Mb chromosome and a 2.1-Mb megaplasmid. Both replicons have a mosaic structure providing evidence for the acquisition of genes through horizontal gene transfer. Regions containing genetically mobile elements associated with the percentage of G+C bias may have an important function in genome evolution. The genome encodes many proteins potentially associated with a role in pathogenicity. In particular, many putative attachment factors were identified. The complete repertoire of type III secreted effector proteins can be studied. Over 40 candidates were identified. Comparison with other genomes suggests that bacterial plant pathogens and animal pathogens harbour distinct arrays of specialized type III-dependent effectors. PMID:11823852

Salanoubat, M; Genin, S; Artiguenave, F; Gouzy, J; Mangenot, S; Arlat, M; Billault, A; Brottier, P; Camus, J C; Cattolico, L; Chandler, M; Choisne, N; Claudel-Renard, C; Cunnac, S; Demange, N; Gaspin, C; Lavie, M; Moisan, A; Robert, C; Saurin, W; Schiex, T; Siguier, P; Thébault, P; Whalen, M; Wincker, P; Levy, M; Weissenbach, J; Boucher, C A

2002-01-31

220

Light affects fumonisin production in strains of Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides isolated from rice.  

PubMed

Three Fusarium species associated with bakanae disease of rice (Fusarium fujikuroi, Fusarium proliferatum, and Fusarium verticillioides) were investigated for their ability to produce fumonisins (FB1 and FB2) under different light conditions, and for pathogenicity. Compared to darkness, the conditions that highly stimulated fumonisin production were yellow and green light in F. verticillioides strains; white and blue light, and light/dark alternation in F. fujikuroi and F. proliferatum strains. In general, all light conditions positively influenced fumonisin production with respect to the dark. Expression of the FUM1 gene, which is necessary for the initiation of fumonisin production, was in accordance with the fumonisin biosynthetic profile. High and low fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi strains showed typical symptoms of bakanae disease, abundant fumonisin-producing F. verticillioides strains exhibited chlorosis and stunting of rice plants, while fumonisin-producing F. proliferatum strains were asymptomatic on rice. We report that F. fujikuroi might be an abundant fumonisin producer with levels comparable to that of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, highlighting the need of deeper mycotoxicological analyses on rice isolates of F. fujikuroi. Our results showed for the first time the influence of light on fumonisin production in isolates of F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, and F. verticillioides from rice. PMID:24055868

Mati?, Slavica; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Gullino, Maria Lodovica; Garibaldi, Angelo

2013-09-16

221

Pathogen and biological contamination management in plant tissue culture: phytopathogens, vitro pathogens, and vitro pests.  

PubMed

The ability to establish and grow plant cell, organ, and tissue cultures has been widely exploited for basic and applied research, and for the commercial production of plants (micro-propagation). Regardless of whether the application is for research or commerce, it is essential that the cultures be established in vitro free of biological contamination and be maintained as aseptic cultures during manipulation, growth, and storage. The risks from microbial contamination are spurious experimental results due to the effects of latent contaminants or losses of valuable experimental or commercial cultures. Much of the emphasis in culture contamination management historically focussed on the elimination of phytopathogens and the maintenance of cultures free from laboratory contamination by environmental bacteria, fungi (collectively referred to as "vitro pathogens", i.e. pathogens or environmental micro-organisms which cause culture losses), and micro-arthropods ("vitro pests"). Microbial contamination of plant tissue cultures is due to the high nutrient availability in the almost universally used Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473-497, 1962) basal medium or variants of it. In recent years, it has been shown that many plants, especially perennials, are at least locally endophytically colonized intercellularly by bacteria. The latter, and intracellular pathogenic bacteria and viruses/viroids, may pass latently into culture and be spread horizontally and vertically in cultures. Growth of some potentially cultivable endophytes may be suppressed by the high salt and sugar content of the Murashige and Skoog basal medium and suboptimal temperatures for their growth in plant tissue growth rooms. The management of contamination in tissue culture involves three stages: disease screening (syn. disease indexing) of the stock plants with disease and endophyte elimination where detected; establishment and pathogen and contaminant screening of established initial cultures; observation, random sampling, and culture screening for micro-organism in multiplication and stored cultures. The increasing accessibility of both broad-spectrum and specific molecular diagnostics has resulted in advances in multiple pathogen and latent contaminant detection. The hazard analysis critical control point management strategy for tissue culture laboratories is underpinned by staff training in aseptic technique and good laboratory practice. PMID:22610620

Cassells, Alan C

2012-01-01

222

Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought

Raphaëlle Mouttet; Philippe Bearez; Cécile Thomas; Nicolas Desneux

2011-01-01

223

Pathogen resistance of transgenic tobacco plants producing caffeine.  

PubMed

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a typical purine alkaloid, and produced by a variety of plants such as coffee and tea. Its physiological function, however, is not completely understood, but chemical defense against pathogens and herbivores, and allelopathic effects against competing plant species have been proposed. Previously, we constructed transgenic tobacco plants, which produced caffeine up to 5 microg per gram fresh weight of leaves, and showed them to repel caterpillars of tobacco cutworms (Spodoptera litura). In the present study, we found that these transgenic plants constitutively expressed defense-related genes encoding pathogenesis-related (PR)-1a and proteinase inhibitor II under non-stressed conditions. We also found that they were highly resistant against pathogens, tobacco mosaic virus and Pseudomonas syringae. Expression of PR-1a and PR-2 was higher in transgenic plants than in wild-type plants during infection. Exogenously applied caffeine to wild-type tobacco leaves exhibited the similar resistant activity. These results suggested that caffeine stimulated endogenous defense system of host plants through directly or indirectly activating gene expression. This assumption is essentially consistent with the idea of chemical defense, in which caffeine may act as one of signaling molecules to activate defense response. It is thus conceivable that the effect of caffeine is bifunctional; direct interference with pest metabolic pathways, and activation of host defense systems. PMID:18036626

Kim, Yun-Soo; Sano, Hiroshi

2008-02-01

224

Interactions of Fusarium species during prepenetration development.  

PubMed

Interspecies interactions between Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium poae, and Fusarium tricinctum were studied during early growth stages of isolates on model surfaces. Additionally, germination and germ tube growth of the pathogens were studied on attached and detached wheat leaves at 10 °C and 22 °C. Two-species interactions between Fusarium isolates during germination and germ tube growth were assessed after 8 hours of incubation. All species except F. tricinctum germinated and grew faster at higher than lower temperature. All species were able to germinate with more than one germ tube per conidium cell; and germination and germ tube growth were faster on leaves than on glass surface. Interactions among Fusarium species during germination and germ tube growth were predominantly competitive with macroconidia-producing species being more competitive. It is concluded that the type of conidia as well as environmental factors influence the competitiveness of Fusarium species during early stages of growth. PMID:22749170

Wagacha, John Maina; Oerke, Erich-Christian; Dehne, Heinz-Wilhelm; Steiner, Ulrike

2012-07-01

225

The adenylyl cyclase plays a regulatory role in the morphogenetic switch from vegetative to pathogenic lifestyle of Fusarium graminearum on wheat.  

PubMed

Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a nucleotide derived from adenosine triphosphate that acts as a second messenger throughout all kingdoms. Intracellular cAMP levels are synthesized by a membrane-bound protein, the adenylyl cyclase. In order to analyze the function of this gene and the importance of cAMP in the life cycle of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the adenylyl cyclase gene (FGSG_01234) was deleted by gene replacement (?Fgac1). The ?Fgac1 mutant displayed a drastically reduced growth on agar medium which could be rescued by a cAMP analogon. Furthermore, the ?Fgac1 mutant was unable to produce perithecia on detached wheat nodes. However, artificial conditions like carrot agar allowed perithecia development. Pathogenicity towards wheat was drastically reduced in ?Fgac1 compared to the wild type. Point-inoculated spikelets showed only small lesions but no typical head blight disease symptoms. Fluorescence microscopy using dsRed-expressing strains revealed that the ?Fgac1 strain was unable to develop any complex infection structures like lobate appressoria and infection cushions. Instead, hyphal anastomosis occurs frequently. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the lack of fungal penetration. Hence, the formation of compound appressoria seems to be essential for infection of wheat. Hyphae on flower leaves produced huge amounts of new conidia, thereby circumventing the infection cycle. This abundant sporulation on wheat epidermis was not observed in wild type. Intriguingly, the Fgac1 deletion mutant was able to infect maize cobs as wild type, indicating that cAMP signaling is not important for maize infection. The ?Fgac1 mutant was unable to produce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol both in vitro and during wheat infection. In this study, we show that cAMP signaling controls important cellular processes such as development of infection structures, pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production and sexual reproduction. For the first time, we show that cAMP regulates the switch from vegetative to pathogenic lifestyle of F. graminearum on wheat. PMID:24603887

Bormann, Jörg; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Brückner, Elena; Firat, Demet; Schäfer, Wilhelm

2014-01-01

226

The Adenylyl Cyclase Plays a Regulatory Role in the Morphogenetic Switch from Vegetative to Pathogenic Lifestyle of Fusarium graminearum on Wheat  

PubMed Central

Cyclic 3?,5?-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a nucleotide derived from adenosine triphosphate that acts as a second messenger throughout all kingdoms. Intracellular cAMP levels are synthesized by a membrane-bound protein, the adenylyl cyclase. In order to analyze the function of this gene and the importance of cAMP in the life cycle of the cereal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, the adenylyl cyclase gene (FGSG_01234) was deleted by gene replacement (?Fgac1). The ?Fgac1 mutant displayed a drastically reduced growth on agar medium which could be rescued by a cAMP analogon. Furthermore, the ?Fgac1 mutant was unable to produce perithecia on detached wheat nodes. However, artificial conditions like carrot agar allowed perithecia development. Pathogenicity towards wheat was drastically reduced in ?Fgac1 compared to the wild type. Point-inoculated spikelets showed only small lesions but no typical head blight disease symptoms. Fluorescence microscopy using dsRed-expressing strains revealed that the ?Fgac1 strain was unable to develop any complex infection structures like lobate appressoria and infection cushions. Instead, hyphal anastomosis occurs frequently. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated the lack of fungal penetration. Hence, the formation of compound appressoria seems to be essential for infection of wheat. Hyphae on flower leaves produced huge amounts of new conidia, thereby circumventing the infection cycle. This abundant sporulation on wheat epidermis was not observed in wild type. Intriguingly, the Fgac1 deletion mutant was able to infect maize cobs as wild type, indicating that cAMP signaling is not important for maize infection. The ?Fgac1 mutant was unable to produce the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol both in vitro and during wheat infection. In this study, we show that cAMP signaling controls important cellular processes such as development of infection structures, pathogenicity, secondary metabolite production and sexual reproduction. For the first time, we show that cAMP regulates the switch from vegetative to pathogenic lifestyle of F. graminearum on wheat. PMID:24603887

Bormann, Jörg; Boenisch, Marike Johanne; Brückner, Elena; Firat, Demet; Schäfer, Wilhelm

2014-01-01

227

Arsenal of plant cell wall degrading enzymes reflects host preference among plant pathogenic fungi  

PubMed Central

Background The discovery and development of novel plant cell wall degrading enzymes is a key step towards more efficient depolymerization of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars for the production of liquid transportation biofuels and other bioproducts. The industrial fungus Trichoderma reesei is known to be highly cellulolytic and is a major industrial microbial source for commercial cellulases, xylanases and other cell wall degrading enzymes. However, enzyme-prospecting research continues to identify opportunities to enhance the activity of T. reesei enzyme preparations by supplementing with enzymatic diversity from other microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the enzymatic potential of a broad range of plant pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi for their ability to degrade plant biomass and isolated polysaccharides. Results Large-scale screening identified a range of hydrolytic activities among 348 unique isolates representing 156 species of plant pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi. Hierarchical clustering was used to identify groups of species with similar hydrolytic profiles. Among moderately and highly active species, plant pathogenic species were found to be more active than non-pathogens on six of eight substrates tested, with no significant difference seen on the other two substrates. Among the pathogenic fungi, greater hydrolysis was seen when they were tested on biomass and hemicellulose derived from their host plants (commelinoid monocot or dicot). Although T. reesei has a hydrolytic profile that is highly active on cellulose and pretreated biomass, it was less active than some natural isolates of fungi when tested on xylans and untreated biomass. Conclusions Several highly active isolates of plant pathogenic fungi were identified, particularly when tested on xylans and untreated biomass. There were statistically significant preferences for biomass type reflecting the monocot or dicot host preference of the pathogen tested. These highly active fungi are promising targets for identification and characterization of novel cell wall degrading enzymes for industrial applications. PMID:21324176

2011-01-01

228

Evidence that a Secondary Metabolic Biosynthetic Gene Cluster has Grown by Gene Relocation During Evolution of the Filamentous Fungus Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Trichothecenes are terpene-derived secondary metabolites produced by multiple genera of filamentous fungi, including many plant pathogenic species of Fusarium. These metabolites are of medical and agricultural interest because they are toxic to animals and plants and can contribute to pathogenesis ...

229

[Isolation of protoplasts from vegetable tissues using extracellular lytic enzymes from fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis].  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis, a pathogen of melon (Cucumis melo L.), was grown in shaken cultures at 26 degrees C in a mineral salts medium containing glucose, xylan and apple pectin as carbon sources. The extracellular enzymic complex obtained from these cultures showed lytic activity on plant tissues, causing maceration of melon fruits, potato tubers and carrot roots. Protoplasts were isolated from melon fruits when the maceration was carried out under appropriate osmotic conditions. This fact suggest a possible relationship between the enzymes produced by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. melonis and their pathogenicity on melon plants. PMID:8850131

Alconada, T M; Martínez, M J

1995-01-01

230

Natural Competence and Recombination in the Plant Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa ?  

PubMed Central

Homologous recombination is one of many forces contributing to the diversity, adaptation, and emergence of pathogens. For naturally competent bacteria, transformation is one possible route for the acquisition of novel genetic material. This study demonstrates that Xylella fastidiosa, a generalist bacterial plant pathogen responsible for many emerging plant diseases, is naturally competent and able to homologously recombine exogenous DNA into its genome. Several factors that affect transformation and recombination efficiencies, such as nutrient availability, growth stage, and methylation of transforming DNA, were identified. Recombination was observed in at least one out of every 106 cells when exogenous plasmid DNA was supplied and one out of every 107 cells when different strains were grown together in vitro. Based on previous genomic studies and experimental data presented here, there is mounting evidence that recombination can occur at relatively high rates and could play a large role in shaping the genetic diversity of X. fastidiosa. PMID:21666009

Kung, Stephanie H.; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

2011-01-01

231

SURVEY OF GENOME-WIDE OCCURRENCE OF ALTERNATIVE SPLICE FORMS IN FUSARIUM VERTICILLIOIDES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is a pathogen of maize and is associated with disease at every life stage of the plant. Contamination of infected kernels with the polyketide derived mycotoxin fumonisins contribute significantly to economic losses to the maize grain industry worldwide. Ingested fumonisins...

232

Insights into the evolution of mycotoxin biosynthesis in the fungus Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Collectively species of Fusarium are pathogens of almost all economically important plants and produce over 50 structurally distinct families of secondary metabolites (SMs), including some of the mycotoxins (e.g. fumonisins and trichothecenes) of greatest concern to food and feed safety. In fungi, g...

233

Functional analysis of the kinome of the wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As in many other eukaryotes, protein kinases play major regulatory roles in filamentous fungi. Although the genomes of numerous plant pathogenic fungi have been sequenced, systematic characterization of their kinomes has not been reported. The wheat scab fungus Fusarium graminearum has 116 putative ...

234

Detection of pathogenic clostridia in biogas plant wastes.  

PubMed

As the number of biogas plants has grown rapidly in the last decade, the amount of potentially contaminated wastes with pathogenic Clostridium spp. has increased as well. This study reports the results from examining 203 biogas plant wastes (BGWs). The following Clostridium spp. with different frequencies could be isolated via a new enrichment medium (Krüne medium) and detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): Clostridium perfringens (58 %) then Clostridium bifermentans (27 %), Clostridium tertium (23 %) and Clostridium butyricum (19 %), Clostridium cadaveris (15 %), Clostridium parapurificum (6 %), Clostridium glycolicum (5 %), Clostridium baratii (4 %), Clostridium sporogenes (2?%), Clostridium sordellii (1 %) and Clostridium subterminale (0.5 %). The mean most probable number (MPN) count of sulfite reducing bacteria was between 10(3) and 10(4)/mL, and the higher the MPN, the more pathogenic Clostridium spp. were present. Also, real-time PCR was used to be compared with culture method for C. perfringens, C. bifermentans, C. butyricum, C. sporogenes/Clostridium botulinum and C. sordellii. Although real-time PCR was more sensitive than the culture method, both systems improve the recovery rate but in different ways and are useful to determine pathogenic clostridia in biogas plants. In conclusion, BGWs could present a biohazard risk of clostridia for humans and animals. PMID:24984829

Neuhaus, Jürgen; Shehata, Awad A; Krüger, Monika

2015-01-01

235

Phenotypic diversification by gene silencing in Phytophthora plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

Advances in genome sequencing technologies have enabled generation of unprecedented information on genome content and organization. Eukaryote genomes in particular may contain large populations of transposable elements (TEs) and other repeated sequences. Active TEs can result in insertional mutations, altered transcription levels and ectopic recombination of DNA. The genome of the oomycete plant pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, contains vast numbers of TE sequences. There are also hundreds of predicted disease-promoting effector proteins, predominantly located in TE-rich genomic regions. Expansion of effector gene families is also a genomic signature of related oomycetes such as P. sojae. Deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) from P. infestans has identified sRNAs derived from all families of transposons, highlighting the importance of RNA silencing for maintaining these genomic invaders in an inactive form. Small RNAs were also identified from specific effector encoding genes, possibly leading to RNA silencing of these genes and variation in pathogenicity and virulence toward plant resistance genes. Similar findings have also recently been made for the distantly related species, P. sojae. Small RNA “hotspots” originating from arrays of amplified gene sequences, or from genes displaying overlapping antisense transcription, were also identified in P. infestans. These findings suggest a major role for RNA silencing processes in the adaptability and diversification of these economically important plant pathogens. Here we review the latest progress and understanding of gene silencing in oomycetes with emphasis on transposable elements and sRNA-associated events. PMID:24563702

Vetukuri, Ramesh R; Ĺsman, Anna KM; Jahan, Sultana N; Avrova, Anna O; Whisson, Stephen C; Dixelius, Christina

2013-01-01

236

A new ?-pyrone metabolite from a mangrove plant endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp.  

PubMed

A new ?-pyrone derivative, compound 2, and a known one, cladobotrin V, were isolated from the culture broth of the mangrove endophyte Fusarium sp. IM-37. Their structures were determined spectroscopically and compared with previously reported spectral data. Compound 2 restored the growth inhibition caused by hyperactivated Ca(2+)-signaling in mutant yeast. PMID:25355135

Shiono, Yoshihito; Shibuya, Fumiaki; Koseki, Takuya; Harizon; Supratman, Unang; Uesugi, Shota; Kimura, Ken-Ichi

2014-10-30

237

Top 10 plant pathogenic bacteria in molecular plant pathology.  

E-print Network

G.P.C. (2001) Quorum sensing in Gram-negative bacteria. FEMSQuorum sensing: cell-to-cell communication in bacteria.Quorum sensing, virulence and secondary metabolite production in plant soft rotting bacteria.

2012-01-01

238

Simultaneous detection of Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material by duplex PCR with melting curve analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a disease of cereal crops, which has a severe impact on wheat and barley production worldwide. Apart from reducing the yield and impairing grain quality, FHB leads to contamination of grain with toxic secondary metabolites (mycotoxins), which pose a health risk to humans and livestock. The Fusarium species primarily involved in FHB are F. graminearum and F. culmorum. A key prerequisite for a reduction in the incidence of FHB is an understanding of its epidemiology. Results We describe a duplex-PCR-based method for the simultaneous detection of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. Species-specific PCR products are identified by melting curve analysis performed in a real-time thermocycler in the presence of the fluorescent dye SYBR Green I. In contrast to multiplex real-time PCR assays, the method does not use doubly labeled hybridization probes. Conclusion PCR with product differentiation by melting curve analysis offers a cost-effective means of qualitative analysis for the presence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum in plant material. This method is particularly suitable for epidemiological studies involving a large number of samples. PMID:16430784

Brandfass, Christoph; Karlovsky, Petr

2006-01-01

239

Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire  

PubMed Central

Background Pythium ultimum is a ubiquitous oomycete plant pathogen responsible for a variety of diseases on a broad range of crop and ornamental species. Results The P. ultimum genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora species, including the potato blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86% of genes, with detectable differential expression of suites of genes under abiotic stress and in the presence of a host. The predicted proteome includes a large repertoire of proteins involved in plant pathogen interactions, although, surprisingly, the P. ultimum genome does not encode any classical RXLR effectors and relatively few Crinkler genes in comparison to related phytopathogenic oomycetes. A lower number of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism were present compared to Phytophthora species, with the notable absence of cutinases, suggesting a significant difference in virulence mechanisms between P. ultimum and more host-specific oomycete species. Although we observed a high degree of orthology with Phytophthora genomes, there were novel features of the P. ultimum proteome, including an expansion of genes involved in proteolysis and genes unique to Pythium. We identified a small gene family of cadherins, proteins involved in cell adhesion, the first report of these in a genome outside the metazoans. Conclusions Access to the P. ultimum genome has revealed not only core pathogenic mechanisms within the oomycetes but also lineage-specific genes associated with the alternative virulence and lifestyles found within the pythiaceous lineages compared to the Peronosporaceae. PMID:20626842

2010-01-01

240

Fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west Africa.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. Yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. This paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on Fusarium species associated with the disease. Our studies in Cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by Fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% of all the fungal isolates recovered. Other commonly recovered fungi were Botryodiplodia theobromae and Armillaria spp. Numerous and diverse species of Fusarium were associated with rotted cassava roots in Nigeria and Cameroon. At least 13 distinct amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) groups of Fusarium were distinguishable, each group probably a distinct species, and many of them might represent previously undescribed Fusarium species. The two largest of the AFLP groups correspond to F. oxysporum and F. solani species complex. The distribution of Fusarium spp. varied among countries and among locations within a country, suggesting that germ plasm resistant at one location may not be resistant at another. Fusarium spp. also cause seedling blight of cassava and can be recovered from the stems of infected plants up to 1 m above the ground. Therefore, the pathogen can spread with stems cut as planting material. Fusarium spp. also can colonize Chromolaena odorata, the dominant weed in short fallows, which could further complicate management efforts by serving as an alternative host for strains that colonize cassava. PMID:18943189

Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Mwangi, Maina; Aigbe, Sylvester O; Leslie, John F

2006-06-01

241

Molecular Analysis of Plant Defense Responses to Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

A number of inducible plant responses are believed to contribute to disease resistance. These responses include the hypersensitive reaction, phytoalexin synthesis, and the production of chitinase, glucanase, and hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins. Because of the coordinate induction of these responses, it has been difficult to determine whether they are functional defense responses, and if they are, how they specifically contribute to disease resistance. Recent developments in molecular biology have provided experimental techniques that will reveal the specific contribution of each response to disease resistance. In this paper, we describe a strategy to determine if the hypersensitive reaction is a functional plant defense mechanism. PMID:19283005

Lindgren, P. B.; Jakobek, J. L.; Smith, J. A.

1992-01-01

242

An inordinate fondness for Fusarium: Phylogenetic diversity of fusaria cultivated by Euwallacea ambrosia beetles on avocado and other plant hosts  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ambrosia beetle fungiculture represents one of the most ecologically and evolutionarily successful symbioses. Here we document the evolution of a clade within Fusarium associated with ambrosia beetles in the genus Euwallacea (Coleoptera: Scolytinae). Ambrosia Fusarium Clade (AFC) symbionts are unusu...

243

Regeneration of flax ( Linum usitatissimum L.) plants from anther culture and somatic tissue with increased resistance to Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for the efficient production of flax plants of microspore origin. The results were compared to those obtained for plants regenerated from somatic explants from hypocotyls, cotyledons, leaves, stems and roots. All the plants obtained during the experiments were regenerated from callus that was grown for periods from a few weeks to a few months before the regeneration was achieved. Anther cultures were less effective in plant regeneration than somatic cell cultures. However, regenerants derived from anther cells showed valuable breeding features, including increased resistance to fungal wilt. The age of the donor plants and the season they grew in had a noticeable effect on their anther callusing and subsequent plant regeneration. Low temperature had a negative effect and dark pre-treatment a positive effect on callusing and plant regeneration. Different media were most effective for callus induction, shoot induction and rooting. For callus induction two carbon sources (2.5% sucrose and 2.5% glucose) were most effective; for shoots, only sucrose at lower concentration (2%) was effective. Rooting was most efficient in 1% sucrose and reduced (50%) mineral concentration in the medium. It was found that the length of in vitro cultivation significantly increases the ploidy and affects such features as regenerant morphological characteristics, petal colour, and resistance to Fusarium oxysporum-induced fungal wilt. The established plant regeneration system provides a basis for the creation of transgenic flax. PMID:12827441

Rutkowska-Krause, I; Mankowska, G; Lukaszewicz, M; Szopa, J

2003-09-01

244

BarleyBase/PLEXdb: A Unified Expression Profiling Database for Plants and Plant Pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

BarleyBase (http://barleybase.org/) and its successor, PLEXdb (http://plexdb.org/), are public resources for large-scale gene expression analysis for plants and plant pathogens. BarleyBase/PLEXdb provides a unified web interface to support the functional interpretation of highly parallel microarray...

245

COLONIZATION OF SUBTERRANEAN PLANT SURFACES AND SUPPRESSION OF SOILBORNE PLANT PATHOGENS: STUDIES WITH ENTEROBACTER CLOACAE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

It is generally assumed that biocontrol organisms must colonize subterranean plant parts for effective suppression of soilborne plant pathogens in many biocontrol interactions. Unfortunately our knowledge of the processes that lead to effective colonization is unclear. Also unclear is our knowledg...

246

TAL effectors--pathogen strategies and plant resistance engineering.  

PubMed

Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas spp. and the related RipTALs from Ralstonia solanacearum are DNA-binding proteins with a modular DNA-binding domain. This domain is both predictable and programmable, which simplifies elucidation of TALE function in planta and facilitates generation of DNA-binding modules with desired specificity for biotechnological approaches. Recently identified TALE host target genes that either promote or stop bacterial disease provide new insights into how expression of TALE genes affects the plant–pathogen interaction. Since its elucidation the TALE code has been continuously refined and now provides a mature tool that, in combination with transcriptome profiling, allows rapid isolation of novel TALE target genes. The TALE code is also the basis for synthetic promoter-traps that mediate recognition of TALE or RipTAL proteins in engineered plants. In this review, we will summarize recent findings in plant-focused TALE research. In addition, we will provide an outline of the newly established gene isolation approach for TALE or RipTAL host target genes with an emphasis on potential pitfalls. PMID:25539004

Boch, Jens; Bonas, Ulla; Lahaye, Thomas

2014-12-01

247

Molecular defense responses in roots and the rhizosphere against Fusarium oxysporum.  

PubMed

Plants face many different concurrent and consecutive abiotic and biotic stresses during their lifetime. Roots can be infected by numerous pathogens and parasitic organisms. Unlike foliar pathogens, root pathogens have not been explored enough to fully understand root-pathogen interactions and the underlying mechanism of defense and resistance. PR gene expression, structural responses, secondary metabolite and root exudate production, as well as the recruitment of plant defense-assisting "soldier" rhizosphere microbes all assist in root defense against pathogens and herbivores. With new high-throughput molecular tools becoming available and more affordable, now is the opportune time to take a deep look below the ground. In this addendum, we focus on soil-borne Fusarium oxysporum as a pathogen and the options plants have to defend themselves against these hard-to-control pathogens. PMID:25482759

Chen, Yi Chung; Kidd, Brendan N; Carvalhais, Lilia C; Schenk, Peer M

2014-12-01

248

Plant cell wall dynamics and wall-related susceptibility in plant–pathogen interactions  

PubMed Central

The cell wall is a dynamic structure that often determines the outcome of the interactions between plants and pathogens. It is a barrier that pathogens need to breach to colonize the plant tissue. While fungal necrotrophs extensively destroy the integrity of the cell wall through the combined action of degrading enzymes, biotrophic fungi require a more localized and controlled degradation of the cell wall in order to keep the host cells alive and utilize their feeding structures. Also bacteria and nematodes need to degrade the plant cell wall at a certain stage of their infection process, to obtain nutrients for their growth. Plants have developed a system for sensing pathogens and monitoring the cell wall integrity, upon which they activate defense responses that lead to a dynamic cell wall remodeling required to prevent the disease. Pathogens, on the other hand, may exploit the host cell wall metabolism to support the infection. We review here the strategies utilized by both plants and pathogens to prevail in the cell wall battleground. PMID:24904623

Bellincampi, Daniela; Cervone, Felice; Lionetti, Vincenzo

2014-01-01

249

The plant pathogen Rhodococcus fascians colonizes the exterior and interior of the aerial parts of plants.  

PubMed

Rhodococcus fascians is a plant-pathogenic bacterium that causes malformations on aerial plant parts, whereby leafy galls occur at axillary meristems. The colonization behavior on Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants was examined. Independent of the infection methods, R. fascians extensively colonized the plant surface where the bacteria were surrounded by a slime layer. R. fascians caused the collapse of epidermal cells and penetrated intercellularly into the plant tissues. The onset of symptom development preceded the extensive colonization of the interior. The meristematic regions induced by pathogenic strain D188 were surrounded by bacteria. The nonpathogenic strain, D188-5, colonized the exterior of the plant equally well, but the linear plasmid (pFiD188) seemed to be involved in the penetration efficiency and colonization of tobacco tissues. PMID:11332724

Cornelis, K; Ritsema, T; Nijsse, J; Holsters, M; Goethals, K; Jaziri, M

2001-05-01

250

Plant defenses against parasitic plants show similarities to those induced by herbivores and pathogens  

PubMed Central

Herbivores and pathogens come quickly to mind when one thinks of the biotic challenges faced by plants. Important but less appreciated enemies are parasitic plants, which can have important consequences for the fitness and survival of their hosts. Our knowledge of plant perception, signaling and response to herbivores and pathogens has expanded rapidly in recent years, but information is generally lacking for parasitic species. In a recent paper we reported that some of the same defense responses induced by herbivores and pathogens—notably increases in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR)—also occur in tomato plants upon attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (field dodder). Parasitism induced a distinct pattern of JA and SA accumulation, and growth trials using genetically-altered tomato hosts suggested that both JA and SA govern effective defenses against the parasite, though the extent of the response varied with host plant age. Here we discuss similarities between the induced responses we observed in response to Cuscuta parasitism to those previously described for herbivores and pathogens and present new data showing that trichomes should be added to the list of plant defenses that act against multiple enemies and across kingdoms. PMID:20495380

Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C

2010-01-01

251

Plant defenses against parasitic plants show similarities to those induced by herbivores and pathogens.  

PubMed

Herbivores and pathogens come quickly to mind when one thinks of the biotic challenges faced by plants. Important but less appreciated enemies are parasitic plants, which can have important consequences for the fitness and survival of their hosts. Our knowledge of plant perception, signaling, and response to herbivores and pathogens has expanded rapidly in recent years, but information is generally lacking for parasitic species. In a recent paper we reported that some of the same defense responses induced by herbivores and pathogens--notably increases in jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA), and a hypersensitive-like response (HLR)--also occur in tomato plants upon attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (field dodder). Parasitism induced a distinct pattern of JA and SA accumulation, and growth trials using genetically-altered tomato hosts suggested that both JA and SA govern effective defenses against the parasite, though the extent of the response varied with host plant age. Here we discuss similarities between the induced responses we observed in response to Cuscuta parasitism to those previously described for herbivores and pathogens and present new data showing that trichomes should be added to the list of plant defenses that act against multiple enemies and across Kingdoms. PMID:20495380

Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

2010-08-01

252

Natural and natural-like phenolic inhibitors of type B trichothecene in vitro production by the wheat (Triticum sp.) pathogen Fusarium culmorum.  

PubMed

Fusarium culmorum, a fungal pathogen of small grain cereals, produces 4-deoxynivalenol and its acetylated derivatives that may cause toxicoses on humans or animals consuming contaminated food or feed. Natural and natural-like compounds belonging to phenol and hydroxylated biphenyl structural classes were tested in vitro to determine their activity on vegetative growth and trichothecene biosynthesis by F. culmorum. Most of the compounds tested at 1.5 or 1.0 mM reduced 3-acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol production by over 70% compared to the control, without affecting fungal growth significantly. Furthermore, several compounds retained their ability to inhibit toxin in vitro production at the lowest concentrations of 0.5 and 0.25 mM. Magnolol 27 showed fungicidal activity even at 0.1 mM. No linear correlation was observed between antioxidant properties of the compounds and their ability to inhibit fungal growth and mycotoxigenic capacity. A guaiacyl unit in the structure may play a key role in trichothecene inhibition. PMID:24820850

Pani, Giovanna; Scherm, Barbara; Azara, Emanuela; Balmas, Virgilio; Jahanshiri, Zahra; Carta, Paola; Fabbri, Davide; Dettori, Maria Antonietta; Fadda, Angela; Dessě, Alessandro; Dallocchio, Roberto; Migheli, Quirico; Delogu, Giovanna

2014-06-01

253

Plant genes involved in harbouring symbiotic rhizobia or pathogenic nematodes.  

PubMed

The establishment and development of plant-microorganism interactions involve impressive transcriptomic reprogramming of target plant genes. The symbiont (Sinorhizobium meliloti) and the root knot-nematode pathogen (Meloidogyne incognita) induce the formation of new root organs, the nodule and the gall, respectively. Using laser-assisted microdissection, we specifically monitored, at the cell level, Medicago gene expression in nodule zone II cells, which are preparing to receive rhizobia, and in gall giant and surrounding cells, which play an essential role in nematode feeding and constitute the typical root swollen structure, respectively. We revealed an important reprogramming of hormone pathways and C1 metabolism in both interactions, which may play key roles in nodule and gall neoformation, rhizobia endocytosis and nematode feeding. Common functions targeted by rhizobia and nematodes were mainly down-regulated, whereas the specificity of the interaction appeared to involve up-regulated genes. Our transcriptomic results provide powerful datasets to unravel the mechanisms involved in the accommodation of rhizobia and root-knot nematodes. Moreover, they raise the question of host specificity and the evolution of plant infection mechanisms by a symbiont and a pathogen. PMID:22360638

Damiani, Isabelle; Baldacci-Cresp, Fabien; Hopkins, Julie; Andrio, Emilie; Balzergue, Sandrine; Lecomte, Philippe; Puppo, Alain; Abad, Pierre; Favery, Bruno; Hérouart, Didier

2012-04-01

254

The transmembrane protein FgSho1 regulates fungal development and pathogenicity via the MAPK module Ste50-Ste11-Ste7 in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways have been characterized in Fusarium graminearum. Currently, the upstream sensors of these pathways are unknown. Biological functions of a transmembrane protein FgSho1 were investigated using a target gene deletion strategy. The relationship between FgSho1 and the MAPK cassette FgSte50-Ste11-Ste7 was analyzed in depth. The transmembrane protein FgSho1 is required for conidiation, full virulence, and deoxynivalenol (DON) biosynthesis in F. graminearum. Furthermore, FgSho1 and FgSln1 have an additive effect on virulence of F. graminearum. The yeast two-hybrid, coimmunoprecipitation, colocalization and affinity capture-mass spectrometry analyses strongly indicated that FgSho1 physically interacts with the MAPK module FgSte50-Ste11-Ste7. Similar to the FgSho1 mutant, the mutants of FgSte50, FgSte11, and FgSte7 were defective in conidiation, pathogenicity, and DON biosynthesis. In addition, FgSho1 plays a minor role in the response to osmotic stress but it is involved in the cell wall integrity pathway, which is independent of the module FgSte50-Ste11-Ste7 in F. graminearum. Collectively, results of this study strongly indicate that FgSho1 regulates fungal development and pathogenicity via the MAPK module FgSte50-Ste11-Ste7 in F. graminearum, which is different from what is known in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:25388878

Gu, Qin; Chen, Yun; Liu, Ye; Zhang, Chengqi; Ma, Zhonghua

2014-11-12

255

Effect of Fusarium verticillioides on maize-root-associated Burkholderia cenocepacia populations.  

PubMed

Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria are naturally present in the rhizosphere of several crop plants and have been found to antagonize a wide range of important plant pathogens. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides on Bcc populations recovered from the roots of Zea mays plants. Maize plants were cultivated under greenhouse conditions and bacterial colonies were randomly isolated from distinct root portions of Fusarium-treated and control plants. We obtained a total of 120 Bcc isolates which all belonged to the species Burkholderia cenocepacia, a species of the Bcc widely distributed in natural habitats such as the rhizosphere of several crop plants. Results obtained revealed that the presence of the plant pathogen F. verticillioides had an effect at the root colonization level of B. cenocepacia populations, since an increase in indigenous B. cenocepacia bacteria was found in the rhizospheres of maize plants grown in infested soil, compared to the rhizospheres of control plants. The analysis of diversity indices as well as the investigation of genetic polymorphism of B. cenocepacia strains, isolated from Fusarium-treated and control root portions, revealed greater genetic variability in the presence of F. verticillioides, especially in the terminal root system portion. Finally, all B. cenocepacia isolates were also tested for in vitro inhibition of F. verticillioides growth as a functional property. Our results revealed that all B. cenocepacia isolates were able to restrict in vitro fungal growth, suggesting that there was no relationship between genetic polymorphism and biocontrol traits. PMID:16085398

Bevivino, Annamaria; Peggion, Verena; Chiarini, Luigi; Tabacchioni, Silvia; Cantale, Cristina; Dalmastri, Claudia

2005-12-01

256

Detection of 3-hydroxykynurenine in a plant pathogenic fungus.  

PubMed Central

A redox-active compound has been purified from the barley powdery mildew fungus Blumeria ( Erysiphe ) graminis f. sp. hordei. A combination of spectrophotometry, MS and NMR has identified it as 3-hydroxykynurenine (3OHKyn). This compound, never previously detected in any fungus or pathogen, is best known for its role in vertebrate cataracts. It is found abundantly in developing and germinating spores and also in runner hyphae. Two roles for 3OHKyn are discussed: first, the presence of active oxygen species would enable 3OHKyn to cross-link the spore chemically with the plant. Secondly, it may be acting as an UV protectant and an antioxidant. PMID:12556224

Wilson, T J Greer; Thomsen, Karl Kristian; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ř; Oliver, Richard P

2003-01-01

257

Oxidative burst: an early plant response to pathogen infection.  

PubMed Central

As plants are confined to the place where they grow, they have to develop a broad range of defence responses to cope with pathogenic infections. The oxidative burst, a rapid, transient, production of huge amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is one of the earliest observable aspects of a plant's defence strategy. First this Review describes the chemistry of ROS (superoxide radical, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical). Secondly, the role of ROS in defence responses is demonstrated, and some important issues are considered, such as: (1) which of the ROS is a major building element of the oxidative burst; (2) the spatial and temporal regulation of the oxidative burst; and (3) differences in the plant's responses to biotic and abiotic elicitation. Thirdly, the relationships between the oxidative burst and other plant defence responses are indicated. These include: (1) an oxygen consumption, (2) the production of phytoalexins, (3) systemic acquired resistance, (4) immobilization of plant cell wall proteins, (5) changes in membrane permeability and ion fluxes and (6) a putative role in hypersensitive cell death. Wherever possible, the comparisons with models applicable to animal systems are presented. Finally, the question of the origin of ROS in the oxidative burst is considered, and two major hypotheses, (1) the action of NADPH oxidase system analogous to that of animal phagocytes, and (2) the pH-dependent generation of hydrogen peroxide by a cell wall peroxidase, are presented. On the basis of this material, a third 'unifying' hypothesis is presented, where transient changes in the pH of the cell wall compartment are indicated as a core phenomenon in evoking ROS production. Additionally, a germin/oxalate oxidase system which generates H2O2 in response to pathogenic infection is also described. PMID:9148737

Wojtaszek, P

1997-01-01

258

Trehalose Biosynthesis Promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogenicity in Plants  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA14 is a multi-host pathogen that infects plants, nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Many PA14 factors are required for virulence in more than one of these hosts. Noting that plants have a fundamentally different cellular architecture from animals, we sought to identify PA14 factors that are specifically required for plant pathogenesis. We show that synthesis by PA14 of the disaccharide trehalose is required for pathogenesis in Arabidopsis, but not in nematodes, insects, or mice. In-frame deletion of two closely-linked predicted trehalose biosynthetic operons, treYZ and treS, decreased growth in Arabidopsis leaves about 50 fold. Exogenously co-inoculated trehalose, ammonium, or nitrate, but not glucose, sulfate, or phosphate suppressed the phenotype of the double ?treYZ?treS mutant. Exogenous trehalose or ammonium nitrate does not suppress the growth defect of the double ?treYZ?treS mutant by suppressing the plant defense response. Trehalose also does not function intracellularly in P. aeruginosa to ameliorate a variety of stresses, but most likely functions extracellularly, because wild-type PA14 rescued the in vivo growth defect of the ?treYZ?treS in trans. Surprisingly, the growth defect of the double ?treYZ?treS double mutant was suppressed by various Arabidopsis cell wall mutants that affect xyloglucan synthesis, including an xxt1xxt2 double mutant that completely lacks xyloglucan, even though xyloglucan mutants are not more susceptible to pathogens and respond like wild-type plants to immune elicitors. An explanation of our data is that trehalose functions to promote the acquisition of nitrogen-containing nutrients in a process that involves the xyloglucan component of the plant cell wall, thereby allowing P. aeruginosa to replicate in the intercellular spaces in a leaf. This work shows how P. aeruginosa, a multi-host opportunistic pathogen, has repurposed a highly conserved “house-keeping” anabolic pathway (trehalose biosynthesis) as a potent virulence factor that allows it to replicate in the intercellular environment of a leaf. PMID:23505373

Djonovi?, Slavica; Urbach, Jonathan M.; Drenkard, Eliana; Bush, Jenifer; Feinbaum, Rhonda; Ausubel, Jonathan L.; Traficante, David; Risech, Martina; Kocks, Christine; Fischbach, Michael A.; Priebe, Gregory P.; Ausubel, Frederick M.

2013-01-01

259

Disrupting the Transmission of a Vector-Borne Plant Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Approaches to control vector-borne diseases rarely focus on the interface between vector and microbial pathogen, but strategies aimed at disrupting the interactions required for transmission may lead to reductions in disease spread. We tested if the vector transmission of the plant-pathogenic bacterium Xylella fastidiosa was affected by three groups of molecules: lectins, carbohydrates, and antibodies. Although not comprehensively characterized, it is known that X. fastidiosa adhesins bind to carbohydrates, and that these interactions are important for initial cell attachment to vectors, which is required for bacterial transmission from host to host. Lectins with affinity to substrates expected to occur on the cuticular surface of vectors colonized by X. fastidiosa, such as wheat germ agglutinin, resulted in statistically significant reductions in transmission rate, as did carbohydrates with N-acetylglucosamine residues. Presumably, lectins bound to receptors on the vector required for cell adhesion/colonization, while carbohydrate-saturated adhesins on X. fastidiosa's cell surface. Furthermore, antibodies against X. fastidiosa whole cells, gum, and afimbrial adhesins also resulted in transmission blockage. However, no treatment resulted in the complete abolishment of transmission, suggesting that this is a complex biological process. This work illustrates the potential to block the transmission of vector-borne pathogens without directly affecting either organism. PMID:22101059

Rashed, Arash; Almeida, Rodrigo P. P.

2012-01-01

260

Evolutionary History of the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Xanthomonas axonopodis  

PubMed Central

Deciphering mechanisms shaping bacterial diversity should help to build tools to predict the emergence of infectious diseases. Xanthomonads are plant pathogenic bacteria found worldwide. Xanthomonas axonopodis is a genetically heterogeneous species clustering, into six groups, strains that are collectively pathogenic on a large number of plants. However, each strain displays a narrow host range. We address the question of the nature of the evolutionary processes – geographical and ecological speciation – that shaped this diversity. We assembled a large collection of X. axonopodis strains that were isolated over a long period, over continents, and from various hosts. Based on the sequence analysis of seven housekeeping genes, we found that recombination occurred as frequently as point mutation in the evolutionary history of X. axonopodis. However, the impact of recombination was about three times greater than the impact of mutation on the diversity observed in the whole dataset. We then reconstructed the clonal genealogy of the strains using coalescent and genealogy approaches and we studied the diversification of the pathogen using a model of divergence with migration. The suggested scenario involves a first step of generalist diversification that spanned over the last 25 000 years. A second step of ecology-driven specialization occurred during the past two centuries. Eventually, secondary contacts between host-specialized strains probably occurred as a result of agricultural development and intensification, allowing genetic exchanges of virulence-associated genes. These transfers may have favored the emergence of novel pathotypes. Finally, we argue that the largest ecological entity within X. axonopodis is the pathovar. PMID:23505513

Mhedbi-Hajri, Nadia; Hajri, Ahmed; Boureau, Tristan; Darrasse, Armelle; Durand, Karine; Brin, Chrystelle; Saux, Marion Fischer-Le; Manceau, Charles; Poussier, Stéphane; Pruvost, Olivier

2013-01-01

261

Viruses of the plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.  

PubMed

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a notorious plant fungal pathogen with a broad host range including many important crops, such as oilseed rape, soybean, and numerous vegetable crops. Hypovirulence-associated mycoviruses have attracted much attention because of their potential as biological control agents for combating plant fungal diseases and for use in fundamental studies on fungal pathogenicity and other properties. This chapter describes several mycoviruses that were isolated from hypovirulent strains except for strain Sunf-M, which has a normal phenotype. These viruses include the geminivirus-like mycovirus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1), Sclerotinia debilitation-associated RNA virus (SsDRV), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum RNA virus L (SsRV-L), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirus 1 (SsHV-1), Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mitoviruses 1 and 2 (SsMV-1, SsMV-2), and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum partitivirus S (SsPV-S). Unlike many other fungi, incidences of mixed infections with two or more mycoviruses in S. sclerotiorum are particularly high and very common. The interaction between SsDRV and S. sclerotiorum is likely to be unique. The significance of these mycoviruses to fungal ecology and viral evolution and the potential for biological control of Sclerotinia diseases using mycoviruses are discussed. PMID:23498908

Jiang, Daohong; Fu, Yanping; Guoqing, Li; Ghabrial, Said A

2013-01-01

262

Regulation of tradeoffs between plant defenses against pathogens with different lifestyles  

E-print Network

be advantageous to the plant by preventing necrotrophic pathogen growth in tissues undergoing PCD. Our findings-talk jasmonic acid necrotroph salicylic acid In their natural environment, plants are under continuous bioticRegulation of tradeoffs between plant defenses against pathogens with different lifestyles Steven H

Spoel, Steven

263

Evolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum  

E-print Network

and their pathogens are complex, encompassing several layers of defense and counter- defense by the plant hostEvolution of RXLR-Class Effectors in the Oomycete Plant Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum Erica M. Goss Agricultural Research Service, Corvallis, Oregon, United States of America Abstract Phytophthora plant

GrĂĽnwald, Niklaus J.

264

EST Mining and Functional Expression Assays Identify Extracellular Effector Proteins From the Plant Pathogen Phytophthora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant pathogenic microbes have the remarkable ability to manipulate biochemical, physiological, and morphological processes in their host plants.These manipulations are ac hieved through a diverse array of effector molecules that can either promote infection or trigger defense responses.We describe a general functional genomics approach aimed at identifying extracellular effector proteins from plant pathogenic microorganisms by combining data mining of expressed

Trudy A. Torto; Shuang Li; Allison Styer; Edgar Huitema; Antonino Testa; Neil A. R. Gow; Pieter van West; Sophien Kamoun

2003-01-01

265

GENOME-WIDE RNA EXPRESSION ANALYSIS DURING CONIDIAL MATURATION AND GERMINATION IN THE FILAMENTOUS FUNGUS, FUSARIUM GRAMINEARUM  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The fungal plant pathogen, F. graminearum, causes Fusarium head blight disease of wheat and barley. To understand the early infection cycle of this organism, we monitored the RNA expression profiles in newly formed spores (macroconidia), in maturing spores and during the early stages of spore germin...

266

Endogenous Methyl Salicylate in Pathogen-Inoculated Tobacco Plants1  

PubMed Central

The tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultivar Xanthi-nc (genotype NN) produces high levels of salicylic acid (SA) after inoculation with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Gaseous methyl salicylate (MeSA), a major volatile produced in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants, was recently shown to be an airborne defense signal. Using an assay developed to measure the MeSA present in tissue, we have shown that in TMV-inoculated tobacco plants the level of MeSA increases dramatically, paralleling increases in SA. MeSA accumulation was also observed in upper, noninoculated leaves. In TMV-inoculated tobacco shifted from 32 to 24°C, the MeSA concentration increased from nondetectable levels to 2318 ng/g fresh weight 12 h after the temperature shift, but subsequently decreased with the onset of the hypersensitive response. Similar results were observed in plants inoculated with Pseudomonas syringae pathovar phaseolicola, in which MeSA levels were highest just before the hypersensitive response-induced tissue desiccation. Transgenic NahG plants unable to accumulate SA also did not accumulate MeSA after TMV inoculation, and did not show increased resistance to TMV following MeSA treatment. Based on the spatial and temporal kinetics of its accumulation, we conclude that tissue MeSA may play a role similar to that of volatile MeSA in the pathogen-induced defense response.

Seskar, Mirjana; Shulaev, Vladimir; Raskin, Ilya

1998-01-01

267

Transcription of genes in the biosynthetic pathway for fumonisin mycotoxins is epigenetically and differentially regulated in the fungal maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides.  

PubMed

When the fungal pathogen Gibberella moniliformis (anamorph, Fusarium verticillioides) colonizes maize and maize-based products, it produces class B fumonisin (FB) mycotoxins, which are a significant threat to human and animal health. FB biosynthetic enzymes and accessory proteins are encoded by a set of clustered and cotranscribed genes collectively named FUM, whose molecular regulation is beginning to be unraveled by researchers. FB accumulation correlates with the amount of transcripts from the key FUM genes, FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8. In fungi in general, gene expression is often partially controlled at the chromatin level in secondary metabolism; when this is the case, the deacetylation and acetylation (and other posttranslational modifications) of histones are usually crucial in the regulation of transcription. To assess whether epigenetic factors regulate the FB pathway, we monitored FB production and FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8 expression in the presence of a histone deacetylase inhibitor and verified by chromatin immunoprecipitation the relative degree of histone acetylation in the promoter regions of FUM1, FUM21, and FUM8 under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions. Moreover, we generated transgenic F. verticillioides strains expressing GFP under the control of the FUM1 promoter to determine whether its strength under FB-inducing and noninducing conditions was influenced by its location in the genome. Our results indicate a clear and differential role for chromatin remodeling in the regulation of FUM genes. This epigenetic regulation can be attained through the modulation of histone acetylation at the level of the promoter regions of the key biosynthetic genes FUM1 and FUM21, but less so for FUM8. PMID:22117026

Visentin, I; Montis, V; Döll, K; Alabouvette, C; Tamietti, G; Karlovsky, P; Cardinale, F

2012-03-01

268

Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZymes present in the Phytophthora infestans, Ph. ramorum, Ph. sojae and Pythium ultimum genomes compared to growth of these species on a range of different carbon sources. Growth on these carbon sources indicates that the size of enzyme families involved in degradation of cell-wall related substrates like cellulose, xylan and pectin is not always a good predictor of growth on these substrates. While a capacity to degrade xylan and cellulose exists the products are not fully saccharified and used as a carbon source. The Phytophthora genomes encode larger CAZyme sets when compared to Py. ultimum, and encode putative cutinases, GH12 xyloglucanases and GH10 xylanases that are missing in the Py. ultimum genome. Phytophthora spp. also encode a larger number of enzyme families and genes involved in pectin degradation. No loss or gain of complete enzyme families was found between the Phytophthora genomes, but there are some marked differences in the size of some enzyme families. PMID:25192612

Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P

2014-11-01

269

Green Leaf Volatiles: A Plant’s Multifunctional Weapon against Herbivores and Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Plants cannot avoid being attacked by an almost infinite number of microorganisms and insects. Consequently, they arm themselves with molecular weapons against their attackers. Plant defense responses are the result of a complex signaling network, in which the hormones jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and ethylene (ET) are the usual suspects under the magnifying glass when researchers investigate host-pest interactions. However, Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs), C6 molecules, which are very quickly produced and/or emitted upon herbivory or pathogen infection by almost every green plant, also play an important role in plant defenses. GLVs are semiochemicals used by insects to find their food or their conspecifics. They have also been reported to be fundamental in indirect defenses and to have a direct effect on pests, but these are not the only roles of GLVs. These volatiles, being probably one of the fastest weapons exploited, are also able to directly elicit or prime plant defense responses. Moreover, GLVs, via crosstalk with phytohormones, mostly JA, can influence the outcome of the plant’s defense response against pathogens. For all these reasons GLVs should be considered as co-protagonists in the play between plants and their attackers. PMID:23999587

Scala, Alessandra; Allmann, Silke; Mirabella, Rossana; Haring, Michel A.; Schuurink, Robert C.

2013-01-01

270

The FgHOG1 pathway regulates hyphal growth, stress responses, and plant infection in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum. PMID:23166686

Zheng, Dawei; Zhang, Shijie; Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Chenfang; Xiang, Ping; Zheng, Qian; Xu, Jin-Rong

2012-01-01

271

The FgHOG1 Pathway Regulates Hyphal Growth, Stress Responses, and Plant Infection in Fusarium graminearum  

PubMed Central

Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by Fusarium graminearum is a destructive disease of wheat and barley worldwide. In a previous study of systematic characterization of protein kinase genes in F. graminearum, mutants of three putative components of the osmoregulation MAP kinase pathway were found to have distinct colony morphology and hyphal growth defects on PDA plates. Because the osmoregulation pathway is not known to regulate aerial hyphal growth and branching, in this study we further characterized the functions of the FgHog1 pathway in growth, pathogenesis, and development. The Fghog1, Fgpbs2, and Fgssk2 mutants were all reduced in growth rate, aerial hyphal growth, and hyphal branching angle. These mutants were not only hypersensitive to osmotic stress but also had increased sensitivity to oxidative, cytoplasm membrane, and cell wall stresses. The activation of FgHog1 was blocked in the Fgpbs2 and Fgssk2 mutants, indicating the sequential activation of FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 cascade. Interestingly, the FgHog1 MAPK pathway mutants appeared to be sensitive to certain compounds present in PDA. They were female sterile but retained male fertility. We also used the metabolomics profiling approach to identify compatible solutes that were accumulated in the wild type but not in the Fghog1 deletion mutant. Overall, our results indicate that the FgSsk2-FgPbs2-FgHog1 MAPK cascade is important for regulating hyphal growth, branching, plant infection, and hyperosmotic and general stress responses in F. graminearum. PMID:23166686

Zhou, Xiaoying; Wang, Chenfang; Xiang, Ping; Zheng, Qian; Xu, Jin-Rong

2012-01-01

272

Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil.  

PubMed

A multiyear survey of more than 200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were found among 671 FGSC isolates from FHB infected wheat heads: F. graminearum (Fgra, 83%) of the 15-ADON genotype, F. meridionale (Fmer, 12.8%) and F. asiaticum (Fasi, 0.4%) of the NIV genotype, and F. cortaderiae (Fcor, 2.5%) and F. austroamericanum (Faus, 0.9%) with either the NIV or the 3-ADON genotype. Regional differences in FGSC composition were observed, with Fmer and the NIV type being significantly (P < 0.001) more prevalent in PR (>28%) than in RS (?9%). Within RS, Fgra was overrepresented in fields below 600 m elevation and in fields with higher levels of FHB incidence (P < 0.05). Species composition was not significantly influenced by previous crop or the stage of grain development at sampling. Habitat-specific differences in FGSC composition were evaluated in three fields by characterizing a total of 189 isolates collected from corn stubble, air above the wheat canopy and symptomatic wheat kernels. Significant differences in FGSC composition were observed among these habitats (P < 0.001). Most strikingly, Fmer and Fcor of the NIV genotype accounted for the vast majority (>96%) of isolates from corn stubbles, whereas Fgra with the 15-ADON genotype were dominant (>84%) among isolates from diseased wheat kernels. Potential differences in pathogenic fitness on wheat were also suggested by a greenhouse competitiveness assay in which Fgra was recovered at much higher frequency (>90%) than Fmer from four wheat varieties inoculated with an equal mixture of Fgra and Fmer isolates. Taken together, the data presented here suggest that FGSC composition and consequently the trichothecene contamination in wheat grown in southern Brazil is influenced by host adaptation and pathogenic fitness. Evidence that Fmer and Fcor with the NIV genotype are regionally significant contributors to FHB may have significant implications for food safety and the economics of cereal production. PMID:25121641

Del Ponte, Emerson; Spolti, Pierri; Ward, Todd; Gomes, Larissa Bitencourt; Nicolli, Camila Primieri; Kuhnem, Paulo Roberto; da Silva, Cleiltan Novais; Tessmann, Dauri Jose

2014-08-14

273

Interaction of antimicrobial cyclic lipopeptides from Bacillus subtilis influences their effect on spore germination and membrane permeability in fungal plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Bacillus subtilis cyclic lipopeptides are known to have various antimicrobial effects including different types of interactions with the cell membranes of plant pathogenic fungi. The various spectra of activities of the three main lipopeptide families (fengycins, iturins, and surfactins) seem to be linked to their respective mechanisms of action on the fungal biomembrane. Few studies have shown the combined effect of more than one family of lipopeptides on fungal plant pathogens. In an effort to understand the effect of producing multiple lipopeptide families, sensitivity and membrane permeability of spores from four fungal plant pathogens (Alternaria solani, Fusarium sambucinum, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Verticillium dahliae) were assayed in response to lipopeptides, both individually and as combined treatments. Results showed that inhibition of spores was highly variable depending on the tested fungus-lipopeptide treatment. Results also showed that inhibition of the spores was closely associated with SYTOX stain absorption suggesting effects of efficient treatments on membrane permeability. Combined lipopeptide treatments revealed additive, synergistic or sometimes mutual inhibition of beneficial effects. PMID:25442289

Liu, Jiajie; Hagberg, Ingrid; Novitsky, Laura; Hadj-Moussa, Hanane; Avis, Tyler J

2014-11-01

274

Role of Soil, Crop Debris, and a Plant Pathogen in Salmonella enterica Contamination of Tomato Plants  

PubMed Central

Background In the U.S., tomatoes have become the most implicated vehicle for produce-associated Salmonellosis with 12 outbreaks since 1998. Although unconfirmed, trace backs suggest pre-harvest contamination with Salmonella enterica. Routes of tomato crop contamination by S. enterica in the absence of direct artificial inoculation have not been investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings This work examined the role of contaminated soil, the potential for crop debris to act as inoculum from one crop to the next, and any interaction between the seedbourne plant pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria and S. enterica on tomato plants. Our results show S. enterica can survive for up to six weeks in fallow soil with the ability to contaminate tomato plants. We found S. enterica can contaminate a subsequent crop via crop debris; however a fallow period between crop incorporation and subsequent seeding can affect contamination patterns. Throughout these studies, populations of S. enterica declined over time and there was no bacterial growth in either the phyllosphere or rhizoplane. The presence of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria on co-colonized tomato plants had no effect on the incidence of S. enterica tomato phyllosphere contamination. However, growth of S. enterica in the tomato phyllosphere occurred on co-colonized plants in the absence of plant disease. Conclusions/Significance S. enterica contaminated soil can lead to contamination of the tomato phyllosphere. A six week lag period between soil contamination and tomato seeding did not deter subsequent crop contamination. In the absence of plant disease, presence of the bacterial plant pathogen, X. campestris pv. vesicatoria was beneficial to S. enterica allowing multiplication of the human pathogen population. Any event leading to soil contamination with S. enterica could pose a public health risk with subsequent tomato production, especially in areas prone to bacterial spot disease. PMID:18301739

Barak, Jeri D.; Liang, Anita S.

2008-01-01

275

Influence of Soil Fumigation on the Fusarium-Root-knot Nematode Disease Complex of Cotton in California  

PubMed Central

For control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and the pathogenic wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum, on cotton, soil fumigants were applied in the field at conventional and higher rates. Conventional rates suppressed Fusarium wilt but higher rates gave quicker early growth, better stands, less stand loss over the season, a lower percentage of plants infected with wilt, fewer plants with vascular discoloration, and fewer nematodes. The best treatment about doubled the yields of untreated controls in one experiment and quadrupled them in another. PMID:19305846

Jorgenson, E. C.; Hyer, A. H.; Garber, R. H.; Smith, Shirley N.

1978-01-01

276

Dual metabolomics: a novel approach to understanding plant-pathogen interactions.  

PubMed

One of the most well-characterised plant pathogenic interactions involves Arabidopsis thaliana and the bacteria Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato (Pst). The standard Pst inoculation procedure involves infiltration of large populations of bacteria into plant leaves which means that metabolite changes cannot be readily assigned to the host or pathogen. A plant cell-pathogen co-culture based approach has been developed where the plant and pathogen cells are separated after 12h of co-culture via differential filtering and centrifugation. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was employed to assess the intracellular metabolomes (metabolic fingerprints) of both host and pathogen and their extruded (extracellular) metabolites (metabolic footprints) under conditions relevant to disease and resistance. We propose that this system will enable the metabolomic profiling of the separated host and pathogen (i.e. 'dual metabolomics') and will facilitate the modelling of reciprocal responses. PMID:20138320

Allwood, J William; Clarke, Andrew; Goodacre, Royston; Mur, Luis A J

2010-04-01

277

Effects of Varying Environmental Conditions on Biological Control of Fusarium Wilt of Tomato by Nonpathogenic Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT The influence of varying environmental and cropping conditions including temperature, light, soil type, pathogen isolate and race, and cultivar of tomato on biological control of Fusarium wilt of tomato by isolates of nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum (CS-20 and CS-24) and F. solani (CS-1) was evaluated in greenhouse and growth chamber experiments. Liquid spore suspensions (10(6)/ml) of the biocontrol isolates were applied to soilless potting mix at the time of tomato seeding, and the seedlings were transplanted into pathogen-infested field soil 2 weeks later. Temperature regimes ranging from 22 to 32 degrees C significantly affected disease development and plant physiological parameters. Biocontrol isolate CS-20 significantly reduced disease at all temperature regimes tested, yielding reductions of disease incidence of 59 to 100% relative to pathogen control treatments. Isolates CS-24 and CS-1 reduced disease incidence in the greenhouse and at high temperatures, but were less effective at the optimum temperature for disease development (27 degrees C). Growing plants under shade (50% of full light) versus full light affected some plant growth parameters, but did not affect the efficacy of biocontrol of any of the three bio-control isolates. Isolate CS-20 effectively reduced disease incidence (56 to 79% reduction) in four different field soils varying in texture (sandy to clayey) and organic matter content (0 to 3.2%). Isolate CS-1 reduced disease in the sandy and loamy soils (49 to 66% reduction), but was not effective in a heavy clay soil. Both CS-1 and CS-20 were equally effective against all three races of the pathogen, as well as multiple isolates of each race (48 to 66% reduction in disease incidence). Both isolates, CS-1 and CS-20, were equally effective in reducing disease incidence (66 to 80% reduction) by pathogenic races 1, 2, and 3 on eight different tomato cultivars containing varying levels of inherent resistance to Fusarium wilt (susceptible, resistant to race 1, or resistant to races 1 and 2). These results demonstrate that both these Fusarium isolates, and particularly CS-20, can effectively reduce Fusarium wilt disease of tomato under a variety of environmental conditions and have potential for further development. PMID:18944240

Larkin, Robert P; Fravel, Deborah R

2002-11-01

278

Identification of resistance to fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum Race 2 in citrullus lanatus var. citroides plant introductions  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium wilt is a major disease of watermelon in North America and around the world. Control of this disease is difficult, because the soil-borne causal agent Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon), produces resilient spores that remain infectious for many years. Although various levels of resist...

279

Selection for Pathogenicity to Strawberry in Populations of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from Native Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mackenzie, S. J., Seijo, T. E., Legard, D. E., Timmer, L. W., and Peres, N. A. 2007. Selection for pathogenicity to strawberry in populations of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides from native plants. Phytopathology 97:1130-1140. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes a serious crown rot of straw- berry and some isolates from native plants are pathogenic to strawberry. C. gloeosporioides from lesions on wild grape and

S. J. MacKenzie; T. E. Seijo; D. E. Legard; L. W. Timmer; N. A. Peres

2007-01-01

280

Fluorescence techniques to detect and to assess viability of plant pathogenic bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant pathogenic bacteria cause major economic losses in commercial crop production worldwide every year. The current methods used to detect and to assess the viability of bacterial pathogens and to test seed lots or plants for contamination are usually based on plate assays or on serological techniques. Plating methods provide information about cell viability, but are generally laborious and time-consuming.

L. G. Chitarra

2001-01-01

281

Chitinolytic Enterobacter agglomerans Antagonistic to Fungal Plant Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Three Enterobacter agglomerans strains which produce and excrete proteins with chitinolytic activity were found while screening soil-borne bacteria antagonistic to fungal plant pathogens. The chitinolytic activity was induced when the strains were grown in the presence of colloidal chitin as the sole carbon source. It was quantitated by using assays with chromogenic p-nitrophenyl analogs of disaccharide, trisaccharide, and tetrasaccharide derivatives of N-acetylglucosamine. A set of three fluorescent substrates with a 4-methylumbelliferyl group linked by (beta)-1,4 linkage to N-acetylglucosamine mono- or oligosaccharides were used to identify the chitinolytic activities of proteins which had been renatured following their separation by electrophoresis. This study provides the most complete evidence for the presence of a complex of chitinolytic enzymes in Enterobacter strains. Four enzymes were detected: two N-acetyl-(beta)-d-glucosaminidases of 89 and 67 kDa, an endochitinase with an apparent molecular mass of 59 kDa, and a chitobiosidase of 50 kDa. The biocontrol ability of the chitinolytic strains was demonstrated under greenhouse conditions. The bacteria decreased the incidence of disease caused by Rhizoctonia solani in cotton by 64 to 86%. Two Tn5 mutants of one of the isolates, which were deficient in chitinolytic activity, were unable to protect plants against the disease. PMID:16535017

Chernin, L.; Ismailov, Z.; Haran, S.; Chet, I.

1995-01-01

282

An endo-polygalacturonase (PG) of Fusarium moniliforme escaping inhibition by plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) provides new insights into the PG–PGIP interaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant defence molecules inhibiting the activity of fungal endo-polygalacturonases (endo-PGs). We found that soybean and bean PGIPs inhibited the endo-PG activity produced by the isolate FC-10 of Fusarium moniliforme but not the enzyme activity produced by the isolate PD of F. moniliforme. The bean PGIP proved to be ineffective against all the PG isoforms produced by

Luca Sella; Carla Castiglioni; Serena Roberti; Renato D’Ovidio; Francesco Favaron

2004-01-01

283

The relative abundance of viable spores of Gibberella zeae in the planetary boundary layer suggests the role of long-distance transport in regional epidemics of Fusarium head blight  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-distance transport of plant pathogens takes place primarily in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) of the atmosphere. The PBL extends from about 50m to nearly 1km above the surface of the earth. We used remote-piloted vehicles (RPVs) to measure the relative abundance of viable spores of Gibberella zeae (anamorph Fusarium graminearum), causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat,

Sandra Lee Maldonado-Ramirez; David G. Schmale; Elson J. Shields; Gary C. Bergstrom

2005-01-01

284

Effect of acidic electrolyzed water on the viability of bacterial and fungal plant pathogens and on bacterial spot disease of tomato.  

PubMed

Acidic electrolyzed water (AEW), known to have germicidal activity, was obtained after electrolysis of 0.045% aqueous solution of sodium chloride. Freshly prepared AEW (pH 2.3-2.6, oxidation-reduction potential 1007-1025 mV, and free active chlorine concentration 27-35 ppm) was tested in vitro and (or) on tomato foliage and seed surfaces for its effects on the viability of plant pathogen propagules that could be potential seed contaminants. Foliar sprays of AEW were tested against bacterial spot disease of tomato under greenhouse and field conditions. The viability of propagules of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (bacterial spot pathogen), Streptomyces scabies (potato scab pathogen), and Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici (root rot pathogen) was significantly reduced 4-8 log units within 2 min of exposure to AEW. Immersion of tomato seed from infected fruit in AEW for 1 and 3 min significantly reduced the populations of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria from the surface of the seed without affecting seed germination. Foliar sprays of AEW reduced X. campestris pv. vesicatoria populations and leaf spot severity on tomato foliage in the greenhouse. In the field, multiple sprays of AEW consistently reduced bacterial spot severity on tomato foliage. Disease incidence and severity was also reduced on fruit, but only in 2003. Fruit yield was either enhanced or not affected by the AEW sprays. These results indicate a potential use of AEW as a seed surface disinfectant or contact bactericide. PMID:17110959

Abbasi, P A; Lazarovits, G

2006-10-01

285

Use of a passive bioreactor to reduce water-borne plant pathogens, nitrate, and sulfate in greenhouse effluent.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of passive bioreactors to reduce water-borne plant pathogens (Pythium ultimum and Fusarium oxysporum) and nutrient load (NO(-) 3 and SO(2-) 4) in greenhouse effluent. Sterilized and unsterilized passive bioreactors filled with a reactive mixture of organic carbon material were used in three replicates. After a startup period of 2 (sterilized) or 5 (unsterilized) weeks, the bioreactor units received for 14 weeks a reconstituted commercial greenhouse effluent composed of 500 mg L(-1) SO(2-) 4 and 300 mg L(-1) NO(-) 3 and were inoculated three times with P. ultimum and F. oxysporum (10(6) CFU mL(-1)). Efficacy in removing water-borne plant pathogens and nitrate reached 99.9% for both the sterilized and unsterilized bioreactors. However, efficacy in reducing the SO(2-) 4 load sharply decreased from 89% to 29% after 2 weeks of NO(-) 3-supply treatment for the unsterilized bioreactors. Although SO(2-) 4 removal efficacy for the sterilized bioreactors did not recover after 4 weeks of NO(-) 3-supply treatment, the unsterilized bioreactor nearly reached a similar level of SO(2-) 4 removal after 4 weeks of NO(-) 3-supply treatment compared with affluent loaded only with SO(2-) 4, where no competition for the carbohydrate source occurred between the denitrification process and sulfate-reducing bacteria activity. Performance differences between the sterilized and unsterilized bioreactors clearly show the predominant importance of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Consequently, when sulfate-reducing bacteria reach their optimal activity, passive bioreactors may constitute a cheap, low-maintenance method of treating greenhouse effluent to recycle wastewater and eliminate nutrient runoff, which has important environmental impacts. PMID:23947714

Gruyer, Nicolas; Dorais, Martine; Alsanius, Beatrix W; Zagury, Gérald J

2013-01-01

286

Fusarium inhibition by wild populations of the medicinal plant Salvia africana-lutea L. linked to metabolomic profiling  

PubMed Central

Background Salvia africana-lutea L., an important medicinal sage used in the Western Cape (South Africa), can be termed a ‘broad-spectrum remedy’ suggesting the presence of a multiplicity of bioactive metabolites. This study aimed at assessing wild S. africana-lutea populations for chemotypic variation and anti-Fusarium properties. Methods Samples were collected from four wild growing population sites (Yzerfontein, Silwerstroomstrand, Koeberg and Brackenfell) and one garden growing location in Stellenbosch. Their antifungal activities against Fusarium verticillioides (strains: MRC 826 and MRC 8267) and F. proliferatum (strains: MRC 6908 and MRC 7140) that are aggressive mycotoxigenic phytopathogens were compared using an in vitro microdilution assay. To correlate antifungal activity to chemical profiles, three techniques viz. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS); Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) were employed. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to the NMR data. The partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to integrate LC-MS and NMR data sets. All statistics were performed with the SIMCA-P?+?12.0 software. Results The dichloromethane:methanol (1:1; v/v) extracts of the plant species collected from Stellenbosch demonstrated the strongest inhibition of F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 0.031 mg ml-1 and 0.063 mg ml-1 respectively. GC-MS showed four compounds which were unique to the Stellenbosch extracts. By integrating LC-MS and 1H NMR analyses, large chemotype differences leading to samples grouping by site when a multivariate analysis was performed, suggested strong plant-environment interactions as factors influencing metabolite composition. Signals distinguishing the Stellenbosch profile were in the aromatic part of the 1H NMR spectra. Conclusions This study shows the potential of chemotypes of Salvia africana-lutea in controlling fungal growth and consequently mycotoxin production. Products for use in the agricultural sector may be developed from such chemotypes. PMID:24621275

2014-01-01

287

Fusarium graminearum and Its Interactions with Cereal Heads: Studies in the Proteomics Era  

PubMed Central

The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum (teleomorph stage: Gibberella zeae) is the causal agent of Fusarium head blight in wheat and barley. This disease leads to significant losses of crop yield, and especially quality through the contamination by diverse fungal mycotoxins, which constitute a significant threat to the health of humans and animals. In recent years, high-throughput proteomics, aiming at identifying a broad spectrum of proteins with a potential role in the pathogenicity and host resistance, has become a very useful tool in plant-fungus interaction research. In this review, we describe the progress in proteomics applications toward a better understanding of F. graminearum pathogenesis, virulence, and host defense mechanisms. The contribution of proteomics to the development of crop protection strategies against this pathogen is also discussed briefly. PMID:23450732

Yang, Fen; Jacobsen, Susanne; Jřrgensen, Hans J. L.; Collinge, David B.; Svensson, Birte; Finnie, Christine

2013-01-01

288

Regulators of G-protein signalling in Fusarium verticillioides mediate differential host-pathogen responses on nonviable versus viable maize kernels.  

PubMed

GBB1, a heterotrimeric G-protein ?-subunit gene, was shown to be a key regulator of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1) ) biosynthesis in the maize pathogen Fusarium verticillioides. In this study, we performed functional analyses of genes that encode putative RGS (regulators of G-protein signalling) proteins and PhLPs (phosducin-like proteins) in F. verticillioides. These proteins are known to regulate heterotrimeric G-protein activity by altering the intrinsic guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity, which, in turn, influences the signalling mechanisms that control fungal growth, virulence and secondary metabolism. Our aim was to isolate and characterize gene(s) that are under the transcriptional control of GBB1, and to test the hypothesis that these genes are directly associated with FB(1) regulation and fungal development in F. verticillioides on maize kernels. We first identified eight genes (two PhLPs and six RGSs) in the F. verticillioides genome, and a subsequent transcriptional expression study revealed that three RGS genes were up-regulated in the gbb1 deletion (?gbb1) mutant and one RGS gene was up-regulated in the wild-type. To characterize their function, we generated knockout mutants using a homologous recombination strategy. When grown on autoclaved nonviable kernels, two mutants (?flbA2 and ?rgsB) produced significantly higher levels of FB(1) compared with the wild-type progenitor, suggesting that the two mutated genes are negative regulators of FB(1) biosynthesis. ?flbA2 also showed a severe curly conidia germination pattern, which was contradictory to that observed in the ?gbb1 strain. Strikingly, when these mutants were grown on live maize kernels, we observed contrasting FB(1) and conidiation phenotypes in fungal mutants, which strongly suggests that these G-protein regulators have an impact on how F. verticillioides responds to host/environmental factors. Our data also provide evidence that fungal G-protein signalling is important for modulating the ethylene biosynthetic pathway in maize kernels. PMID:21535353

Mukherjee, Mala; Kim, Jung-Eun; Park, Yong-Soon; Kolomiets, Michael V; Shim, Won-Bo

2011-06-01

289

Phytophagous Arthropods and a Pathogen Sharing a Host Plant: Evidence for Indirect Plant-Mediated Interactions  

PubMed Central

In ecological systems, indirect interactions between plant pathogens and phytophagous arthropods can arise when infestation by a first attacker alters the common host plant so that although a second attacker could be spatially or temporally separated from the first one, the former could be affected. The induction of plant defense reactions leading to the production of secondary metabolites is thought to have an important role since it involves antagonistic and/or synergistic cross-talks that may determine the outcome of such interactions. We carried out experiments under controlled conditions on young rose plants in order to assess the impact of these indirect interactions on life history traits of three pests: the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (Helotiales: Sclerotiniaceae), the aphid Rhodobium porosum Sanderson (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Our results indicated (i) a bi-directional negative interaction between B. cinerea and R. porosum, which is conveyed by decreased aphid growth rate and reduced fungal lesion area, as well as (ii) an indirect negative effect of B. cinerea on insect behavior. No indirect effect was observed between thrips and aphids. This research highlights several complex interactions that may be involved in structuring herbivore and plant pathogen communities within natural and managed ecosystems. PMID:21611161

Mouttet, Raphaëlle; Bearez, Philippe; Thomas, Cécile; Desneux, Nicolas

2011-01-01

290

PLEXdb: Plant and Pathogen Expression Database and Tools for Comparative and Functional Genomics Analysis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

PLEXdb is a plant expression database that supports all Affymetrix microarray designs for plants and plant pathogens. PLEXdb provides annotation and hand-curated microarray data. Experiments deposited in PLEXdb are checked for MIAME/Plant compliance and completeness, then processed by normalizing th...

291

Cell specific transcript profiling of plant-pathogen interaction M. F. Lyngkjr1  

E-print Network

Cell specific transcript profiling of plant- pathogen interaction M. F. Lyngkjær1 , M. Albrechtsen2 Gene transcript profiling of individual plant cells is often necessary because different plant cells to measure and analyse gene expression in individual plant cells using large-scale filter arrays or DNA

292

Genome Sequence of the Plant Pathogen and Biotechnology Agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant, generating a gall tumor. Replacing the transferred tumor-inducing genes with exogenous DNA allows the introduction of any desired gene into the plant. Thus, A. tumefaciens has been critical for the development of modern plant genetics and agricultural biotechnology. Here we describe the

Brad Goodner; Gregory Hinkle; Stacie Gattung; Nancy Miller; Mary Blanchard; Barbara Qurollo; Barry S. Goldman; Yongwei Cao; Manor Askenazi; Conrad Halling; Lori Mullin; Kathryn Houmiel; Jeffrey Gordon; Mark Vaudin; Oleg Iartchouk; Andrew Epp; Fang Liu; Clifford Wollam; Mike Allinger; Dahlia Doughty; Charlaine Scott; Courtney Lappas; Brian Markelz; Casey Flanagan; Chris Crowell; Jordan Gurson; Caroline Lomo; Carolyn Sear; Graham Strub; Chris Cielo; Steven Slater

2001-01-01

293

Isolate Identity Determines Plant Tolerance to Pathogen Attack in Assembled Mycorrhizal Communities  

PubMed Central

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are widespread soil microorganisms that associate mutualistically with plant hosts. AMF receive photosynthates from the host in return for various benefits. One of such benefits is in the form of enhanced pathogen tolerance. However, this aspect of the symbiosis has been understudied compared to effects on plant growth and its ability to acquire nutrients. While it is known that increased AMF species richness positively correlates with plant productivity, the relationship between AMF diversity and host responses to pathogen attack remains obscure. The objective of this study was to test whether AMF isolates can differentially attenuate the deleterious effects of a root pathogen on plant growth, whether the richest assemblage of AMF isolates provides the most tolerance against the pathogen, and whether AMF-induced changes to root architecture serve as a mechanism for improved plant disease tolerance. In a growth chamber study, we exposed the plant oxeye daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare) to all combinations of three AMF isolates and to the plant root pathogen Rhizoctonia solani. We found that the pathogen caused an 81% reduction in shoot and a 70% reduction in root biomass. AMF significantly reduced the highly deleterious effect of the pathogen. Mycorrhizal plants infected with the pathogen produced 91% more dry shoot biomass and 72% more dry root biomass relative to plants solely infected with R. solani. AMF isolate identity was a better predictor of AMF-mediated host tolerance to the pathogen than AMF richness. However, the enhanced tolerance response did not result from AMF-mediated changes to root architecture. Our data indicate that AMF communities can play a major role in alleviating host pathogen attack but this depends primarily on the capacity of individual AMF isolates to provide this benefit. PMID:23620744

Lewandowski, Thaddeus J.; Dunfield, Kari E.; Antunes, Pedro M.

2013-01-01

294

Plant mitochondria under pathogen attack: A sigh of relief or a last breath?  

PubMed

Plants constitute excellent sources for pathogen nutrition and survival. To fight against pathogen attack, higher plants have developed a sophisticated immune system responsible for pathogen recognition and activation of downstream defense responses. After pathogen perception, mitochondria play an important role in the defense strategy of the plant cell, integrating and amplifying diverse signals such as salicylic acid, nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species (ROS) or pathogen elicitors. Signals perceived by mitochondria usually impact on their normal function, destabilizing the organelle, generating changes in respiration, membrane potential and ROS production. At this stage, mitochondria produce several signals influencing the redox state of the cell and promoting changes in the expression of nuclear genes by mitochondrial retrograde regulation. At more advanced stages, they promote programmed cell death in order to avoid pathogen propagation to the whole plant. Recent evidence indicates that plants and pathogens have evolved mechanisms to modulate the immune response by acting on mitochondrial functions. In this review, we summarize knowledge about the involvement of mitochondria in different aspects of the response of plants to pathogen attack. PMID:24704804

Colombatti, Francisco; Gonzalez, Daniel H; Welchen, Elina

2014-11-01

295

Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the fungal entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Lecanicillium spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi.\\u000a Beauveria spp. produce an array of bioactive metabolites, and have been reported to limit growth of fungal plant pathogens

Bonnie H. OwnleyKimberly; Kimberly D. Gwinn; Fernando E. Vega

296

Endophytic fungal entomopathogens with activity against plant pathogens: ecology and evolution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dual biological control, of both insect pests and plant pathogens, has been reported for the fungal entomopathogens, Beauveria bassiana (Bals.-Criv.) Vuill. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and Lecanicillium spp. (Ascomycota: Hypocreales). However, the primary mechanisms of plant disease suppression are different for these fungi.\\u000a Beauveria spp. produce an array of bioactive metabolites, and have been reported to limit growth of fungal plant pathogens

Bonnie H. OwnleyKimberly; Kimberly D. Gwinn; Fernando E. Vega

2010-01-01

297

Separating the inseparable: the metabolomic analysis of plant-pathogen interactions.  

PubMed

Plant-microbe interactions-whether pathogenic or symbiotic-exert major influences on plant physiology and productivity. Analysis of such interactions represents a particular challenge to metabolomic approaches due to the intimate association between the interacting partners coupled with a general commonality of metabolites. We here describe an approach based on co-cultivation of Arabidopsis cell cultures and bacterial plant pathogens to assess the metabolomes of both interacting partners, which we refer to as dual metabolomics. PMID:22351169

Allwood, J William; Heald, Jim; Lloyd, Amanda J; Goodacre, Royston; Mur, Luis A J

2012-01-01

298

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal spores host bacteria that affect nutrient biodynamics and biocontrol of soil-borne plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize bacteria from spores of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We designated these bacteria 'probable endobacteria' (PE). Three bacterial strains were isolated from approximately 500 spores of Gigaspora margarita (Becker and Hall) using a hypodermic needle (diameter, 200??m). The bacteria were identified by morphological methods and on the basis of ribosomal gene sequences as Bacillus sp. (KTCIGM01), Bacillus thuringiensis (KTCIGM02), and Paenibacillus rhizospherae (KTCIGM03). We evaluated the effect of these probable endobacteria on antagonistic activity to the soil-borne plant pathogens (SBPPs) Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lactucae MAFF 744088, Rosellinia necatrix, Rhizoctonia solani MAFF 237426, and Pythium ultimum NBRC 100123. We also tested whether these probable endobacteria affected phosphorus solubilization, ethylene production, nitrogenase activity (NA), and stimulation of AMF hyphal growth. In addition, fresh samples of spores and hyphae were photographed using an in situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Quanta 250FEG; FEI Co., Japan). Bacterial aggregates (BAs), structures similar to biofilms, could be detected on the surface of hyphae and spores. We demonstrate that using extraction with an ultrathin needle, it is possible to isolate AMF-associated bacterial species that are likely derived from inside the fungal spores. PMID:23213368

Cruz, Andre Freire; Ishii, Takaaki

2012-01-15

299

Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusarium verticillioides  

PubMed Central

Here, we report the whole-genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent. PMID:25359909

Blacutt, A. A.; Meinersmann, R. J.; Bacon, C. W.

2014-01-01

300

Exserohilum rostratum: Characterization of a Cross-Kingdom Pathogen of Plants and Humans  

PubMed Central

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M.; Dickstein, Ellen R.; Smith, Matthew E.; Johnson, Judith A.; Southwick, Frederick S.; van Bruggen, Ariena H. C.

2014-01-01

301

Exserohilum rostratum: characterization of a cross-kingdom pathogen of plants and humans.  

PubMed

Pathogen host shifts represent a major source of new infectious diseases. There are several examples of cross-genus host jumps that have caused catastrophic epidemics in animal and plant species worldwide. Cross-kingdom jumps are rare, and are often associated with nosocomial infections. Here we provide an example of human-mediated cross-kingdom jumping of Exserohilum rostratum isolated from a patient who had received a corticosteroid injection and died of fungal meningitis in a Florida hospital in 2012. The clinical isolate of E. rostratum was compared with two plant pathogenic isolates of E. rostratum and an isolate of the closely related genus Bipolaris in terms of morphology, phylogeny, and pathogenicity on one C3 grass, Gulf annual rye grass (Lolium multiflorum), and two C4 grasses, Japanese stilt grass (Microstegium vimineum) and bahia grass (Paspalum notatum). Colony growth and color, as well as conidia shape and size were the same for the clinical and plant isolates of E. rostratum, while these characteristics differed slightly for the Bipolaris sp. isolate. The plant pathogenic and clinical isolates of E. rostratum were indistinguishable based on morphology and ITS and 28S rDNA sequence analysis. The clinical isolate was as pathogenic to all grass species tested as the plant pathogenic strains that were originally isolated from plant hosts. The clinical isolate induced more severe symptoms on stilt grass than on rye grass, while this was the reverse for the plant isolates of E. rostratum. The phylogenetic similarity between the clinical and plant-associated E. rostratum isolates and the ability of the clinical isolate to infect plants suggests that a plant pathogenic strain of E. rostratum contaminated the corticosteroid injection fluid and was able to cause systemic disease in the affected patient. This is the first proof that a clinical isolate of E. rostratum is also an effective plant pathogen. PMID:25285444

Sharma, Kalpana; Goss, Erica M; Dickstein, Ellen R; Smith, Matthew E; Johnson, Judith A; Southwick, Frederick S; van Bruggen, Ariena H C

2014-01-01

302

Peptides and small molecules of the plant-pathogen apoplastic arena  

PubMed Central

Plants reside within an environment rich in potential pathogens. Survival in the presence of such threats requires both effective perception of, and appropriate responses to, pathogenic attack. While plants lack an adaptive immune system, they have a highly developed and responsive innate immune system able to detect and inhibit the growth of the vast majority of potential pathogens. Many of the critical interactions that characterize the relationship between plants and pathogens are played out in the intercellular apoplastic space. The initial perception of pathogen invasion is often achieved through specific plant receptor-like kinases that recognize conserved molecular patterns presented by the pathogen or respond to the molecular debris caused by cellular damage. The perception of either microbial or damage signals by these receptors initiates a response that includes the production of peptides and small molecules to enhance cellular integrity and inhibit pathogen growth. In this review, we discuss the roles of apoplastic peptides and small molecules in modulating plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:25506352

Mott, G. Adam; Middleton, Maggie A.; Desveaux, Darrell; Guttman, David S.

2014-01-01

303

Impact of vector dispersal and host-plant fidelity on the dissemination of an emerging plant pathogen.  

PubMed

Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector. PMID:23284774

Johannesen, Jes; Foissac, Xavier; Kehrli, Patrik; Maixner, Michael

2012-01-01

304

Impact of Vector Dispersal and Host-Plant Fidelity on the Dissemination of an Emerging Plant Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Dissemination of vector-transmitted pathogens depend on the survival and dispersal of the vector and the vector's ability to transmit the pathogen, while the host range of vector and pathogen determine the breath of transmission possibilities. In this study, we address how the interaction between dispersal and plant fidelities of a pathogen (stolbur phytoplasma tuf-a) and its vector (Hyalesthes obsoletus: Cixiidae) affect the emergence of the pathogen. Using genetic markers, we analysed the geographic origin and range expansion of both organisms in Western Europe and, specifically, whether the pathogen's dissemination in the northern range is caused by resident vectors widening their host-plant use from field bindweed to stinging nettle, and subsequent host specialisation. We found evidence for common origins of pathogen and vector south of the European Alps. Genetic patterns in vector populations show signals of secondary range expansion in Western Europe leading to dissemination of tuf-a pathogens, which might be newly acquired and of hybrid origin. Hence, the emergence of stolbur tuf-a in the northern range was explained by secondary immigration of vectors carrying stinging nettle-specialised tuf-a, not by widening the host-plant spectrum of resident vectors with pathogen transmission from field bindweed to stinging nettle nor by primary co-migration from the resident vector's historical area of origin. The introduction of tuf-a to stinging nettle in the northern range was therefore independent of vector's host-plant specialisation but the rapid pathogen dissemination depended on the vector's host shift, whereas the general dissemination elsewhere was linked to plant specialisation of the pathogen but not of the vector. PMID:23284774

Johannesen, Jes; Foissac, Xavier; Kehrli, Patrik; Maixner, Michael

2012-01-01

305

Combating Pathogenic Microorganisms Using Plant-Derived Antimicrobials: A Minireview of the Mechanistic Basis  

PubMed Central

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria has led to renewed interest in exploring the potential of plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy to combat microbial infections. Historically, plant extracts have been used as a safe, effective, and natural remedy for ailments and diseases in traditional medicine. Extensive research in the last two decades has identified a plethora of PDAs with a wide spectrum of activity against a variety of fungal and bacterial pathogens causing infections in humans and animals. Active components of many plant extracts have been characterized and are commercially available; however, research delineating the mechanistic basis of their antimicrobial action is scanty. This review highlights the potential of various plant-derived compounds to control pathogenic bacteria, especially the diverse effects exerted by plant compounds on various virulence factors that are critical for pathogenicity inside the host. In addition, the potential effect of PDAs on gut microbiota is discussed. PMID:25298964

Upadhyaya, Indu; Kollanoor-Johny, Anup

2014-01-01

306

The role of effectors in nonhost resistance to filamentous plant pathogens  

PubMed Central

In nature, most plants are resistant to a wide range of phytopathogens. However, mechanisms contributing to this so-called nonhost resistance (NHR) are poorly understood. Besides constitutive defenses, plants have developed two layers of inducible defense systems. Plant innate immunity relies on recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In compatible interactions, pathogenicity effector molecules secreted by the invader can suppress host defense responses and facilitate the infection process. Additionally, plants have evolved pathogen-specific resistance mechanisms based on recognition of these effectors, which causes secondary defense responses. The current effector-driven hypothesis is that NHR in plants that are distantly related to the host plant is triggered by PAMP recognition that cannot be efficiently suppressed by the pathogen, whereas in more closely related species, nonhost recognition of effectors would play a crucial role. In this review we give an overview of current knowledge of the role of effector molecules in host and NHR and place these findings in the context of the model. We focus on examples from filamentous pathogens (fungi and oomycetes), discuss their implications for the field of plant-pathogen interactions and relevance in plant breeding strategies for development of durable resistance in crops. PMID:25426123

Stam, Remco; Mantelin, Sophie; McLellan, Hazel; Thilliez, Gaëtan

2014-01-01

307

THE RED QUEEN HYPOTHESIS AND PLANT\\/PATHOGEN INTERACTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Red Queen Hypothesis (RQH) explains how pathogens may maintain sexual reproduction in hosts. It assumes that parasites become specialized on common host genotypes, reducing their fitness. Such frequency-dependent selection favors sexual reproduction in host populations. Necessary conditions are that resistance and virulence are genotype specific so that host genotype frequencies respond to changes in pathogen genotype frequencies, and vice

Keith Clay; Paula X. Kover

1996-01-01

308

Regional and field-specific factors affect the composition of Fusarium head blight pathogens in subtropical no-till wheat agroecosystem of Brazil  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A multiyear survey of >200 wheat fields in Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS) states was conducted to assess the extent and distribution of Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) diversity in the southern Brazilian wheat agroecosystem. Five species and three trichothecene genotypes were fou...

309

A Novel Asian Clade Within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex Includes a Newly Discovered Cereal Head Blight Pathogen from the Far East of Russia  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We investigated B-trichothecene toxin-producing Fusarium head blight (B-FHB) species and their toxin potential in European and Asian regions of the Russian Federation, and adjoining regions to the Northwest in Finland and the South near Harbin, in the Heilongjiang Province of China to expand our kno...

310

Validation of real-time PCR assays for bioforensic detection of model plant pathogens.  

PubMed

The U.S. agricultural sector is vulnerable to intentionally introduced microbial threats because of its wide and open distribution and economic importance. To investigate such events, forensically valid assays for plant pathogen detection are needed. In this work, real-time PCR assays were developed for three model plant pathogens: Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato, Xylella fastidiosa, and Wheat streak mosaic virus. Validation included determination of the linearity and range, limit of detection, sensitivity, specificity, and exclusivity of each assay. Additionally, positive control plasmids, distinguishable from native signature by restriction enzyme digestion, were developed to support forensic application of the assays. Each assay displayed linear amplification of target nucleic acid, detected 100 fg or less of target nucleic acid, and was specific to its target pathogen. Results obtained with these model pathogens provide the framework for development and validation of similar assays for other plant pathogens of high consequence. PMID:24261870

James, Mindy; Blagden, Trenna; Moncrief, Ian; Burans, James P; Schneider, Katherine; Fletcher, Jacqueline

2014-03-01

311

Phenotypic Variation in the Plant Pathogenic Bacterium Acidovorax citrulli  

PubMed Central

Acidovorax citrulli causes bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) of cucurbits, a disease that threatens the cucurbit industry worldwide. Despite the economic importance of BFB, little is known about pathogenicity and fitness strategies of the bacterium. We have observed the phenomenon of phenotypic variation in A. citrulli. Here we report the characterization of phenotypic variants (PVs) of two strains, M6 and 7a1, isolated from melon and watermelon, respectively. Phenotypic variation was observed following growth in rich medium, as well as upon isolation of bacteria from inoculated plants or exposure to several stresses, including heat, salt and acidic conditions. When grown on nutrient agar, all PV colonies possessed a translucent appearance, in contrast to parental strain colonies that were opaque. After 72 h, PV colonies were bigger than parental colonies, and had a fuzzy appearance relative to parental strain colonies that are relatively smooth. A. citrulli colonies are generally surrounded by haloes detectable by the naked eye. These haloes are formed by type IV pilus (T4P)-mediated twitching motility that occurs at the edge of the colony. No twitching haloes could be detected around colonies of both M6 and 7a1 PVs, and microscopy observations confirmed that indeed the PVs did not perform twitching motility. In agreement with these results, transmission electron microscopy revealed that M6 and 7a1 PVs do not produce T4P under tested conditions. PVs also differed from their parental strain in swimming motility and biofilm formation, and interestingly, all assessed variants were less virulent than their corresponding parental strains in seed transmission assays. Slight alterations could be detected in some DNA fingerprinting profiles of 7a1 variants relative to the parental strain, while no differences at all could be seen among M6 variants and parental strain, suggesting that, at least in the latter, phenotypic variation is mediated by slight genetic and/or epigenetic alterations. PMID:24023830

Shrestha, Ram Kumar; Rosenberg, Tally; Makarovsky, Daria; Eckshtain-Levi, Noam; Zelinger, Einat; Kopelowitz, June; Sikorski, Johannes; Burdman, Saul

2013-01-01

312

TOWARDS THE IDENTIFICATION AND DETECTION OF FUNGAL PLANT PATHOGENS VIA SHOTGUN PROTEOMICS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant pathogenic fungi are responsible for billions of dollars of damage to economically important crops throughout the world. Thus, it is important to be able to detect fungal pathogens and diagnose disease to mitigate economic impacts. Many techniques are available for detection and diagnosis, i...

313

Plant Pathogens at Work: Progress and Possibilities for Weed Biocontrol Part 2. Improving Weed Control Efficacy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The development of plant pathogenic weed biological control agents can be approached using two strategies, termed the classical and biological approaches. The classical involves the search for pathogens in the native range of an invasive weed and its importation and release into the area of introdu...

314

A generic risk-based surveying method for invading plant pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Invasive plant pathogens are increasing with international trade and travel with damaging environmental and economic consequences. Recent examples include tree diseases such as Sudden Oak Death in the Western US and Ash Dieback in Europe. To control an invading pathogen it is crucial that newly in...

315

How filamentous pathogens co-opt plants; the ins and outs of eukaryotic effectors  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Research on effectors secreted by pathogens during host attack has dominated the field of molecular plant-microbe interactions over recent years. Functional analysis of type III secreted effectors that are injected by pathogenic bacteria into host cells has significantly advanced the field and demon...

316

The Effect of Nitrogen on Disease Development and Gene Expression in Bacterial and Fungal Plant Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Successful colonisation of plants by pathogens requires efficient utilisation of nutrient resources available in host tissues. Several bacterial and fungal genes are specifically induced during pathogenesis and under nitrogen-limiting conditions in vitro. This suggests that a nitrogen-limiting environment may be one of the cues for disease symptom development during growth of the pathogens in planta. Here we review recent literature

Sandor S. Snoeijers; Alejandro Pérez-García; Matthieu H. A. J. Joosten

2000-01-01

317

USE OF LEAF TEMPERATURE TO ASSESS THE RESPONSE OF GERANIUM PLANTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO SOIL PATHOGENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Early response of geranium plants (Pelargonium x hortorum cv. "Maverick Red") exposed to soil pathogens was assessed by measuring changes in leaf temperature. Differences between air temperature and leaf temperature were noticed 7 days after exposure to pathogens. Differences were greatest between...

318

Biodiversity of emerging pathogenic and invasive fungi in plants, animals and humans in Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the last 30 years the spread of emerging and invasive fungal pathogens has had a profound impact on plants, animals and humans, causing crop losses and damaging their health with economic and social impact. Awareness of the biodiversity of these pathogens is essential for their detection, identification, and control. In this paper their diversity in Italy is reviewed taking

A. M. Picco; P. Angelini; C. Ciccarone; A. Franceschini; A. Ragazzi; M. Rodolfi; G. C. Varese; M. Zotti

2011-01-01

319

Multiple Candidate Effectors from the Oomycete Pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis Suppress Host Plant Immunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oomycete pathogens cause diverse plant diseases. To successfully colonize their hosts, they deliver a suite of effector proteins that can attenuate plant defenses. In the oomycete downy mildews, effectors carry a signal peptide and an RxLR motif. Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa) causes downy mildew on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis). We investigated if candidate effectors predicted in the genome sequence

Georgina Fabro; Jens Steinbrenner; Mary Coates; Naveed Ishaque; Laura Baxter; David J. Studholme; Evelyn Körner; Rebecca L. Allen; Sophie J. M. Piquerez; Alejandra Rougon-Cardoso; David Greenshields; Rita Lei; Jorge L. Badel; Marie-Cecile Caillaud; Kee-Hoon Sohn; Guido Van den Ackerveken; Jane E. Parker; Jim Beynon; Jonathan D. G. Jones

2011-01-01

320

Induced resistance enzymes in wild plants–do ‘early birds’ escape from pathogen attack?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) of plants to pathogens is a well-defined phenomenon. The underlying signalling pathways and its application in crop protection are intensively studied. However, most studies are conducted on crop plants or on Arabidopsis as a model plant. The taxonomic distribution of this phenomenon and its dependence on life history are thus largely unknown. We quantified activities of

Martin Heil; Kerstin Ploss

2006-01-01

321

Genome of the Actinomycete Plant Pathogen Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus Suggests Recent Niche Adaptation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus is a plant-pathogenic bacterium and the causative agent of bacterial ring rot, a devastating agricultural disease under strict quarantine control and zero tolerance in the seed potato industry. This organism appears to be largely restricted to an endophytic lifestyle, proliferating within plant tissues and unable to persist in the absence of plant material. Analysis of the

Stephen D. Bentley; Craig Corton; Susan E. Brown; Andrew Barron; Louise Clark; Jon Doggett; Barbara Harris; Doug Ormond; Michael A. Quail; Georgiana May; David Francis; Dennis Knudson; Julian Parkhill; Carol A. Ishimaru

2008-01-01

322

Biofilm formation by enteric pathogens and its role in plant colonization and persistence.  

PubMed

The significant increase in foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, such as alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, melons, tomatoes and spinach, during the last 30 years stimulated investigation of the mechanisms of persistence of human pathogens on plants. Emerging evidence suggests that Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, which cause the vast majority of fresh produce outbreaks, are able to adhere to and to form biofilms on plants leading to persistence and resistance to disinfection treatments, which subsequently can cause human infections and major outbreaks. In this review, we present the current knowledge about host, bacterial and environmental factors that affect the attachment to plant tissue and the process of biofilm formation by S.?enterica and E.?coli, and discuss how biofilm formation assists in persistence of pathogens on the plants. Mechanisms used by S.?enterica and E.?coli to adhere and persist on abiotic surfaces and mammalian cells are partially similar and also used by plant pathogens and symbionts. For example, amyloid curli fimbriae, part of the extracellular matrix of biofilms, frequently contribute to adherence and are upregulated upon adherence and colonization of plant material. Also the major exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix, cellulose, is an adherence factor not only of S.?enterica and E.?coli, but also of plant symbionts and pathogens. Plants, on the other hand, respond to colonization by enteric pathogens with a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which can effectively inhibit biofilm formation. Consequently, plant compounds might be investigated for promising novel antibiofilm strategies. PMID:25351039

Yaron, Sima; Römling, Ute

2014-11-01

323

Biofilm formation by enteric pathogens and its role in plant colonization and persistence  

PubMed Central

The significant increase in foodborne outbreaks caused by contaminated fresh produce, such as alfalfa sprouts, lettuce, melons, tomatoes and spinach, during the last 30 years stimulated investigation of the mechanisms of persistence of human pathogens on plants. Emerging evidence suggests that Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli, which cause the vast majority of fresh produce outbreaks, are able to adhere to and to form biofilms on plants leading to persistence and resistance to disinfection treatments, which subsequently can cause human infections and major outbreaks. In this review, we present the current knowledge about host, bacterial and environmental factors that affect the attachment to plant tissue and the process of biofilm formation by S. enterica and E. coli, and discuss how biofilm formation assists in persistence of pathogens on the plants. Mechanisms used by S. enterica and E. coli to adhere and persist on abiotic surfaces and mammalian cells are partially similar and also used by plant pathogens and symbionts. For example, amyloid curli fimbriae, part of the extracellular matrix of biofilms, frequently contribute to adherence and are upregulated upon adherence and colonization of plant material. Also the major exopolysaccharide of the biofilm matrix, cellulose, is an adherence factor not only of S. enterica and E. coli, but also of plant symbionts and pathogens. Plants, on the other hand, respond to colonization by enteric pathogens with a variety of defence mechanisms, some of which can effectively inhibit biofilm formation. Consequently, plant compounds might be investigated for promising novel antibiofilm strategies. PMID:25351039

Yaron, Sima; Römling, Ute

2014-01-01

324

Cello-oligosaccharides released from host plants induce pathogenicity in scab-causing Streptomyces species  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thaxtomin, a phytotoxic dipeptide that inhibits cellulose synthesis in expanding plant cells, is a pathogenicity determinant in scab-causing Streptomyces species. Cellobiose and cellotriose, the smallest subunits of cellulose, stimulated thaxtomin production in a defined medium, while other oligosa...

325

Effect of clove oil on plant pathogenic bacteria and bacterial wilt of tomato and geranium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We determined the antibacterial activity of clove oil against seven different genera of plant pathogenic bacteria including Gram-negative Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora, Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris pv. pelargonii...

326

Dothideomycete Plant Interactions Illuminated by Genome Sequencing and EST Analysis of the Wheat Pathogen Stagonospora nodorum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stagonospora nodorum is a major necrotrophic fungal pathogen of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and a member of the Dothideomycetes, a large fungal taxon that includes many important plant pathogens affecting all major crop plant families. Here,we report the acquisition and initial analysis of a draft genome sequence for this fungus.The assembly comprises 37,164,227 bp of nuclear DNA contained in 107 scaffolds.

James K. Hane; Rohan G. T. Lowe; Peter S. Solomon; Kar-Chun Tan; Conrad L. Schoch; Joseph W. Spatafora; Pedro W. Crous; Chinappa Kodira; Bruce W. Birren; James E. Galagan; Stefano F. F. Torriani; Bruce A. McDonald; R. P. Oliver

2007-01-01

327

Antifungal substances produced by Penicillium oxalicum strain PY1—potential antibiotics against plant pathogenic fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the isolation from soil of Penicillium strain PY-1 with strong antagonistic activity against plant pathogenic fungi. On the basis of its morphological characteristics\\u000a and the sequence of the ITS region, strain PY-1 was identified as P. oxalicum. Strain PY-1 produces antifungal substances that suppress the mycelial growth of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and many other plant pathogenic fungi tested;

Liping Yang; Jiatao Xie; Daohong Jiang; Yanping Fu; Guoqing Li; Fangcan Lin

2008-01-01

328

Genomic DNA methylation in various developmental stages of two plant pathogenic fungi  

E-print Network

GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION IN VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF TWO PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI A Thesis by LAURA JO SCHLIESING Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject: Genetics GENOMIC DNA METHYLATION IN VARIOUS DEVELOPMENTAL STAGES OF TWO PLANT PATHOGENIC FUNGI A Thesis by LAURA J 0 SCH LIE SIN G Approved as to style and content by: Clint W. Mag' (Chairman...

Schliesing, Laura Jo

2012-06-07

329

Selection of potential antagonists against asparagus crown and root rot caused by Fusarium spp.  

PubMed

Crown and root rot is one of the most important diseases of asparagus crop worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and F. proliferatum are the two species more frequently associated to this complex and their prevalence depends on the production area. The control of the disease on asparagus crop is difficult to achieve because its perennial condition and the long survival of the pathogen in the soil as chlamydospores or as mycelium in infected plant debris. Furthermore, Fusarium spp. are easily disseminated with asparagus propagation materials. Thus, control measures should aim at obtaining seedlings protection for longer than achieved with conventional pre-planting chemical treatments. The effectiveness of fungal antagonists on the control of diseases caused by soil borne fungi has been reported. The potential of Trichoderma spp. as a biological control agent against diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in tomato and asparagus has been studied . It has been suggested that microorganisms isolated from the root or rhizosphere of a specific crop may be better adapted to that crop and may provide better disease control than organisms originally isolated from other plant species. The objective of this work was the evaluation of the potential of fungal isolates from symptomless asparagus plants as biocontrol agents of Fusarium crown and root rot. PMID:19226757

Rubio-Pérez, E; Molinero-Ruiz, M L; Melero-Vara, J M; Basallote-Ureba, M J

2008-01-01

330

Co-infection of Wilt-Resistant Chickpeas by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and Meloidogyne javanica are important pathogens of chickpea. Interrelationships between Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri and M. javanica were investigated on 53 Fusarium wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes in pot experiments. All of the genotypes were susceptible to M. javanica. Fusarium wilt resistance in one genotype (ICC 12275) was ineffective in the presence of M. javanica, and all the plants completely wilted. Resistance in four genotypes (ICCs 11319, 11322, 12254, 12272) was reduced in the presence of the nematode. Vascular discoloration above the collar region of the plants, an indication of susceptibility to the fungus, was observed. Wilt resistance in 48 genotypes was not modified by M. javanica. The effects of interactions between the pathogens on shoot and root weights, gall index, and galled area of root were significant only on 10-28% of the genotypes. Presence of the fungus reduced the adverse effects of nematodes on growth of 15% of the genotypes. Appraisal of wilt-resistant chickpea genotypes for their reactions to combinations of the two pathogens would help to identify and develop chickpea cultivars with wilt resistance stable in presence of M. javanica. PMID:19277336

Maheshwari, T. Uma; Sharma, S. B.; Reddy, D. D. R.; Haware, M. P.

1995-01-01

331

Viroids and RNA silencing: mechanism, role in viroid pathogenicity and development of viroid-resistant plants.  

PubMed

Viroids are autonomously replicating, small single-stranded circular RNA pathogens that do not code for proteins and may cause diseases in infected, susceptible plants. They have the ability to induce both RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) and post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), or RNA silencing, in infected plants. Their induced RNA silencing has also been demonstrated in a wheat germ extract system. A possible role of RNA silencing in viroid pathogenicity and evolution has been discussed. It is suggested that RNA silencing can be employed to engineer plants for viroid resistance and attempts to produce these plants have been also discussed. PMID:21865875

Sano, Teruo; Barba, Marina; Li, Shi-Fang; Hadidi, Ahmed

2010-01-01

332

Cytochemical Labeling for Fungal and Host Components in Plant Tissues Inoculated with Fungal Wilt Pathogens  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Antibodies to detect pectin in present investigations attached to distinct fibrils in vessel lumina. In carnation infected with an isolate of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp., labeling of pathogen cells also occurred; in a resistant cultivar (cv.), it was coincident with proximate pectin fibrils and linked to altered fungal walls, which was the opposite in the susceptible cv., indicating that hindrance of pathogen ability to degrade pectin may be related to resistance. Labeling of the fungus in culture was nil, except in media containing pectin, showing that pectin is not native to the pathogen. Labeling of fungal walls for cellulose in elm (inoculated with Ophiostoma novo-ulmi) and carnation also occurred, linked to adsorbed host wall components. The chitin probe often attached to dispersed matter, in vessel lumina, traceable to irregularly labeled fungal cells and host wall degradation products. With an anti-horseradish peroxidase probe, host and fungal walls were equally labeled, and with a glucosidase, differences of labeling between these walls were observed, depending on pH of the test solution. Fungal extracellular matter and filamentous structures, present in fungal walls, predominantly in another elm isolate (Phaeotheca dimorphospora), did not label with any of the probes used. However, in cultures of this fungus, extracellular material labeled, even at a distance from the colony margin, with an anti-fimbriae probe.

Ouellette, G. B.; Baayen, R. P.; Chamberland, H.; Simard, M.; Rioux, D.; Charest, P. M.

2004-08-01

333

Linking winter conditions to regional disease dynamics in a wild plant-pathogen metapopulation.  

PubMed

Pathogens are considered to drive ecological and evolutionary dynamics of plant populations, but we lack data measuring the population-level consequences of infection in wild plant-pathogen interactions. Moreover, while it is often assumed that offseason environmental conditions drive seasonal declines in pathogen population size, little is known about how offseason environmental conditions impact the survival of pathogen resting stages, and how critical the offseason is for the next season's epidemic. The fungal pathogen Podosphaera plantaginis persists as a dynamic metapopulation in the large network of Plantago lanceolata host populations. Here, we analyze long-term data to measure the spatial synchrony of epidemics and consequences of infection for over 4000 host populations. Using a theoretical model, we study whether large-scale environmental change could synchronize disease occurrence across the metapopulation. During 2001-2013 exposure to freezing decreased, while pathogen extinction-colonization-persistence rates became more synchronized. Simulations of a theoretical model suggest that increasingly favorable winter conditions for pathogen survival could drive such synchronization. Our data also show that infection decreases host population growth. These results confirm that mild winter conditions increase pathogen overwintering success and thus increase disease prevalence across the metapopulation. Further, we conclude that the pathogen can drive host population growth in the Plantago-Podosphaera system. PMID:25382661

Penczykowski, Rachel M; Walker, Emily; Soubeyrand, Samuel; Laine, Anna-Liisa

2014-11-10

334

Methyl esterification of pectin plays a role during plant-pathogen interactions and affects plant resistance to diseases.  

PubMed

The cell wall is a complex structure mainly composed by a cellulose-hemicellulose network embedded in a cohesive pectin matrix. Pectin is synthesized in a highly methyl esterified form and is de-esterified in muro by pectin methyl esterases (PMEs). The degree and pattern of methyl esterification affect the cell wall structure and properties with consequences on both the physiological processes of the plants and their resistance to pathogens. PME activity displays a crucial role in the outcome of the plant-pathogen interactions by making pectin more susceptible to the action of the enzymes produced by the pathogens. This review focuses on the impact of pectin methyl esterification in plant-pathogen interactions and on the dynamic role of its alteration during pathogenesis. PMID:22717136

Lionetti, Vincenzo; Cervone, Felice; Bellincampi, Daniela

2012-11-01

335

Genome sequence of the necrotrophic plant pathogen Pythium ultimum reveals original pathogenicity mechanisms and effector repertoire.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The P. ultimum DAOM BR144 (=CBS 805.95 = ATCC200006) genome (42.8 Mb) encodes 15,290 genes, and has extensive sequence similarity and synteny with related Phytophthora spp., including the potato late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Whole transcriptome sequencing revealed expression of 86 % o...

336

Morphological and Phylogenetic Analysis of Fusarium solani Species Complex in Malaysia.  

PubMed

Members of Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) have been known as plant, animal, and human pathogens. Nevertheless, the taxonomic status of such an important group of fungi is still very confusing and many new species as well as lineages have been elucidated recently. Unfortunately, most of the new taxa came from temperate and subtropical regions. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to identify strains of FSSC recovered from different sources in Malaysia. In the present study, 55 strains belonging to the FSSC were examined and phylogenetically analyzed on the basis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and partial translation elongation factor-1 (TEF-1?) sequences. Based on morphological features, a total of 55 strains were selected for molecular studies. Based on morphological features, the strains were classified into four described Fusarium species, namely Fusarium keratoplasticum, Fusarium falciforme, FSSC 5, and Fusarium cf. ensiforme, and one unknown phylogenetic species was introduced. Although the data obtained from morphological and molecular studies sufficiently supported each other, the phylogenetic trees based on ITS and TEF-1? dataset clearly distinguished closely related species and distinctly separated all morphological taxa. All members of FSSC in this research were reported for the first time for Malaysian mycoflora. PMID:25238930

Chehri, Khosrow; Salleh, Baharuddin; Zakaria, Latiffah

2014-09-20

337

[Trichothecene mycotoxins of Fusarium poae from different habitats].  

PubMed

Comparative study of the ability of three strains of Fusarium poae for the synthesis of trichothecen mycotoxins has been carried out. Studied strains were isolated from different habitats: forest soil, wheat (plant pathogen) and cranberry root (endophytic strain). All three strains were able to synthesize T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol but they were in various amounts. The soil strain 50660 was characterized by high level of synthesis of both HT-2 toxin and T-2 tetraol; plant pathogenic 50674 and endophytic 50685 strains were characterized by high level of T-2 tetraol synthesis and lower level of HT-2 toxin synthesis. The main trichothecene mycotoxin of this group - T-2 toxin - was detected in trace amounts for all three strains of F. poae. PMID:24006781

Kurchenko, I N; Tsyganenko, E S

2013-01-01

338

Priming Plant Defence Against Pathogens by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root colonisation by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can improve plant resistance\\/tolerance to biotic stresses. Although\\u000a this bioprotection has been amply described in different plant systems, the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown.\\u000a Besides mechanisms such as improved plant nutrition and competition, experimental evidence supports the involvement of plant\\u000a defence mechanisms in the observed protection. During mycorrhiza establishment, modulation of plant defence

Adriaan Verhage; Javier García-Andrade; Juan M. García; Concepción Azcón-Aguilar

339

Hyphal Growth of Phagocytosed Fusarium oxysporum Causes Cell Lysis and Death of Murine Macrophages  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum is an important plant pathogen and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. Here we investigated phagocytosis of F. oxysporum by J774.1 murine cell line macrophages using live cell video microscopy. Macrophages avidly migrated towards F. oxysporum germlings and were rapidly engulfed after cell-cell contact was established. F. oxysporum germlings continued hyphal growth after engulfment by macrophages, leading to associated macrophage lysis and escape. Macrophage killing depended on the multiplicity of infection. After engulfment, F. oxysporum inhibited macrophages from completing mitosis, resulting in large daughter cells fused together by means of a F. oxysporum hypha. These results shed new light on the initial stages of Fusarium infection and the innate immune response of the mammalian host. PMID:25025395

Schäfer, Katja; Bain, Judith M.

2014-01-01

340

Innate Immunity in Plants: An Arms Race Between Pattern Recognition Receptors in Plants and Effectors in Microbial Pathogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Plant defense responses known as PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) begin when the plant is exposed to microbial elicitors named pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs). Recent studies provide an elegant explanation for the difficulty of demonstrating the role of PTI in plant disease resistance. It turns out that the important contribution of PTI to disease resistance is masked by pathogen virulence effectors that have evolved to suppress it.

Thomas Boller (University of Basel;Zurich-Basel Plant Science Center, Botanical Institute); Sheng Yang He (Michigan State University;Department of Energy Plant Research Laboratory, Department of Plant Biology)

2009-05-08

341

Cell cycle and cell death are not necessary for appressorium formation and plant infection in the fungal plant pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In order to initiate plant infection, fungal spores must germinate and penetrate into the host plant. Many fungal species differentiate specialized infection structures called appressoria on the host surface, which are essential for successful pathogenic development. In the model plant pathogen Magnaporthe grisea completion of mitosis and autophagy cell death of the spore are necessary for appressoria-mediated plant infection;

Iris Nesher; Sima Barhoom; Amir Sharon

2008-01-01

342

In silico comparison of transcript abundances during Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max resistance to Fusarium virguliforme  

PubMed Central

Background Sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) is an economically important disease, caused by the semi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, recently renamed Fusarium virguliforme (Fv). Due to the complexity and length of the soybean-Fusarium interaction, the molecular mechanisms underlying plant resistance and susceptibility to the pathogen are not fully understood. F. virguliforme has a very wide host range for the ability to cause root rot and a very narrow host range for the ability to cause a leaf scorch. Arabidopsis thaliana is a host for many types of phytopathogens including bacteria, fungi, viruses and nematodes. Deciphering the variations among transcript abundances (TAs) of functional orthologous genes of soybean and A. thaliana involved in the interaction will provide insights into plant resistance to F. viguliforme. Results In this study, we reported the analyses of microarrays measuring TA in whole plants after A. thaliana cv 'Columbia' was challenged with fungal pathogen F. virguliforme. Infection caused significant variations in TAs. The total number of increased transcripts was nearly four times more than that of decreased transcripts in abundance. A putative resistance pathway involved in responding to the pathogen infection in A. thaliana was identified and compared to that reported in soybean. Conclusion Microarray experiments allow the interrogation of tens of thousands of transcripts simultaneously and thus, the identification of plant pathways is likely to be involved in plant resistance to Fusarial pathogens. Dissection of the set functional orthologous genes between soybean and A. thaliana enabled a broad view of the functional relationships and molecular interactions among plant genes involved in F. virguliforme resistance. PMID:18831797

Yuan, Jiazheng; Zhu, Mengxia; Lightfoot, David A; Iqbal, M Javed; Yang, Jack Y; Meksem, Khalid

2008-01-01

343

A Proteomic Approach Provides New Insights into the Control of Soil-Borne Plant Pathogens by Bacillus Species  

PubMed Central

Beneficial microorganisms (also known as biopesticides) are considered to be one of the most promising methods for more rational and safe crop management practices. We used Bacillus strains EU07, QST713 and FZB24, and investigated their inhibitory effect on Fusarium. Bacterial cell cultures, cell-free supernatants and volatiles displayed varying degrees of suppressive effect. Proteomic analysis of secreted proteins from EU07 and FZB24 revealed the presence of lytic enzymes, cellulases, proteases, 1,4-?-glucanase and hydrolases, all of which contribute to degradation of the pathogen cell wall. Further proteomic investigations showed that proteins involved in metabolism, protein folding, protein degradation, translation, recognition and signal transduction cascade play an important role in the control of Fusarium oxysporum. Our findings provide new knowledge on the mechanism of action of Bacillus species and insight into biocontrol mechanisms. PMID:23301041

Xu, Han-Hong; Siragusa, Mirko; Çal??kan, Mikail; Carimi, Francesco; da Silva, Jaime A. Teixeira.; Tör, Mahmut

2013-01-01

344

PLANT AND ANIMAL PATHOGEN RECOGNITION RECEPTORS SIGNAL THROUGH NON-RD KINASES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Plant and animal innate immune systems share a number of striking similarities. Among these, the monophyletic group of kinases formed by Drosophila Pelle, Human IRAK, and members of the very large plant receptor kinase subfamily are known to play roles in pathogen recognition . In addition to their...

345

Fun Microbiology: Using a Plant Pathogenic Fungus To Demonstrate Koch's Postulates.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an experiment using a plant pathogenic fungus in which students learn to follow aseptic techniques, grow and produce spores of a fungus, use a hemacytometer for enumerating spores, prepare serial dilutions, grow and inoculate plants, isolate a pure culture using agar streak plates, and demonstrate the four steps of Koch's postulates.…

Mitchell, James K.; Orsted, Kathy M.; Warnes, Carl E.

1997-01-01

346

The linear chromosome of the plant-pathogenic mycoplasma 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali'  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Phytoplasmas are insect-transmitted, uncultivable bacterial plant pathogens that cause diseases in hundreds of economically important plants. They represent a monophyletic group within the class Mollicutes (trivial name mycoplasmas) and are characterized by a small genome with a low GC content, and the lack of a firm cell wall. All mycoplasmas, including strains of 'Candidatus (Ca.) Phytoplasma asteris' and 'Ca.

Michael Kube; Bernd Schneider; Heiner Kuhl; Thomas Dandekar; Katja Heitmann; Alexander M Migdoll; Richard Reinhardt; Erich Seemüller

2008-01-01

347

LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens  

DOEpatents

Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

Wan, Jinrong (Columbia, MO); Stacey, Gary (Columbia, MO); Stacey, Minviluz (Columbia, MO); Zhang, Xuecheng (Columbia, MO)

2012-01-17

348

Plant-in-chip: Microfluidic system for studying root growth and pathogenic interactions in Arabidopsis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

Parashar, Archana; Pandey, Santosh

2011-06-01

349

Terrific Protein Traffic: The Mystery of Effector Protein Delivery by Filamentous Plant Pathogens  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. Many biotrophic fungal and oomycete plant pathogens deliver effector proteins directly into host cells during infection. Recent advances are revealing the extensive effector repertoires of these pathogens and are beginning to shed light on how they manipulate host cells to establish a parasitic relationship. The current explosion of information is opening new research avenues in molecular plant pathology and is providing new opportunities to limit the impact of plant disease on food production.

Ralph Panstruga (Max-Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research; Department of Plant-Microbe Interactions)

2009-05-08

350

Image-based Analysis to Study Plant Infection with Human Pathogens  

PubMed Central

Our growing awareness that contaminated plants, fresh fruits and vegetables are responsible for a significant proportion of food poisoning with pathogenic microorganisms indorses the demand to understand the interactions between plants and human pathogens. Today we understand that those pathogens do not merely survive on or within plants, they actively infect plant organisms by suppressing their immune system. Studies on the infection process and disease development used mainly physiological, genetic, and molecular approaches, and image-based analysis provides yet another method for this toolbox. Employed as an observational tool, it bears the potential for objective and high throughput approaches, and together with other methods it will be very likely a part of data fusion approaches in the near future. PMID:25505501

Schikora, Marek; Schikora, Adam

2014-01-01

351

Image-based Analysis to Study Plant Infection with Human Pathogens.  

PubMed

Our growing awareness that contaminated plants, fresh fruits and vegetables are responsible for a significant proportion of food poisoning with pathogenic microorganisms indorses the demand to understand the interactions between plants and human pathogens. Today we understand that those pathogens do not merely survive on or within plants, they actively infect plant organisms by suppressing their immune system. Studies on the infection process and disease development used mainly physiological, genetic, and molecular approaches, and image-based analysis provides yet another method for this toolbox. Employed as an observational tool, it bears the potential for objective and high throughput approaches, and together with other methods it will be very likely a part of data fusion approaches in the near future. PMID:25505501

Schikora, Marek; Schikora, Adam

2014-11-01

352

Diversity of the Fusarium graminearum species complex on French cereals  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium graminearum is an important pathogen causing Fusarium head blight (FHB) on wheat and barley and Gibberella ear rot (GER) on maize, and harvested grains often are contaminated with trichothecenes such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) that are a major health and food safety concern...

353

[Plant growth promoting microorganisms as alternative to chemical protection from pathogens (review)].  

PubMed

The review analyses data on physiological and biochemical influence of rhizospheric and endophytic microorganisms promoting plant growth (PGPR-plant growth promoting rhizobacteria) on induced resistance of plants and the possibility of its use in plant cultivation to protect crops from pathogens and phytophages. Resistance of plants provided by PGPR due to their endosymbiotic interrelationships is directly achieved because they produce peptide antibiotics and hydrolases ofchitin and glucan and also because plants form their own system of induced resistance, followed by changes in the balance of defensive proteins, phytohormones, and pro-/antioxidant status. PMID:21950110

Maksimov, I V; Abizgil'dina, R R; Pusenkova, L I

2011-01-01

354

Differential Control of Head Blight Pathogens of Wheat by Fungicides and Consequences for Mycotoxin Contamination of Grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fusarium head blight of wheat is caused by a disease complex comprised of toxigenic pathogens, predominantly Fusarium spp., and a non-toxigenic pathogen Microdochium nivale, which causes symptoms visually indistinguishable from Fusarium and is often included as a causal agent of Fusarium head blight. Four field trials are reported here, including both naturally and artificially inoculated trials in which the effect

Duncan R. Simpson; Gillian E. Weston; Judith A. Turner; Philip Jennings; Paul Nicholson

2001-01-01

355

Antimicrobial peptide inhibition of fungalysin proteases that target plant type 19 Family IV defense chitinases  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Cereal crops and other plants produce secreted seed chitinases that reduce pathogenic infection, most likely by targeting the fungal chitinous cell wall. We have shown that corn (Zea mays) produces three GH family 19, plant class IV chitinases, that help in protecting the plant against Fusarium and ...

356

Grassland fires may favor native over introduced plants by reducing pathogen loads.  

PubMed

Grasslands have been lost and degraded in the United States since Euro-American settlement due to agriculture, development, introduced invasive species, and changes in fire regimes. Fire is frequently used in prairie restoration to control invasion by trees and shrubs, but may have additional consequences. For example, fire might reduce damage by herbivore and pathogen enemies by eliminating litter, which harbors eggs and spores. Less obviously, fire might influence enemy loads differently for native and introduced plant hosts. We used a controlled burn in a Willamette Valley (Oregon) prairie to examine these questions. We expected that, without fire, introduced host plants should have less damage than native host plants because the introduced species are likely to have left many of their enemies behind when they were transported to their new range (the enemy release hypothesis, or ERH). If the ERH holds, then fire, which should temporarily reduce enemies on all species, should give an advantage to the natives because they should see greater total reduction in damage by enemies. Prior to the burn, we censused herbivore and pathogen attack on eight plant species (five of nonnative origin: Bromus hordaceous, Cynosuros echinatus, Galium divaricatum, Schedonorus arundinaceus (= Festuca arundinacea), and Sherardia arvensis; and three natives: Danthonia californica, Epilobium minutum, and Lomatium nudicale). The same plots were monitored for two years post-fire. Prior to the burn, native plants had more kinds of damage and more pathogen damage than introduced plants, consistent with the ERH. Fire reduced pathogen damage relative to the controls more for the native than the introduced species, but the effects on herbivory were negligible. Pathogen attack was correlated with plant reproductive fitness, whereas herbivory was not. These results suggest that fire may be useful for promoting some native plants in prairies due to its negative effects on their pathogens. PMID:25163122

Roy, Bitty A; Hudson, Kenneth; Visser, Matt; Johnson, Bart R

2014-07-01

357

Life histories of hosts and pathogens predict patterns in tropical fungal plant diseases.  

PubMed

Plant pathogens affect the fitness of their hosts and maintain biodiversity. However, we lack theories to predict the type and intensity of infections in wild plants. Here we demonstrate using fungal pathogens of tropical plants that an examination of the life histories of hosts and pathogens can reveal general patterns in their interactions. Fungal infections were more commonly reported for light-demanding than for shade-tolerant species and for evergreen rather than for deciduous hosts. Both patterns are consistent with classical defence theory, which predicts lower resistance in fast-growing species and suggests that the deciduous habit can reduce enemy populations. In our literature survey, necrotrophs were found mainly to infect shade-tolerant woody species whereas biotrophs dominated in light-demanding herbaceous hosts. Far-red signalling and its inhibitory effects on jasmonic acid signalling are likely to explain this phenomenon. Multiple changes between the necrotrophic and the symptomless endophytic lifestyle at the ecological and evolutionary scale indicate that endophytes should be considered when trying to understand large-scale patterns in the fungal infections of plants. Combining knowledge about the molecular mechanisms of pathogen resistance with classical defence theory enables the formulation of testable predictions concerning general patterns in the infections of wild plants by fungal pathogens. PMID:24171899

García-Guzmán, Graciela; Heil, Martin

2014-03-01

358

PLANT-DERIVED COMPOUNDS ACTIVE AGAINST MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Products from two plant genera, Plantago and Eugenia, were tested for effects on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Extracts from P. lanceolata and P. rugelii were also evaluated for toxicity to the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ...

359

Agriculturally important yeasts: Biological control of field and postharvest diseases using yeast antagonists, and yeasts as pathogens of plants  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Two important agricultural aspects of yeasts, control of plant diseases through application of yeasts as the control agent, and yeasts that are plant pathogens are reviewed. Yeasts as biocontrol organisms are presented first, followed by a discussion of some of the more common plant pathogenic yeas...

360

Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Glucanase Inhibitor Proteins: Coevolution of a Counterdefense Mechanism by Plant Pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A characteristic plant response to microbial attack is the production of endo- ? -1,3-glucanases, which are thought to play an important role in plant defense, either directly, through the degradation of ? -1,3\\/1,6-glucans in the pathogen cell wall, or indirectly, by releasing oligosaccharide elicitors that induce additional plant defenses. We report the se- quencing and characterization of a class of

Jocelyn K. C. Rose; Kyung-Sik Ham; Alan G. Darvill; Peter Albersheim

2002-01-01

361

Coevolution and Life Cycle Specialization of Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes in a Hemibiotrophic Pathogen  

PubMed Central

Zymoseptoria tritici is an important fungal pathogen on wheat that originated in the Fertile Crescent. Its closely related sister species Z. pseudotritici and Z. ardabiliae infect wild grasses in the same region. This recently emerged host–pathogen system provides a rare opportunity to investigate the evolutionary processes shaping the genome of an emerging pathogen. Here, we investigate genetic signatures in plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) that are likely affected by or driving coevolution in plant-pathogen systems. We hypothesize four main evolutionary scenarios and combine comparative genomics, transcriptomics, and selection analyses to assign the majority of PCWDEs in Z. tritici to one of these scenarios. We found widespread differential transcription among different members of the same gene family, challenging the idea of functional redundancy and suggesting instead that specialized enzymatic activity occurs during different stages of the pathogen life cycle. We also find that natural selection has significantly affected at least 19 of the 48 identified PCWDEs. The majority of genes showed signatures of purifying selection, typical for the scenario of conserved substrate optimization. However, six genes showed diversifying selection that could be attributed to either host adaptation or host evasion. This study provides a powerful framework to better understand the roles played by different members of multigene families and to determine which genes are the most appropriate targets for wet laboratory experimentation, for example, to elucidate enzymatic function during relevant phases of a pathogen’s life cycle. PMID:23515261

Brunner, Patrick C.; Torriani, Stefano F.F.; Croll, Daniel; Stukenbrock, Eva H.; McDonald, Bruce A.

2013-01-01

362

Microarray Analysis of Fusarium verticillioides  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Microarrays provide a powerful tool to examine genome wide patterns of differential transcription. We are using microarrays to identify Fusarium verticillioides' structural and regulatory genes involved in the biosynthesis of fungal toxins, virulence factors, and other elements involved in plant pa...

363

EST mining and functional expression assays identify extracellular effector proteins from the plant pathogen Phytophthora.  

PubMed

Plant pathogenic microbes have the remarkable ability to manipulate biochemical, physiological, and morphological processes in their host plants. These manipulations are achieved through a diverse array of effector molecules that can either promote infection or trigger defense responses. We describe a general functional genomics approach aimed at identifying extracellular effector proteins from plant pathogenic microorganisms by combining data mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) with virus-based high-throughput functional expression assays in plants. PexFinder, an algorithm for automated identification of extracellular proteins from EST data sets, was developed and applied to 2147 ESTs from the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans. The program identified 261 ESTs (12.2%) corresponding to a set of 142 nonredundant Pex (Phytophthora extracellular protein) cDNAs. Of these, 78 (55%) Pex cDNAs were novel with no significant matches in public databases. Validation of PexFinder was performed using proteomic analysis of secreted protein of P. infestans. To identify which of the Pex cDNAs encode effector proteins that manipulate plant processes, high-throughput functional expression assays in plants were performed on 63 of the identified cDNAs using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens binary vector carrying the potato virus X (PVX) genome. This led to the discovery of two novel necrosis-inducing cDNAs, crn1 and crn2, encoding extracellular proteins that belong to a large and complex protein family in Phytophthora. Further characterization of the crn genes indicated that they are both expressed in P. infestans during colonization of the host plant tomato and that crn2 induced defense-response genes in tomato. Our results indicate that combining data mining using PexFinder with PVX-based functional assays can facilitate the discovery of novel pathogen effector proteins. In principle, this strategy can be applied to a variety of eukaryotic plant pathogens, including oomycetes, fungi, and nematodes. PMID:12840044

Torto, Trudy A; Li, Shuang; Styer, Allison; Huitema, Edgar; Testa, Antonino; Gow, Neil A R; van West, Pieter; Kamoun, Sophien

2003-07-01

364

Regulation of tradeoffs between plant defenses against pathogens with different lifestyles  

PubMed Central

Plants activate distinct defense responses depending on the lifestyle of the attacker encountered. In these responses, salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) play important signaling roles. SA induces defense against biotrophic pathogens that feed and reproduce on live host cells, whereas JA activates defense against necrotrophic pathogens that kill host cells for nutrition and reproduction. Cross-talk between these defense signaling pathways has been shown to optimize the response against a single attacker. However, its role in defense against multiple pathogens with distinct lifestyles is unknown. Here we show that infection with biotrophic Pseudomonas syringae, which induces SA-mediated defense, rendered plants more susceptible to the necrotrophic pathogen Alternaria brassicicola by suppression of the JA signaling pathway. This process was partly dependent on the cross-talk modulator NPR1. Surprisingly, this tradeoff was restricted to tissues adjacent to the site of initial infection; A. brassicicola infection in systemic tissue was not affected. Even more surprisingly, tradeoff occurred only with the virulent Pseudomonas strain. Avirulent strains that induced programmed cell death (PCD), an effective plant-resistance mechanism against biotrophs, did not cause suppression of JA-dependent defense. This result might be advantageous to the plant by preventing necrotrophic pathogen growth in tissues undergoing PCD. Our findings show that plants tightly control cross-talk between SA- and JA-dependent defenses in a previously unrecognized spatial and pathogen type-specific fashion. This process allows them to prevent unfavorable signal interactions and maximize their ability to concomitantly fend off multiple pathogens. PMID:17998535

Spoel, Steven H.; Johnson, Jessica S.; Dong, Xinnian

2007-01-01

365

Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens  

E-print Network

............................................................................................................................................................................. Invasive plant species both threaten native biodiversity and are economically costly1­5 , but only a few hypothesis argues that interactions with native species, including natural enemies, limit invaders' impacts6 virus species infect each plant species in its naturalized range than in its native range. In addition

Crews, Stephen

366

Disseminated Fusarium oxysporum neurospinal infection  

PubMed Central

We report a case of disseminated meningospondylodiscitis in an elderly diabetic patient caused by Fusarium oxysporum. As the clinical presentation was nonspecific, the diagnosis of the condition could only be arrived at after laboratory and imaging studies. The diagnosis of the condition requires a high index of suspicion. Patient underwent thorough surgical debridement along with a short course of variconazole and remained asymptomatic after 36 months of diagnosis. Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. It is known to cause local infections (nail, cornea) in healthy humans and disseminated infection only in the immunocompromised. PMID:24741147

Sreedharan Namboothiri, PE; Nair, Sreehari Narayanan; Vijayan, Krishnan; Visweswaran, VK

2014-01-01

367

Does biopolymers composition in seeds contribute to the flax resistance against the Fusarium infection?  

PubMed

Over the last decades, the cultivation of fibrous flax declined heavily. There are number of reasons for that fact; one of them is flax susceptibility to the pathogen infection. Damages caused mainly by fungi from genus Fusarium lead to the significant losses when cultivating flax, which in turn discourage farmers to grow flax. Therefore, to launch the new products from flax with attractive properties there is a need to obtain new flax varieties with increased resistance to pathogens. In order to obtain the better quality of flax fiber, we previously generated flax with reduced pectin or lignin level (cell wall polymers). The modifications altered also plants' resistance to the Fusarium infection. Undoubtedly, the plant defense system is complex, however, in this article we aimed to investigate the composition of modified flax seeds and to correlate it with the observed changes in the flax resistance to the pathogen attack. In particular, we evaluated the content and composition of carbohydrates (cell wall polymers: pectin, cellulose, hemicelluloses and mucilage), and phenylpropanoid compounds (lignin, lignans, phenolics). From the obtained results we concluded that the observed changes in the vulnerability to pathogens putatively correlate with the antioxidant potential of phenylpropanoids accumulated in seeds, seco-isolariciresinol and coumaric acid diglycosides in particular, and with pectin level as a carbon source for pathogens. Surprisingly, relatively less important for the resistance was the physical barrier, including lignin and cellulose amount and cellulose structure. Certainly, the hypothesis should be verified on a larger number of genotypes. PMID:25080398

Zeitoun, Ahmed M; Preisner, Marta; Kulma, Anna; Dymi?ska, Lucyna; Hanuza, Jerzy; Starzycki, Michal; Szopa, Jan

2014-01-01

368

Genome sequence of the plant pathogen and biotechnology agent Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58.  

PubMed

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen capable of transferring a defined segment of DNA to a host plant, generating a gall tumor. Replacing the transferred tumor-inducing genes with exogenous DNA allows the introduction of any desired gene into the plant. Thus, A. tumefaciens has been critical for the development of modern plant genetics and agricultural biotechnology. Here we describe the genome of A. tumefaciens strain C58, which has an unusual structure consisting of one circular and one linear chromosome. We discuss genome architecture and evolution and additional genes potentially involved in virulence and metabolic parasitism of host plants. PMID:11743194

Goodner, B; Hinkle, G; Gattung, S; Miller, N; Blanchard, M; Qurollo, B; Goldman, B S; Cao, Y; Askenazi, M; Halling, C; Mullin, L; Houmiel, K; Gordon, J; Vaudin, M; Iartchouk, O; Epp, A; Liu, F; Wollam, C; Allinger, M; Doughty, D; Scott, C; Lappas, C; Markelz, B; Flanagan, C; Crowell, C; Gurson, J; Lomo, C; Sear, C; Strub, G; Cielo, C; Slater, S

2001-12-14

369

Limitations of exotic and indigenous isolates of Fusarium avenaceum for the biological control of spotted knapweed — Centaurea maculosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three isolates ofFusarium avenaceum are pathogenic on spotted knapweed(Centaurea maculosa), a major weed plant of pasturelands and rangelands of the Pacific Northwestern USA. One isolate (no. 1) obtained from the\\u000a European centre of origin of knapweed and isolate no. 365 native to Montana, did not significantly affect knapweed seed germination.\\u000a However,F. avenaceum no. 1003, another Montana native isolate, caused a

E. Czembor; G. A. Strobel

1997-01-01

370

Field response of some asparagus varieties to rust, Fusarium crown root rot, and violet root rot.  

PubMed

Research was carried out to evaluate the behaviour of some asparagus genotypes against three most important fungal diseases: 1) asparagus rust caused by Puccinia asparagi D.C.; 2) Fusarium crown and root rot caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Schlecht.) f.sp. asparagi (Cohen & Heald) and Fusarium proliferatum (Matstush.) Nirenberg; 3) violet root rot caused by Rhizoctonia violacea Tul. The object of this research was also to found an eventual correlation between the plant susceptibility to asparagus rust and the sensibility to Fusarium crown root rot and violet root rot attacks. Resistant genotypes to rust should be less susceptible to attacks from F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi, F. proliferatum and R. violacea, a fungal complex causing the plant decline. Asparagus genotypes were compared in a randomized complete block experiment design, replicated four times, in order to search that ones showing the best behaviour to escape the diseases. Phytopathological observations were carried out on November when the control plots showed 100% infected plants. The pathogens were isolated and identified. The diseased plants were registered. According to symptom evaluation scales, all the plants were grouped into infection classes, calculating frequency and McKinney index. Wishing to learn something about the infection trend of F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi or R. violacea in relation to P. asparagi attack, the relative curvilinear regressions were calculated. The Italian cultivars "Marte" and "Grande" showed significantly the best behaviour in terms of resistance to asparagus rust, exhibiting 37% and 42% of diseased plants. The McKinney index was 9.1% and 15.6%, respectively. The susceptible plots showed 100% of infected plants and different McKinney index: 46% for "Eros", about 60% for "H 519", "Atlas" and "Golia", over 70% for the remainder. "Marte" and "Grande" showed good tolerance to F. oxysporum f.sp. asparagi and to R. violacea exhibiting up to 100% of healthy plants. The regression between plants affected by asparagus rust and those diseased by Fusarium crown root rot showed a linear equation with a regression coefficient b = 1.186 and a correlation coefficient R2 = 0.98. The regression between infection caused by rust and that caused by violet root rot exhibited a regression coefficient b = 1.03 and a coefficient of correlation R2 = 0.9. "Marte" and "Grande" exhibited the best behaviour against the rust attacks. Plants without rust were tolerant to pathogens causing plant decline. PMID:15151301

Fiume, F; Fiume, G

2003-01-01

371

Colonization of plants by human pathogenic bacteria in the course of organic vegetable production  

PubMed Central

In recent years, increasing numbers of outbreaks caused by the consumption of vegetables contaminated with human pathogenic bacteria were reported. The application of organic fertilizers during vegetable production is one of the possible reasons for contamination with those pathogens. In this study laboratory experiments in axenic and soil systems following common practices in organic farming were conducted to identify the minimal dose needed for bacterial colonization of plants and to identify possible factors like bacterial species or serovariation, plant species or organic fertilizer types used, influencing the success of plant colonization by human pathogenic bacteria. Spinach and corn salad were chosen as model plants and were inoculated with different concentrations of Salmonella enterica sv. Weltevreden, Listeria monocytogenes sv. 4b and EGD-E sv. 1/2a either directly (axenic system) or via agricultural soil amended with spiked organic fertilizers (soil system). In addition to PCR- and culture-based detection methods, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was applied in order to localize bacteria on or in plant tissues. Our results demonstrate that shoots were colonized by the pathogenic bacteria at inoculation doses as low as 4 × 10 CFU/ml in the axenic system or 4 × 105 CFU/g in the soil system. In addition, plant species dependent effects were observed. Spinach was colonized more often and at lower inoculation doses compared to corn salad. Differential colonization sites on roots, depending on the plant species could be detected using FISH-CLSM analysis. Furthermore, the transfer of pathogenic bacteria to plants via organic fertilizers was observed more often and at lower initial inoculation doses when fertilization was performed with inoculated slurry compared to inoculated manure. Finally, it could be shown that by introducing a simple washing step, the bacterial contamination was reduced in most cases or even was removed completely in some cases. PMID:24829562

Hofmann, Andreas; Fischer, Doreen; Hartmann, Anton; Schmid, Michael

2014-01-01

372

Dominance relationships of bean pathogens at Lake Balaton.  

PubMed

Dominance relationships of different bean pathogens were examined during 1999-2000 in small plot trials at Lake Balaton in Hungary. In 1999 the dominant pathogen species were Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli. The main cause of the stock decay was due to the infection of Fusarium spp. Bean plants were infected also by Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Macrophomina and Sclerotinia, species part from viruses. Among of thirty-eight examined bean cultivars and genotypes the variety "Díszbab" and the genotype 513 were the most resistant. In 2000 Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium spp. caused epidemics. Most of the observed plants died early. The most healthy species and branches were the SC-34-1 and cv. Díszbab. PMID:12425043

Balázs, A; Budai, P; Kadlicskó, S; Kovács, J

2001-01-01

373

Subtilisin-like proteases in plant–pathogen recognition and immune priming: a perspective  

PubMed Central

Subtilisin-like proteases (subtilases) are serine proteases that fulfill highly specific functions in plant development and signaling cascades. Over the last decades, it has been shown that several subtilases are specifically induced following pathogen infection and very recently an Arabidopsis subtilase (SBT3.3) was hypothesized to function as a receptor located in the plasma membrane activating downstream immune signaling processes. Despite their prevalence and potential relevance in the regulation of plant defense mechanisms and crop improvement, our current understanding of subtilase function is still very limited. In this perspective article, we overview the current status and highlight the involvement of subtilases in pathogen recognition and immune priming. PMID:25566306

Figueiredo, Andreia; Monteiro, Filipa; Sebastiana, Mónica

2014-01-01

374

Proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in spring barley with three fluorescence techniques.  

PubMed

In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai) from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei). Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the 'Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio' and the 'Simple Fluorescence Ratio'. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of different excitation-emission channels to better understand and evaluate plant-physiological alterations due to pathogen infections. PMID:24961211

Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2014-01-01

375

Proximal Sensing of Plant-Pathogen Interactions in Spring Barley with Three Fluorescence Techniques  

PubMed Central

In the last years fluorescence spectroscopy has come to be viewed as an essential approach in key research fields of applied plant sciences. However, the quantity and particularly the quality of information produced by different equipment might vary considerably. In this study we investigate the potential of three optical devices for the proximal sensing of plant-pathogen interactions in four genotypes of spring barley. For this purpose, the fluorescence lifetime, the image-resolved multispectral fluorescence and selected indices of a portable multiparametric fluorescence device were recorded at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation (dai) from healthy leaves as well as from leaves inoculated with powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) or leaf rust (Puccinia hordei). Genotype-specific responses to pathogen infections were revealed already at 3 dai by higher fluorescence mean lifetimes in the spectral range from 410 to 560 nm in the less susceptible varieties. Noticeable pathogen-induced modifications were also revealed by the ‘Blue-to-Far-Red Fluorescence Ratio’ and the ‘Simple Fluorescence Ratio’. Particularly in the susceptible varieties the differences became more evident in the time-course of the experiment i.e., following the pathogen development. The relevance of the blue and green fluorescence to exploit the plant-pathogen interaction was demonstrated by the multispectral fluorescence imaging system. As shown, mildewed leaves were characterized by exceptionally high blue fluorescence, contrasting the values observed in rust inoculated leaves. Further, we confirm that the intensity of green fluorescence depends on the pathogen infection and the stage of disease development; this information might allow a differentiation of both diseases. Moreover, our results demonstrate that the detection area might influence the quality of the information, although it had a minor impact only in the current study. Finally, we highlight the relevance of different excitation-emission channels to better understand and evaluate plant-physiological alterations due to pathogen infections. PMID:24961211

Leufen, Georg; Noga, Georg; Hunsche, Mauricio

2014-01-01

376

Rapid in vivo analysis of synthetic promoters for plant pathogen phytosensing  

PubMed Central

Background We aimed to engineer transgenic plants for the purpose of early detection of plant pathogen infection, which was accomplished by employing synthetic pathogen inducible promoters fused to reporter genes for altered phenotypes in response to the pathogen infection. Toward this end, a number of synthetic promoters consisting of inducible regulatory elements fused to a red fluorescent protein (RFP) reporter were constructed for use in phytosensing. Results For rapid analysis, an Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression assay was evaluated, then utilized to assess the inducibility of each synthetic promoter construct in vivo. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) leaves were infiltrated with Agrobacterium harboring the individual synthetic promoter-reporter constructs. The infiltrated tobacco leaves were re-infiltrated with biotic (bacterial pathogens) or abiotic (plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, ethylene and methyl jasmonate) agents 24 and 48 hours after initial agroinfiltration, followed by RFP measurements at relevant time points after treatment. These analyses indicated that the synthetic promoter constructs were capable of conferring the inducibility of the RFP reporter in response to appropriate phytohormones and bacterial pathogens, accordingly. Conclusions These observations demonstrate that the Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression is an efficient method for in vivo assays of promoter constructs in less than one week. Our results provide the opportunity to gain further insights into the versatility of the expression system as a potential tool for high-throughput in planta expression screening prior to generating stably transgenic plants for pathogen phytosensing. This system could also be utilized for temporary phytosensing; e.g., not requiring stably transgenic plants. PMID:22093754

2011-01-01

377

A Domain-Centric Analysis of Oomycete Plant Pathogen Genomes Reveals Unique Protein Organization1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Oomycetes comprise a diverse group of organisms that morphologically resemble fungi but belong to the stramenopile lineage within the supergroup of chromalveolates. Recent studies have shown that plant pathogenic oomycetes have expanded gene families that are possibly linked to their pathogenic lifestyle. We analyzed the protein domain organization of 67 eukaryotic species including four oomycete and five fungal plant pathogens. We detected 246 expanded domains in fungal and oomycete plant pathogens. The analysis of genes differentially expressed during infection revealed a significant enrichment of genes encoding expanded domains as well as signal peptides linking a substantial part of these genes to pathogenicity. Overrepresentation and clustering of domain abundance profiles revealed domains that might have important roles in host-pathogen interactions but, as yet, have not been linked to pathogenicity. The number of distinct domain combinations (bigrams) in oomycetes was significantly higher than in fungi. We identified 773 oomycete-specific bigrams, with the majority composed of domains common to eukaryotes. The analyses enabled us to link domain content to biological processes such as host-pathogen interaction, nutrient uptake, or suppression and elicitation of plant immune responses. Taken together, this study represents a comprehensive overview of the domain repertoire of fungal and oomycete plant pathogens and points to novel features like domain expansion and species-specific bigram types that could, at least partially, explain why oomycetes are such remarkable plant pathogens. PMID:21119047

Seidl, Michael F.; Van den Ackerveken, Guido; Govers, Francine; Snel, Berend

2011-01-01

378

Host-plant-mediated effects of Nadefensin on herbivore and pathogen resistance in Nicotiana attenuata  

PubMed Central

Background The adage from Shakespeare, "troubles, not as single spies, but in battalions come," holds true for Nicotiana attenuata, which is commonly attacked by both pathogens (Pseudomonas spp.) and herbivores (Manduca sexta) in its native habitats. Defense responses targeted against the pathogens can directly or indirectly influence the responses against the herbivores. Nadefensin is an effective induced defense gene against the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato (PST DC3000), which is also elicited by attack from M. sexta larvae, but whether this defense protein influences M. sexta's growth and whether M. sexta-induced Nadefensin directly or indirectly influences PST DC3000 resistance are unknown. Results M. sexta larvae consumed less on WT and on Nadefensin-silenced N. attenuata plants that had previously been infected with PST DC3000 than on uninfected plants. WT plants infected with PST DC3000 showed enhanced resistance to PST DC3000 and decreased leaf consumption by M. sexta larvae, but larval mass gain was unaffected. PST DC3000-infected Nadefensin-silenced plants were less resistant to subsequent PST DC3000 challenge, and on these plants, M. sexta larvae consumed less and gained less mass. WT and Nadefensin-silenced plants previously damaged by M. sexta larvae were better able to resist subsequent PST DC3000 challenges than were undamaged plants. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Na-defensin directly mediates defense against PST DC3000 and indirectly against M. sexta in N. attenuata. In plants that were previously infected with PST DC3000, the altered leaf chemistry in PST DC3000-resistant WT plants and PST DC3000-susceptible Nadefensin-silenced plants differentially reduced M. sexta's leaf consumption and mass gain. In plants that were previously damaged by M. sexta, the combined effect of the altered host plant chemistry and a broad spectrum of anti-herbivore induced metabolomic responses was more effective than Nadefensin alone in resisting PST DC3000. PMID:18950524

Rayapuram, Cbgowda; Baldwin, Ian T

2008-01-01

379

Mixtures of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria enhance biological control of multiple cucumber pathogens.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains INR7 (Bacillus pumilus), GB03 (Bacillus subtilis), and ME1 (Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens) were tested singly and in combinations for biological control against multiple cucumber pathogens. Investigations under greenhouse conditions were conducted with three cucumber pathogens-Colletotrichum orbiculare (causing anthracnose), Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans (causing angular leaf spot), and Erwinia tracheiphila(causing cucurbit wilt disease)-inoculated singly and in all possible combinations. There was a general trend across all experiments toward greater suppression and enhanced consistency against multiple cucumber pathogens using strain mixtures. The same three PGPR strains were evaluated as seed treatments in two field trials over two seasons, and two strains, IN26 (Burkholderia gladioli) and INR7 also were tested as foliar sprays in one of the trials. In the field trials, the efficacy of induced systemic resistance activity was determined against introduced cucumber pathogens naturally spread within plots through placement of infected plants into the field to provide the pathogen inoculum. PGPR-mediated disease suppression was observed against angular leaf spot in 1996 and against a mixed infection of angular leaf spot and anthracnose in 1997. The three-way mixture of PGPR strains (INR7 plus ME1 plus GB03) as a seed treatment showed intensive plant growth promotion and disease reduction to a level statistically equivalent to the synthetic elicitor Actigard applied as a spray. PMID:18944848

Raupach, G S; Kloepper, J W

1998-11-01

380

Role of Cereal Secondary Metabolites Involved in Mediating the Outcome of Plant-Pathogen Interactions  

PubMed Central

Cereal crops such as wheat, rice and barley underpin the staple diet for human consumption globally. A multitude of threats to stable and secure yields of these crops exist including from losses caused by pathogens, particularly fungal. Plants have evolved complex mechanisms to resist pathogens including programmed cell death responses, the release of pathogenicity-related proteins and oxidative bursts. Another such mechanism is the synthesis and release of secondary metabolites toxic to potential pathogens. Several classes of these compounds have been identified and their anti-fungal properties demonstrated. However the lack of suitable analytical techniques has hampered the progress of identifying and exploiting more of these novel metabolites. In this review, we summarise the role of the secondary metabolites in cereal crop diseases and briefly touch on the analytical techniques that hold the key to unlocking their potential in reducing yield losses. PMID:24957244

Du Fall, Lauren A.; Solomon, Peter S.

2011-01-01

381

Interactions between Verticillium dahliae and its host: vegetative growth, pathogenicity, plant immunity.  

PubMed

Verticillium dahliae is a soil-borne phytopathogenic fungus that causes vascular wilt diseases in a wide variety of crop plants, resulting in extensive economic losses. In the past 5 years, progress has been made in elaborating the interaction between this hemibiotrophic fungus and its host plants. Some genes responsible for the vegetative growth and/or pathogenicity in V. dahliae have been identified. Plants have accrued a series of defense mechanisms, including inducible defense signaling pathways and some resistant genes to combat V. dahliae infection. Here, we have reviewed the progress in V. dahliae-plant interaction research. PMID:24928658

Luo, Xiumei; Xie, Chengjian; Dong, Jinyan; Yang, Xingyong; Sui, Anping

2014-08-01

382

Association of fungus gnats with oomycetal plant pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Dark-winged fungus gnats in the genus Bradysia (Diptera: Sciaridae) are especially abundant in greenhouse plant production. It is thought that adult fungus gnats do not feed in the greenhouse setting; however sciarid larvae are known to feed on microorganisms in the soil, including various Oomycete...

383

A novel transcriptional factor important for pathogenesis and ascosporogenesis in Fusarium graminearum  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight or scab caused by Fusarium graminearum is an important disease of wheat and barley. The pathogen not only causes severe yield losses but also contaminates infested grains with mycotoxins. In a previous study we identified several pathogenicity mutants by random insertional mutag...

384

A role for inositol hexakisphosphate in the maintenance of basal resistance to plant pathogens.  

PubMed

Phytic acid (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate, InsP6) is an important phosphate store and signal molecule in plants. However, low-phytate plants are being developed to minimize the negative health effects of dietary InsP6 and pollution caused by undigested InsP6 in animal waste. InsP6 levels were diminished in transgenic potato plants constitutively expressing an antisense gene sequence for myo-inositol 3-phosphate synthase (IPS, catalysing the first step in InsP6 biosynthesis) or Escherichia coli polyphosphate kinase. These plants were less resistant to the avirulent pathogen potato virus Y and the virulent pathogen tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). In Arabidopsis thaliana, mutation of the gene for the enzyme catalysing the final step of InsP6 biosynthesis (InsP5 2-kinase) also diminished InsP6 levels and enhanced susceptibility to TMV and to virulent and avirulent strains of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Arabidopsis thaliana has three IPS genes (AtIPS1-3). Mutant atips2 plants were depleted in InsP6 and were hypersusceptible to TMV, turnip mosaic virus, cucumber mosaic virus and cauliflower mosaic virus as well as to the fungus Botrytis cinerea and to P. syringae. Mutant atips2 and atipk1 plants were as hypersusceptible to infection as plants unable to accumulate salicylic acid (SA) but their increased susceptibility was not due to reduced levels of SA. In contrast, mutant atips1 plants, which were also depleted in InsP6, were not compromised in resistance to pathogens, suggesting that a specific pool of InsP6 regulates defence against phytopathogens. PMID:18643983

Murphy, Alex M; Otto, Bettina; Brearley, Charles A; Carr, John P; Hanke, David E

2008-11-01

385

Climate change – impact on crop growth and food production, and plant pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Climates are changing worldwide at rates not seen previously in geological time. This affects food production itself and the growth and reproduction of plant pathogens which reduce crop yield and quality. There is a need to develop an understanding of the implications and impacts of climate change on natural biodiversity, artificial landscapes as well as production agriculture (defined here as

Geoffrey Richard Dixon

2012-01-01

386

Thaxtomin biosynthesis: The path to plant pathogenicity in the genus Streptomyces  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Streptomyces species are best known for their ability to produce a wide array of medically- and agriculturally-important secondary metabolites. However, there is a growing number of species which, like Streptomyces scabies, can function as plant pathogens and cause scab disease on economically-impor...

387

Positive Selection Acting on a Surface Membrane Protein of the Plant-Pathogenic Phytoplasmas†  

PubMed Central

Phytoplasmas are plant-pathogenic bacteria that cause numerous diseases. This study shows a strong positive selection on the phytoplasma antigenic membrane protein (Amp). The ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions was >1 with all the methods we tested. The clear positive selections imply an important biological role for Amp in host-bacterium interactions. PMID:16621840

Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Oshima, Kenro; Jung, Hee-Young; Suzuki, Shiho; Nishigawa, Hisashi; Arashida, Ryo; Miyata, Shin-ichi; Ugaki, Masashi; Kishino, Hirohisa; Namba, Shigetou

2006-01-01

388

All insects and plants depend on epicuticular lipids for water balance, protection from pathogens and environmental  

E-print Network

All insects and plants depend on epicuticular lipids for water balance, protection from pathogens, and their hydrophobic properties contribute significantly to water retention and water balance (Hadley, 1984; Gibbs of the butterfly Calpodes ethlius oenocytes are also found in the hemocoel (Jackson and Locke, 1989

389

Seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides stimulate defense responses and protection against pathogens in plants.  

PubMed

Plants interact with the environment by sensing "non-self" molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-12-01

390

Seaweed Polysaccharides and Derived Oligosaccharides Stimulate Defense Responses and Protection Against Pathogens in Plants  

PubMed Central

Plants interact with the environment by sensing “non-self” molecules called elicitors derived from pathogens or other sources. These molecules bind to specific receptors located in the plasma membrane and trigger defense responses leading to protection against pathogens. In particular, it has been shown that cell wall and storage polysaccharides from green, brown and red seaweeds (marine macroalgae) corresponding to ulvans, alginates, fucans, laminarin and carrageenans can trigger defense responses in plants enhancing protection against pathogens. In addition, oligosaccharides obtained by depolymerization of seaweed polysaccharides also induce protection against viral, fungal and bacterial infections in plants. In particular, most seaweed polysaccharides and derived oligosaccharides trigger an initial oxidative burst at local level and the activation of salicylic (SA), jasmonic acid (JA) and/or ethylene signaling pathways at systemic level. The activation of these signaling pathways leads to an increased expression of genes encoding: (i) Pathogenesis-Related (PR) proteins with antifungal and antibacterial activities; (ii) defense enzymes such as pheylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and lipoxygenase (LOX) which determine accumulation of phenylpropanoid compounds (PPCs) and oxylipins with antiviral, antifugal and antibacterial activities and iii) enzymes involved in synthesis of terpenes, terpenoids and/or alkaloids having antimicrobial activities. Thus, seaweed polysaccharides and their derived oligosaccharides induced the accumulation of proteins and compounds with antimicrobial activities that determine, at least in part, the enhanced protection against pathogens in plants. PMID:22363237

Vera, Jeannette; Castro, Jorge; Gonzalez, Alberto; Moenne, Alejandra

2011-01-01

391

Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize and a well-established model organism for the study of plant-microbe interactions. This basidiomycete fungus does not use aggressive virulence strategies to kill its host. U. maydis belongs to the group of biotrophic parasites (the smuts) that depend...

392

In vitro screening of some plant extracts against fungal pathogens of mulberry (Morus spp.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty one plant species were screened in vitro for their fungitoxic properties against four fungal pathogens viz., Phyllactinia corylea (Powdery mildew), Peridiopsora mori (Brown rust) and Pseudocercospora mori (Black leaf spot) by slide germination method and Myrothecium roridum (Brown leaf spot) by poisoned food technique. Conidial germination of P. corylea was significantly reduced in 5% (w\\/v) ethanolic extracts all tested

Manas Dev Maji; Souman Chattopadhyay; Pratheesh Kumar; Beera Saratchandra

2005-01-01

393

Insights from the genome of the biotrophic fungal plant pathogen Ustilago maydis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ustilago maydis is a ubiquitous pathogen of maize and a well-established model organism for the study of plant-microbe interactions. This basidiomycete fungus does not use aggressive virulence strategies to kill its host. U. maydis belongs to the group of biotrophic parasites (the smuts) that depend on living tissue for proliferation and development. Here we report the genome sequence for a

Jörg Kämper; Regine Kahmann; Michael Bölker; Li-Jun Ma; Thomas Brefort; Barry J. Saville; Flora Banuett; James W. Kronstad; Scott E. Gold; Olaf Müller; Michael H. Perlin; Han A. B. Wösten; Ronald de Vries; José Ruiz-Herrera; Cristina G. Reynaga-Peńa; Karen Snetselaar; Michael McCann; José Pérez-Martín; Michael Feldbrügge; Christoph W. Basse; Gero Steinberg; Jose I. Ibeas; William Holloman; Plinio Guzman; Mark Farman; Jason E. Stajich; Rafael Sentandreu; Juan M. González-Prieto; John C. Kennell; Lazaro Molina; Jan Schirawski; Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza; Doris Greilinger; Karin Münch; Nicole Rössel; Mario Scherer; Miroslav Vranes; Oliver Ladendorf; Volker Vincon; Uta Fuchs; Björn Sandrock; Shaowu Meng; Eric C. H. Ho; Matt J. Cahill; Kylie J. Boyce; Jana Klose; Steven J. Klosterman; Heine J. Deelstra; Lucila Ortiz-Castellanos; Weixi Li; Patricia Sanchez-Alonso; Peter H. Schreier; Isolde Häuser-Hahn; Martin Vaupel; Edda Koopmann; Gabi Friedrich; Hartmut Voss; Thomas Schlüter; Jonathan Margolis; Darren Platt; Candace Swimmer; Andreas Gnirke; Feng Chen; Valentina Vysotskaia; Gertrud Mannhaupt; Ulrich Güldener; Martin Münsterkötter; Dirk Haase; Matthias Oesterheld; Hans-Werner Mewes; Evan W. Mauceli; David Decaprio; Claire M. Wade; Jonathan Butler; Sarah Young; David B. Jaffe; Sarah Calvo; Chad Nusbaum; James Galagan; Bruce W. Birren

2006-01-01

394

The effect of protein supplied in the growth medium on plant pathogen resistance.  

PubMed

Externally supplied protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA) affects root development of Arabidopsis, increasing root biomass, root hair length, and root thickness. While these changes in root morphology may enhance access to soil microenvironments rich in organic matter, we show here that the presence of protein in the growth medium increases the plant's resilience to the root pathogen Cylindrocladium sp. PMID:25482791

Lonhienne, Thierry G A; Trusov, Yuri; Young, Anthony; Schmidt, Susanne; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat

2014-10-01

395

Edible Apple Film Wraps Containing Plant Antimicrobials Inactivate Foodborne Pathogens on Meat and Poultry Products  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

As part of an effort to discover new ways to improve microbial food safety, we evaluated apple-based edible films containing plant antimicrobial compounds for their activity against pathogenic foodborne bacteria on meat and poultry products. Salmonella enterica or Escherichia coli O157:H7 (107 CFU/...

396

Comparative antimicrobial activity of tannin extracts from perennial plants on mastitis pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three strains of pathogenic bacteria were treated with condensed tannins (CT) purified from eight different woody plant species to investigate their inhibition effect on the growth of these bacteria in vitro. Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus were tested against low...

397

Are green islands red herrings? Significance of green islands in plant interactions with pathogens and pests.  

PubMed

The term green island was first used to describe an area of living, green tissue surrounding a site of infection by an obligately biotrophic fungal pathogen, differentiated from neighbouring yellowing, senescent tissue. However, it has now been used to describe symptoms formed in response to necrotrophic fungal pathogens, virus infection and infestation by certain insects. In leaves infected by obligate biotrophs such as rust and powdery mildew pathogens, green islands are areas where senescence is retarded, photosynthetic activity is maintained and polyamines accumulate. We propose such areas, in which both host and pathogen cells are alive, be termed green bionissia. By contrast, we propose that green areas associated with leaf damage caused by toxins produced by necrotrophic fungal pathogens be termed green necronissia. A range of biotrophic/hemibiotrophic fungi and leaf-mining insects produce cytokinins and it has been suggested that this cytokinin secretion may be responsible for the green island formation. Indeed, localised cytokinin accumulation may be a common mechanism responsible for green island formation in interactions of plants with biotrophic fungi, viruses and insects. Models have been developed to study if green island formation is pathogen-mediated or host-mediated. They suggest that green bionissia on leaves infected by biotrophic fungal pathogens represent zones of host tissue, altered physiologically to allow the pathogen maximum access to nutrients early in the interaction, thus supporting early sporulation and increasing pathogen fitness. They lead to the suggestion that green islands are 'red herrings', representing no more than the consequence of the infection process and discrete changes in leaf senescence. PMID:18093233

Walters, Dale R; McRoberts, Neil; Fitt, Bruce D L

2008-02-01

398

The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis—a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign

A. J. G. Simpson; F. C. Reinach; P. Arruda; F. A. Abreu; M. Acencio; R. Alvarenga; L. M. C. Alves; J. E. Araya; G. S. Baia; C. S. Baptista; M. H. Barros; E. D. Bonaccorsi; S. Bordin; J. M. Bové; M. R. S. Briones; A. A. Camargo; L. E. A. Camargo; D. M. Carraro; H. Carrer; N. B. Colauto; C. Colombo; F. F. Costa; M. C. R. Costa; C. M. Costa-Neto; L. L. Coutinho; M. Cristofani; E. Dias-Neto; C. Docena; H. El-Dorry; A. P. Facincani; A. J. S. Ferreira; V. C. A. Ferreira; J. A. Ferro; J. S. Fraga; S. C. França; M. C. Franco; L. R. Furlan; M. Garnier; G. H. Goldman; M. H. S. Goldman; S. L. Gomes; A. Gruber; P. L. Ho; J. D. Hoheisel; M. L. Junqueira; E. L. Kemper; J. P. Kitajima; E. E. Kuramae; F. Laigret; M. R. Lambais; L. C. C. Leite; E. G. M. Lemos; M. V. F. Lemos; S. A. Lopes; C. R. Lopes; J. A. Machado; M. A. Machado; A. M. B. N. Madeira; H. M. F. Madeira; C. L. Marino; M. V. Marques; E. A. L. Martins; E. M. F. Martins; A. Y. Matsukuma; C. F. M. Menck; E. C. Miracca; C. Y. Miyaki; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; D. H. Moon; M. A. Nagai; A. L. T. O. Nascimento; L. E. S. Netto; A. Nhani; F. G. Nobrega; L. R. Nunes; M. A. Oliveira; M. C. de Oliveira; R. C. de Oliveira; D. A. Palmieri; B. R. Peixoto; G. A. G. Pereira; H. A. Pereira; J. B. Pesquero; R. B. Quaggio; P. G. Roberto; V. Rodrigues; A. J. de M. Rosa; V. E. de Rosa; R. G. de Sá; R. V. Santelli; H. E. Sawasaki; A. C. R. da Silva; F. R. da Silva; W. A. Silva; J. F. da Silveira; M. L. Z. Silvestri; W. J. Siqueira; A. A. de Souza; A. P. de Souza; M. F. Terenzi; D. Truffi; S. M. Tsai; M. H. Tsuhako; H. Vallada; M. A. Van Sluys; S. Verjovski-Almeida; A. L. Vettore; M. A. Zago; J. Meidanis; J. C. Setubal

2000-01-01

399

The genome sequence of the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xylella fastidiosa is a fastidious, xylem-limited bacterium that causes a range of economically important plant diseases. Here we report the complete genome sequence of X. fastidiosa clone 9a5c, which causes citrus variegated chlorosis-a serious disease of orange trees. The genome comprises a 52.7% GC-rich 2,679,305-base-pair (bp) circular chromosome and two plasmids of 51,158 bp and 1,285 bp. We can assign

A. J. G. Simpson; F. C. Reinach; P. Arruda; F. A. Abreu; M. Acencio; R. Alvarenga; L. M. C. Alves; J. E. Araya; G. S. Baia; C. S. Baptista; M. H. Barros; E. D. Bonaccorsi; S. Bordin; J. M. Bové; M. R. S. Briones; M. R. P. Bueno; A. A. Camargo; L. E. A. Camargo; D. M. Carraro; H. Carrer; N. B. Colauto; C. Colombo; F. F. Costa; M. C. R. Costa; C. M. Costa-Neto; L. L. Coutinho; M. Cristofani; E. Dias-Neto; C. Docena; H. El-Dorry; A. P. Facincani; A. J. S. Ferreira; V. C. A. Ferreira; J. A. Ferro; J. S. Fraga; S. C. França; M. C. Franco; M. Frohme; L. R. Furlan; M. Garnier; G. H. Goldman; M. H. S. Goldman; S. L. Gomes; A. Gruber; P. L. Ho; J. D. Hoheisel; M. L. Junqueira; E. L. Kemper; J. P. Kitajima; J. E. Krieger; E. E. Kuramae; F. Laigret; M. R. Lambais; L. C. C. Leite; E. G. M. Lemos; M. V. F. Lemos; S. A. Lopes; C. R. Lopes; J. A. Machado; M. A. Machado; A. M. B. N. Madeira; H. M. F. Madeira; C. L. Marino; M. V. Marques; E. A. L. Martins; E. M. F. Martins; A. Y. Matsukuma; C. F. M. Menck; E. C. Miracca; C. Y. Miyaki; C. B. Monteiro-Vitorello; D. H. Moon; M. A. Nagai; A. L. T. O. Nascimento; L. E. S. Netto; A. Nhani; F. G. Nobrega; L. R. Nunes; M. A. Oliveira; M. C. de Oliveira; R. C. de Oliveira; D. A. Palmieri; B. R. Peixoto; G. A. G. Pereira; H. A. Pereira; J. B. Pesquero; R. B. Quaggio; P. G. Roberto; V. Rodrigues; A. J. de M. Rosa; V. E. de Rosa; R. G. de Sá; R. V. Santelli; H. E. Sawasaki; A. C. R. da Silva; A. M. da Silva; F. R. da Silva; W. A. Silva; J. F. da Silveira; M. L. Z. Silvestri; W. J. Siqueira; A. A. de Souza; A. P. de Souza; M. F. Terenzi; D. Truffi; S. M. Tsai; M. H. Tsuhako; H. Vallada; M. A. Van Sluys; S. Verjovski-Almeida; A. L. Vettore; M. A. Zago; M. Zatz; J. Meidanis; J. C. Setubal

2000-01-01

400

Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSD1 orthologues are essential for host infection by the ascomycete plant pathogens Colletotrichum lagenarium and Magnaporthe grisea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Fungal plant pathogens have evolved diverse strate- gies to overcome the multilayered plant defence responses that confront them upon host invasion. Here we show that pathogenicity of the cucumber anthracnose fungus, Colletotrichum lagenarium, and the rice blast fungus, Magnaporthe grisea, requires a gene orthologous to Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSD1, a regulator of cell wall assembly. Screening for C. lagenarium insertional

Shigeyuki Tanaka; Kaori Yamada; Kayo Yabumoto; Satoshi Fujii; Aurélie Huser; Gento Tsuji; Hironori Koga; Koji Dohi; Masashi Mori; Tomonori Shiraishi; Richard O'Connell; Yasuyuki Kubo

2007-01-01

401

The Bacterial Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa Affects the Leaf Ionome of Plant Hosts during Infection  

PubMed Central

Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogenic bacterium that lives inside the host xylem vessels, where it forms biofilm believed to be responsible for disrupting the passage of water and nutrients. Here, Nicotiana tabacum was infected with X. fastidiosa, and the spatial and temporal changes in the whole-leaf ionome (i.e. the mineral and trace element composition) were measured as the host plant transitioned from healthy to diseased physiological status. The elemental composition of leaves was used as an indicator of the physiological changes in the host at a specific time and relative position during plant development. Bacterial infection was found to cause significant increases in concentrations of calcium prior to the appearance of symptoms and decreases in concentrations of phosphorous after symptoms appeared. Field-collected leaves from multiple varieties of grape, blueberry, and pecan plants grown in different locations over a four-year period in the Southeastern US showed the same alterations in Ca and P. This descriptive ionomics approach characterizes the existence of a mineral element-based response to X. fastidiosa using a model system suitable for further manipulation to uncover additional details of the role of mineral elements during plant-pathogen interactions. This is the first report on the dynamics of changes in the ionome of the host plant throughout the process of infection by a pathogen. PMID:23667547

De La Fuente, Leonardo; Parker, Jennifer K.; Oliver, Jonathan E.; Granger, Shea; Brannen, Phillip M.; van Santen, Edzard; Cobine, Paul A.

2013-01-01

402

Modified Primers for the Identification of Nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum Isolates That Have Biological Control Potential against Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Previous investigations demonstrated that Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), which is not pathogenic to cucumbers, could serve as a biological control agent for managing Fusarium wilt of cucumber caused by Fo f. sp. cucumerinum (Foc) in Taiwan. However, thus far it has not been possible to separate the populations of pathogenic Fo from the nonpathogenic isolates that have biological control potential through their morphological characteristics. Although these two populations can be distinguished from one another using a bioassay, the work is laborious and time-consuming. In this study, a fragment of the intergenic spacer (IGS) region of ribosomal DNA from an Fo biological control agent, Fo366, was PCR-amplified with published general primers, FIGS11/FIGS12 and sequenced. A new primer, NPIGS-R, which was designed based on the IGS sequence, was paired with the FIGS11 primer. These primers were then evaluated for their specificity to amplify DNA from nonpathogenic Fo isolates that have biological control potential. The results showed that the modified primer pair, FIGS11/NPIGS-R, amplified a 500-bp DNA fragment from five of seven nonpathogenic Fo isolates. These five Fo isolates delayed symptom development of cucumber Fusarium wilt in greenhouse bioassay tests. Seventy-seven Fo isolates were obtained from the soil and plant tissues and then subjected to amplification using the modified primer pair; six samples showed positive amplification. These six isolates did not cause symptoms on cucumber seedlings when grown in peat moss infested with the isolates and delayed disease development when the same plants were subsequently inoculated with a virulent isolate of Foc. Therefore, the modified primer pair may prove useful for the identification of Fo isolates that are nonpathogenic to cucumber which can potentially act as biocontrol agents for Fusarium wilt of cucumber. PMID:23762289

Wang, Chaojen; Lin, Yisheng; Lin, Yinghong; Chung, Wenhsin

2013-01-01

403

Utility of the phylotoxigenic relationships among trichothecene-producing Fusarium species for predicting their mycotoxin-producing potential.  

PubMed

Species of the genus Fusarium are well-known plant pathogens and mycotoxigenic fusaria are associated with health hazards to humans and animals. There is a need to understand the mechanisms of mycotoxin production by Fusarium species and to predict which produce mycotoxins. In this study, the Fusarium phylogenetic tree was first inferred among trichothecene producers and related species. We reconstructed the maximum likelihood (ML) tree based on the combined data from nucleotide sequences of rDNA cluster regions, the ?-tubulin gene (?-tub) and the elongation factor 1? gene (EF-1?). Second, based on this tree topology, the ancestral states of the producing potential of type A and B trichothecenes (TriA and TriB), zearalenone (ZEN), moniliformin (MON), beauvericin (BEA) and enniatins (ENN) were reconstructed using the maximum parsimony (MP) method based on the observed production by extant species as reported in the literature. Finally, the species having the potential to produce each of these six mycotoxins was predicted on the basis of the parsimonious analysis. The ML tree indicated that the Fusarium species analysed in this study could be divided into two major clades. Clade I was divided into four distinct subclades: I-a, I-b, I-c and I-d. Furthermore, the parsimony reconstruction suggested that the potential for producing MON and ZEN was gained or lost only once, and that the producing potential for TriA and TriB, BEA and ENN was repeatedly gained and lost during the evolutionary history of the Fusarium species analysed in this study. Interestingly, the results showed the possibility that several species, about which reports were scarce with regard to mycotoxin production, have the potential to produce one or more of the six evaluated in this study. The phylogenetic information therefore helps one to predict the mycotoxin-producing potential by Fusarium species, and these "phylotoxigenic relationships" may be useful for predicting the pathogenicity of fungi. PMID:23731171

Watanabe, M; Yonezawa, T; Sugita-Konishi, Y; Kamata, Y

2013-01-01

404

An endo-polygalacturonase (PG) of Fusarium moniliforme escaping inhibition by plant polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) provides new insights into the PG-PGIP interaction.  

PubMed

Polygalacturonase-inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are plant defence molecules inhibiting the activity of fungal endo-polygalacturonases (endo-PGs). We found that soybean and bean PGIPs inhibited the endo-PG activity produced by the isolate FC-10 of Fusarium moniliforme but not the enzyme activity produced by the isolate PD of F. moniliforme. The bean PGIP proved to be ineffective against all the PG isoforms produced by the PD isolate. Deduced amino acid sequence comparison between PGs from PD, FC-10 and 62264 isolates identified the structural regions of the enzyme possibly related to its resistance to PGIP inhibition. These include one region at the N-terminal portion of the enzyme and a few single amino acid substitutions along the entire sequence, two of which surrounding the active site. PMID:15500988

Sella, Luca; Castiglioni, Carla; Roberti, Serena; D'Ovidio, Renato; Favaron, Francesco

2004-11-01

405

Molecular Identification and Databases in Fusarium  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

DNA sequence-based methods for identifying pathogenic and mycotoxigenic Fusarium isolates have become the gold standard worldwide. Moreover, fusarial DNA sequence data are increasing rapidly in several web-accessible databases for comparative purposes. Unfortunately, the use of Basic Alignment Sea...

406

Fusarium verticillioides: Talking to Friends and Enemies  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium verticillioides is both a symptomless endophyte and a pathogen of maize. At some point, the fungus may synthesize fumonisins which have been linked to a variety of animal diseases including cancer in some animals. In order to minimize losses due to contaminated food or feed, we are workin...

407

UV light inactivation of human and plant pathogens in unfiltered surface irrigation water.  

PubMed

Fruit and vegetable growers continually battle plant diseases and food safety concerns. Surface water is commonly used in the production of fruits and vegetables and can harbor both human- and plant-pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate crops when used for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Treatment methods for surface water are currently limited, and there is a need for suitable treatment options. A liquid-processing unit that uses UV light for the decontamination of turbid juices was analyzed for its efficacy in the treatment of surface waters contaminated with bacterial or oomycete pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and Phytophthora capsici. Five-strain cocktails of each pathogen, containing approximately 10(8) or 10(9) CFU/liter for bacteria or 10(4) or 10(5) zoospores/liter for Ph. capsici, were inoculated into aliquots of two turbid surface water irrigation sources and processed with the UV unit. Pathogens were enumerated before and after treatment. In general, as the turbidity of the water source increased, the effectiveness of the UV treatment decreased, but in all cases, 99.9% or higher inactivation was achieved. Log reductions ranged from 10.0 to 6.1 and from 5.0 to 4.2 for bacterial pathogens and Ph. capsici, respectively. PMID:24242253

Jones, Lisa A; Worobo, Randy W; Smart, Christine D

2014-02-01

408

UV Light Inactivation of Human and Plant Pathogens in Unfiltered Surface Irrigation Water  

PubMed Central

Fruit and vegetable growers continually battle plant diseases and food safety concerns. Surface water is commonly used in the production of fruits and vegetables and can harbor both human- and plant-pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate crops when used for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Treatment methods for surface water are currently limited, and there is a need for suitable treatment options. A liquid-processing unit that uses UV light for the decontamination of turbid juices was analyzed for its efficacy in the treatment of surface waters contaminated with bacterial or oomycete pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and Phytophthora capsici. Five-strain cocktails of each pathogen, containing approximately 108 or 109 CFU/liter for bacteria or 104 or 105 zoospores/liter for Ph. capsici, were inoculated into aliquots of two turbid surface water irrigation sources and processed with the UV unit. Pathogens were enumerated before and after treatment. In general, as the turbidity of the water source increased, the effectiveness of the UV treatment decreased, but in all cases, 99.9% or higher inactivation was achieved. Log reductions ranged from 10.0 to 6.1 and from 5.0 to 4.2 for bacterial pathogens and Ph. capsici, respectively. PMID:24242253

Jones, Lisa A.; Worobo, Randy W.

2014-01-01

409

Population History and Pathways of Spread of the Plant Pathogen Phytophthora plurivora  

PubMed Central

Human activity has been shown to considerably affect the spread of dangerous pests and pathogens worldwide. Therefore, strict regulations of international trade exist for particularly harmful pathogenic organisms. Phytophthora plurivora, which is not subject to regulations, is a plant pathogen frequently found on a broad range of host species, both in natural and artificial environments. It is supposed to be native to Europe while resident populations are also present in the US. We characterized a hierarchical sample of isolates from Europe and the US and conducted coalescent-, migration, and population genetic analysis of sequence and microsatellite data, to determine the pathways of spread and the demographic history of this pathogen. We found P. plurivora populations to be moderately diverse but not geographically structured. High levels of gene flow were observed within Europe and unidirectional from Europe to the US. Coalescent analyses revealed a signal of a recent expansion of the global P. plurivora population. Our study shows that P. plurivora has most likely been spread around the world by nursery trade of diseased plant material. In particular, P. plurivora was introduced into the US from Europe. International trade has allowed the pathogen to colonize new environments and/or hosts, resulting in population growth. PMID:24427303

Schoebel, Corine N.; Stewart, Jane; Gruenwald, Niklaus J.; Rigling, Daniel; Prospero, Simone

2014-01-01

410

Wound-induced pectin methylesterases enhance banana (Musa spp. AAA) susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that plant pectin methylesterases (PMEs) are directly involved in plant defence besides their roles in plant development. However, the molecular mechanisms of PME action on pectins are not well understood. In order to understand how PMEs modify pectins during banana (Musa spp.)–Fusarium interaction, the expression and enzyme activities of PMEs in two banana cultivars, highly resistant or susceptible to Fusarium, were compared with each other. Furthermore, the spatial distribution of PMEs and their effect on pectin methylesterification of 10 individual homogalacturonan (HG) epitopes with different degrees of methylesterification (DMs) were also examined. The results showed that, before pathogen treatment, the resistant cultivar displayed higher PME activity than the susceptible cultivar, corresponding well to the lower level of pectin DM. A significant increase in PME expression and activity and a decrease in pectin DM were observed in the susceptible cultivar but not in the resistant cultivar when plants were wounded, which was necessary for successful infection. With the increase of PME in the wounded susceptible cultivar, the JIM5 antigen (low methyestrified HGs) increased. Forty-eight hours after pathogen infection, the PME activity and expression in the susceptible cultivar were higher than those in the resistant cultivar, while the DM was lower. In conclusion, the resistant and the susceptible cultivars differ significantly in their response to wounding. Increased PMEs and thereafter decreased DMs acompanied by increased low methylesterified HGs in the root vascular cylinder appear to play a key role in determination of banana susceptibility to Fusarium. PMID:23580752

Xu, Chunxiang

2013-01-01

411

Transgenic wheat and barley carrying a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase exhibit high levels of Fusarium head blight resistance  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium head blight (FHB) is an old yet unsolved problem of cereal crops, mainly caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum. During infection, trichothecenes produced by Fusarium increase fungal virulence and decrease grain quality. Previous work identified a barley UDP-glucosyltransferase ...

412

Brachypodium distachyon: a new pathosystem to study Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Fusarium species cause Fusarium head blight (FHB) and other important diseases of cereals. The causal agents produce trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). The dicotyledonous model species Arabidopsis thaliana has been used to study Fusarium-host interactions but it is not ideal for model-to-crop translation. Brachypodium distachyon (Bd) has been proposed as a new monocotyledonous model species for functional genomic studies in grass species. This study aims to assess the interaction between the most prevalent FHB-causing Fusarium species and Bd in order to develop and exploit Bd as a genetic model for FHB and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. Results The ability of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum to infect a range of Bd tissues was examined in various bioassays which showed that both species can infect all Bd tissues examined, including intact foliar tissues. DON accumulated in infected spike tissues at levels similar to those of infected wheat spikes. Histological studies revealed details of infection, colonisation and host response and indicate that hair cells are important sites of infection. Susceptibility to Fusarium and DON was assessed in two Bd ecotypes and revealed variation in resistance between ecotypes. Conclusions Bd exhibits characteristics of susceptibility highly similar to those of wheat, including susceptibility to spread of disease in the spikelets. Bd is the first reported plant species to allow successful infection on intact foliar tissues by FHB-causing Fusarium species. DON appears to function as a virulence factor in Bd as it does in wheat. Bd is proposed as a valuable model for undertaking studies of Fusarium head blight and other Fusarium diseases of wheat. PMID:21639892

2011-01-01

413

Autophagy controls plant basal immunity in a pathogenic lifestyle-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Plant genomes harbor autophagy-related (ATG) genes that encode major components of the eukaryotic autophagic machinery. Autophagy in plants has been functionally linked to senescence, oxidative stress adaptation and the nutrient starvation response. In addition, plant autophagy has been assigned negative ('anti-death') and positive ('pro-death') regulatory functions in controlling cell death programs that establish sufficient immunity to microbial infection. The role of autophagy in plant disease and basal immunity to microbial infection has, however, not been studied in detail. We have employed a series of autophagy-deficient genotypes of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana in various infection systems. Genotypes lacking ATG5, ATG10 or ATG18a develop spreading necrosis and enhanced disease susceptibility upon infection with toxin-producing pathogens preferring a necrotrophic lifestyle. These findings suggest that autophagy positively controls the containment of host tissue integrity upon infections by host-destructive microbes. In contrast, autophagy-deficient genotypes exhibit markedly increased immunity to infections by biotrophic pathogens through altered homeostasis of the plant hormone salicylic acid, thus suggesting an additional negative regulatory role of autophagy in plant basal immunity. In sum, our findings suggest that the role of plant autophagy in immunity cannot be generalized, and depends critically on the lifestyle and infection strategy of invading microbes. PMID:21460628

Lenz, Heike D; Haller, Eva; Melzer, Eric; Gust, Andrea A; Nürnberger, Thorsten

2011-07-01

414

Chemical Diversity and Defence Metabolism: How Plants Cope with Pathogens and Ozone Pollution  

PubMed Central

Chemical defences represent a main trait of the plant innate immune system. Besides regulating the relationship between plants and their ecosystems, phytochemicals are involved both in resistance against pathogens and in tolerance towards abiotic stresses, such as atmospheric pollution. Plant defence metabolites arise from the main secondary metabolic routes, the phenylpropanoid, the isoprenoid and the alkaloid pathways. In plants, antibiotic compounds can be both preformed (phytoanticipins) and inducible (phytoalexins), the former including saponins, cyanogenic glycosides and glucosinolates. Chronic exposure to tropospheric ozone (O3) stimulates the carbon fluxes from the primary to the secondary metabolic pathways to a great extent, inducing a shift of the available resources in favour of the synthesis of secondary products. In some cases, the plant defence responses against pathogens and environmental pollutants may overlap, leading to the unspecific synthesis of similar molecules, such as phenylpropanoids. Exposure to ozone can also modify the pattern of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), emitted from plant in response to herbivore feeding, thus altering the tritrophic interaction among plant, phytophagy and their natural enemies. Finally, the synthesis of ethylene and polyamines can be regulated by ozone at level of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), the biosynthetic precursor of both classes of hormones, which can, therefore, mutually inhibit their own biosynthesis with consequence on plant phenotype. PMID:20111684

Iriti, Marcello; Faoro, Franco

2009-01-01

415

Characterization of plant – fungal interactions involving necrotrophic effector-producing plant pathogens  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Recently, great strides have been made in the area of host-pathogen interactions involving necrotrophic fungi. In this article we describe a method to identify, produce, and characterize effectors that are important in host –necrotrophic fungal pathogen interactions, and to genetically characterize...

416

Biological control of plant pathogens: advantages and limitations seen through the case study of Pythium oligandrum.  

PubMed

The management of certain plant beneficial microorganisms [biological control agents (BCAs)] seems to be a promising and environmental friendly method to control plant pathogens. However, applications are still limited because of the lack of consistency of BCAs when they are applied in the field. In the present paper, the advantages and limitations of BCAs are seen through the example of Pythium oligandrum, an oomycete that has received much attention in the last decade. The biological control exerted by P. oligandrum is the result of a complex process, which includes direct effects through the control of pathogens and/or indirect effects mediated by P. oligandrum, i.e. induction of resistance and growth promotion. P. oligandrum antagonism is a multifaceted and target fungus-dependent process. Interestingly, it does not seem to disrupt microflora biodiversity on the roots. P. oligandrum has an atypical relationship with the plant because it rapidly penetrates into the root tissues but it cannot stay alive in planta. After root colonisation, because of the elicitation by P. oligandrum of the plant-defence system, plants are protected from a range of pathogens. The management of BCAs, here P. oligandrum, is discussed with regard to its interactions with the incredibly complex agrosystems. PMID:23695856

Gerbore, J; Benhamou, N; Vallance, J; Le Floch, G; Grizard, D; Regnault-Roger, C; Rey, P

2014-04-01

417

Temporal and spatial scaling of the genetic structure of a vector-borne plant pathogen.  

PubMed

The ecology of plant pathogens of perennial crops is affected by the long-lived nature of their immobile hosts. In addition, changes to the genetic structure of pathogen populations may affect disease epidemiology and management practices; examples include local adaptation of more fit genotypes or introduction of novel genotypes from geographically distant areas via human movement of infected plant material or insect vectors. We studied the genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa populations causing disease in sweet orange plants in Brazil at multiple scales using fast-evolving molecular markers (simple-sequence DNA repeats). Results show that populations of X. fastidiosa were regionally isolated, and that isolation was maintained for populations analyzed a decade apart from each other. However, despite such geographic isolation, local populations present in year 2000 were largely replaced by novel genotypes in 2009 but not as a result of migration. At a smaller spatial scale (individual trees), results suggest that isolates within plants originated from a shared common ancestor. In summary, new insights on the ecology of this economically important plant pathogen were obtained by sampling populations at different spatial scales and two different time points. PMID:24397266

Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

2014-02-01

418

Transgenerational gene silencing causes gain of virulence in a plant pathogen  

PubMed Central

Avirulence (Avr) genes of plant pathogens encode effector proteins that trigger immunity in plants carrying appropriate resistance (R) genes. The Phytophthora sojae Avr3a gene displays allelic variation in messenger RNA transcript levels. P. sojae strains with detectable Avr3a gene transcripts are avirulent on plants carrying the R-gene Rps3a, whereas strains lacking Avr3a mRNA escape detection by Rps3a and are virulent. Here we show non-Mendelian interactions between naturally occurring Avr3a alleles that result in transgenerational gene silencing, and we identify small RNA molecules of 25 nucleotides that are abundant in gene-silenced strains but not in strains with Avr3a mRNA. This example of transgenerational gene silencing is exceptional because it is naturally occurring and results in gain of virulence in a pathogenic organism. PMID:23322037

Qutob, Dinah; Patrick Chapman, B.; Gijzen, Mark

2013-01-01