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Sample records for plant sarracenia purpurea

  1. Phytochemical constituents of Sarracenia purpurea L. (pitcher plant).

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Asim; Haddad, Pierre S; Durst, Tony; Arnason, John Thor

    2013-10-01

    From the leaves of Sarracenia purpurea, collected in Mistissini, Quebec, Canada, four goodyerosides and three phenolics and nine known compounds, were isolated. The structures of the compounds were determined by mass spectrometry, including HRMS, and by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. PMID:23810285

  2. Detection of methanogenic archaea in the pitchers of the Northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea ).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Joseph R; Kourtev, Peter S

    2012-02-01

    Carnivorous plants of the genus Sarracenia rely on microorganisms in their pitchers to decompose drowned insects. The environment inside pitchers is considered to be aerobic; however, there might be zones, such as at the bottom of the pitcher, where anaerobic conditions develop. Samples of the sediment at the bottom of Sarracenia purpurea pitchers were analyzed for the presence of archaea, using PCR and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Archaeal DNA was detected in 20% of sampled pitchers. All sequences were closely related to Methanobrevibacter . Therefore, pitchers may contain anoxic zones inhabited by methanogens. PMID:22263906

  3. Nutrient limitation and morphological plasticity of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea in contrasting wetland environments.

    PubMed

    Bott, Terry; Meyer, Gretchen A; Young, Erica B

    2008-01-01

    * Plasticity of leaf nutrient content and morphology, and macronutrient limitation were examined in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea subsp. purpurea, in relation to soil nutrient availability in an open, neutral pH fen and a shady, acidic ombrotrophic bog, over 2 yr following reciprocal transplantation of S. purpurea between the wetlands. * In both wetlands, plants were limited by nitrogen (N) but not phosphorus (P) (N content < 2% DW(-1), N : P < 14) but photosynthetic quantum yields were high (F(V)/F(M) > 0.79). Despite carnivory, leaf N content correlated with dissolved N availability to plant roots (leaf N vs , r(2) = 0.344, P < 0.0001); carnivorous N acquisition did not apparently overcome N limitation. * Following transplantation, N content and leaf morphological traits changed in new leaves to become more similar to plants in the new environment, reflecting wetland nutrient availability. Changes in leaf morphology were faster when plants were transplanted from fen to bog than from bog to fen, possibly reflecting a more stressful environment in the bog. * Morphological plasticity observed in response to changes in nutrient supply to the roots in natural habitats complements previous observations of morphological changes with experimental nutrient addition to pitchers. PMID:18643897

  4. Efficiency of insect capture by Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae), the northern pitcher plant.

    PubMed

    Newell, S; Nastase, A

    1998-01-01

    Pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea L.) attract insects to pitchers and then capture them in fluid-filled, pitfall traps, but how efficient are pitcher plants at capturing prey in their natural environment? We monitored insect activity by videotaping pitchers and analyzing videotapes for several variables including identity of each visitor and outcome of each visit (e.g., departure or capture). Efficiency of capture (i.e., number of captures per number of visits) was low. Overall efficiency of capture was 0.83-0.93%, depending on whether potential prey were broadly or narrowly defined. Ants constituted 74% of the potential prey. Efficiency of capture of ants was even lower at 0.37%. Potential prey were more likely to visit pitchers with greater red venation and less water in the pitcher. There was no correlation between number of potential prey visiting a pitcher and pitcher age, length, or mouth width. Also, number of potential prey visits did not correlate with plant size, air temperature, time of day or date of videotaping. While the overall efficiency of prey capture was very low, pitcher plants may still benefit from the additional nutrients. However, the relationship between ants and S. purpurea remains an enigma, since it is unclear whether the plants capture enough ants to compensate for nectar lost to ants. PMID:21684883

  5. Proteomic characterization of the major arthropod associates of the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Gotelli, Nicholas J; Smith, Aidan M; Ellison, Aaron M; Ballif, Bryan A

    2011-06-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, ten of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state. PMID:21538880

  6. Proteomic Characterization of the Major Arthropod Associates of the Carnivorous Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Smith, Aidan M.; Ellison, Aaron M.; Ballif, Bryan A.

    2012-01-01

    The array of biomolecules generated by a functioning ecosystem represents both a potential resource for sustainable harvest and a potential indicator of ecosystem health and function. The cupped leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, harbor a dynamic food web of aquatic invertebrates in a fully functional miniature ecosystem. The energetic base of this food web consists of insect prey, which is shredded by aquatic invertebrates and decomposed by microbes. Biomolecules and metabolites produced by this food web are actively exchanged with the photosynthesizing plant. In this report, we provide the first proteomic characterization of the sacrophagid fly (Fletcherimyia fletcheri), the pitcher plant mosquito (Wyeomyia smithii), and the pitcher-plant midge (Metriocnemus knabi). These three arthropods act as predators, filter feeders, and shredders at distinct trophic levels within the S. purpurea food web. More than 50 proteins from each species were identified, 10 of which were predominantly or uniquely found in one species. Furthermore, 19 peptides unique to one of the three species were identified using an assembled database of 100 metazoan myosin heavy chain orthologs. These molecular signatures may be useful in species monitoring within heterogeneous ecosystem biomass and may also serve as indicators of ecosystem state. PMID:21538880

  7. Nitrogen availability alters the expression of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Gotelli, Nicholas J

    2002-04-01

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of nutrients, especially nitrogen, is a global environmental problem with well-documented consequences for ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring nitrogen deposition is relatively expensive, monitoring stations are widely spaced, and estimates and predicted impacts of nitrogen deposition are currently derived from spatial modeling and interpolation of limited data. Ombrotrophic ("rain-fed") bogs are nutrient-poor ecosystems that are especially sensitive to increasing nutrient input, and carnivorous plants, which are characteristic of these widespread ecosystem types, may be especially sensitive indicators of N deposition. Botanical carnivory is thought to have evolved in nutrient-poor and well-lit habitats such as bogs because the marginal benefits accruing from carnivory exceed the marginal photosynthetic costs associated with the maintenance of carnivorous organs. However, the production of carnivorous organs can be a phenotypically plastic trait. The northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, produces leaves specialized for prey capture and nutrient uptake (pitchers) and leaves that are more efficient at photosynthesis (phyllodia). We hypothesized that relative allocation to these two types of leaves reflects ambient nitrogen availability. We manipulated nutrient availability to plants with leaf enrichment and whole-plot fertilization experiments. Increased nitrogen, but not phosphorus, reduced production of pitchers relative to phyllodia; this result provided empirical support for the cost-benefit model of the evolution of botanical carnivory. Because this phenotypic shift in leaf production occurs in ecological time, our results suggest that S. purpurea could be a reliable and inexpensive biological indicator of nitrogen deposition rates. This suggestion is supported by field observations across a geographic gradient of nitrogen deposition. PMID:11904363

  8. Nitrogen availability alters the expression of carnivory in the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2002-01-01

    Atmospheric transport and deposition of nutrients, especially nitrogen, is a global environmental problem with well-documented consequences for ecosystem dynamics. However, monitoring nitrogen deposition is relatively expensive, monitoring stations are widely spaced, and estimates and predicted impacts of nitrogen deposition are currently derived from spatial modeling and interpolation of limited data. Ombrotrophic (“rain-fed”) bogs are nutrient-poor ecosystems that are especially sensitive to increasing nutrient input, and carnivorous plants, which are characteristic of these widespread ecosystem types, may be especially sensitive indicators of N deposition. Botanical carnivory is thought to have evolved in nutrient-poor and well-lit habitats such as bogs because the marginal benefits accruing from carnivory exceed the marginal photosynthetic costs associated with the maintenance of carnivorous organs. However, the production of carnivorous organs can be a phenotypically plastic trait. The northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, produces leaves specialized for prey capture and nutrient uptake (pitchers) and leaves that are more efficient at photosynthesis (phyllodia). We hypothesized that relative allocation to these two types of leaves reflects ambient nitrogen availability. We manipulated nutrient availability to plants with leaf enrichment and whole-plot fertilization experiments. Increased nitrogen, but not phosphorus, reduced production of pitchers relative to phyllodia; this result provided empirical support for the cost–benefit model of the evolution of botanical carnivory. Because this phenotypic shift in leaf production occurs in ecological time, our results suggest that S. purpurea could be a reliable and inexpensive biological indicator of nitrogen deposition rates. This suggestion is supported by field observations across a geographic gradient of nitrogen deposition. PMID:11904363

  9. A keystone predator controls bacterial diversity in the pitcher-plant (Sarracenia purpurea) microecosystem.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Celeste N; Day, Stephanie; Wolfe, Benjamin E; Ellison, Aaron M; Kolter, Roberto; Pringle, Anne

    2008-09-01

    The community of organisms inhabiting the water-filled leaves of the carnivorous pitcher-plant Sarracenia purpurea includes arthropods, protozoa and bacteria, and serves as a model system for studies of food web dynamics. Despite the wealth of data collected by ecologists and zoologists on this food web, very little is known about the bacterial assemblage in this microecosystem. We used terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis to quantify bacterial diversity within the pitchers as a function of pitcher size, pH of the pitcher fluid and the presence of the keystone predator in this food web, larvae of the pitcher-plant mosquito Wyeomyia smithii. Results were analysed at two spatial scales: within a single bog and across three isolated bogs. Pitchers were sterile before they opened and composition of the bacterial assemblage was more variable between different bogs than within bogs. Measures of bacterial richness and diversity were greater in the presence of W. smithii and increased with increasing pitcher size. Our results suggest that fundamental ecological concepts derived from macroscopic food webs can also be used to predict the bacterial assemblages in pitcher plants. PMID:18479443

  10. Effects of a ciliate protozoa predator on microbial communities in pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) leaves.

    PubMed

    Paisie, Taylor K; Miller, Thomas E; Mason, Olivia U

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems. PMID:25423622

  11. Effects of a Ciliate Protozoa Predator on Microbial Communities in Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia purpurea) Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Paisie, Taylor K.; Miller, Thomas E.; Mason, Olivia U.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic communities found within the water filled leaves of the pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, have a simple trophic structure providing an ideal system to study microscale interactions between protozoan predators and their bacterial prey. In this study, replicate communities were maintained with and without the presence of the bactivorous protozoan, Colpoda steinii, to determine the effects of grazing on microbial communities. Changes in microbial (Archaea and Bacteria) community structure were assessed using iTag sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The microbial communities were similar with and without the protozoan predator, with>1000 species. Of these species, Archaea were negligible, with Bacteria comprising 99.99% of the microbial community. The Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most dominant phyla. The addition of a protozoan predator did not have a significant effect on microbial evenness nor richness. However, the presence of the protozoan did cause a significant shift in the relative abundances of a number of bacterial species. This suggested that bactivorous protozoan may target specific bacterial species and/or that certain bacterial species have innate mechanisms by which they evade predators. These findings help to elucidate the effect that trophic structure perturbations have on predator prey interactions in microbial systems. PMID:25423622

  12. The Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea Can Directly Acquire Organic Nitrogen and Short-Circuit the Inorganic Nitrogen Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Karagatzides, Jim D.; Butler, Jessica L.; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite the large stocks of organic nitrogen in soil, nitrogen availability limits plant growth in many terrestrial ecosystems because most plants take up only inorganic nitrogen, not organic nitrogen. Although some vascular plants can assimilate organic nitrogen directly, only recently has organic nitrogen been found to contribute significantly to the nutrient budget of any plant. Carnivorous plants grow in extremely nutrient-poor environments and carnivory has evolved in these plants as an alternative pathway for obtaining nutrients. We tested if the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea could directly take up intact amino acids in the field and compared uptake of organic and inorganic forms of nitrogen across a gradient of nitrogen deposition. We hypothesized that the contribution of organic nitrogen to the nitrogen budget of the pitcher plant would decline with increasing nitrogen deposition. Methodology and Principal Findings At sites in Canada (low nitrogen deposition) and the United States (high nitrogen deposition), individual pitchers were fed two amino acids, glycine and phenylalanine, and inorganic nitrogen (as ammonium nitrate), individually and in mixture. Plants took up intact amino acids. Acquisition of each form of nitrogen provided in isolation exceeded uptake of the same form in mixture. At the high deposition site, uptake of organic nitrogen was higher than uptake of inorganic nitrogen. At the low deposition site, uptake of all three forms of nitrogen was similar. Completeness of the associated detritus-based food web that inhabits pitcher-plant leaves and breaks down captured prey had no effect on nitrogen uptake. Conclusions and Significance By taking up intact amino acids, Sarracenia purpurea can short-circuit the inorganic nitrogen cycle, thus minimizing potential bottlenecks in nitrogen availability that result from the plant's reliance for nitrogen mineralization on a seasonally reconstructed food web operating on

  13. Bacterial diversity in three distinct sub-habitats within the pitchers of the northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Joseph R; Kourtev, Peter S

    2012-03-01

    Pitcher plants have been widely used in ecological studies of food webs; however, their bacterial communities are poorly characterized. Pitchers of Sarracenia purpurea contain several distinct sub-habitats, namely the bottom sediment, the liquid, and the internal pitcher wall. We hypothesized that those three sub-habitats within pitcher plants are inhabited by distinct bacterial populations. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene sequencing to characterize bacterial populations in pitchers from three bogs. DGGE and sequencing revealed that in any given pitcher, the three sub-habitats contain significantly different bacterial populations. However, there was significant variability between bacterial populations inhabiting the same type of habitat in different pitchers, even at the same site. Therefore, no consistent set of bacterial populations was enriched in any of the three sub-habitats. All sub-habitats appeared to be dominated by alpha- and betaproteobacteria in differing proportions. In addition, sequences from the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were obtained from all three sub-habitats. We conclude that container aquatic habitats such as the pitchers of S. purpurea possess a very high bacterial diversity, with many unique bacterial populations enriched in individual pitchers. Within an individual pitcher, populations of certain bacterial families may be enriched in one of the three studied sub-habitats. PMID:22092381

  14. Characterizing the cytoprotective activity of Sarracenia purpurea L., a medicinal plant that inhibits glucotoxicity in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea L., is a widely distributed species in North America with a history of use as both a marketed pain therapy and a traditional medicine in many aboriginal communities. Among the Cree of Eeyou Istchee in northern Québec, the plant is employed to treat symptoms of diabetes and the leaf extract demonstrates multiple anti-diabetic activities including cytoprotection in an in vitro model of diabetic neuropathy. The current study aimed to further investigate this activity by identifying the plant parts and secondary metabolites that contribute to these cytoprotective effects. Methods Ethanolic extracts of S. purpurea leaves and roots were separately administered to PC12 cells exposed to glucose toxicity with subsequent assessment by two cell viability assays. Assay-guided fractionation of the active extract and fractions was then conducted to identify active principles. Using high pressure liquid chromatography together with mass spectrometry, the presence of identified actives in both leaf and root extracts were determined. Results The leaf extract, but not that of the root, prevented glucose-mediated cell loss in a concentration-dependent manner. Several fractions elicited protective effects, indicative of multiple active metabolites, and, following subfractionation of the polar fraction, hyperoside (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) and morroniside were isolated as active constituents. Phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of hyperoside in the leaf but not root extract and, although morroniside was detected in both organs, its concentration was seven times higher in the leaf. Conclusion Our results not only support further study into the therapeutic potential and safety of S. purpurea as an alternative and complementary treatment for diabetic complications associated with glucose toxicity but also identify active principles that can be used for purposes of standardization and quality control. PMID:23216659

  15. Signal transduction in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia purpurea. Regulation of secretory hydrolase expression during development and in response to resources.

    PubMed Central

    Gallie, D R; Chang, S C

    1997-01-01

    Carnivory in plants has developed as an evolutionary adaptation to nutrient-poor environments. A significant investment of the resources of a carnivorous plant is committed to producing the traps, attractants, and digestive enzymes needed for the carnivory. The cost:benefit ratio of carnivory can be improved by either maximizing the prey capture rate or by reducing the metabolic commitment toward carnivory. Using the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea, we have investigated whether the expression of the hydrolytic enzymes needed for digestion is regulated in response to the presence of prey. Expression of protease, RNase, nuclease, and phosphatase activities could be induced in the fluid of nonactive traps by the addition of nucleic acids, protein, or reduced nitrogen, suggesting that hydrolase expression is induced upon perception of the appropriate chemical signal. Hydrolase expression was also developmentally controlled since expression commenced upon opening of a trap, increased for several days, and in the absence of prey largely ceased within 2 weeks. Nevertheless, the traps remained competent to induce expression in response to the appropriate signals. These data suggest that in young traps hydrolase expression is developmentally regulated, which is later replaced by a signal transduction mechanism, and they demonstrate the ability of a carnivorous species to respond to the availability of resources. PMID:9414556

  16. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  17. Oriented cell division shapes carnivorous pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Kenji; Fujita, Hironori; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu

    2015-01-01

    Complex morphology is an evolutionary outcome of phenotypic diversification. In some carnivorous plants, the ancestral planar leaf has been modified to form a pitcher shape. However, how leaf development was altered during evolution remains unknown. Here we show that the pitcher leaves of Sarracenia purpurea develop through cell division patterns of adaxial tissues that are distinct from those in bifacial and peltate leaves, subsequent to standard expression of adaxial and abaxial marker genes. Differences in the orientation of cell divisions in the adaxial domain cause bifacial growth in the distal region and adaxial ridge protrusion in the middle region. These different growth patterns establish pitcher morphology. A computer simulation suggests that the cell division plane is critical for the pitcher morphogenesis. Our results imply that tissue-specific changes in the orientation of cell division underlie the development of a morphologically complex leaf. PMID:25774486

  18. Genetic Variability and Founder Effect in the Pitcher Plant Sarracenia purpurea (Sarraceniaceae) in Populations Introduced into Switzerland: from Inbreeding to Invasion

    PubMed Central

    PARISOD, CHRISTIAN; TRIPPI, CHARLOTTE; GALLAND, NICOLE

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The long-lived and mainly outcrossing species Sarracenia purpurea has been introduced into Switzerland and become invasive. This creates the opportunity to study reactions to founder effect and how a species can circumvent deleterious effects of bottlenecks such as reduced genetic diversity, inbreeding and extinction through mutational meltdown, to emerge as a highly invasive plant. • Methods A population genetic survey by random amplified polymorphism DNA markers (RAPD) together with historical insights and a field pollination experiment were carried out. • Key Results At the regional scale, S. purpurea shows low structure (θst = 0·072) due to a recent founder event and important subsequent growth. Nevertheless, multivariate statistical analyses reveal that, because of a bottleneck that shifted allele frequencies, most of the variability is independent among populations. In one population (Tenasses) the species has become invasive and genetic analysis reveals restricted gene flow and family structure (θst = 0·287). Although inbreeding appears to be high (Fis > 0·410 from a Bayesian estimation), a field pollination experiment failed to detect significant inbreeding depression upon F1 seed number and seed weight fitness-traits. Furthermore, crosses between unrelated individuals produced F1 seeds with significantly reduced fitness, thus showing local outbreeding depression. • Conclusions The results suggest that, under restricted gene flow among families, the species may not only have rapidly purged deleterious alleles, but also have undergone some form of selection for inbreeding due to co-adaptation between loci. PMID:15546932

  19. Transcriptome analysis of sarracenia, an insectivorous plant.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anuj; Rogers, Willie L; Breton, Catherine M; Cai, Liming; Malmberg, Russell L

    2011-08-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. To investigate these plants, we sequenced the transcriptome of two species, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea, using Roche 454 pyrosequencing technology. We obtained 46 275 and 36 681 contigs by de novo assembly methods for S. psittacina and S. purpurea, respectively, and further identified 16 163 orthologous contigs between them. Estimation of synonymous substitution rates between orthologous and paralogous contigs indicates the events of genome duplication and speciation within the Sarracenia genus both occurred ∼2 million years ago. The ratios of synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates indicated that 491 contigs have been under positive selection (K(a)/K(s) > 1). Significant proportions of these contigs were involved in functions related to binding activity. We also found that the greatest sequence similarity for both of these species was to Vitis vinifera, which is most consistent with a non-current classification of the order Ericales as an asterid. This study has provided new insights into pitcher plants and will contribute greatly to future research on this genus and its distinctive ecological adaptations. PMID:21676972

  20. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitman, Richard L.; Byers, Stacey E.; Shively, Dawn A.; Ferguson, Donna M.; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara N.

    2005-01-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n = 43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28 ± 0.23 and 1.97 ± 0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 °C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth.

  1. Occurrence and growth characteristics of Escherichia coli and enterococci within the accumulated fluid of the northern pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea L.).

    PubMed

    Whitman, Richard L; Byers, Stacey E; Shively, Dawn A; Ferguson, Donna M; Byappanahalli, Muruleedhara

    2005-12-01

    Sarracenia purpurea L., a carnivorous bog plant (also known as the pitcher plant), represents an excellent model of a well-defined, self-contained ecosystem; the individual pitchers of the plant serve as a microhabitat for a variety of micro- and macro-organisms. Previously, fecal indicator bacteria (Escherichia coli and enterococci) were shown as incidental contaminants in pitcher fluid; however, whether their occurrence in pitcher fluid is incidental or common has not been established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence, distribution, and growth potential of E. coli and enterococci in pitcher plant fluid from a protected bog in northwest Indiana. Escherichia coli and enterococci were recovered in pitcher fluids (n=43 plants), with mean densities (log CFU mL-1) of 1.28+/-0.23 and 1.97+/-0.27, respectively. In vitro experiments showed that E. coli growth in fluid not containing insects or indigenous organisms was directly proportional to the fluid concentration (growth was 10-fold in 24 h in 100% fluid); however, in the presence of other indigenous organisms, E. coli and enterococci were only sustained for 5 days at 26 degrees C. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis showed that the plant Enterococcus faecalis isolates were genetically distinct from the human isolates; identical PFGE patterns were observed among plant isolates that fell into one of six clonal groups. These findings suggest that (i) E. coli and enterococci occurrence in pitcher plants is rather common in the bog studied, although their originating source is unclear, and (ii) the pitcher fluid contains adequate nutrients, especially carbon and energy sources, to promote the growth of indicator bacteria; however, under natural conditions, the biotic factors (e.g., competition for nutrients) may restrict their growth. PMID:16462861

  2. Antidiabetic compounds from Sarracenia purpurea used traditionally by the Eeyou Istchee Cree First Nation.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Asim; Guerrero-Analco, Jose A; Martineau, Louis C; Musallam, Lina; Madiraju, Padma; Nachar, Abir; Saleem, Ammar; Haddad, Pierre S; Arnason, John T

    2012-07-27

    Through ethnobotanical surveys, the CIHR Team in Aboriginal Antidiabetic Medicines identified 17 boreal forest plants stemming from the pharmacopeia of the Cree First Nations of Eeyou Istchee (James Bay region of Northern Quebec) that were used traditionally against diabetes symptoms. The leaves of Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher plant), one of the identified Cree plants, exhibited marked antidiabetic activity in vitro by stimulating glucose uptake in C2C12 mouse muscle cells and by reducing glucose production in H4IIE rat liver cells. Fractionation guided by glucose uptake in C2C12 cells resulted in the isolation of 11 compounds from this plant extract, including a new phenolic glycoside, flavonoid glycosides, and iridoids. Compounds 6 (isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside), 8 [kaempferol-3-O-(6″-caffeoylglucoside], and 11 (quercetin-3-O-galactoside) potentiated glucose uptake in vitro, which suggests they represent active principles of S. purpurea (EC(50) values of 18.5, 13.8, and 60.5 μM, respectively). This is the first report of potentiation of glucose uptake by compounds 6 and 8, while compound 11 (isolated from Vaccinium vitis) was previously shown to enhance glucose uptake. Treatment of H4IIE liver cells with the new compound 1, 6'-O-caffeoylgoodyeroside, decreased hepatic glucose production by reducing glucose-6-phosphatase enzymatic activity (IC(50) = 13.6 μM), which would contribute to lowering glycemia and to the antidiabetic potential of S. purpurea. PMID:22738356

  3. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Sarracenia L. (pitcher plant) species

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Willie L.; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M.; Determann, Ron; Malmberg, Russell L.

    2010-01-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. Sarracenia species naturally hybridize with each other, and hybrid swarms have been identified. A number of the taxa within the genus are considered endangered. In order to facilitate evolutionary, ecological and conservation genetic analyses within the genus, we developed 25 microsatellite loci which show variability either within species or between species. Three S. purpurea populations were examined with 10 primer sets which showed within population variability. PMID:21170168

  4. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers in Sarracenia L. (pitcher plant) species.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Willie L; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron; Malmberg, Russell L

    2010-12-01

    Sarracenia species (pitcher plants) are carnivorous plants which obtain a portion of their nutrients from insects captured in the pitchers. Sarracenia species naturally hybridize with each other, and hybrid swarms have been identified. A number of the taxa within the genus are considered endangered. In order to facilitate evolutionary, ecological and conservation genetic analyses within the genus, we developed 25 microsatellite loci which show variability either within species or between species. Three S. purpurea populations were examined with 10 primer sets which showed within population variability. PMID:21170168

  5. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  6. Resolving phylogenetic relationships of the recently radiated carnivorous plant genus Sarracenia using target enrichment.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Jessica D; Rogers, Willie L; Heyduk, Karolina; Cruse-Sanders, Jennifer M; Determann, Ron O; Glenn, Travis C; Malmberg, Russell L

    2015-04-01

    The North American carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia (Sarraceniaceae) is a relatively young clade (<3 million years ago) displaying a wide range of morphological diversity in complex trapping structures. This recently radiated group is a promising system to examine the structural evolution and diversification of carnivorous plants; however, little is known regarding evolutionary relationships within the genus. Previous attempts at resolving the phylogeny have been unsuccessful, most likely due to few parsimony-informative sites compounded by incomplete lineage sorting. Here, we applied a target enrichment approach using multiple accessions to assess the relationships of Sarracenia species. This resulted in 199 nuclear genes from 75 accessions covering the putative 8-11 species and 8 subspecies/varieties. In addition, we recovered 42kb of plastome sequence from each accession to estimate a cpDNA-derived phylogeny. Unsurprisingly, the cpDNA had few parsimony-informative sites (0.5%) and provided little information on species relationships. In contrast, use of the targeted nuclear loci in concatenation and coalescent frameworks elucidated many relationships within Sarracenia even with high heterogeneity among gene trees. Results were largely consistent for both concatenation and coalescent approaches. The only major disagreement was with the placement of the purpurea complex. Moreover, results suggest an Appalachian massif biogeographic origin of the genus. Overall, this study highlights the utility of target enrichment using multiple accessions to resolve relationships in recently radiated taxa. PMID:25689607

  7. The Bacterial Composition within the Sarracenia purpurea Model System: Local Scale Differences and the Relationship with the Other Members of the Food Web

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Sarah M.; Akob, Denise M.; Green, Stefan J.; Kostka, Joel E.

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of the carnivorous pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, contain a microscopic aquatic food web that is considered a model system in ecological research. The species identity of the intermediate and top trophic level of this food web, as well the detritivore midge, are highly similar across the native geographic range of S. purpurea and, in some cases, appear to have co-evolved with the plant. However, until recently, the identity, geographic variation, and diversity of the bacteria in the bottom trophic level of this food web have remained largely unknown. This study investigated bacterial community composition inside the leaves of S. purpurea to address: 1) variation in bacterial communities at the beginning of succession at the local scale in different areas of the plant’s native geographic range (southern and mid-regional sites) and 2) the impacts of bacterial consumers and other members of the aquatic food web (i.e., insects) on bacterial community structure. Communities from six leaves (one leaf per plant) from New York and Florida study sites were analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA gene cloning. Each pitcher within each site had a distinct community; however, there was more overlap in bacterial composition within each site than when communities were compared across sites. In contrast, the identity of protozoans and metazoans in this community were similar in species identity both within a site and between the two sites, but abundances differed. Our results indicate that, at least during the beginning of succession, there is no strong selection for bacterial taxa and that there is no core group of bacteria required by the plant to start the decomposition of trapped insects. Co-evolution between the plant and bacteria appears to not have occurred as it has for other members of this community. PMID:23227224

  8. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  9. The microbial Phyllogeography of the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2011-05-01

    Carnivorous pitcher plants host diverse microbial communities. This plant-microbe association provides a unique opportunity to investigate the evolutionary processes that influence the spatial diversity of microbial communities. Using next-generation sequencing of environmental samples, we surveyed microbial communities from 29 pitcher plants (Sarracenia alata) and compare community composition with plant genetic diversity in order to explore the influence of historical processes on the population structure of each lineage. Analyses reveal that there is a core S. alata microbiome, and that it is similar in composition to animal gut microfaunas. The spatial structure of community composition in S. alata (phyllogeography) is congruent at the deepest level with the dominant features of the landscape, including the Mississippi river and the discrete habitat boundaries that the plants occupy. Intriguingly, the microbial community structure reflects the phylogeographic structure of the host plant, suggesting that the phylogenetic structure of bacterial communities and population genetic structure of their host plant are influenced by similar historical processes. PMID:21431933

  10. Deep phylogeographic structure and environmental differentiation in the carnivorous plant Sarracenia alata.

    PubMed

    Zellmer, Amanda J; Hanes, Margaret M; Hird, Sarah M; Carstens, Bryan C

    2012-10-01

    We collected ~29 kb of sequence data using Roche 454 pyrosequencing in order to estimate the timing and pattern of diversification in the carnivorous pitcher plant Sarracenia alata. Utilizing modified protocols for reduced representation library construction, we generated sequence data from 86 individuals across 10 populations from throughout the range of the species. We identified 76 high-quality and high-coverage loci (containing over 500 SNPs) using the bioinformatics pipeline PRGmatic. Results from a Bayesian clustering analysis indicate that populations are highly structured, and are similar in pattern to the topology of a population tree estimated using *BEAST. The pattern of diversification within Sarracenia alata implies that riverine barriers are the primary factor promoting population diversification, with divergence across the Mississippi River occurring more than 60,000 generations before present. Further, significant patterns of niche divergence and the identification of several outlier loci suggest that selection may contribute to population divergence. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using next-generation sequencing to investigate intraspecific genetic variation in nonmodel species. PMID:22556200

  11. Ants provide nutritional and defensive benefits to the carnivorous plant Sarracenia minor.

    PubMed

    Moon, Daniel C; Rossi, Anthony M; Depaz, Jacqueline; McKelvey, Lindsey; Elias, Sheryl; Wheeler, Emily; Moon, Jamie

    2010-09-01

    Ants can have important, but sometimes unexpected, effects on the plants they associate with. For carnivorous plants, associating with ants may provide defensive benefits in addition to nutritional ones. We examined the effects of increased ant visitation and exclusion of insect prey from pitchers of the hooded pitcher plant Sarracenia minor, which has been hypothesized to be an ant specialist. Visitation by ants was increased by placing PVC pipes in the ground immediately adjacent to 16 of 32 pitcher plants, which created nesting/refuge sites. Insects were excluded from all pitchers of 16 of the plants by occluding the pitchers with cotton. Treatments were applied in a 2 x 2 factorial design in order to isolate the hypothesized defensive benefits from nutritional ones. We recorded visitation by ants, the mean number of ants captured, foliar nitrogen content, plant growth and size, and levels of herbivory by the pitcher plant mining moth Exyra semicrocea. Changes in ant visitation and prey capture significantly affected nitrogen content, plant height, and the number of pitchers per plant. Increased ant visitation independent of prey capture reduced herbivory and pitcher mortality, and increased the number of pitchers per plant. Results from this study show that the hooded pitcher plant derives a double benefit from attracting potential prey that are also capable of providing defense against herbivory. PMID:20532567

  12. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system

    PubMed Central

    Satler, Jordan D.; Zellmer, Amanda J.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  13. Biogeographic barriers drive co-diversification within associated eukaryotes of the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Zellmer, Amanda J; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-01-01

    Understanding if the members of an ecological community have co-diversified is a central concern of evolutionary biology, as co-diversification suggests prolonged association and possible coevolution. By sampling associated species from an ecosystem, researchers can better understand how abiotic and biotic factors influence diversification in a region. In particular, studies of co-distributed species that interact ecologically can allow us to disentangle the effect of how historical processes have helped shape community level structure and interactions. Here we investigate the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, an ecological community where many species from disparate taxonomic groups live inside the fluid-filled pitcher leaves. Direct sequencing of the eukaryotes present in the pitcher plant fluid enables us to better understand how a host plant can shape and contribute to the genetic structure of its associated inquilines, and to ask whether genetic variation in the taxa are structured in a similar manner to the host plant. We used 454 amplicon-based metagenomics to demonstrate that the pattern of genetic diversity in many, but not all, of the eukaryotic community is similar to that of S. alata, providing evidence that associated eukaryotes share an evolutionary history with the host pitcher plant. Our work provides further evidence that a host plant can influence the evolution of its associated commensals. PMID:26788436

  14. Inbreeding, outbreeding, and heterosis in the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava (Sarraceniaceae), in Virginia.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, P M; Karowe, D N

    2000-11-01

    The yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia flava, is an insectivorous plant restricted to fire-maintained wetland ecosystems in southeastern Virginia. Only four natural sites remain in the state totaling fewer than 100 clumps. Plants from sites located in Dinwiddie, Greensville, Prince George, Sussex counties, and the city of Suffolk were tested for the effects of self-pollination, intrasite outcrossing, and intersite outcrossing on offspring quantity (total seed number and total seed mass) and offspring quality (avarage seed mass, germination, and growth).Self-pollination resulted in significantly lower offspring quantity and quality. Total seed number and total seed mass for self-pollinated capsules were approximately one-fourth that of outcrossed capsules. Germination, survivorship, and growth over 5 yr were also significantly lower for offspring from self-pollinated capsules. Together, these results suggest strong inbreeding depression in this species.Relative to offspring from intrasite crosses, offspring from intersite crosses were significantly larger after 5 yr of growth. This suggests that restoration efforts for Virginia S. flava will be most successful when plants from multiple sites are used. PMID:11080113

  15. Allozyme diversity in the endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. Alabamensis (Sarraceniaceae) and its close relative S. rubra ssp. rubra.

    PubMed

    Godt, M; Hamrick, J

    1998-06-01

    Genetic variability in the federally endangered pitcher plant Sarracenia rubra ssp. alabamensis was assessed in eight Alabama populations using starch gel electrophoresis. Ten populations of the more widespread Sarracenia rubra ssp. rubra were sampled in the southeastern United States for comparison. Fifteen allozyme loci representing 13 enzyme systems were scored for each species. In contrast to S. oreophila and S. jonesii, two previously analyzed endangered pitcher plants, genetic diversity was high for both S. rubra subspecies. Within ssp. alabamensis the percentage polymorphic loci (Ps) was 80.0, the mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus was (APs) = 2.58, and expected heterozygosity (Hes) was 0.209. Genetic diversity was slightly lower for ssp. rubra (Ps = 73.3, APs = 2.91, and Hes = 0.177). The proportion of total genetic diversity found among populations was fairly low for both species (GST = 0.09 for ssp. alabamensis and 0.14 for ssp. rubra). Little genetic divergence has occurred between the two subspecies as indicated by the lack of diagnostic alleles, the proportion of total genetic diversity between taxa (GST = 0.09), and the genetic identity estimate (I = 0.90). The relatively high genetic diversity found for ssp. alabamensis indicates that the maintenance of its evolutionary potential is possible if population sizes are maintained or increased. Low levels of genetic diversity found within small Georgia ssp. rubra populations indicate that genetic erosion may increase extinction risks for these populations. PMID:21684964

  16. Purple Pitcher Plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and Partial Community Disassembly following Experimental Storm Surge in a Coastal Pitcher Plant Bog

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Matthew J.; Battaglia, Loretta L.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  17. Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) Dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog.

    PubMed

    Abbott, Matthew J; Battaglia, Loretta L

    2015-01-01

    Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection of saline water and sediment after a surge. We investigated the effects of storm surge water salinity and sediment type on S. rosea vitality, plant community structure, and bog soil-water conductivity. Plots (containing ≥1 ramet of S. rosea) were experimentally flooded with fresh or saline water crossed with one of three sediment types (local, foreign, or no sediment). There were no treatment effects on soil-water conductivity; nevertheless, direct exposure to saline water resulted in significantly lower S. rosea cover until the following season when a prescribed fire and regional drought contributed to the decline of all the S. rosea to near zero percent cover. There were also significant differences in plant community structure between treatments over time, reflecting how numerous species increased in abundance and a few species decreased in abundance. However, in contrast to S. rosea, most of the other species in the community appeared resilient to the effects of storm surge. Thus, although the community may be somewhat affected by storm surge, those few species that are particularly sensitive to the storm surge disturbance will likely drop out of the community and be replaced by more resilient species. Depending on the longevity of these biological legacies, Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs may be incapable of fully recovering if they become exposed to storm surge more frequently due to climate change. PMID:25874369

  18. Short-term effects of fire and competition on growth and plasticity of the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia alata (Sarraceniaceae).

    PubMed

    Brewer, J S

    1999-09-01

    Although recurrent fires are widely assumed to reduce competitive interference of plants of pine savannas, rarely has this assumption been tested explicitly. This 2-yr study reports on the interactive effects of fire and neighbors on short-term growth responses and plasticity in allocation patterns of a carnivorous plant, the yellow pitcher plant, Sarracenia alata. This species relies upon pitfall traps (pitchers) to attract and capture insects to obtain nutrients. Neighbors reduced the growth rate of individual ramet transplants (phytometers) in one but not both years of the study. The effect of neighbors on total (i.e., both above- and belowground) productivity of phytometers was not reduced by a winter fire. Neighbors had a greater effect on large plants than on small plants. Although fire did not affect the growth rate of phytometers in the short term, allocation patterns were greatly altered by both neighbors and fire. Allocation to pitchers increased at the expense of belowground organs following fire and in the absence of neighbors at the unburned site. Results of the current study suggest that adult pitcher plants may tolerate competition from neighboring vegetation by reducing allocation to costly pitchers during years without fire. PMID:10487814

  19. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  20. Phylogeographic concordance factors quantify phylogeographic congruence among co-distributed species in the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system.

    PubMed

    Satler, Jordan D; Carstens, Bryan C

    2016-05-01

    Comparative phylogeographic investigations have identified congruent phylogeographic breaks in co-distributed species in nearly every region of the world. The qualitative assessments of phylogeographic patterns traditionally used to identify such breaks, however, are limited because they rely on identifying monophyletic groups across species and do not account for coalescent stochasticity. Only long-standing phylogeographic breaks are likely to be obvious; many species could have had a concerted response to more recent landscape events, yet possess subtle signs of phylogeographic congruence because ancestral polymorphism has not completely sorted. Here, we introduce Phylogeographic Concordance Factors (PCFs), a novel method for quantifying phylogeographic congruence across species. We apply this method to the Sarracenia alata pitcher plant system, a carnivorous plant with a diverse array of commensal organisms. We explore whether a group of ecologically associated arthropods have co-diversified with the host pitcher plant, and identify if there is a positive correlation between ecological interaction and PCFs. Results demonstrate that multiple arthropods share congruent phylogeographic breaks with S. alata, and provide evidence that the level of ecological association can be used to predict the degree of similarity in the phylogeographic pattern. This study outlines an approach for quantifying phylogeographic congruence, a central concept in biogeographic research. PMID:27076412

  1. Floral herbivory increases with inflorescence size and local plant density in Digitalis purpurea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sletvold, Nina; Grindeland, John M.

    2008-07-01

    Insect herbivores search for their host plants in heterogeneous environments, and the efficiency of host location may be influenced by plant architecture and abundance. In this study, we ask how plant and habitat characteristics traditionally thought to attract pollinators are related to attack rates by floral herbivores. Patterns of floral herbivory by the moth larva Eupithecia pulchellata were studied in relation to inflorescence size and local plant density in two years in a natural population of the facultative biennial Digitalis purpurea. Overall levels of herbivory were low, 84% of the infested plants lost less than 10% of their flowers. Only 9% of the plants lost more than 20% of their flowers. Probability of herbivory at the plant level increased strongly with inflorescence height, and it was considerably higher in dense patches compared to sparse ones. There was no effect of local plant density on the functional relationship between inflorescence size and probability of herbivory. Both number and proportion of damaged flowers per plant increased with inflorescence height. The results suggest that E. pulchellata is attracted to dense patches and large individuals of D. purpurea, and that negative effects of herbivory increase with plant size. This implies diminishing returns for investment in more flowers in D. purpurea, and indicates that herbivory may select for smaller flowering size and flower number in this monocarpic species.

  2. Macrophage activation and induction of macrophage cytotoxicity by purified polysaccharide fractions from the plant Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed Central

    Stimpel, M; Proksch, A; Wagner, H; Lohmann-Matthes, M L

    1984-01-01

    Purified polysaccharides (EPS) prepared from the plant Echinacea purpurea are shown to strongly activate macrophages. Macrophages activated with these substances develop pronounced extracellular cytotoxicity against tumor targets. The activation is brought about by EPS alone and is independent of any cooperative effect with lymphocytes. Also the production and secretion of oxygen radicals and interleukin 1 by macrophages is increased after activation with EPS. Cells of the macrophages lineage seem to be the main target for the action of these polysaccharides. EPS has no effect on T lymphocytes. B lymphocytes show a comparatively modest proliferation after incubation with E. purpurea EPS. Thus, these compounds, which are at least in tissue culture completely nontoxic, may be suited to activate in vivo cells of the macrophage system to cytotoxicity. They may therefore be of relevance in tumor and infectious systems. PMID:6389368

  3. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  4. Chromatographic methods for metabolite profiling of virus- and phytoplasma-infected plants of Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Pellati, Federica; Epifano, Francesco; Contaldo, Nicoletta; Orlandini, Giulia; Cavicchi, Lisa; Genovese, Salvatore; Bertelli, Davide; Benvenuti, Stefania; Curini, Massimo; Bertaccini, Assunta; Bellardi, Maria Grazia

    2011-10-12

    This study was focused on the effects of virus and phytoplasma infections on the production of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench secondary metabolites, such as caffeic acid derivatives, alkamides, and essential oil. The identification of caffeic acid derivatives and alkamides was carried out by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), HPLC-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and MS(2). Quantitative analysis of these compounds was carried out using HPLC-DAD. The results indicated that the presence of the two pathogens significantly decreases (P < 0.05) the content of cichoric acid, the main caffeic acid derivative. Regarding the main alkamide, dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the content of this secondary metabolite was observed in virus-infected plants in comparison with healthy plants, while in the phytoplasma-infected sample the variation of this secondary metabolite was not appreciable. The % relative area of the E/Z isomers of this alkamide was also found to change in infected samples. The gas chromatography (GC) and GC-MS analysis of E. purpurea essential oil enabled the identification of 30 compounds. The main significant differences (P < 0.05) in the semiquantitative composition were observed for three components: limonene, cis-verbenol, and verbenone. The results indicate that the presence of virus and phytoplasma has an appreciable influence on the content of E. purpurea secondary metabolites, which is an important issue in defining the commercial quality, market value, and therapeutic efficacy of this herbal drug. PMID:21830789

  5. Symbiotic association between Salix purpurea L. and Rhizophagus irregularis: modulation of plant responses under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Rodríguez, Adriana M; Gómes, Marcelo P; Loubert-Hudon, Audrey; Joly, Simon; Labrecque, Michel

    2016-04-01

    There are increasing concerns about trace metal levels such as copper (Cu) in industrial sites and the broader environment. Different studies have highlighted the role of mycorrhizal associations in plant tolerance to trace metals, modulating some of the plant metabolic and physiological responses. In this study, we investigated the role of the symbiotic association betweenRhizophagus irregularisandSalix purpureaL. in modulating plant responses under Cu stress. We measured Cu accumulation, oxidative stress-related, photosynthetic-related and hydraulic traits, for non-inoculated (non-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi) and inoculated saplings exposed to different Cu concentrations. We found thatS. purpureais a suitable option for phytoremediation of Cu, acting as a phytostabilizer of this trace metal in its root system. We observed that the symbiotic association modulates a broad spectrum of metabolic and physiological responses inS. purpureaunder Cu conditions, including (i) a reduction in gas exchange associated with chlorophyll content changes and (ii) the sequestration of Cu into the cell walls, modifying vessels anatomy and impacting leaf specific conductivity (KL) and root hydraulic conductance (LP). UpholdingKLandLPunder Cu stress might be related to a dynamic Aquaporin gene regulation ofPIP1;2along with an up-regulation ofTIP2;2in the roots of inoculatedS. purpurea. PMID:26546365

  6. Biological activity and phytochemical analysis of three Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum and Zingiber purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Kuspradini, Harlinda; Arung, Enos Tangke; Aryani, Farida; Min, Yu-Hong; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kim, Yong-ung

    2011-03-01

    Extracts of Indonesian medicinal plants, Murraya koenigii, Syzygium polyanthum, and Zingiber purpurea were investigated for their biological activity. The presence of phytochemicals, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were investigated. Parts of M. koenigii, S. polyanthum, and Z. purpurea were extracted with ethanol. The extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using the disc diffusion method, while antioxidant activity was determined with a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Cytotoxicity was investigated using the brine shrimp lethality test, and phytochemical screening was performed using a standard method. M. koenigii leaf extract exhibited the most activity in the test microorganism activity index (AI), 0.38-1.25, when compared with standard drugs. S. polyanthum ripened fruit displayed significant antioxidant activity (90%) in comparison to ascorbic acid (95%). Z. purpurea rhizome extract possessed the highest cytotoxic effect with a LC(50) of 52 μg/mL. Phytochemical analysis revealed that carbohydrate, tannin, alkaloid, steroid, triterpenoid, and flavonoid were present in the extracts of M. koenigii leaves and twigs, S. polyanthum leaves and ripened and unripe fruits, and Z. purpurea rhizome, while saponin was only present in the S. polyanthum ripened fruit extract. Our work revealed that the M. koenigii leaves, S. polyanthum ripened fruit, and Z. purpurea rhizome extracts have potential as sources of new antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds, respectively. PMID:21440883

  7. Phylogeny and biogeography of the carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Aaron M; Butler, Elena D; Hicks, Emily Jean; Naczi, Robert F C; Calie, Patrick J; Bell, Charles D; Davis, Charles C

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44-53 million years ago (Mya) (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya). By 25-44 (HPD = 35) Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America) had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America). This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14-32 (HPD = 23) Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2-7, HPD = 4 Mya); the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene glaciation, <3 Mya

  8. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Carnivorous Plant Family Sarraceniaceae

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Butler, Elena D.; Hicks, Emily Jean; Naczi, Robert F. C.; Calie, Patrick J.; Bell, Charles D.; Davis, Charles C.

    2012-01-01

    The carnivorous plant family Sarraceniaceae comprises three genera of wetland-inhabiting pitcher plants: Darlingtonia in the northwestern United States, Sarracenia in eastern North America, and Heliamphora in northern South America. Hypotheses concerning the biogeographic history leading to this unusual disjunct distribution are controversial, in part because genus- and species-level phylogenies have not been clearly resolved. Here, we present a robust, species-rich phylogeny of Sarraceniaceae based on seven mitochondrial, nuclear, and plastid loci, which we use to illuminate this family's phylogenetic and biogeographic history. The family and genera are monophyletic: Darlingtonia is sister to a clade consisting of Heliamphora+Sarracenia. Within Sarracenia, two clades were strongly supported: one consisting of S. purpurea, its subspecies, and S. rosea; the other consisting of nine species endemic to the southeastern United States. Divergence time estimates revealed that stem group Sarraceniaceae likely originated in South America 44–53 million years ago (Mya) (highest posterior density [HPD] estimate = 47 Mya). By 25–44 (HPD = 35) Mya, crown-group Sarraceniaceae appears to have been widespread across North and South America, and Darlingtonia (western North America) had diverged from Heliamphora+Sarracenia (eastern North America+South America). This disjunction and apparent range contraction is consistent with late Eocene cooling and aridification, which may have severed the continuity of Sarraceniaceae across much of North America. Sarracenia and Heliamphora subsequently diverged in the late Oligocene, 14–32 (HPD = 23) Mya, perhaps when direct overland continuity between North and South America became reduced. Initial diversification of South American Heliamphora began at least 8 Mya, but diversification of Sarracenia was more recent (2–7, HPD = 4 Mya); the bulk of southeastern United States Sarracenia originated co-incident with Pleistocene

  9. Culturable bacteria present in the fluid of the hooded-pitcher plant Sarracenia minor based on 16S rDNA gene sequence data.

    PubMed

    Siragusa, Alex J; Swenson, Janice E; Casamatta, Dale A

    2007-08-01

    The culturable microbial community within the pitcher fluid of 93 Sarracenia minor carnivorous plants was examined over a 2-year study. Many aspects of the plant/bacterial/insect interaction within the pitcher fluid are minimally understood because the bacterial taxa present in these pitchers have not been identified. Thirteen isolates were characterized by 16S rDNA sequencing and subsequent phylogenetic analysis. The Proteobacteria were the most abundant taxa and included representatives from Serratia, Achromobacter, and Pantoea. The Actinobacteria Micrococcus was also abundant while Bacillus, Lactococcus, Chryseobacterium, and Rhodococcus were infrequently encountered. Several isolates conformed to species identifiers (>98% rDNA gene sequence similarity) including Serratia marcescens (isolates found in 27.5% of pitchers), Achromobacter xylosoxidans (37.6%), Micrococcus luteus (40.9%), Bacillus cereus (isolates found in 10.2%), Bacillus thuringiensis (5.4%), Lactococcus lactis (17.2%), and Rhodococcus equi (2.2%). Species-area curves suggest that sampling efforts were sufficient to recover a representative culturable bacterial community. The bacteria present represent a diverse community probably as a result of introduction by insect vectors, but the ecological significance remains under explored. PMID:17380356

  10. Antagonistic interactions between endophytic cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Maida, Isabel; Chiellini, Carolina; Mengoni, Alessio; Bosi, Emanuele; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fondi, Marco; Fani, Renato

    2016-09-01

    In this work we have studied the antagonistic interactions existing among cultivable bacteria isolated from three ecological niches (rhizospheric soil, roots and stem/leaves) of the traditional natural medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. The three compartments harboured different taxonomic assemblages of strains, which were previously reported to display different antibiotic resistance patterns, suggesting the presence of differential selective pressure due to antagonistic molecules in the three compartments. Antagonistic interactions were assayed by the cross-streak method and interpreted using a network-based analysis. In particular 'within-niche inhibition' and 'cross-niche inhibition' were evaluated among isolates associated with each compartment as well as between isolates retrieved from the three different compartments respectively. Data obtained indicated that bacteria isolated from the stem/leaves compartment were much more sensitive to the antagonistic activity than bacteria from roots and rhizospheric soil. Moreover, both the taxonomical position and the ecological niche might influence the antagonistic ability/sensitivity of different strains. Antagonism could play a significant role in contributing to the differentiation and structuring of plant-associated bacterial communities. PMID:26013664

  11. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment. PMID:27273012

  12. Evaluation of a triplex real-time PCR system to detect the plant-pathogenic molds Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and C. purpurea.

    PubMed

    Grube, Sabrina; Schönling, Jutta; Prange, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This article describes the development of a triplex real-time PCR system for the simultaneous detection of three major plant-pathogenic mold genera (Alternaria spp., Fusarium spp. and the species Claviceps purpurea). The designed genus-specific primer-probe systems were validated for sensitivity, specificity and amplification in the presence of background DNA. PMID:26545945

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea. This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151804

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. EpS/L25, Isolated from the Medicinal Plant Echinacea purpurea and Able To Synthesize Antimicrobial Compounds.

    PubMed

    Presta, Luana; Bosi, Emanuele; Fondi, Marco; Maida, Isabel; Perrin, Elena; Miceli, Elisangela; Maggini, Valentina; Bogani, Patrizia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Di Pilato, Vincenzo; Rossolini, Gian Maria; Mengoni, Alessio; Fani, Renato

    2016-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Pseudomonas sp. strain EpS/L25, isolated from the stem/leaves of the medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea This genome will allow for comparative genomics in order to identify genes associated with the production of bioactive compounds and antibiotic resistance. PMID:27151804

  15. Genotoxicity biomonitoring of sewage in two municipal wastewater treatment plants using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea bioassay

    PubMed Central

    Thewes, Márcia Regina; Junior, Delio Endres; Droste, Annette

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity of untreated and treated sewage from two municipal wastewater treatment plants (WTP BN and WTP SJN) in the municipality of Porto Alegre, in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, was evaluated over a one-year period using the Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Inflorescences of T. pallida var. purpurea were exposed to sewage samples in February (summer), April (autumn), July (winter) and October (spring) 2009, and the micronuclei (MCN) frequencies were estimated in each period. The high genotoxicity of untreated sewage from WTP BN in February and April was not observed in treated sewage, indicating the efficiency of treatment at this WTP. However, untreated and treated sewage samples from WTP SJN had high MCN frequencies, except in October, when rainfall may have been responsible for reducing these frequencies at both WTPs. Physicochemical analyses of sewage from both WTPs indicated elevated concentrations of organic matter that were higher at WTP SJN than at WTP BN. Chromium was detected in untreated and treated sewage from WTP SJN, but not in treated sewage from WTP BN. Lead was found in all untreated sewage samples from WTP SJN, but only in the summer and autumn at WTP BN. These results indicate that the short-term Trad-MCN genotoxicity assay may be useful for regular monitoring of municipal WTPs. PMID:22215975

  16. Human gene expression as a tool to determine horticultural maturity in a bioactive plant (Echinacea purpurea L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Brovelli, Ernesto Antonio; Rua, Diego; Roh-Schmidt, Haeri; Chandra, Amitabh; Lamont, Erin; Noratto, Giuliana Doris

    2005-10-19

    A phenological study was conducted to determine the impact of harvest maturity on the immune-modulating properties of Echinacea purpurea. The aerial parts of this plant were collected during seven stages of development and were assayed for a common botanical marker for this species, cichoric acid. Plants of selected development stages were also assayed for total polysaccharides and compared for their immune-modulating effects on the THP-1 monocyte/macrophage cell line by means of a gene expression study. Although the concentration of cichoric acid did not change significantly during the course of the study, stage 1 (advanced vegetative) had the highest concentration of total polysaccharides and exhibited the most potent induction activity on immune-modulating cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These findings suggest that the use of gene expression may be an effective tool not only to standardize botanical extracts but also to optimize harvest time. PMID:16218658

  17. Endocytotic uptake of nutrients in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Koller-Peroutka, Marianne; Bauer, Sonja; Koshkin, Edith; Lendl, Thomas; Lichtscheidl, Irene K

    2012-07-01

    Carnivorous plants trap, digest and absorb animals in order to supplement their mineral nutrition. Nutrients absorbed by the plant include different nitrogen species, phosphate, potassium, trace elements and small organic compounds. Uptake is usually thought to be performed via specific channels, but this study provides evidence that endocytosis is involved as well. Traps of the carnivorous plants Nepenthes coccinea, Nepenthes ventrata, Cephalotus follicularis, Drosophyllum lusitanicum, Drosera capensis, Dionaea muscipula, Aldrovanda vesiculosa, Genlisea violacea × lobata, Sarracenia psittacina and Sarracenia purpurea were stained with methylene blue in order to identify possible sites of uptake. The permeable parts of the traps were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate labelled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and other fluorescent endocytosis markers, combined with the soluble protein BSA or respiratory inhibitors. Uptake was studied by confocal microscopy. In Nepenthes, small fluorescent vesicles became visible 1 h after incubation with FITC-BSA. These vesicles fused to larger compartments within 30 h. A similar behaviour was found in the related genera Drosera, Dionaea, Aldrovanda and Drosophyllum but also in Cephalotus with glands of different evolutionary origin. In Genlisea and Sarracenia, no evidence for endocytosis was found. We propose that in many carnivorous plants, nutrient uptake by carriers is supplemented by endocytosis, which enables absorption and intracellular digestion of whole proteins. The advantage for the plant of reducing secretion of enzymes for extracellular digestion is evident. PMID:22417315

  18. Characterization of microsatellite loci for the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi Coq. (Diptera: Chironomidae).

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Maxwell, Sheri A; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2009-09-01

    As a component of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), the pitcher plant midge Metriocneus knabi has been the subject of various ecological studies. However, very little is known about its characteristics beyond the larval stage, in particular the dispersal ability of adults. This study presents new molecular tools developed for testing of evolutionary and ecological questions in natural populations of this species. We describe a set of 12 microsatellite loci specific to M. knabi that are sufficiently polymorphic to provide insight into population genetic structure and dispersal patterns. PMID:21564915

  19. Leaf metabolite profile of the Brazilian resurrection plant Barbacenia purpurea Hook. (Velloziaceae) shows two time-dependent responses during desiccation and recovering

    PubMed Central

    Suguiyama, Vanessa F.; Silva, Emerson A.; Meirelles, Sergio T.; Centeno, Danilo C.; Braga, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    Barbacenia purpurea is a resurrection species endemic to rock outcrops, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It tolerates great temperature variations, which are associated to periods of up to 30 days without precipitation. Using a metabolomic approach, we analyzed, under winter and summer conditions, changes in the leaf metabolite profile (MP) of potted plants of B. purpurea submitted to daily watered and water deficit for at least 20 days and subsequent slow rehydration for 5 days. Leaves were collected at different time points and had their MP analyzed by GC/MS, HPAEC, and UHPLC techniques, allowing the identification of more than 60 different compounds, including organic and amino acids, sugars, and polyols, among others. In the winter experiment, results suggest the presence of two time-dependent responses in B. purpurea under water stress. The first one starts with the increase in the content of caffeoyl-quinic acids, substances with strong antioxidant activity, until the 16th day of water suppression. When RWC reached less than 80 and 70%, in winter and summer respectively, it was observed an increase in polyols and monosaccharides, followed by an increment in the content of RFO, suggesting osmotic adjustment. Amino acids, such as GABA and asparagine, also increased due to 16 days of water suppression. During rehydration, the levels of the mentioned compounds became similar to those found at the beginning of the experiment and when compared to daily watered plants. We conclude that the tolerance of B. purpurea to dehydration involves the perception of water deficit intensity, which seems to result in different strategies to overcome the gradient of water availability imposed along a certain period of stress mainly during winter. Data from summer experiment indicate that the metabolism of B. pupurea was already primed for drought stress. The accumulation of phenolics in summer seemed to be more temperature and irradiance-dependent than on the RWC. PMID:24672534

  20. Organochlorine compounds in Purple Heron eggs (Ardea purpurea) nesting in sites located around a chlor-alkali plant (Ebro River).

    PubMed

    Huertas, David; Grimalt, Joan O; Jover, Lluís; Sanpera, Carola; Ruiz, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Eggs of Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) were collected from three sampled sites inside the Ebro River basin in years 2006 and 2007. These sites were located besides (Flix), upstream (Aiguabarreig) and downstream (Delta) a chlor-alkali plant. Organochlorine compounds (OCs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), polychlorostyrenes (PCSs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) were analysed to assess what are the accumulation patterns of these compounds in aquatic migratory birds breeding in the area of influence of the emissions from this industrial installation. Comparison of the egg concentrations between the three sites show higher concentrations of compounds manufactured in the past in the factory (PCBs, p,p'-DDT) or by-products of OC synthesis (HCB, PeCB and PCSs) in Flix than in Aiguabarreig reflecting a clear influence from the emissions of the chlor-alkali plant. The eggs collected in the Ebro Delta showed higher concentrations of total DDTs (mainly p,p'-DDE) than in the reference site (Aiguabarreig) which could reflect past applications of this insecticide in the area for agriculture. In contrast, HCHs were found in higher concentrations in the Delta and Aiguabarreig than in the Flix Reservoir. These compounds have been used as insecticides in agriculture and were not manufactured in the chlor-alkali plant. The present results show that despite Purple Herons are migratory birds, the food web transfer of OCs during the breeding season is sufficient for the accumulation of these compounds in the eggs, leading to statistically significant concentration differences between sites. These differences are consistent with the emissions of these pollutants from industrial or agricultural sources to the aquatic environments. Some of the p,p'-DDE concentrations observed in the area nearby the chlor-alkali plant are above the threshold effects for reproductive impairment. PMID:26202210

  1. Ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Palbag, Satadru; Dey, Bijay Kr; Singh, Narendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. is popularly known as 'Sarapunkha' in classical Ayurvedic texts. It is a perennial plant belonging to the family Fabaceae, and occurs throughout the Indian subcontinent. T. purpurea is traditionally used to treat splenomegaly, cirrhosis, cough and cold, abdominal swelling and as an antidote in the Ayurvedic system of medicine. Phytochemical investigations indicate the presence of semiglabrin, pongamole, lanceolatins A and B, rutin, lupeol, and β-sitosterol. Flavonoids including (+)-tephrorin A and B, (+)-tephrosone, an isoflavone, 7, 4'-dihydroxy-3', 5'-dimethoxyisoflavone and a chalcone, (+)-tephropurpurin were isolated from the whole plant. Pharmacological activities of different parts of the plant reported include anti-inflammatory, antiulcer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiallergic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, antitumor and insect repellent activity. In the present review, the literature on the phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. are summarized to August, 2012. PMID:24484589

  2. The pitcher plant flesh fly exhibits a mixture of patchy and metapopulation attributes.

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the pattern of spatial genetic structure and the extent of gene flow in the pitcher plant flesh fly Fletcherimyia fletcheri, the largest member of the inquiline community of the purple pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea. Using microsatellite loci, we tested the theoretical predictions of different hypothesized population models (patchy population, metapopulation, or isolated populations) among 11 bogs in Algonquin Provincial Park (Canada). Our results revealed that the pitcher plant flesh fly exhibits a mixture of patchy and metapopulation characteristics. There is significant differentiation among bogs and limited gene flow at larger spatial scales, but local populations do not experience frequent local extinctions/recolonizations. Our findings suggest a strong dispersal ability and stable population sizes in F. fletcheri, providing novel insights into the ecology of this member of a unique ecological microcosm. PMID:22878050

  3. Metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium in plant cell cultures of transgenic (rhizomania-resistant) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris), carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).

    PubMed

    Müller, B P; Zumdick, A; Schuphan, I; Schmidt, B

    2001-01-01

    The metabolism of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium was investigated in heterotrophic cell suspension and callus cultures of transgenic (bar-gene) and non-transgenic sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris). Similar studies were performed with suspensions of carrot (Daucus carota), purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium). 14C-labelled chemicals were the (racemic) glufosinate, L-glufosinate, and D-glufosinate, as well as the metabolites N-acetyl L-glufosinate and 3-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propionic acid (MPP). Cellular absorption was generally low, but depended noticeably on plant species, substance and enantiomer. Portions of non-extractable residues ranged from 0.1% to 1.2% of applied 14C. Amounts of soluble metabolites resulting from glufosinate or L-glufosinate were between 0.0% and 26.7% of absorbed 14C in non-transgenic cultures and 28.2% and 59.9% in transgenic sugarbeet. D-Glufosinate, MPP and N-acetyl L-glufosinate proved to be stable. The main metabolite in transgenic sugarbeet was N-acetyl L-glufosinate, besides traces of MPP and 4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid (MPB). In non-transgenic sugarbeet, glufosinate was transformed to a limited extent to MPP and trace amounts of MPB. In carrot, D stramonium and D purpurea, MPP was also the main product; MPB was identified as a further trace metabolite in D stramonium and D purpurea. PMID:11455632

  4. Traps of carnivorous pitcher plants as a habitat: composition of the fluid, biodiversity and mutualistic activities

    PubMed Central

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Peroutka, Marianne; Lendl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Background Carnivorous pitcher plants (CPPs) use cone-shaped leaves to trap animals for nutrient supply but are not able to kill all intruders of their traps. Numerous species, ranging from bacteria to vertrebrates, survive and propagate in the otherwise deadly traps. This paper reviews the literature on phytotelmata of CPPs. Pitcher Fluid as a Habitat The volumes of pitchers range from 0·2 mL to 1·5 L. In Nepenthes and Cephalotus, the fluid is secreted by the trap; the other genera collect rain water. The fluid is usually acidic, rich in O2 and contains digestive enzymes. In some taxa, toxins or detergents are found, or the fluid is extremely viscous. In Heliamphora or Sarracenia, the fluid differs little from pure water. Inquiline Diversity Pitcher inquilines comprise bacteria, protozoa, algae, fungi, rotifers, crustaceans, arachnids, insects and amphibia. The dominant groups are protists and Dipteran larvae. The various species of CPPs host different sets of inquilines. Sarracenia purpurea hosts up to 165 species of inquilines, followed by Nepenthes ampullaria with 59 species, compared with only three species from Brocchinia reducta. Reasons for these differences include size, the life span of the pitcher as well as its fluid. Mutualistic Activities Inquilines closely interact with their host. Some live as parasites, but the vast majority are mutualists. Beneficial activities include secretion of enzymes, feeding on the plant's prey and successive excretion of inorganic nutrients, mechanical break up of the prey, removal of excessive prey and assimilation of atmospheric N2. Conclusions There is strong evidence that CPPs influence their phytotelm. Two strategies can be distinguished: (1) Nepenthes and Cephalotus produce acidic, toxic or digestive fluids and host a limited diversity of inquilines. (2) Genera without efficient enzymes such as Sarracenia or Heliamphora host diverse organisms and depend to a large extent on their symbionts for prey utilization

  5. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods.

    PubMed

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists' attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods. PMID:26009695

  6. Echinacea purpurea: Pharmacology, phytochemistry and analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Manayi, Azadeh; Vazirian, Mahdi; Saeidnia, Soodabeh

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae) is a perennial medicinal herb with important immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, especially the alleviation of cold symptoms. The plant also attracted scientists’ attention to assess other aspects of its beneficial effects. For instance, antianxiety, antidepression, cytotoxicity, and antimutagenicity as induced by the plant have been revealed in various studies. The findings of the clinical trials are controversial in terms of side effects. While some studies revealed the beneficial effects of the plant on the patients and no severe adverse effects, some others have reported serious side effects including abdominal pain, angioedema, dyspnea, nausea, pruritus, rash, erythema, and urticaria. Other biological activities of the plant such as antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, and larvicidal activities have been reported in previous experimental studies. Different classes of secondary metabolites of the plant such as alkamides, caffeic acid derivatives, polysaccharides, and glycoproteins are believed to be biologically and pharmacologically active. Actually, concurrent determination and single analysis of cichoric acid and alkamides have been successfully developed mainly by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with different detectors including UV spectrophotometric, coulometric electrochemical, and electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detectors. The results of the studies which were controversial revealed that in spite of major experiments successfully accomplished using E. purpurea, many questions remain unanswered and future investigations may aim for complete recognition of the plant's mechanism of action using new, complementary methods. PMID:26009695

  7. [Plants regeneration from genetically transformed root and callus cultures of periwinkle Vinca minor L. and foxglove purple Digitalis purpurea L].

    PubMed

    Leshina, L G; Bulko, O V

    2014-01-01

    Plants regenerated from hairy roots and calluses of foxglove purple and periwinkle have been obtained. It was found that organogenesis in hairy root culture occurs spontaneously on hormone-free medium but with different efficiencies. The frequency of direct shoot formation from root cultures was up to 60% in Digitalis and 3.7% in Vinca. Addition of 1 mg/l BA, 0.1 mg/l NAA and 5% sucrose to B5 medium increased regenerative capacity of Vinca roots up to 19.1%. Regenerated plants showed morphological features typically seen in Ri-transgenic plants. They include growth and plagiotropism of the root system, increased shoot formation, changed leaf morphology and short internodes. PMID:25318175

  8. Fire, defoliation, and competing species alter Aristida purpurea biomass, tiller, and axillary bud production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aristida purpurea (threeawn) is a competitive native perennial grass with monoculturistic tendencies and poor palatability. We examined effects of fire, defoliation, and interspecific/intraspecific planting for 1) threeawn responses in the presence of threeawn, Bouteloua gracilis, or Pascopyrum smi...

  9. Physiological and Proteomic Adaptation of the Alpine Grass Stipa purpurea to a Drought Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yunqiang; Dong, Chao; Yang, Shihai; Li, Xiong; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2015-01-01

    Stipa purpurea, an endemic forage species on the Tibetan Plateau, is highly resistant to cold and drought, but the mechanisms underlying its responses to drought stress remain elusive. An understanding of such mechanisms may be useful for developing cultivars that are adaptable to water deficit. In this study, we analyzed the physiological and proteomic responses of S. purpurea under increasing drought stress. Seedlings of S. purpurea were subjected to a drought gradient in a controlled experiment, and proteins showing changes in abundance under these conditions were identified by two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis. A western blotting analysis was conducted to confirm the increased abundance of a heat-shock protein, NCED2, and a dehydrin in S. purpurea seedlings under drought conditions. We detected carbonylated proteins to identify oxidation-sensitive proteins in S. purpurea seedlings, and found that ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase (RuBisCO) was one of the oxidation-sensitive proteins under drought. Together, these results indicated drought stress might inhibit photosynthesis in S. purpurea by oxidizing RuBisCO, but the plants were able to maintain photosynthetic efficiency by a compensatory upregulation of unoxidized RuBisCO and other photosynthesis-related proteins. Further analyses confirmed that increased abundance of antioxidant enzymes could balance the redox status of the plants to mitigate drought-induced oxidative damage. PMID:25646623

  10. Expanding the menu for carnivorous plants: uptake of potassium, iron and manganese by carnivorous pitcher plants.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Wolfram; Steinhauser, Georg; Peroutka, Marianne; Musilek, Andreas; Sterba, Johannes H; Lichtscheidl, Irene K; Bichler, Max

    2009-12-01

    Carnivorous plants use animals as fertiliser substitutes which allow them to survive on nutrient deficient soils. Most research concentrated on the uptake of the prey's nitrogen and phosphorus; only little is known on the utilisation of other elements. We studied the uptake of three essential nutrients, potassium, iron and manganese, in three species of carnivorous pitcher plants (Cephalotus follicularis LaBilladiere, Sarracenia purpureaL., Heliamphora nutans Bentham). Using relatively short-lived and gamma-emitting radiotracers, we significantly improved the sensitivity compared to conventional protocols and gained the following results. We demonstrated the uptake of trace elements like iron and manganese. In addition, we found direct evidence for the uptake of potassium into the pitcher tissue. Potassium and manganese were absorbed to virtually 100% if offered in physiological concentrations or below in Cephalotus. Analysis of pitcher fluid collected in the natural habitat showed that uptake was performed here as efficiently as in the laboratory. The absorption of nutrients is an active process depending on living glandular cells in the pitcher epidermis and can be inhibited by azide. Unphysiologically high amounts of nutrients were taken up for a short time, but after a few hours the absorbing cells were damaged, and uptake stopped. Absorption rates of pitcher leaves from plants under controlled conditions varied highly, indicating that each trap is functionally independent. The comparison of minerals in typical prey with the plants' tissues showed that a complete coverage of the plants' needs by prey capture is improbable. PMID:19428263

  11. Biotechnological Approaches for Biomass and Cardenolide Production in Digitalis purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Alonso, Naivy; Chong-Pérez, Borys; Capote, Alina; Pérez, Anabel; Gerth, André; Angenon, Geert; Jiménez, Elio

    2016-01-01

    Digitalis purpurea L. is one of the main economically viable sources of cardenolides (cardiac glycosides) for the pharmaceutical industry. Nevertheless, production of cardenolides in plants grown by traditional agriculture is not always an efficient process and can be affected by biotic and abiotic factors. This chapter provides two biotechnology strategies for biomass and cardenolide production in D. purpurea. Firstly, we report biomass production using a temporary immersion system (TIS), combined with cardenolide extraction and quantification. Secondly, an efficient protocol for genetic transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens is provided. These strategies can be used independently or combined in order to increase the content of cardiac glycosides in D. purpurea and to unravel biosynthetic pathways associated to cardiac glycoside production. PMID:27108311

  12. Temporal rhythm of petal programmed cell death in Ipomoea purpurea.

    PubMed

    Gui, M-Y; Ni, X-L; Wang, H-B; Liu, W-Z

    2016-09-01

    Flowers are the main sexual reproductive organs in plants. The shapes, colours and scents of corolla of plant flowers are involved in attracting insect pollinators and increasing reproductive success. The process of corolla senescence was investigated in Ipomoea purpurea (Convolvulaceae) in this study. In the research methods of plant anatomy, cytology, cell chemistry and molecular biology were used. The results showed that at the flowering stage cells already began to show distortion, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial membrane degradation and tonoplast dissolution and rupture. At this stage genomic DNA underwent massive but gradual random degradation. However, judging from the shape and structure, aging characteristics did not appear until the early flower senescence stage. The senescence process was slow, and it was completed at the late stage of flower senescence with a withering corolla. We may safely arrive at the conclusion that corolla senescence of I. purpurea was mediated by programmed cell death (PCD) that occurred at the flowering stage. The corolla senescence exhibited an obvious temporal rhythm, which demonstrated a high degree of coordination with pollination and fertilization. PMID:27259176

  13. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves Under In Vitro Conditions.

    PubMed

    Negi, Bhawna Sunil; Dave, Bharti P; Agarwal, Y K

    2012-09-01

    This study was undertaken with an objective of testing the antibacterial and antifungal activities of Bauhinia purpurea leaves and identifying the bioactive compounds. The antimicrobial activity of leaf extract was determined in aqueous and organic extracts and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against six species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans using the disk diffusion method. The chemical constituents of organic plant extract were separated by thin layer chromatography and purified by column chromatography and further identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Significant inhibitory activity was observed with methanol extracts of plant against the test microorganisms while less antibacterial activity was observed in hexane, acetone and aqueous extracts. MIC of B. purpurea extract was ≤1,500 μg/ml against S. aureus and B. subtilis while this extract showed no inhibition against Gram-negative S. typhi, E. coli and P. aeruginosa or against fungus C. albicans. Eleven compounds were identified in B. purpurea leaf extract by GC-MS analysis. The composition of B. purpurea revealed the presence of lupeol, stigmasterol, lanosterol, ergosterol, beta-tocopherol, phytol, hexadeconic acids, hexadeconic acids methyl esters, octadecadienoic acids and octadecatrienoic acid. Stigmasterol and lupeol were the most abundant (34.48 and 15.63 %). Other phytosterols like lanosterol (4.15 %) and ergosterol (2.82 %) were also found to be present in this extract. PMID:23997325

  14. Fractionation and evaluation of proteins in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.

    PubMed

    Balciunaite, Gabriele; Juodsnukyte, Jovita; Savickas, Arunas; Ragazinskiene, Ona; Siatkute, Luka; Zvirblyte, Gitana; Mistiniene, Edita; Savickiene, Nijole

    2015-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench, a member of the Asteraceae family, is a plant rich in flavonoids, essential oils, phenolic compounds, saponins, polysaccharides and glycoproteins. The aim of the study was to evaluate the protein content in dried roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench after homogenization of roots with liquid nitrogen, extraction in 0.01 mol L-1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and purification followed by fractionation of proteins using gel filtration chromatography. Total concentration of proteins was measured using the Bradford method, and evaluation of the molecular mass of proteins was accomplished by applying the SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis. The Bradford assay revealed that the highest concentration of proteins in fractions collected after gel filtration chomatography was 4.66-6.07 mg mL-1. Glycoproteins, alkamides and polysaccharides in roots of Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench are chemical compounds that are responsible for their immunomodulatory properties. However, information about the difference of protein contents in fresh and dried roots of E. purpurea is insufficient. PMID:26677903

  15. Evolution in response to direct and indirect ecological effects in pitcher plant inquiline communities.

    PubMed

    terHorst, Casey P

    2010-12-01

    Ecologists have long recognized the importance of indirect ecological effects on species abundances, coexistence, and diversity. However, the evolutionary consequences of indirect interactions are rarely considered. Here I conduct selection experiments and examine the evolutionary response of Colpoda sp., a ciliated protozoan, to other members of the inquiline community of purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea). I measured the evolution of six traits in response to (1) predation by mosquito larvae, (2) competition from other ciliated protozoans, and (3) simultaneous predation and competition. The latter treatment incorporated both direct effects and indirect effects due to interactions between predators and competitors. Population growth rate and cell size evolved in response to direct effects of predators and competitors. However, trait values in the multispecies treatment were similar to those in the monoculture treatment, indicating that direct effects were offset by strong indirect effects on the evolution of traits. For most of the traits measured, indirect effects were opposed to, and often stronger than, direct effects. These indirect effects occurred as a result of behavioral changes of the predator in the presence of competitors and as a result of reduced densities of competitors in the presence of predators. Incorporating indirect effects provides a more realistic description of how species evolve in complex natural communities. PMID:20955011

  16. Testing successional hypotheses of stability, heterogeneity, and diversity in pitcher-plant inquiline communities.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas E; terHorst, Casey P

    2012-09-01

    Succession is a foundation concept in ecology that describes changes in species composition through time, yet many successional patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. We highlight three hypotheses about succession that are often not clearly stated or tested: (1) individual communities become more stable over time, (2) replicate communities become more similar over time, and (3) diversity peaks at mid-succession. Testing general patterns of succession requires estimates of variation in trajectories within and among replicate communities. We followed replicate aquatic communities found within leaves of purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) to test these three hypotheses. We found that stability of individual communities initially decreased, but then increased in older communities. Predation was highest in younger leaves but then declined, while competition was likely strongest in older leaves, as resources declined through time. Higher levels of predation and competition corresponded with periods of higher stability. As predicted, heterogeneity among communities decreased with age, suggesting that communities became more similar over time. Changes in diversity depended on trophic level. The diversity of bacteria slightly declined over time, but the diversity of consumers of bacteria increased linearly and strongly throughout succession. We suggest that studies need to focus on the variety of environmental drivers of succession, which are likely to vary through time and across habitats. PMID:22430372

  17. The desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria, detoxifies the glucosinolates of Schouwia purpurea by desulfation.

    PubMed

    Falk, Kimberly L; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2007-08-01

    Desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria) occasionally feed on Schouwia purpurea, a plant that contains tenfold higher levels of glucosinolates than most other Brassicaceae. Whereas this unusually high level of glucosinolates is expected to be toxic and/or deterrent to most insects, locusts feed on the plant with no apparent ill effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that the desert locust, like larvae of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), possesses a glucosinolate sulfatase in the gut that hydrolyzes glucosinolates to their corresponding desulfonated forms. These are no longer susceptible to cleavage by myrosinase, thus eliminating the formation of toxic glucosinolate hydrolysis products. Sulfatase is found throughout the desert locust gut and can catalyze the hydrolysis of all of the glucosinolates present in S. purpurea. The enzyme was detected in all larval stages of locusts as well as in both male and female adults feeding on this plant species. Glucosinolate sulfatase activity is induced tenfold when locusts are fed S. purpurea after being maintained on a glucosinolate-free diet, and activity declines when glucosinolates are removed from the locust diet. A detoxification system that is sensitive to the dietary levels of a plant toxin may minimize the physiological costs of toxin processing, especially for a generalist insect herbivore that encounters large variations in plant defense metabolites while feeding on different species. PMID:17619221

  18. Impact of saltwater spray andsand deposition on the coastal annualTriplasis purpurea (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheplick, G P; Demetri, H

    1999-05-01

    Pioneer coastal plants occur in areas where sand movement and airborne salt are common. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify natural levels of salt and sand deposition in relation to distance from the shoreline of Staten Island, New York, and (2) experimentally determine the impact of saltwater sprays and partial sand burial on growth and reproduction of the native dunegrass Triplasis purpurea. This summer annual matures most seeds in cleistogamous spikelets on leaf sheath-enclosed axillary panicles along culm internodes. Levels of salt deposition onto T. purpurea shoots over 6 d were determined with a conductivity meter to be 175 μg/cm(2) at 39 m from shore in 1997, but declined rapidly with increasing distances to 90 m. Sand deposition over 1 mo in the summer averaged 30 mm at 72-90 m from shore. In a greenhouse factorial experiment, seedlings were unburied, buried to 50% height, or buried to 75% height and simultaneously subjected to no sprays, two sprays/wk, or six sprays/wk of seawater over the summer. Sand deposition increased plant size and seed production, but seawater sprays were mostly detrimental, reducing plant size, seed production, and seed mass. However, T. purpurea tolerated moderate levels of salt deposition. The stimulation of growth and reproduction in partially buried plants is adaptive on the sandy soils. Prolific seed production and tolerance to moderate levels of airborne salt allow this annual to maintain high population densities close to shore. PMID:10330074

  19. From broadscale patterns to fine-scale processes: habitat structure influences genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge across multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Rasic, Gordana; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2012-01-01

    The spatial scale at which samples are collected and analysed influences the inferences that can be drawn from landscape genetic studies. We examined genetic structure and its landscape correlates in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi, an inhabitant of the purple pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea, across several spatial scales that are naturally delimited by the midge's habitat (leaf, plant, cluster of plants, bog and system of bogs). We analysed 11 microsatellite loci in 710 M. knabi larvae from two systems of bogs in Algonquin Provincial Park (Canada) and tested the hypotheses that variables related to habitat structure are associated with genetic differentiation in this midge. Up to 54% of variation in individual-based genetic distances at several scales was explained by broadscale landscape variables of bog size, pitcher plant density within bogs and connectivity of pitcher plant clusters. Our results indicate that oviposition behaviour of females at fine scales, as inferred from the spatial locations of full-sib larvae, and spatially limited gene flow at broad scales represent the important processes underlying observed genetic patterns in M. knabi. Broadscale landscape features (bog size and plant density) appear to influence oviposition behaviour of midges, which in turn influences the patterns of genetic differentiation observed at both fine and broad scales. Thus, we inferred linkages among genetic patterns, landscape patterns and ecological processes across spatial scales in M. knabi. Our results reinforce the value of exploring such links simultaneously across multiple spatial scales and landscapes when investigating genetic diversity within a species. PMID:21929541

  20. Antiplatelet aggregation constituents from Annona purpurea.

    PubMed

    Chang, F R; Wei, J L; Teng, C M; Wu, Y C

    1998-12-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation led to the isolation of 19 compounds, including three oxoaporphines, oxopurpureine (5), oxonuciferine (6), and oxoglaucine (7); three aporphines, (+)-predicentrine (8), (-)-glaucine (9), and thalbaicalidine (10); one aporphine sensu stricto, N-formyl-purpureine (11); one proaporphine, glaziovine; one phenanthrene, thalicpureine (12); two 6a,7-dehydroaporphines, dehydrolirinidine (13) and 7-hydroxy-dehydroglaucine (14); four flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoside, isorhamnetin-3-O-rhamnoside, and tanarixetin-3-O-rhamnoside; one purine, adenine; one lactam amide, squamolone; and two steroids, beta-sitosterol and beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside from the MeOH extract of the leaves of Formosan Annona purpurea. Among them, 11-14 were characterized as new compounds and alkaloids, 5-8, 10, and 12-14 exhibited significant antiplatelet aggregation activity. PMID:9868142

  1. Cytotoxic activity of Vitex trifolia purpurea extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Mortada M; El-Hashash, Maher M; Mohamed, Mona A; Korany, Tamer M

    2011-08-01

    Defatted 85% crude hot aqueous methanol extract of Vitex trifolia purpurea (AME) successively extracted with, chloroform and ethyl acetate. Cytotoxicity of (AME), chloroform methanol extract (CE), ethyl acetate methanol extract (EE) and the residue obtained from methanol extract after successive extraction (RME) have been evaluated on brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and Hep-G2 cell lines as well. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay the results revealed that the (RME) is the most potent one with LC50 value 173 microg/ml while LC50 values of (AME), (CE) and (EE) was 180, 199 and 286 microg/ml, respectively. As well as the results of cytotoxic assay against Hep-G2 cell lines are in full agreement with previous results, with IC50 values 6, 10.7, 20.8 and 65.8 microg/ml for (RME), (AME), (CE) and (EE), respectively. PMID:21980779

  2. Production of gentamicins by Micromonospora purpurea.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zeid, A Z; Salem, H M; Eissa, A E

    1978-01-01

    The natural medium contained the following ingredients (g/l): glucose 8.0, or black strap molasses (treated with 0.2--0.3 g/l EDTA) 12.0, fodder yeast (50.0% total nitrogen) 2.0, or folder yeast (40.0% total nitrogen) 6.0, or yeast extract 8.0, or tryptone 8.0, and CaCO3 1.0. Treated black strap molasses with EDTA and fodder yeast proved to be effective in the fermentative production of gentamicins. The most suitable chelating agent was EDTA in the form of disodium for the treatment of Komombo molasses in a concentration of 0.2--0.3 g/l, while potassium ferrocyanide and methylene blue had depressing effects on the production of gentamicins. The most effective carbon source, present in Egyptian black strap molasses, was glucose. Addition of glucose to the medium was preferable at the beginning of the fermentation process. Trace elements present in molasses were very essential for the microbial growth and biosynthesis of gentamicins as proved when molasses ash was added to the natural medium. Organic nitrogen sources were more suitable than inorganic nitrogen sources for the production of gentamicins by Micromonospora purpurea. The microorganism utilized the synthetic medium, but the antibiotic yields were less than those produced in the natural medium. The synthetic medium exhibited stimulatory effects of certain amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, and purine and pyrimidine bases on the fermentative production of gentamicins. Therefore, the ingredients increasing yields of gentamicins were mainly phenylalanine, iso-leucine, lysine, methionine, leucine, arginine, glycine, beta-alanine, cystine, tryptophan, malic acid, maleic acid, cobalamin, folic acid, riboflavin, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, biotin, nicotinamide, uracil, adenine, guanine, and adenosine. Trace elements (Co, Mo, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) exhibited their important role on the biosynthesis and production of gentamicins by Micromonospora purpurea. PMID:696047

  3. Characteristics of bacteriophages for Micromonospora purpurea.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, M; Perlman, D

    1978-07-01

    Chemical and physical stabilities of bacteriophages øUW 21 and øUW 51 infecting Micromonospora purpurea ATCC 15835 were examined. Both phages were stable over the pH range of 5 to 8 and to heating at temperatures up to 50 degrees C and especially stable in buffer containing magnesium ion. Exposure to 1 M Ca(NO3)2 inactivated both phages, and phage øUW 51 was also susceptible to 1 M CaCl2, 0.1 M tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane, and 0.3% H2O2. Phage plating efficiency was highest on the cultures at logarithmic phase and sometimes much influenced by host growth. Phage øUW 51 has a latent period of 2 h at 34 degrees C and a burst size between 35 and 40. The latent period for phage øUW 21 is about 12 h, and the burst size is smaller than 30. PMID:29557

  4. Coevolutionary elaboration of pollination-related traits in an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and a tabanid fly in the Nepalese Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Paudel, Babu Ram; Shrestha, Mani; Burd, Martin; Adhikari, Subodh; Sun, Yong-Shuai; Li, Qing-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Geographical variation in the interacting traits of plant-pollinator mutualism can lead to local adaptive differentiation. We tested Darwin's hypothesis of reciprocal selection as a key driving force for the evolution of floral traits of an alpine ginger (Roscoea purpurea) and proboscis length of a tabanid fly (Philoliche longirostris). We documented the pattern of trait variation in R. purpurea and P. longirostris across five populations. At each site, we quantified pollinator-mediated selection on floral display area, inflorescence height and corolla length of R. purpurea by comparing selection gradients for flowers exposed to natural pollination and to supplemental hand pollination. Reciprocal selection between plant and fly was examined at two sites via the relationship between proboscis length and nectar consumption (fly benefit) and corolla length and pollen deposition (plant benefit). Local corolla tube length was correlated with local fly proboscis length among the five sites. We found strong linear selection imposed by pollinators on corolla tube length at all sites, but there was no consistent relationship of fitness to inflorescence height or floral display area. Selection between corolla length and proboscis length was reciprocal at the two experimental sites examined. The geographical pattern of trait variation and the evidence of selection is consistent with a mosaic of local, species-specific reciprocal selection acting as the major driving force for the evolution of corolla length of R. purpurea and proboscis length of P. longirostris. PMID:27112321

  5. Growing environment and nutrient availability affect the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youbin; Dixon, Mike; Saxena, Praveen K

    2006-12-01

    Medicinal plant production is different from other agricultural production systems in that the plants are grown for the production of specific phytochemical(s) for human use. To address this need, a Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant, controlled-environment production system was developed for production of Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia. Within the prototype facility, the growing systems, nutrient availability, water and physical environment were highly controlled. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of different hydroponic systems, nutrient solution NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratios and mild water stress on the content of some phenolic compounds in Echinacea plants. The deep-flow solution culture system in which the plant roots were continuously immersed in the nutrient solutions was optimum for the growth of E. purpurea. Higher concentrations of caftaric acid, cynarin and echinacoside were produced in E. angustifolia plants grown in the soil-based growing media while the plants grown in the deep-flow solution system had higher levels of cichoric acid. Altering the NO (3)(-)/NH (4)(+) ratio or limited water stress did not have any significant effect on the phytochemical content of Echinacea plants. Echinacea plants grown in the controlled environment systems had higher or similar amounts of cynarin, caftaric acid, echinacoside and cichoric acid as previously reported in the literature for both field-cultivated and wild-harvested Echinacea plants. This growing system offers the advantages of year-round crop production with minimal contamination by environmental pollutants and common microbes. PMID:17054043

  6. Depleted Uranium Toxicity, Accumulation, and Uptake in Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda) and Aristida purpurea (Purple Threeawn).

    PubMed

    Butler, Afrachanna D; Wynter, Michelle; Medina, Victor F; Bednar, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG) in western Arizona is a testing range where Depleted uranium (DU) penetrators have been historically fired. A portion of the fired DU penetrators are being managed under controlled conditions by leaving them in place. The widespread use of DU in armor-penetrating weapons has raised environmental and human health concerns. The present study is focused on the onsite management approach and on the potential interactions with plants local to YPG. A 30 day study was conducted to assess the toxicity of DU corrosion products (e.g., schoepite and meta-schoepite) in two grass species that are native to YPG, Bermuda (Cynodon dactylon) and Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea). In addition, the ability for plants to uptake DU was studied. The results of this study show a much lower threshold for biomass toxicity and higher plant concentrations, particularly in the roots than shoots, compared to previous studies. PMID:27016940

  7. Are Trade-Offs Among Species’ Ecological Interactions Scale Dependent? A Test Using Pitcher-Plant Inquiline Species

    PubMed Central

    Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species’ ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species’ ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species’ traits in the context of coexistence at different

  8. Are trade-offs among species' ecological interactions scale dependent? A test using pitcher-plant inquiline species.

    PubMed

    Kneitel, Jamie M

    2012-01-01

    Trade-offs among species' ecological interactions is a pervasive explanation for species coexistence. The traits associated with trade-offs are typically measured to mechanistically explain species coexistence at a single spatial scale. However, species potentially interact at multiple scales and this may be reflected in the traits among coexisting species. I quantified species' ecological traits associated with the trade-offs expected at both local (competitive ability and predator tolerance) and regional (competitive ability and colonization rate) community scales. The most common species (four protozoa and a rotifer) from the middle trophic level of a pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea) inquiline community were used to link species traits to previously observed patterns of species diversity and abundance. Traits associated with trade-offs (competitive ability, predator tolerance, and colonization rate) and other ecological traits (size, growth rate, and carrying capacity) were measured for each of the focal species. Traits were correlated with one another with a negative relationship indicative of a trade-off. Protozoan and rotifer species exhibited a negative relationship between competitive ability and predator tolerance, indicative of coexistence at the local community scale. There was no relationship between competitive ability and colonization rate. Size, growth rate, and carrying capacity were correlated with each other and the trade-off traits: Size was related to both competitive ability and predator tolerance, but growth rate and carrying capacity were correlated with predator tolerance. When partial correlations were conducted controlling for size, growth rate and carrying capacity, the trade-offs largely disappeared. These results imply that body size is the trait that provides the basis for ecological interactions and trade-offs. Altogether, this study showed that the examination of species' traits in the context of coexistence at different scales

  9. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  10. Ethanolic Echinacea purpurea Extracts Contain a Mixture of Cytokine-Suppressive and Cytokine-Inducing Compounds, Including Some That Originate from Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Emily R.; Oberhofer, Martina; Leyte-Lugo, Martha; Moody, Ashley N.; Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Grubbs, Laura F.; Juzumaite, Monika; Graf, Tyler N.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Faeth, Stanley H.; Laster, Scott M.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-α, and also suppress production of TNF-α in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-α, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-α suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-α, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic

  11. Biological effects of Echinacea purpurea on human blood cells.

    PubMed

    Joksić, Gordana; Petrović, Sandra; Joksić, Ivana; Leskovac, Andreja

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate radioprotective properties of Echinacea purpurea tablets in vivo. We analysed lymphocyte chromosome aberrations (CA), micronuclei (MN), apoptosis of leukocytes and haematological parameters in a group of radiation workers who were identified as carrying dicentric chromosomes in their lymphocytes. All radiation workers were taking two 275 mg Echinacea tablets b.i.d., according to a pharmacist's recommendation. All parameters were analysed before and after the two-week treatment. At the end of the treatment lymphocyte CA frequency dropped significantly, and the number of apoptotic cells increased. The inverse lymphocyte-to-granulocyte ratio at the beginning of the study changed to normal at its end. In conclusion, biological effects observed after administration of Echinacea purpurea preparation suggest that it may be beneficial for the prevention of adverse health effects in workers exposed to ionising radiation. PMID:19581209

  12. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands. PMID:19256436

  13. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pagé, Antoine P; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea's ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls). An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the efficiency of current

  14. Salt marsh Claviceps purpurea in native and invaded Spartina marshes in Northern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea (subgroup G3) has a worldwide distribution on salt marsh Spartina species. In Northern California (US), native S. foliosa sustains high rates of infection by G3 C. purpurea in marshes north of the San Francisco Estuary. Invasive populations of S. alterniflora a...

  15. Chicoric Acid Levels in Commercial Basil (Ocimum basilicum) and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, we reported fresh basil (Ocimum basilicum) leaves contain chicoric acid, which is the principal phenolic compound in Echinacea purpurea and purportedly an active ingredient in dietary supplements derived from E. purpurea. Here we present the results from a study evaluating chicoric acid co...

  16. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  17. Ergot species of the Claviceps purpurea group from South Africa.

    PubMed

    van der Linde, Elna J; Pešicová, Kamila; Pažoutová, Sylvie; Stodůlková, Eva; Flieger, Miroslav; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-08-01

    Results of a survey and study of the Claviceps purpurea group of species in South Africa are being presented and five new species are described. Morphological descriptions are based on the anamorphs and four nuclear genetic loci. Claviceps fimbristylidis sp. nov. on Fimbristylis complanata was discovered wide-spread across five provinces of the country associated with water and represents the fourth Claviceps species recorded from the Cyperaceae. Claviceps monticola sp. nov. is described from Brachypodium flexum growing in mountain forests in Mpumalanga Province, as well as the northern Drakensberg southwards into the Eastern Cape Province. Claviceps pazoutovae sp. nov. is recorded from Stipa dregeana var. dregeana and Ehrharta erecta var. erecta, also associated with these mountain ranges. Claviceps macroura sp. nov. is recorded from Cenchrus macrourus from the Eastern Cape and Claviceps capensis sp. nov. from Ehrharta villosa var. villosa is recorded from the Western Cape Province. Claviceps cyperi, only recorded from South Africa is included in the study. Ergot alkaloid profiles of all species are provided and showed similarity to C. purpurea. Only C. cyperi and in lesser degree C. capensis, C. macroura, and C. pazoutovae produced ergot alkaloids in clinically significant amounts. Several reported species infect invasive grass species, native to South Africa, and thus represent potentially invasive species. PMID:27521625

  18. Induction of tetraploids from petiole explants through colchicine treatments in Echinacea purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Nilanthi, Dahanayake; Chen, Xiao-Lu; Zhao, Fu-Cheng; Yang, Yue-Sheng; Wu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Petiole explants were obtained from in vitro grown diploid (2x = 22) Echinacea purpurea plantlets. Shoots were regenerated by culturing the explants on MS basal medium containing 0.3 mg/L benzyladenine (BA), 0.01 mg/L naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and four concentrations (30, 60, 120, and 240 mg/L) of colchicine for 30 days, or 120 mg/L of colchicine for various durations (7, 14, 21, and 28 days). The regenerated shoots were induced to root on MS basal medium with 0.01 mg/L NAA, and then the root-tips of the regenerated shoots were sampled for count of chromosome number. It was found that a treatment duration of >7 days was necessary for induction of tetraploid (4x = 44) shoots, and treatment with 120 mg/L colchicine for 28 days was the most efficient for induction of tetraploids, yielding 23.5% of tetraploids among all the regenerated shoots. Chimeras were observed in almost all the treatments. However, the ratio of tetraploid to diploid cells in a chimeric plant was usually low. In comparison with diploid plants, tetraploid plants in vitro had larger stomata and thicker roots with more root branches, and had prominently shorter inflorescence stalk when mature. PMID:19696915

  19. De novo biosynthesis of cytokinins in the biotrophic fungus Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Janine; Vrabka, Josef; Oeser, Birgitt; Novák, Ondřej; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Disease symptoms of some phytopathogenic fungi are associated with changes in cytokinin (CK) levels. Here, we show that the CK profile of ergot-infected rye plants is also altered, although no pronounced changes occur in the expression of the host plant's CK biosynthesis genes. Instead, we demonstrate a clearly different mechanism: we report on the first fungal de novo CK biosynthesis genes, prove their functions and constitute a biosynthetic pathway. The ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea produces substantial quantities of CKs in culture and, like plants, expresses enzymes containing the isopentenyltransferase and lonely guy domains necessary for de novo isopentenyladenine production. Uniquely, two of these domains are combined in one bifunctional enzyme, CpIPT-LOG, depicting a novel and potent mechanism for CK production. The fungus also forms trans-zeatin, a reaction catalysed by a CK-specific cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, which is encoded by cpp450 forming a small cluster with cpipt-log. Deletion of cpipt-log and cpp450 did not affect virulence of the fungus, but Δcpp450 mutants exhibit a hyper-sporulating phenotype, implying that CKs are environmental factors influencing fungal development. PMID:25753486

  20. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  1. Overexpression of SpCBL6, a calcineurin B-like protein of Stipa purpurea, enhanced cold tolerance and reduced drought tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yanli; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Supriyo, Basak; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yongping

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to characterize SpCBL6 (GenBank accession number: KT780442) from Stipa purpurea and elucidate the function of this protein in abiotic stress. The full-length cDNA of SpCBL6 was isolated from S. purpurea by rapid amplification of cDNA ends methods. Laser confocal microscopy was used to analyze the subcellular localization of SpCBL6. The constructs of 35S:GFP-SpCBL6 was used to transform wild-type (WT) Arabidopsis plants (ecotype Columbia-0) with the floral dip method. Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and ion leakage was performed to investigate the role of SpCBL6 in abiotic stress. The open reading frame of SpCBL6 contains 681 bp nucleotides and encodes a 227-amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that SpCBL6 showed the highest similarity with rice OsCBL6. SpCBL6 transcripts were induced by freezing and drought treatments. Subcellular localization analysis showed that SpCBL6 was located in membrane of protoplast. Overexpression of SpCBL6 in Arabidopsis thaliana demonstrated that the transgenic plants were more tolerant to cold treatment, but less tolerant to drought, compared with the plants. qRT-PCR analysis showed that the drought stress marker genes were inhibited in transgenic plants, whereas the cold stress marker genes were enhanced. Further analysis showed that SpCBL6-overexpressing plants showed enhanced water potential, photosynthetic efficiency (F v/F m), and reduced ion leakage compared with the wild-type after cold treatment. Collectively, these results indicate that SpCBL6, a new member of the CBL gene family isolated from S. purpurea, enhances cold tolerance and reduces drought tolerance in plants. PMID:27393148

  2. Expression of Stipa purpurea SpCIPK26 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Salt and Drought Tolerance and Regulates Abscisic Acid Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yanli; Sun, Xudong; Yang, Yunqiang; Li, Xiong; Cheng, Ying; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Stipa purpurea (S. purpurea) is the dominant plant species in the alpine steppe of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. It is highly resistant to cold and drought conditions. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the stress tolerance are unknown. In this study, a CIPK gene from S. purpurea (SpCIPK26) was isolated. The SpCIPK26 coding region consisted of 1392 bp that encoded 464 amino acids. The protein has a highly conserved catalytic structure and regulatory domain. The expression of SpCIPK26 was induced by drought and salt stress. SpCIPK26 overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana (A. thaliana) plants provided increased tolerance to drought and salt stress in an abscisic acid (ABA)-dependent manner. Compared with wild-type A. thaliana plants, SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants had higher survival rates, water potentials, and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), as well as lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) following exposure to drought and salt stress. Gene expression analyses indicated stress-inducible genes (RD29A, RD29B, and ABF2) and a ROS-scavenger gene (CAT1) were upregulated in SpCIPK26-overexpressing plants after stress treatments. All of these marker genes are associated with ABA-responsive cis-acting elements. Additionally, the similarities in the gene expression patterns following ABA, mannitol, and NaCl treatments suggest SpCIPK26 has an important role during plant responses to drought and salt stress and in regulating ABA signaling. PMID:27338368

  3. New Antimicrobial Bromotyrosine Analogues from the Sponge Pseudoceratina purpurea and Its Predator Tylodina corticalis

    PubMed Central

    Gotsbacher, Michael P.; Karuso, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from temperate Australian collections of the marine sponge Pseudoceratina purpurea resulted in the isolation and characterisation of two new and six known bromotyrosine-derived alkaloids with antibiotic activity. Surprisingly, a single specimen of the mollusc Tylodina corticalis, which was collected while feeding on P. purpurea, contained only a few of the compounds found in the sponge suggesting selective accumulation and chemical modification of sponge metabolites. PMID:25786066

  4. Agaricus bisporus compost improves the potential of Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid for copper accumulation.

    PubMed

    Magdziak, Z; Mleczek, M; Gąsecka, M; Drzewiecka, K; Kaczmarek, Z; Siwulski, M; Goliński, P

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the ability of spent mushroom compost (SMC) from the production of Agaricus bisporus (A. bisporus) to stimulate the growth and efficiency of copper (Cu) accumulation by Salix purpurea × viminalis hybrid. Roots, shoots and leaves were analysed in terms of total Cu content and selected biometric parameters. Due to the absence of information regarding the physiological response of the studied plant, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), phenolic compounds and salicylic acid (SA) contents were investigated. The obtained results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness (usefulness) of SMC in promoting the growth and stimulation of Cu accumulation by the studied Salix taxon. The highest Cu content in roots and shoots was found at the 10% SMC addition (507±22 and 380±11 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively), while there was a reduction of the content in leaves and young shoots (109±8 and 124±7 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively). In terms of physiological response, lowered secretion of LMWOAs, biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and SA, as well as accumulation of soluble sugars in Salix leaves was observed with SMC addition. Simultaneously, an elevation of the total phenolic content in leaves of plants cultivated with SMC was observed, considered as antioxidant biomolecules. PMID:26709965

  5. [Stress proteins in the cells of Porphyra purpurea (Rhodophyta) thallus].

    PubMed

    Podlipaeva, Iu I; Ful'da, S; Gudkov, A V

    2014-01-01

    Heat shock proteins have been revealed for the first time by the methods of Western blotting using alkaline phosphatase and ECL in the cells of Porphyra purpurea from Kattegat area of the Baltic Sea in normal and experimental stress conditions. It was demonstrated with application of monoclonal anti-Hsp70 antibodies that a slight band about 70 kDa is present constitutively at the film; additionally the polypeptide of about 40 kDa ("Hsp40") has been detected. After heat shock at 28 degrees C during 1 hr significant "expenditure" of Hsp70 was observed, as well as the pronounced induction of "Hsp40"; the induction was expressed especially strongly in 24 hr after the stress application. PMID:25696998

  6. Non-specific symbiotic germination of Cynorkis purpurea (Thouars) Kraezl., a habitat-specific terrestrial orchid from the Central Highlands of Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rafter, M; Yokoya, K; Schofield, E J; Zettler, L W; Sarasan, V

    2016-08-01

    of C. purpurea. C. purpurea was found to be a mycorrhizal generalist, despite its specific habitat preference, highlighting the complex interaction between the plant, fungi, and the environment. The potential impact on conservation strategies of understanding the requirements for orchid seed germination and development by identifying and using OMF from diverse sources is discussed in detail. PMID:26984810

  7. Salix purpurea Stimulates the Expression of Specific Bacterial Xenobiotic Degradation Genes in a Soil Contaminated with Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Pagé, Antoine P.; Yergeau, Étienne; Greer, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to uncover Salix purpurea-microbe xenobiotic degradation systems that could be harnessed in rhizoremediation, and to identify microorganisms that are likely involved in these partnerships. To do so, we tested S. purpurea‘s ability to stimulate the expression of 10 marker microbial oxygenase genes in a soil contaminated with hydrocarbons. In what appeared to be a detoxification rhizosphere effect, transcripts encoding for alkane 1-monooxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, laccase/polyphenol oxidases, and biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase small subunits were significantly more abundant in the vicinity of the plant's roots than in bulk soil. This gene expression induction is consistent with willows' known rhizoremediation capabilities, and suggests the existence of S. purpurea-microbe systems that target many organic contaminants of interest (i.e. C4-C16 alkanes, fluoranthene, anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, biphenyl, polychlorinated biphenyls). An enhanced expression of the 4 genes was also observed within the bacterial orders Actinomycetales, Rhodospirillales, Burkholderiales, Alteromonadales, Solirubrobacterales, Caulobacterales, and Rhizobiales, which suggest that members of these taxa are active participants in the exposed partnerships. Although the expression of the other 6 marker genes did not appear to be stimulated by the plant at the community level, signs of additional systems that rest on their expression by members of the orders Solirubrobacterales, Sphingomonadales, Actinomycetales, and Sphingobacteriales were observed. Our study presents the first transcriptomics-based identification of microbes whose xenobiotic degradation activity in soil appears stimulated by a plant. It paints a portrait that contrasts with the current views on these consortia's composition, and opens the door for the development of laboratory test models geared towards the identification of root exudate characteristics that limit the efficiency of

  8. The isolation and synthesis of a novel benzofuran compound from Tephrosia purpurea, and the synthesis of several related derivatives, which suppress histamine H1 receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shill, Manik Chandra; Das, Asish Kumar; Itou, Tomohiro; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Nemoto, Hisao

    2015-11-01

    A novel naturally occurring compound with a benzofuran skeleton was isolated from a plant, Tephrosia purpurea collected in Bangladesh. The chemical synthesis of this compound confirmed its structure, and preliminary biological results showed its suppressive activity towards histamine H1 gene expression. One isomer and four derivatives were also synthesized, and their suppression activity was investigated. Although only small quantities of this compound can be isolated from its natural source, a 10 g scale synthesis was demonstrated by the newly developed method. PMID:26476665

  9. Functional characterization of the first filamentous fungal tRNA-isopentenyltransferase and its role in the virulence of Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Hinsch, Janine; Galuszka, Petr; Tudzynski, Paul

    2016-08-01

    In plants, cytokinins (CKs) are synthesized de novo or by the degradation of modified tRNAs. Recently, the first fungal de novo pathway was identified within the plant pathogen Claviceps purpurea. As the deletion of the de novo pathway did not lead to a complete loss of CKs, this work focuses on the tRNA-modifying protein tRNA-isopentenyltransferase (CptRNA-IPT). The contribution of this enzyme to the CK pool of Claviceps and the role of CKs in the host-pathogen interaction are emphasized. The effects of the deletion of cptRNA-ipt and the double deletion of cptRNA-ipt and the key gene of de novo biosynthesis cpipt-log on growth, CK biosynthesis and virulence were analyzed. In addition, the sites of action of CptRNA-IPT were visualized using reporter gene fusions. In addition to CK-independent functions, CptRNA-IPT was essential for the biosynthesis of cis-zeatin (cZ) and contributed to the formation of isopentenyladenine (iP) and trans-zeatin (tZ). Although ΔcptRNA-ipt was reduced in virulence, the 'CK-free' double deletion mutant was nearly apathogenic. The results prove a redundancy of the CK biosynthesis pathway in C. purpurea for iP and tZ formation. Moreover, we show, for the first time, that CKs are required for the successful establishment of a host-fungus interaction. PMID:27074411

  10. Development and characterization of 29 polymorphic EST-SSR markers for Stipa purpurea (Poaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Yang, Yunqiang; Yang, Yongping

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Expressed sequence tag–simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were developed using Illumina sequencing for further genetic diversity studies of Stipa purpurea (Poaceae). Methods and Results: Twenty-nine polymorphic and eight monomorphic EST-SSR loci were developed and characterized in 90 individuals from nine S. purpurea populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 13, and heterozygosity within populations and total heterozygosity ranged from 0.04–0.76 and from 0.04–0.87, respectively. Of 37 loci, 12 showed interspecific transferability and polymorphism in a related species, S. glareosa. Conclusions: These newly developed EST-SSR primers provide a useful tool to investigate genetic diversity at the population level and to analyze the population structure of S. purpurea. PMID:27610274

  11. Evaluation of chemical parameters and ecotoxicity of a soil developed on gossan following application of polyacrylates and growth of Spergularia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erika S; Abreu, Maria Manuela; de Varennes, Amarilis; Macías, Felipe; Leitão, Sara; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and ecotoxicity of a mine soil developed on gossan materials and amended with hydrophilic polyacrylate polymers after a growth cycle of Spergularia purpurea. Different acute bioassays (Daphnia magna immobilization; microalgae growth inhibition; germination and growth of lettuce and oat) were carried out with simulated leachates, pore water and soil samples. The germination and growth of native shrubs (Cistus ladanifer and Lavandula sampaioana) were also evaluated in the lysimeters where S. purpurea had grown. The soil had high total concentrations (g/kg) of Al (3.50-8.60), As (2.55-2.73), Cu (0.13-0.91) and Pb (4.48-6.16). However, the percentages of elements in aqueous extracts (simulating leachates, pore water, and the conditions of the rhizosphere soil) were small when compared to their total soil concentrations (less than 9% except for Na in leachates). Growth of S. purpurea and other natural colonization of plant species (Poaceae, Fabaceae and Asteraceae families) improved chemical characteristics but the application of the polyacrylate polymers contributed to a further improvement of soil quality. However, this was not sufficient to ensure the growth of a large number of shrubs despite a great germination rate. Among the several species used on the ecotoxicological assessment, the D. magna test was the only bioassay that showed a clear toxicity of soil leachates, suggesting the importance of using several ecotoxicological tests to assess the environmental risk of soil contamination and its rehabilitation. Although the studied soil can be considered contaminated taking into account the total soil concentrations of Al, As, Cu and Pb, the low concentrations of the same chemical elements in extractable solutions, that simulated the fractions really available for organisms, did not demonstrate a substantial toxic effects in the organisms and, consequently, negative impact on the environment. PMID

  12. Complete sequence of the mitochondrial DNA of the red alga Porphyra purpurea. Cyanobacterial introns and shared ancestry of red and green algae.

    PubMed Central

    Burger, G; Saint-Louis, D; Gray, M W; Lang, B F

    1999-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of Porphyra purpurea, a circular-mapping genome of 36,753 bp, has been completely sequenced. A total of 57 densely packed genes has been identified, including the basic set typically found in animals and fungi, as well as seven genes characteristic of protist and plant mtDNAs and specifying ribosomal proteins and subunits of succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase. The mitochondrial large subunit rRNA gene contains two group II introns that are extraordinarily similar to those found in the cyanobacterium Calothrix sp, suggesting a recent lateral intron transfer between a bacterial and a mitochondrial genome. Notable features of P. purpurea mtDNA include the presence of two 291-bp inverted repeats that likely mediate homologous recombination, resulting in genome rearrangement, and of numerous sequence polymorphisms in the coding and intergenic regions. Comparative analysis of red algal mitochondrial genomes from five different, evolutionarily distant orders reveals that rhodophyte mtDNAs are unusually uniform in size and gene order. Finally, phylogenetic analyses provide strong evidence that red algae share a common ancestry with green algae and plants. PMID:10488235

  13. Type II Diacylglycerol Acyltransferase from Claviceps purpurea with Ricinoleic Acid, a Hydroxyl Fatty Acid of Industrial Importance, as Preferred Substrate ▿

    PubMed Central

    Mavraganis, Ioannis; Meesapyodsuk, Dauenpen; Vrinten, Patricia; Smith, Mark; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea, the fungal pathogen that causes the cereal disease ergot, produces glycerides that contain high levels of ricinoleic acid [(R)-12-hydroxyoctadec-cis-9-enoic acid] in its sclerotia. Recently, a fatty acid hydroxylase (C. purpurea FAH [CpFAH]) involved in the biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid was identified from this fungus (D. Meesapyodsuk and X. Qiu, Plant Physiol. 147:1325-1333, 2008). Here, we describe the cloning and biochemical characterization of a C. purpurea type II diacylglycerol acyltransferase (CpDGAT2) involved in the assembly of ricinoleic acid into triglycerides. The CpDGAT2 gene was cloned by degenerate RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR). The expression of this gene restored the in vivo synthesis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in the quadruple mutant strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae H1246, in which all four TAG biosynthesis genes (DGA1, LRO1, ARE1, and ARE2) are disrupted. In vitro enzymatic assays using microsomal preparations from the transformed yeast strain indicated that CpDGAT2 prefers ricinoleic acid as an acyl donor over linoleic acid, oleic acid, or linolenic acid, and it prefers 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol over 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol as an acyl acceptor. The coexpression of CpFAH with CpDGAT2 in yeast resulted in an increased accumulation of ricinoleic acid compared to the coexpression of CpFAH with the native yeast DGAT2 (S. cerevisiae DGA1 [ScDGA1]) or the expression of CpFAH alone. Northern blot analysis indicated that CpFAH is expressed solely in sclerotium cells, with no transcripts of this gene being detected in mycelium or conidial cells. CpDGAT2 was more widely expressed among the cell types examined, although expression was low in conidiospores. The high expression of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH in sclerotium cells, where high levels of ricinoleate glycerides accumulate, provided further evidence supporting the roles of CpDGAT2 and CpFAH as key enzymes for the synthesis and assembly of ricinoleic acid in C. purpurea. PMID

  14. Multigene analysis suggests ecological speciation in the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Claviceps purpurea is an important pathogen of grasses and source of novel chemical compounds. Three groups within this species (G1, G2, and G3) have been recognized based on habitat association, sclerotia and conidia morphology, and alkaloid production. These groups have further been supported by g...

  15. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Market Available Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fresh basil leaves contain chicoric acid, the principal phenolic compound of Echinacea purpurea and purportedly the active ingredient in its dietary supplements. Our group discovered and first reported chicoric acid in basil. This following study examined the distribution of chicoric acid within the...

  16. Root Development of Salix purpurea L. on Heavily Compacted Levee Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, W.

    2012-04-01

    The effect of woody vegetation on levee stability is discussed controversially. On the one hand woody plants improve slope stability, prevent erosion failures and may aid in levee stability. On the other hand it is believed that woody vegetation has negative impacts which are largely related to the rooting system. Hence, root penetration can facilitate water movement - seepage or piping - as well as living and decaying roots can lead to voids and threaten the structural integrity of levees. In general root architecture is known for many plant species, but specific root characteristics and their interaction with soils are influenced by many factors, and therefore poorly understood. Consequently the current research investigates the rooting performance of woody vegetation by singling out a special type of vegetation which is often used within soil bioengineering techniques at river embankments. This vegetation type is a dense stand of shrubby willows (Salix purpurea L.), implemented with brush mattresses. The data is collected from a test site constructed in 2007, 5 km northeast of Vienna, Austria. Part of the test site is a research levee built true to natural scale. The fill material of the levee is a mineral silt-sand-gravel compound classified as silty sand, which was compacted to a dry density of 1.86 g/cm3. The planting of vegetation was applied directly to the compacted levee body using only a thin layer (2-4 cm) of humus topsoil. In 2009 the studies were supplemented with a lysimeter-like setup consisting of a total of 20 containers. The lysimeters were filled homogenously with the same soil as the levees and were consolidated to the same degree of compaction. They were planted similar to the research levees. Within the investigations a comprehensive annual vegetation monitoring program was carried out. Measured aboveground parameters were shoot diameter, shoot length, biomass and leaf area index (LAI). Monitored rooting parameters - examined by excavation

  17. The geographic mosaic of herbicide resistance evolution in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea: Evidence for resistance hotspots and low genetic differentiation across the landscape.

    PubMed

    Kuester, Adam; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2015-09-01

    Strong human-mediated selection via herbicide application in agroecosystems has repeatedly led to the evolution of resistance in weedy plants. Although resistance can occur among separate populations of a species across the landscape, the spatial scale of resistance in many weeds is often left unexamined. We assessed the potential that resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea has evolved independently multiple times across its North American range. We examined both adaptive and neutral genetic variations in 44 populations of I. purpurea by pairing a replicated dose-response greenhouse experiment with SSR genotyping of experimental individuals. We uncovered a mosaic pattern of resistance across the landscape, with some populations exhibiting high-survival postherbicide and other populations showing high death. SSR genotyping revealed little evidence of isolation by distance and very little neutral genetic structure associated with geography. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis uncovered evidence for migration and admixture among populations before the widespread use of glyphosate rather than the very recent contemporary gene flow. The pattern of adaptive and neutral genetic variations indicates that resistance in this mixed-mating weed species appears to have evolved in independent hotspots rather than through transmission of resistance alleles across the landscape. PMID:26366199

  18. The geographic mosaic of herbicide resistance evolution in the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea: Evidence for resistance hotspots and low genetic differentiation across the landscape

    PubMed Central

    Kuester, Adam; Chang, Shu-Mei; Baucom, Regina S

    2015-01-01

    Strong human-mediated selection via herbicide application in agroecosystems has repeatedly led to the evolution of resistance in weedy plants. Although resistance can occur among separate populations of a species across the landscape, the spatial scale of resistance in many weeds is often left unexamined. We assessed the potential that resistance to the herbicide glyphosate in the agricultural weed Ipomoea purpurea has evolved independently multiple times across its North American range. We examined both adaptive and neutral genetic variations in 44 populations of I. purpurea by pairing a replicated dose–response greenhouse experiment with SSR genotyping of experimental individuals. We uncovered a mosaic pattern of resistance across the landscape, with some populations exhibiting high-survival postherbicide and other populations showing high death. SSR genotyping revealed little evidence of isolation by distance and very little neutral genetic structure associated with geography. An approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analysis uncovered evidence for migration and admixture among populations before the widespread use of glyphosate rather than the very recent contemporary gene flow. The pattern of adaptive and neutral genetic variations indicates that resistance in this mixed-mating weed species appears to have evolved in independent hotspots rather than through transmission of resistance alleles across the landscape. PMID:26366199

  19. Fire and nitrogen effects on Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea)abundance in northern mixed-grass prairie old fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt. varieties) is a native grass capable of increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and creating a stable state. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reduci...

  20. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhadada, Shraddha V.; Goyal, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract. PMID:26798165

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tephrosia purpurea on Cardiovascular Complications and Cataract Associated with Streptozotocin-induced Diabetes in Rats.

    PubMed

    Bhadada, Shraddha V; Goyal, R K

    2015-01-01

    Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea was given in the dose of 300 and 500 mg/kg/day, p.o for 8 weeks. Various hemodynamic (blood pressure, heart rate, +dp/dt, -dp/dt) and biochemical (serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine, urea, lactate dehydrogenase and creatinine kinase) parameters were recorded after 8 weeks of the treatment. To evaluate cataract, various biochemical estimations were done in eye lens. Streptozotocin produced hyperglycemia; hypoinsulinemia; hyperlipidemia; increased blood pressure; increased creatinine, cardiac enzymes, reduction in heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy in rats and all these changes were prevented by the treatment with aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea in both the doses. Streptozotocin also produced decrease in soluble protein and reduced glutathione in lens of rats that was prevented by aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea. Our data suggest that aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea prevents not only the streptozotocin-induced metabolic abnormalities but also cardiovascular complications as well as reduce the risk of development of cataract. PMID:26798165

  2. Characterization of rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities from roots of Stipa purpurea in alpine steppe around Qinghai Lake.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dengxue; Jin, Hui; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Denghong; Yan, Zhiqiang; Li, Xiuzhuang; Zhao, Yuhui; Han, Rongbing; Qin, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Stipa purpurea is among constructive endemic species in the alpine steppe on the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. To reveal the fungal community structure and diversity in the rhizosphere and roots of this important grass and to analyze the potential influence of different habitats on the structure of fungal communities, we explored the root endophyte and the directly associated rhizosphere communities of S. purpurea by using internal transcribed spacer rRNA cloning and sequencing methods. We found that the roots of S. purpurea are associated with a diverse consortium of Basidiomycota (59.8%) and Ascomycota (38.5%). Most fungi obtained from rhizosphere soil in S. purpurea have been identified as Ascomycetes, while the high proportion detected in roots were basidiomycetous endophytes. The species richness, diversity, and evenness of fungal assemblages were higher in roots than in the rhizosphere soil. Fungi inhabiting the rhizosphere and roots of S. purpurea are significantly different, and the rhizosphere and endophyte communities are largely independent with little overlap in the dominant phyla or operational taxonomic units. Taken together, these results suggested that a wide variety of fungal communities are associated with the roots and rhizosphere soil of S. purpurea and that the fungal assemblages are strongly influenced by different habitats. PMID:27348421

  3. Determination of the Annual Shading Potential of Salix Purpurea Coppice using Hemispherical Photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, G.; Weihs, P.; Stockreiter, L.; Hoffmann, E.

    2012-04-01

    The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) aims to achieve a good ecological potential and good surface water chemical status for all surface waters. Widely constant shading with riparian vegetation is the potential natural plant cover condition and plays a key role by the implementation of the WFD. The shading effect of vegetation is considered to be particularly relevant for small and medium sized rivers with slow flow velocity. Soil Bioengineering measures effect technical (e.g. soil protection), ecological and socio-economical issues on river systems. Positive ecological effects are based on the development of the used plants and result among others in shading of the water body. Natural bank vegetation provides very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages and reduces the incident solar radiation up to 95%. Consequently large riparian wooded areas form a microclimate that leads to a decrease of water temperature or prevent an increase. They even reduce evaporation and increase the relative air humidity which contributes to reducing water temperature and enlarges the oxygen uptake capacity. Accordingly the daily variations of temperature and those of oxygen content are definitely lower in vegetated areas. This issue is especially important considering climate change scenarios with increasing water temperatures. From an ecological point of view it is essential to quantify the processes. There are different ways to characterize densities of vegetation. Most of them - such as the method by Braun-Blanquet and Londo - rely on estimations of the dominance of species. Applying this kind of procedures on riparian vegetation result in uncertainties due to the strong variations in height and densities. Hemispherical photographs are a standardized method in forest ecology under more or less uniform forest stand conditions. However it is now hardly used for riparian vegetation stands. Questions that will be addressed are the determination of annual stand

  4. Bioactive compounds from Bauhinia purpurea possessing antimalarial, antimycobacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Boonphong, Surat; Puangsombat, Pakawan; Baramee, Apiwat; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2007-05-01

    Eleven new secondary metabolites (1-11), together with two known flavanones (12 and 13) and five known bibenzyls (14-18), were isolated from the root extract of Bauhinia purpurea. New compounds include eight dihydrodibenzoxepins (1-8), a dihydrobenzofuran (9), a novel spirochromane-2,1'-hexenedione (10), and a new bibenzyl (11). Antimycobacterial, antimalarial, antifungal, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated compounds are reported, and biosynthetic pathways of these compounds are also discussed. PMID:17480099

  5. Use of hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of Spergularia purpurea in a mine soil.

    PubMed

    Qu, G; de Varennes, A

    2010-06-15

    We used hydrophilic polymers from diapers to aid the establishment of an indigenous plant (Spergularia purpurea (Persoon) G. Don fil.) in a soil from a pyrite mine. Lysimeters were filled with the mine soil with no amendment (control), with a polyacrylate polymer, with a polymer removed from diapers, and with shredded diapers. The establishment of a plant cover was faster in soil amended with polymer from diapers, and 85 days after sowing the soil was completely covered in all treatments except control. The concentrations of trace elements in plant shoots decreased in amended soil. The activities of soil acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, protease and cellulase were greatest in soil amended with the polyacrylate polymer or with polymer removed from diapers, while the application of shredded diapers leads to values that were in general intermediate between these treatments and unamended control. Basal- and substrate-induced respirations, and dehydrogenase were greatest in soil amended with polymers, but the presence of a plastic film and fibrous materials from shredded diapers prevented any improvement in these parameters compared with unamended soil. In the second experiment, we evaluated the risk of downward movement of polymers in columns of a sandy soil. Polymer from diapers, with or without Cu, was placed at a 10 cm-depth. Five leaching cycles with artificial rain took place and leachates were analyzed for organic matter and Cu. At the end of the experiment, the soil columns were sliced and each layer was analyzed separately. Some repacking of soil and polymer particles took place, but there was no indication that polymers moved to any great depth in soil columns. PMID:20207477

  6. The Epipolythiodiketopiperazine Gene Cluster in Claviceps purpurea: Dysfunctional Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Prevents Formation of the Previously Unknown Clapurines

    PubMed Central

    Tudzynski, Paul; Humpf, Hans-Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important food contaminant and well known for the production of the toxic ergot alkaloids. Apart from that, little is known about its secondary metabolism and not all toxic substances going along with the food contamination with Claviceps are known yet. We explored the metabolite profile of a gene cluster in C. purpurea with a high homology to gene clusters, which are responsible for the formation of epipolythiodiketopiperazine (ETP) toxins in other fungi. By overexpressing the transcription factor, we were able to activate the cluster in the standard C. purpurea strain 20.1. Although all necessary genes for the formation of the characteristic disulfide bridge were expressed in the overexpression mutants, the fungus did not produce any ETPs. Isolation of pathway intermediates showed that the common biosynthetic pathway stops after the first steps. Our results demonstrate that hydroxylation of the diketopiperazine backbone is the critical step during the ETP biosynthesis. Due to a dysfunctional enzyme, the fungus is not able to produce toxic ETPs. Instead, the pathway end-products are new unusual metabolites with a unique nitrogen-sulfur bond. By heterologous expression of the Leptosphaeria maculans cytochrome P450 encoding gene sirC, we were able to identify the end-products of the ETP cluster in C. purpurea. The thioclapurines are so far unknown ETPs, which might contribute to the toxicity of other C. purpurea strains with a potentially intact ETP cluster. PMID:27390873

  7. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence supports the theory that bacterial communities colonizing Echinacea purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could ...

  8. Activities and prevalence of proteobacteria members colonizing Echinacea purpurea fully account for in vitro macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of this botanical

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence supports the theory that the bacterial communities colonizing E. purpurea contribute to the innate immune enhancing activity of this botanical. Previously we reported that only about half of the variation in in vitro monocyte stimulating activity exhibited by E. purpurea extracts could be a...

  9. De Novo Assembly and Annotation of the Transcriptome of the Agricultural Weed Ipomoea purpurea Uncovers Gene Expression Changes Associated with Herbicide Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Trent; Baucom, Regina S.

    2014-01-01

    Human-mediated selection can lead to rapid evolution in very short time scales, and the evolution of herbicide resistance in agricultural weeds is an excellent example of this phenomenon. The common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, is resistant to the herbicide glyphosate, but genetic investigations of this trait have been hampered by the lack of genomic resources for this species. Here, we present the annotated transcriptome of the common morning glory, Ipomoea purpurea, along with an examination of whole genome expression profiling to assess potential gene expression differences between three artificially selected herbicide resistant lines and three susceptible lines. The assembled Ipomoea transcriptome reported in this work contains 65,459 assembled transcripts, ~28,000 of which were functionally annotated by assignment to Gene Ontology categories. Our RNA-seq survey using this reference transcriptome identified 19 differentially expressed genes associated with resistance—one of which, a cytochrome P450, belongs to a large plant family of genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. The differentially expressed genes also broadly implicated receptor-like kinases, which were down-regulated in the resistant lines, and other growth and defense genes, which were up-regulated in resistant lines. Interestingly, the target of glyphosate—EPSP synthase—was not overexpressed in the resistant Ipomoea lines as in other glyphosate resistant weeds. Overall, this work identifies potential candidate resistance loci for future investigations and dramatically increases genomic resources for this species. The assembled transcriptome presented herein will also provide a valuable resource to the Ipomoea community, as well as to those interested in utilizing the close relationship between the Convolvulaceae and the Solanaceae for phylogenetic and comparative genomics examinations. PMID:25155274

  10. Multigene analysis suggests ecological speciation in the fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea

    PubMed Central

    DOUHAN, G. W.; SMITH, M. E.; HUYRN, K. L.; WESTBROOK, A.; Beerli, P.; FISHER, A. J.

    2008-01-01

    Claviceps purpurea is an important pathogen of grasses and source of novel chemical compounds. Three groups within this species (G1, G2, and G3) have been recognized based on habitat association, sclerotia and conidia morphology, and alkaloid production. These groups have further been supported by RAPD and AFLP markers, suggesting this species may be more accurately described as a species complex. However, all divergent ecotypes can coexist in sympatric populations with no obvious physical barriers to prevent gene flow. In this study, we used both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses to test for speciation within C. purpurea using DNA sequences from ITS, a RAS-like locus, and a portion of beta-tubulin. The G1 types are significantly divergent from the G2/G3 types based on each of the three loci and the combined dataset, whereas the G2/G3 types are more integrated with one another. Although the G2 and G3 lineages have not diverged as much as the G1 lineage based on DNA sequence data, the use of three DNA loci does reliably separate the G2 and G3 lineages. However, the population genetic analyses strongly suggest little to no gene flow occurring between the different ecotypes and we argue that this process is driven by adaptations to ecological habitats; G1 isolates are associated with terrestrial grasses, G2 isolates are found in wet and shady environments, and G3 isolates are found in salt marsh habitats. PMID:18373531

  11. Ameliorative Effect of Tephrosia Purpurea in Arsenic-induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Ravuri Halley; Kerketta, Priscilla; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Toppo, Reetu; Prasad, Raju; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Roy, Birendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present investigation was conducted to evaluate the nephroprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TPE) against arsenic-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: Twenty four number of wistar rats were equally divided into three groups. Sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) was orally given to group I for 28 days, additionally group II was orally treated with TPE (500 mg/kg), while the control group was kept untreated with neither arsenic nor TPE. Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress indices and arsenic concentration in kidney were estimated. Histopathology of kidney was also conducted. Results: Group II animals show significantly reduced blood urea nitrogen and plasma creatinine, and increased serum albumin level compared to group I. The higher lipid peroxidation with exhausted superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione level were noticed in group I compared to group II. There was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation in kidneys between the two arsenic treated groups, but the histopathology of kidney of group II rats revealed reduced necrosis and intact tubular architecture as compared to group I. Conclusions: Tephrosia Purpurea extract has a significant role in protecting the animals from arsenic-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:24748739

  12. Identification of Medicinally Active Ingredient in Ultradiluted Digitalis purpurea: Fluorescence Spectroscopic and Cyclic-Voltammetric Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anup; Purkait, Bulbul

    2012-01-01

    Serially diluted and agitated (SAD) drugs available commercially are in use with great faith because of the astonishing results they produce. The scientific viewpoint attached to the centuries-old therapy with SAD drugs, as in homeopathy, remained doubtful for want of appropriate research and insufficient evidence base. The conflicting points related to SAD drug mostly related to the level of concentrations/dilutions, use of drug in contradictory clinical conditions compared to the modern system of medicine, identification of medicinally active ingredient in concentrations and dilutions used in commercially available SAD drugs, and lack of laboratory-based pharmacological data vis-à-vis modern medicine. Modus operandi of SAD drug is also unknown. To address some of these issues an analytical study was carried out wherein commercially available SAD drug Digitalis purpurea, commonly used in different systems of medicine, was put to test. Various concentrations of commercially available Digitalis purpurea were analyzed using analytical methods: cyclic voltammetry, emission spectroscopy, and UV-VIS spectroscopy. These analytical methods apparently identified the medicinal ingredients and effect of serial dilution in commercial preparation of the drugs. PMID:22606641

  13. Efficacy of a Botanical Supplement with Concentrated Echinacea purpurea for Increasing Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Bellar, David; Moody, Kaitlyn M.; Richard, Nicholas S.; Judge, Lawrence W.

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation evaluated the efficacy of a botanical supplement that delivered a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea (8 grams day−1). The participants were 13 apparently healthy, recreationally active college students (VO2 max: 51 mL O2/kg∗min). The participants were provided with a 30-day supplementation regime. Data regarding maximum aerobic capacity was collected through pre- and posttesting surrounding the 30-day supplementation regime. The participants were instructed to maintain normal levels of physical activity and exercise during the experimental period. The levels of physical activity and exercise were monitored via the Leisure and Physical Activity Survey. The participants did not report any significant increases in aerobic physical activity or exercise during the supplementation period. Paired samples t-test analysis did not reveal a significant difference in maximum aerobic capacity, t(12) = 0.67, P = .516. Presupplementation maximum aerobic capacity (M = 51.0, SD = 6.8) was similar to postsupplementation values (M = 51.8, SD = 6.5). This study suggests that botanical supplements containing a concentrated dose of Echinacea purpurea is not an effective intervention to increase aerobic capacity of recreationally active individuals. PMID:24967264

  14. Echinacea Purpurea Supplementation does not Enhance VO2max in Distance Runners.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Bond, Kelsey L; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Doyle, J Andrew

    2013-11-20

    Oral supplementation of echinacea purpurea (ECH) has been reported to increase levels of serum erythropoietin (EPO) and as a result improve endurance performance in untrained subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if ECH supplementation alters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in trained endurance runners. Using a double-blind design, 16 trained endurance runners (9 ECH and 7 placebo-PLA) supplemented with either 8000 mg·d of ECH or wheat flour (PLA) for 6 weeks. Maximal aerobic treadmill tests and blood samples were measured before and after supplementation to determine VO2max, hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb). VO2max, Hct and Hb did not differ between the ECH and PLA group before or after supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of ECH failed to improve VO2max (67.37 ± 4.62 vs. 67.23 ± 5.82 mL⋅kg⋅min), Hct (43.57 ± 2.38 vs. 42.85 ± 1.46%) or Hb (14.93 ± 1.27 vs. 15.55 ± .80 g·dL) from baseline measurements. Echinacea purpurea (ECH) supplementation of 8000 mg·d for 6 weeks failed to increase VO2max, Hct or Hb in trained endurance runners and thus does not appear to influence physiological variables that affect distance-running performance. PMID:24045630

  15. Echinacea purpurea supplementation does not enhance VO2max in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Bond, Kelsey L; Rupp, Jeffrey C; Ingalls, Christopher P; Doyle, J Andrew

    2014-05-01

    Oral supplementation of Echinacea purpurea (ECH) has been reported to increase levels of serum erythropoietin and as a result improve endurance performance in untrained subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if ECH supplementation alters maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in trained endurance runners. Using a double-blind design, 16 trained endurance runners (9 ECH and 7 placebo [PLA]) supplemented with either 8,000 mg·d(-1) of ECH or wheat flour (PLA) for 6 weeks. Maximal aerobic treadmill tests and blood samples were measured before and after supplementation to determine VO2max, hematocrit (Hct), and hemoglobin (Hb). VO2max, Hct, and Hb did not differ between the ECH and PLA groups before or after supplementation. Furthermore, supplementation of ECH failed to improve VO2max (67.37 ± 4.62 vs. 67.23 ± 5.82 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)), Hct (43.57 ± 2.38 vs. 42.85 ± 1.46%), or Hb (14.93 ± 1.27 vs. 15.55 ± 0.80 g·dL(-1)) from baseline measurements. Echinacea purpurea supplementation of 8,000 mg·d(-1) for 6 weeks failed to increase VO2max, Hct, or Hb in trained endurance runners and thus does not seem to influence physiological variables that affect distance running performance. PMID:24045635

  16. Role of the delta 8 double bond of agroclavine in lysergic acid amide biosynthesis by Claviceps purpurea.

    PubMed

    Willingale, J; Manzarpour, A; Mantle, P G

    1985-08-15

    Agroclavine, given to actively-growing sclerotial tissue of a strain of Claviceps purpurea which can not normally elaborate ergot alkaloids, was transformed by this tissue into lysergic acid amide with overall efficiency of approximately 40%. By contrast, festuclavine (8,9-dihydro-agroclavine) was not transformed, indicating specificity in the mechanism of lysergyl biosynthesis. PMID:4018228

  17. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-01-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  18. Links between Genetic Groups, Indole Alkaloid Profiles and Ecology within the Grass-Parasitic Claviceps purpurea Species Complex.

    PubMed

    Negård, Mariell; Uhlig, Silvio; Kauserud, Håvard; Andersen, Tom; Høiland, Klaus; Vrålstad, Trude

    2015-05-01

    The grass parasitic fungus Claviceps purpurea sensu lato produces sclerotia with toxic indole alkaloids. It constitutes several genetic groups with divergent habitat preferences that recently were delimited into separate proposed species. We aimed to 1) analyze genetic variation of C. purpurea sensu lato in Norway, 2) characterize the associated indole alkaloid profiles, and 3) explore relationships between genetics, alkaloid chemistry and ecology. Approximately 600 sclerotia from 14 different grass species were subjected to various analyses including DNA sequencing and HPLC-MS. Molecular results, supported by chemical and ecological data, revealed one new genetic group (G4) in addition to two of the three known; G1 (C. purpurea sensu stricto) and G2 (C. humidiphila). G3 (C. spartinae) was not found. G4, which was apparently con-specific with the recently described C. arundinis sp. nov, was predominantly found in very wet habitats on Molinia caerulea and infrequently in saline habitats on Leymus arenarius. Its indole-diterpene profile resembled G2, while its ergot alkaloid profile differed from G2 in high amounts of ergosedmam. In contrast to G1, indole-diterpenes were consistently present in G2 and G4. Our study supports and complements the newly proposed species delimitation of the C. purpurea complex, but challenges some species characteristics including host spectrum, habitat preferences and sclerotial floating ability. PMID:25928134

  19. Effects of chemically characterized fractions from aerial parts of Echinacea purpurea and E. angustifolia on Myelopoiesis in Rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinacea is used to improve immune function, and its chemical constituents have immunomodulatory effects. Using a commercial E. purpurea product, we evaluated the myelopoietic effect on bone marrow of rats treated with various extracts and correlated this with their chemical composition. Granulocyt...

  20. Evaluation of immunopathologic effects of aqueous extract of Echinacea purpurea in mice after experimental challenge with Pasteurella multocida serotype A

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, A; Gharibi, D; Ghorbanpoor, M; Anbari, S; Pourmahdi Broojeni, M

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the immunopathological effects of aqueous Echinacea purpurea extract (EPE) on mice experimentally challenged with Pasteurella multocida serotype A, forty female BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups. The groups included a control group (received sterile distilled water 2 times/week for 2 weeks, intraperitoneally and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally), a PMA group (received sterile distilled water as the control group and after 2 weeks, 5.6 × 103 CFU/ml of P. multocida serotype A, intranasally), an EPE+PMA group (received E. purpurea extract intraperitoneally 2 times/week for 2 weeks and then challenged as the PMA group) and an EPE group (received E. purpurea extract as EPE+PMA group and then 100 µl sterile saline intranasally). After 24 and 48 h post challenge, half of the animals in each group were sacrificed and analyzed for bacterial counts in their lungs and livers, TNFα serum levels and histapathological changes. The results showed significant differences in lung bacterial counts between PMA and EPE+PMA groups. TNFα serum level was significantly higher in the PMA group. Histopathological examination revealed infiltration of neutrophils in alveolar septa and hyperemia in the PMA group. In addition, the criteria of bronchopneumonia were partially recovered in the EPE+PMA compared to the PMA group. According to the results, it seems that E. purpurea extract has an immunomodulatory effect and can be used to prevent or control of pneumonia caused by Pasteurella. PMID:27175135

  1. [Response of Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree rings at different slope aspects to rapid warming in western Sichuan, China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin-de; Zhang, Yuan-dong; Wang, Xiao-chun

    2016-02-01

    By using an empirical 'signal-free' standardization approach, we constructed four Picea purpurea and Abies faxoniana tree-ring chronologies at southeast and northwest slope aspects of Erdaohai and east slope aspect of Zharisi, Songpan, west Sichuan, China. The response analysis and multivariate analysis of variance between tree rings and climatic variables were conducted to explore the divergent responses of tree growth at different slope aspects to the recent warming climate. Results showed that tree growth of P. purpurea at east slope aspect was obviously accelerated (0.011 a-1) since rapid warming in 1980, whereas those at northwest slope aspect was significantly reduced (-0.006 a-1). Tree growth of P. purpurea at southeast slope aspect and A. faxoniana at northwest slope aspect decreased in significantly. With the rapid warming, growth-climate relationships of P. purpurea and A. faxoniana at different slope aspects changed significantly. After rapid warming in 1980, the promoting effects of growing season temperature (GST) on P. purpurea growth at east slope increased significantly, while the inhibitory effects of GST on its growth at southeast and northwest slopes also increased significantly. However, the effects of GST on A. faxoniana growth at northwest slope did not change significantly before and after rapid warming. The effects of precipitation in May (PM) on P. purpurea growth at east slope was changed from inhibition before rapid warming to significant promotion after rapid warming, while the inhibitory effects of PM on P. purpurea growth at southeast and northwest slopes increased significantly. For A. faioniana at northwest slope, however, it did not change obviously before and after rapid warming. The response analysis between tree growth and the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) showed that soil moisture variations at different slope aspects were an important reason of tree-ring growth response difference since rapid warming. In addition, the

  2. Metabolic responses of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaves to mycorrhization as revealed by mass spectrometry and 1H NMR spectroscopy metabolite profiling

    PubMed Central

    Aliferis, Konstantinos A.; Chamoun, Rony; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-01-01

    The root system of most terrestrial plants form symbiotic interfaces with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which are important for nutrient cycling and ecosystem sustainability. The elucidation of the undergoing changes in plants' metabolism during symbiosis is essential for understanding nutrient acquisition and for alleviation of soil stresses caused by environmental cues. Within this context, we have undertaken the task of recording the fluctuation of willow (Salix purpurea L.) leaf metabolome in response to AMF inoculation. The development of an advanced metabolomics/bioinformatics protocol employing mass spectrometry (MS) and 1H NMR analyzers combined with the in-house-built metabolite library for willow (http://willowmetabolib.research.mcgill.ca/index.html) are key components of the research. Analyses revealed that AMF inoculation of willow causes up-regulation of various biosynthetic pathways, among others, those of flavonoid, isoflavonoid, phenylpropanoid, and the chlorophyll and porphyrin pathways, which have well-established roles in plant physiology and are related to resistance against environmental stresses. The recorded fluctuation in the willow leaf metabolism is very likely to provide AMF-inoculated willows with a significant advantage compared to non-inoculated ones when they are exposed to stresses such as, high levels of soil pollutants. The discovered biomarkers of willow response to AMF inoculation and corresponding pathways could be exploited in biomarker-assisted selection of willow cultivars with superior phytoremediation capacity or genetic engineering programs. PMID:26042135

  3. Fluorescent prey traps in carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Kurup, R; Johnson, A J; Sankar, S; Hussain, A A; Sathish Kumar, C; Sabulal, B

    2013-05-01

    Carnivorous plants acquire most of their nutrients by capturing ants, insects and other arthropods through their leaf-evolved biological traps. So far, the best-known attractants in carnivorous prey traps are nectar, colour and olfactory cues. Here, fresh prey traps of 14 Nepenthes, five Sarracenia, five Drosera, two Pinguicula species/hybrids, Dionaea muscipula and Utricularia stellaris were scanned at UV 366 nm. Fluorescence emissions of major isolates of fresh Nepenthes khasiana pitcher peristomes were recorded at an excitation wavelength of 366 nm. N. khasiana field pitcher peristomes were masked by its slippery zone extract, and prey capture rates were compared with control pitchers. We found the existence of distinct blue fluorescence emissions at the capture spots of Nepenthes, Sarracenia and Dionaea prey traps at UV 366 nm. These alluring blue emissions gradually developed with the growth of the prey traps and diminished towards their death. On excitation at 366 nm, N. khasiana peristome 3:1 CHCl3–MeOH extract and its two major blue bands showed strong fluorescence emissions at 430–480 nm. Masking of blue emissions on peristomes drastically reduced prey capture in N. khasiana pitchers. We propose these molecular emissions as a critical factor attracting arthropods and other visitors to these carnivorous traps. Drosera, Pinguicula and Utricularia prey traps showed only red chlorophyll emissions at 366 nm. PMID:23696970

  4. Saltwater spray as an agent of natural selection: no evidence of local adaptation within a coastal population of Triplasis purpurea (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Cheplick, Gregory P; White, Timothy P

    2002-04-01

    An ability to tolerate airborne saltwater spray is critical for plant populations in coastal environments. The opportunity for continued microevolution for improved salt tolerance can exist if there is variation in the response of genetic families to saltwater spray. Our objective was to determine whether or not there was differentiation among subpopulations near (15 m) and far (80 m) from shore and among families within subpopulations in relation to the effects of salt spray on life history traits in a population of the dunegrass Triplasis purpurea. In this annual, most seeds are matured in cleistogamous spikelets on axillary, leaf-sheath enclosed panicles and show poor dispersal capacity. Plants were reared in the greenhouse from seeds of 13 and 11 families from the near and far subpopulations, respectively. Fifty percent of plants in a family were subjected to 6 seawater sprays/wk, resulting in weekly salt deposition of 213 μg/cm(2); the others were sprayed with distilled water. Data were recorded on life span, tiller numbers, root and shoot dry mass, and seed production. There was no effect of subpopulation on any measured trait and, hence, no evidence for local adaptation to salt spray. Final tiller numbers, but not dry mass or seed production, were reduced by salt spray. However, for most traits there were significant family (within subpopulation) effects, indicating genetic substructuring. Life span and mean seed mass showed a significant family by treatment interaction, indicating genetic variation in phenotypic responses to salt spray. Life span and mean seed mass were reduced by salt spray in some, but not all, families. Path analysis revealed that an increase in life span or tiller number indirectly increased seed production via direct effects on vegetative mass. For this relatively salt-tolerant T. purpurea population on the south shore of Staten Island, New York, USA, salt sprays may not be a significant agent of natural selection. However, there are

  5. Effect of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. Leaves on Gentamicin-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Avijeet; Nahata, Alok; Singhai, Abhay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the nephroprotective and nephrocurative effects of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. leaves against gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in albino rats. The maximum free radical scavenging activity of the ethanolic extract was the basis for the selection of this extract for the in vivo study. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered to induce toxicity in the toxic group and the ethanolic extract (200 mg/kg p.o.) was administered in all treated groups. Blood urea and serum creatinine levels were monitored to assess the effects. The antioxidant potential was also evaluated by the estimation of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA). Gentamicin intoxication caused significant increases in blood urea and serum creatinine levels as compared to the normal control. In the preventive regimen, the extract (200 mg/kg, p.o.) showed significant reductions in the elevated blood urea and serum creatinine. Histopathological changes were in accordance with the biochemical findings. Also in the curative regimen, the blood urea and serum creatinine levels revealed significant curative effects. In our in vivo antioxidant activity, the GSH level was significantly (P< 0.05) increased in the extract-treated groups, whereas MDA was reduced significantly (P< 0.05). Further thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) led us to ascertain the presence of rutin and quercetin in the extract. We were able to isolate and characterize an isolate from the ethanolic extract and characterize it on the basis of chromatographic, melting point, FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopic studies. The findings suggest that the ethanol extract of Tephrosia purpurea leaves possesses marked nephroprotective and curative activities without any toxicity. The proposed mechanisms for the claimed activity are antioxidant activity and the inhibition of an overproduction of NO and Cox-2 expression. These activities may be

  6. The carnivorous pale pitcher plant harbors diverse, distinct, and time-dependent bacterial communities.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Margaret M; Fuselier, Danielle M; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C

    2010-03-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  7. The Carnivorous Pale Pitcher Plant Harbors Diverse, Distinct, and Time-Dependent Bacterial Communities▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Koopman, Margaret M.; Fuselier, Danielle M.; Hird, Sarah; Carstens, Bryan C.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of American carnivorous pitcher plants (Sarracenia) to digest insect prey is facilitated by microbial associations. Knowledge of the details surrounding this interaction has been limited by our capability to characterize bacterial diversity in this system. To describe microbial diversity within and between pitchers of one species, Sarracenia alata, and to explore how these communities change over time as pitchers accumulate and digest insect prey, we collected and analyzed environmental sequence tag (454 pyrosequencing) and genomic fingerprint (automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism) data. Microbial richness associated with pitcher plant fluid is high; more than 1,000 unique phylogroups were identified across at least seven phyla and 50 families. We documented an increase in bacterial diversity and abundance with time and observed repeated changes in bacterial community composition. Pitchers from different plants harbored significantly more similar bacterial communities at a given time point than communities coming from the same genetic host over time. The microbial communities in pitcher plant fluid also differ significantly from those present in the surrounding soil. These findings indicate that the bacteria associated with pitcher plant leaves are far from random assemblages and represent an important step toward understanding this unique plant-microbe interaction. PMID:20097807

  8. Applications of the Phytomedicine Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower) in Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Extracts of Echinacea purpurea (EP, purple coneflower) have been used traditionally in North America for the treatment of various types of infections and wounds, and they have become very popular herbal medicines globally. Recent studies have revealed that certain standardized preparations contain potent and selective antiviral and antimicrobial activities. In addition, they display multiple immune-modulatory activities, comprising stimulation of certain immune functions such as phagocytic activity of macrophages and suppression of the proinflammatory responses of epithelial cells to viruses and bacteria, which are manifested as alterations in secretion of various cytokines and chemokines. These immune modulations result from upregulation or downregulation of the relevant genes and their transcription factors. All these bioactivities can be demonstrated at noncytotoxic concentrations of extract and appear to be due to multiple components rather than the individual chemical compounds that characterize Echinacea extracts. Potential applications of the bioactive extracts may go beyond their traditional uses. PMID:22131823

  9. Purpurediolin and purpurenin, two new cytotoxic adjacent bis-tetrahydrofuran annonaceous acetogenins from the seeds of Annona purpurea.

    PubMed

    Chávez, D; Mata, R

    1998-05-01

    Two novel cytotoxic acetogenins, purpurediolin (1) and purpurenin (2), were isolated from the seeds of Annona purpurea. Their structures were elucidated by a combination of chemical and spectral methods including MS and NMR measurements. In addition, six known acetogenins were obtained, namely, bullatacin, squamocin (annonin I), motrilin (squamocin C), annoglaucin, xylomatenin, and annonacin A. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in vitro against six human solid tumor cell lines. PMID:9599253

  10. Extracellular metabolism of sucrose in a submerged culture of Claviceps purpurea: formation of monosaccharides and clavine alkaloids.

    PubMed Central

    Kren, V; Pazoutová, S; Rylko, V; Sajdl, P; Wurst, M; Rehácek, Z

    1984-01-01

    Transformation of extracellular sucrose during cultivation of Claviceps purpurea led to the formation of mono- and oligosaccharides. Maltose was a suitable substrate for submerged fermentation of alkaloids. Fermentation in a medium with maltose was characterized by an insignificant formation of glucans, intensive sporulation, suspension growth of mycelium, and a higher formation of elymoclavine. Glucose alone yielded low levels of total alkaloids and high glucan formation; on the other hand, glucose promoted the formation of elymoclavine. PMID:6508291

  11. Stimulatory effect of Echinacea purpurea extract on the trafficking activity of mouse dendritic cells: revealed by genomic and proteomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Several Echinacea species have been used as nutraceuticals or botanical drugs for "immunostimulation", but scientific evidence supporting their therapeutic use is still controversial. In this study, a phytocompound mixture extracted from the butanol fraction (BF) of a stem and leaf (S+L) extract of E. purpurea ([BF/S+L/Ep]) containing stringently defined bioactive phytocompounds was obtained using standardized and published procedures. The transcriptomic and proteomic effects of this phytoextract on mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) were analyzed using primary cultures. Results Treatment of BMDCs with [BF/S+L/Ep] did not significantly influence the phenotypic maturation activity of dendritic cells (DCs). Affymetrix DNA microarray and bioinformatics analyses of genes differentially expressed in DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] for 4 or 12 h revealed that the majority of responsive genes were related to cell adhesion or motility (Cdh10, Itga6, Cdh1, Gja1 and Mmp8), or were chemokines (Cxcl2, Cxcl7) or signaling molecules (Nrxn1, Pkce and Acss1). TRANSPATH database analyses of gene expression and related signaling pathways in treated-DCs predicted the JNK, PP2C-α, AKT, ERK1/2 or MAPKAPK pathways as the putative targets of [BF/S+L/Ep]. In parallel, proteomic analysis showed that the expressions of metabolic-, cytoskeleton- or NF-κB signaling-related proteins were regulated by treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep]. In vitro flow cytometry analysis of chemotaxis-related receptors and in vivo cell trafficking assay further showed that DCs treated with [BF/S+L/Ep] were able to migrate more effectively to peripheral lymph node and spleen tissues than DCs treated as control groups. Conclusion Results from this study suggest that [BF/S+L/Ep] modulates DC mobility and related cellular physiology in the mouse immune system. Moreover, the signaling networks and molecules highlighted here are potential targets for nutritional or clinical application of Echinacea or

  12. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  13. Recreational use of D-lysergamide from the seeds of Argyreia nervosa, Ipomoea tricolor, Ipomoea violacea, and Ipomoea purpurea in Poland.

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Grzegorz R; Swiergiel, Artur H

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there are important changes in recreational drug use. The aim of the present study was to analyse reports published on a recreational web site by drug users who ingested seeds of plants belonging to the Convolvulaceae family and to compare them with available medical case reports. We have also included reports describing the effects induced by "druids fantasy," which is a new drug allegedly containing the same alkaloid as the seeds of A. nervosa. Our search reveals the reoccurrence of recreational use of I. tricolor and violacea (morning glory), which had not been reported in medical literature since 1968. We have also found that drug users are experimenting with other species, such as I. purpurea, whose psychoactive properties are unknown. Symptoms and doses reported by drug users were comparable with the few available medical case reports. The most worrying symptom was suicidal ideation reported by two subjects who ingested A. nervosa and Ipomoea seeds. Effects induced by druids fantasy were comparable with the effects induced by A. nervosa and various Ipomoea species. The ingestion of seeds was frequently associated with taking drugs such as cannabis and hashish, although other combinations, for example with dextromethorphan, were also reported. PMID:23662334

  14. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  15. Bacterial diversity and composition in the fluid of pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yayoi; Chaffron, Samuel; Salcher, Michaela M; Shimizu-Inatsugi, Rie; Kobayashi, Masaki J; Diway, Bibian; von Mering, Christian; Pernthaler, Jakob; Shimizu, Kentaro K

    2015-07-01

    Pitchers are modified leaves used by carnivorous plants for trapping prey. Their fluids contain digestive enzymes from the plant and they harbor abundant microbes. In this study, the diversity of bacterial communities was assessed in Nepenthes pitcher fluids and the composition of the bacterial community was compared to that in other environments, including the phyllosphere of Arabidopsis, animal guts and another pitcher plant, Sarracenia. Diversity was measured by 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. A total of 232,823 sequences were obtained after chimera and singleton removal that clustered into 3260 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (3% dissimilarity), which were taxonomically distributed over 17 phyla, 25 classes, 45 orders, 100 families, and 195 genera. Pyrosequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization yielded similar estimates of community composition. Most pitchers contained high proportions of unique OTUs, and only 22 OTUs (<0.6%) were shared by ≥14/16 samples, suggesting a unique bacterial assemblage in each pitcher at the OTU level. Diversity analysis at the class level revealed that the bacterial communities of both opened and unopened pitchers were most similar to that of Sarracenia and to that in the phyllosphere. Therefore, the bacterial community in pitchers may be formed by environmental filtering and/or by phyllosphere bacteria. PMID:26138047

  16. Purpurolic acid: A new natural alkaloid from Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew; Beaumont, Claire; Manzarpour, Azita; Mantle, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A novel secondary metabolite from the sclerotia of Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. is described; the structure is based on (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and electrospray mass spectrometry. It has an elemental composition C10H16N2O7 and is comprised mainly of proline and alanine moieties, although without peptide linkage. Notably, these amino-acids are also components of the cyclic tripeptide side chain of several classic ergoline alkaloids. Designated as purpurolic acid, the new compound is the principal free amino-acid in ergot and its natural abundance exceeds that of the ergoline alkaloids with which it accumulates in parallel during parasitic development. In contrast, it does not accumulate in the fungus in axenic culture, even when ergotamine is synthesised. The extent to which the compound is a metabolite of other ergot fungi worldwide is unknown. Biological activity and metabolic significance also remain unknown, but purpurolic acid could become a biomarker for detection of ergot contamination in agricultural products of temperate latitudes. PMID:26693687

  17. Isolation, purification and characterization of antimicrobial protein from seedlings of Bauhinia purpurea L.

    PubMed

    Sakthivel, Muthu; Palani, Perumal

    2016-05-01

    A novel antimicrobial protein was purified from the seedlings of Bauhinia purpurea by sequential procedures entailing ammonium sulfate precipitation, cation exchange chromatography, preparative native-PAGE and a yield of 2.7% was obtained from the crude extract. The purified antimicrobial protein appeared as a single protein band on SDS-PAGE with the molecular mass of 20.9kDa. Purified antimicrobial protein exhibited a potent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Analysis of the trypsin digested peptides of purified protein using the MALDI-TOF MS/MS resulted in the identification of 174 amino acids. The purified protein had an optimum of pH of 5.5 and was stable at 35°C for exhibiting its maximal antibacterial activity. The addition of metal ions such as Mn(2+) and Ca(2+) to the purified protein enhanced the antimicrobial activity of purified protein. The MIC of purified protein against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were 13μg/ml and 15μg/ml, respectively. The purified protein digested the peptidoglycan layer of bacteria which was visualized by TEM analysis. PMID:26780468

  18. Amelioration of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea: An in vivo study in rats.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Azmat; Khan, Rahat Ali; Nasiruddin, Mohammad; Khan, Aijaz Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Our objective is to study the nephroprotective activity and antioxidant potential of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Healthy adult albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each Group I (vehicle control) and Group II (negative control). Group III (BBE200) and Group IV (BBE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea bark in doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively, and Group V (BPE200) and Group VI (BPE400) were administered the ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg/day p.o., respectively. All the treatments were given for nine days. Cisplatin in a single dose of 6 mg/kg i.p. was given on the 4 th day to all groups, except the vehicle control group. On the 10 th day, blood and urine were collected for biochemical tests and the rats were sacrificed. The kidney was removed for histology and lipid peroxidation-antioxidant test. Cisplatin caused nephrotoxicity as evidenced by elevated blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was decreased creatinine clearance in Group II as compared with Group I. Administration of BBE and BPE at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg in Group III and Group VI caused a dose-dependant reduction in the rise of blood urea, serum creatinine and urine glucose, and there was a dose-dependant increase in creatinine clearance compared with Group II. There was increased catalase and glutathione and decreased malondialdehyde levels in Group II, while BBE 400 (Group IV) and BPE 400 (Group VI) treatments significantly reversed the changes toward normal values. Histological examination of the kidney revealed protection in Group IV and Group VI compared with Group II. The ethanolic extract of Bauhinia purpurea unripe pods and bark has a nephroprotective activity against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PMID:26787565

  19. Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Extract of Bauhinia purpurea Leaves against Paracetamol-Induced Hepatic Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yahya, F.; Mamat, S. S.; Kamarolzaman, M. F. F.; Seyedan, A. A.; Jakius, K. F.; Mahmood, N. D.; Shahril, M. S.; Suhaili, Z.; Mohtarrudin, N.; Susanti, D.; Somchit, M. N.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.; Zakaria, Z. A.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to further establish the pharmacological properties of Bauhinia purpurea (Fabaceae), hepatoprotective potential of methanol extract of B. purpurea leaves (MEBP) was investigated using the paracetamol- (PCM-) induced liver toxicity in rats. Five groups of rats (n = 6) were used and administered orally once daily with 10% DMSO (negative control), 200 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or MEBP (50, 250, and 500 mg/kg) for 7 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood samples and livers were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The extract was also subjected to antioxidant study using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay with the total phenolic content (TPC) also determined. From the histological observation, lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis were observed in PCM-treated groups (negative control), whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pretreated with silymarin and MEBP. Hepatotoxic rats pretreated with silymarin or MEBP exhibited significant decrease (P < 0.05) in ALT and AST enzyme level. Moreover, the extract also exhibited antioxidant activity and contained high TPC. In conclusion, MEBP exerts potential hepatoprotective activity that could be partly attributed to its antioxidant activity and high phenolic content and thus warrants further investigation. PMID:23853662

  20. Ability of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea in N-nitrosodiethylamine genotoxicity and mutagenicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    de Rainho, Claudia R; Kaezer, Andréa; Aiub, Claudia A F; Felzenszwalb, Israel

    2010-12-01

    N-nitroso compounds, such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), can be formed by the reaction of secondary amines with nitrosating agents, and are suspected to be involved in tumors in humans. NDEA has been considered a weak carcinogen in genotoxic assays probably due to the inefficient nitrosamine activation system that is used and/or to the efficient repair system. In this work, we evaluated the sensibility of Allium cepa L. root tips and Tradescantia stamen hair mutation assay (Trad-SH) using Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea for NDEA (0.1; 0.5; 5 and 25 mM) genotoxicity and mutagenicity induction. Allium cepa L. was treated with different NDEA concentrations for 3h, for 3 consecutive days, including negative control (distilled water) and positive control maleic hydrazide (MH 30 mg/mL). After treatment, the roots were hydrolyzed, squashed, and the mitotic index (MI) and cytological abnormalities were scored. The results revealed a cytostatic effect of NDEA (0.5 and 5mM), showing a significant reduction in the MI. Chromosome stickiness suggests a NDEA toxic effect. T. pallida purpurea did not respond to mutagens with a dose-dependent pattern. In conclusion, our study indicates that the root tips of Allium cepa L. have sensibility to detect NDEA genotoxicity, but not for Trad-SH test. PMID:21152767

  1. Quantitative and qualitative transcriptome analysis of four industrial strains of Claviceps purpurea with respect to ergot alkaloid production.

    PubMed

    Majeská Čudejková, Mária; Vojta, Petr; Valík, Josef; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    The fungus Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic phytopathogen widely used in the pharmaceutical industry for its ability to produce ergot alkaloids (EAs). The fungus attacks unfertilized ovaries of grasses and forms sclerotia, which represent the only type of tissue where the synthesis of EAs occurs. The biosynthetic pathway of EAs has been extensively studied; however, little is known concerning its regulation. Here, we present the quantitative transcriptome analysis of the sclerotial and mycelial tissues providing a comprehensive view of transcriptional differences between the tissues that produce EAs and those that do not produce EAs and the pathogenic and non-pathogenic lifestyle. The results indicate metabolic changes coupled with sclerotial differentiation, which are likely needed as initiation factors for EA biosynthesis. One of the promising factors seems to be oxidative stress. Here, we focus on the identification of putative transcription factors and regulators involved in sclerotial differentiation, which might be involved in EA biosynthesis. To shed more light on the regulation of EA composition, whole transcriptome analysis of four industrial strains differing in their alkaloid spectra was performed. The results support the hypothesis proposing the composition of the amino acid pool in sclerotia to be an important factor regulating the final structure of the ergopeptines produced by Claviceps purpurea. PMID:26827914

  2. Differentiation of the two major species of Echinacea (E. augustifolia and E. purpurea) using a flow injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) fingerprinting method and chemometric analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A rapid, simple, and reliable flow-injection mass spectrometric (FIMS) method was developed to discriminate two major Echinacea species (E. purpurea and E. angustifolia) samples. Fifty-eight Echinacea samples collected from United States were analyzed using FIMS. Principle component analysis (PCA) a...

  3. Contact dermatitis as an adverse reaction to some topically used European herbal medicinal products - part 2: Echinacea purpurea-Lavandula angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Gangemi, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Miroddi, Marco; Chinou, Ioanna; Calapai, Gioacchino; Schmidt, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    This review focuses on contact dermatitis as an adverse effect of a selection of topically used herbal medicinal products for which the European Medicines Agency has completed an evaluation up to the end of November 2013 and for which a Community herbal monograph has been produced. Part 2: Echinacea purpurea Moench-Lavandula angustifolia Mill. PMID:25600644

  4. Purple Prairie Clover (Dalea purpurea Vent) Reduces Fecal Shedding of Escherichia coli in Pastured Cattle.

    PubMed

    Jin, L; Wang, Y; Iwaasa, A D; Li, Y; Xu, Z; Schellenberg, M P; Liu, X L; McAllister, T A; Stanford, K

    2015-08-01

    A 3-year (2009 to 2011) grazing study was conducted to assess the effects of purple prairie clover (PPC; Dalea purpurea Vent) on fecal shedding of total Escherichia coli in cattle. Three pasture types were used in the experiment: bromegrass (Check), mixed cool season grasses with PPC (Simple), and mixed cool and warm grasses with PPC (Complex). Pastures were rotationally grazed during a summer and fall grazing period. PPC was grazed in summer at the vegetative or early flower stage and at the flower or early seed stage during the fall. Fecal samples were collected for enumeration of E. coli and chemical analyses. Forage samples were collected throughout grazing for analysis. Condensed tannins (CT) were only detected in Simple and Complex pastures that contained PPC, with higher concentrations found in the fall than in the summer. Fecal counts of E. coli in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures linearly decreased (P < 0.05) over summer to fall in all 3 years, an outcome not observed in cattle grazing the Check pasture. Across the three grazing seasons, fecal E. coli was lower (P < 0.05) in cattle grazing Simple and Complex pastures than in those grazing the Check pasture during the fall. During the fall, feces collected from cattle grazing the Check pasture had higher (P < 0.05) values for pH, N, NH3-N, total volatile fatty acids, and branched-chain volatile fatty acids, but a lower (P < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio than feces collected from cattle grazing Simple or Complex pastures. In a second experiment, two strains of E. coli were cultured in M9 medium containing 25 to 200 μg/ml of PPC CT. Growth of E. coli was linearly (P < 0.01) reduced by increasing levels of PPC CT. Scanning electron micrographs showed electron-dense filamentous material associated with the outer membrane of E. coli cells exposed to CT. Incorporation of PPC into forage reduced the fecal shedding of E. coli from grazing cattle, likely due to the anti-E. coli properties of PPC CT. PMID

  5. Antifungal activity of extracts from endophytic fungi associated with Smallanthus maintained in vitro as autotrophic cultures and as pot plants in the greenhouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes associated with leaves, lateral shoots, and roots of Echinacea purpurea, a medicinal plant used by Native Americans, were evaluated for antifungal activity as well as larvicidal, adulticidal, and repellent activities against Aedes aegypti. A total of 39 fungal isolates were identif...

  6. Improving field production of ergot alkaloids by application of gametocide on rye host plants.

    PubMed

    Hanosová, Helena; Koprna, Radoslav; Valík, Josef; Knoppová, Lucie; Frébort, Ivo; Dzurová, Lenka; Galuszka, Petr

    2015-12-25

    Ergot alkaloids are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry in drug preparations for treating migraines and Parkinson's disease, inducing uterine contraction, and other purposes. Phytopathogenic fungi of the genus Claviceps (e.g. C. purpurea) comprise a major biological source of ergot alkaloids. Worldwide industrial production of these alkaloids derives almost equally from two biotechnological procedures: submerged culture of the fungus in fermenters and field parasitic production in dormant fungal organs known as sclerotia (also termed ergot). Ergot yields from field cultivation are greatly affected by weather and also can be much reduced by pollen contamination from imperfectly male-sterile rye, as only unfertilized ovaries can be infected by C. purpurea spores. Two substances with gametocidal effect - maleic hydrazide and 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid - were tested during three consecutive seasons in small field experiments for the ability to induce or amplify the male sterility of rye as well as the impacts on germination of C. purpurea spores and general vitality of rye host plants. Maleic hydrazide was proven to be a highly effective gametocide on both a fertile rye variety and a variety with imperfectly induced cytoplasmic male sterility. It showed negligible effect on germination of C. purpurea spores. Both accurate dosaging of the active gametocidal compound and timing of the application just 2-3 weeks before onset of anthesis proved crucial to achieving high ergot yield with minimum grain impurities. PMID:25639197

  7. Cardenolide glycosides from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea exhibit carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward renal adenocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fujino, Tomofumi; Kuroda, Minpei; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kubo, Satoshi; Tamura, Chikako; Sakamoto, Nami; Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Hayakawa, Makio

    2015-01-01

    Four cardenolide glycosides, glucodigifucoside (2), 3'-O-acetylglucoevatromonoside (9), digitoxigenin 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 4)-3-O-acetyl-β-D-digitoxopyranoside (11), and purpureaglycoside A (12), isolated from the seeds of Digitalis purpurea, exhibited potent cytotoxicity against human renal adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN. These compounds exhibited significantly lower IC50 values against ACHN than that against normal human renal proximal tubule-derived cell line HK-2. In particular, 2 exhibited the most potent and carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity, with a sixfold lower IC50 value against ACHN than that against HK-2. Measurement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor levels revealed that upregulation of p21/Cip1 expression was involved in the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity of 2. Further, compound 2 also exhibited the carcinoma-specific cytotoxicity toward hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. PMID:25345317

  8. An Old Yellow Enzyme Gene Controls the Branch Point between Aspergillus fumigatus and Claviceps purpurea Ergot Alkaloid Pathways▿

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Christine M.; Cheng, Johnathan Z.; O'Connor, Sarah E.; Panaccione, Daniel G.

    2010-01-01

    Ergot fungi in the genus Claviceps and several related fungal groups in the family Clavicipitaceae produce toxic ergot alkaloids. These fungi produce a variety of ergot alkaloids, including clavines as well as lysergic acid derivatives. Ergot alkaloids are also produced by the distantly related, opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. However, this fungus produces festuclavine and fumigaclavines A, B, and C, which collectively differ from clavines of clavicipitaceous fungi in saturation of the last assembled of four rings in the ergoline ring structure. The two lineages are hypothesized to share early steps of the ergot alkaloid pathway before diverging at some point after the synthesis of the tricyclic intermediate chanoclavine-I. Disruption of easA, a gene predicted to encode a flavin-dependent oxidoreductase of the old yellow enzyme class, in A. fumigatus led to accumulation of chanoclavine-I and chanoclavine-I-aldehyde. Complementation of the A. fumigatus easA mutant with a wild-type allele from the same fungus restored the wild-type profile of ergot alkaloids. These data demonstrate that the product of A. fumigatus easA is required for incorporation of chanoclavine-I-aldehyde into more-complex ergot alkaloids, presumably by reducing the double bond conjugated to the aldehyde group, thus facilitating ring closure. Augmentation of the A. fumigatus easA mutant with a homologue of easA from Claviceps purpurea resulted in accumulation of ergot alkaloids typical of clavicipitaceous fungi (agroclavine, setoclavine, and its diastereoisomer isosetoclavine). These data indicate that functional differences in the easA-encoded old yellow enzymes of A. fumigatus and C. purpurea result in divergence of their respective ergot alkaloid pathways. PMID:20435769

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE DERYNG AND CLEVENGER-TYPE APPARATUS IN ISOLATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF COMPONENTS OF ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE MUTELINA PURPUREA THELL. FLOWERS.

    PubMed

    Baj, Tomasz; Sieniawska, Elwira; Kowalski, Radoslaw; Wesolowskp, Marek; Ulewicz-Magulska, Beata

    2015-01-01

    In this study, both qualitative and quantitative analyses of chemical composition of M. purpurea essential oil obtained in the Deryng and Clevenger-type apparatuses were compared. As a result, content of volatile compounds were: 785.67 mg/mL and 833.33 mg/mL in the oil obtained in the Deryng (D-EO) and Clevenger-type apparatuses (C-EO), respectively. The major components of both essential oils from M. purpurea were: a-pinene, sabinene, myrcene, (Z)-sesquisabinene hydrate, (E)-sesquisabinene hydrate, and a-bis-abolol. The correlation coefficients values are not determined by the differences in the concentrations of the components resulting from the application of two different methods of distillation. PMID:26642659

  10. Safety and Efficacy Profile of Echinacea purpurea to Prevent Common Cold Episodes: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jawad, M.; Schoop, R.; Suter, A.; Klein, P.; Eccles, R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the safety (risk) and efficacy (benefit) of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root) or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions). Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P < 0.05). Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio. PMID:23024696

  11. Isomeric C12-alkamides from the roots of Echinacea purpurea improve basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Dorota; El-Houri, Rime B; Borkowski, Kamil; Petersen, Rasmus K; Fretté, Xavier C; Wolber, Gerhard; Grevsen, Kai; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2014-12-01

    Echinacea purpurea has been used in traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of upper respiratory tract infections and the common cold. Recent investigations have indicated that E. purpurea also has an effect on insulin resistance. A dichloromethane extract of E. purpurea roots was found to enhance glucose uptake in adipocytes and to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ. The purpose of the present study was to identify the bioactive compounds responsible for the potential antidiabetic effect of the dichloromethane extract using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach. Basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used to assess the bioactivity of extract, fractions and isolated metabolites. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ transactivation assay was used to determine the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activating properties of the extract, active fractions and isolated metabolites. Two novel isomeric dodeca-2E,4E,8Z,10E/Z-tetraenoic acid 2-methylbutylamides together with two known C12-alkamides and α-linolenic acid were isolated from the active fractions. The isomeric C12-alkamides were found to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, to increase basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake in adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner, and to exhibit characteristics of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ partial agonist. PMID:25371981

  12. Molecular characterization of the NADPH oxidase complex in the ergot fungus Claviceps purpurea: CpNox2 and CpPls1 are important for a balanced host-pathogen interaction.

    PubMed

    Schürmann, Janine; Buttermann, Dagmar; Herrmann, Andrea; Giesbert, Sabine; Tudzynski, Paul

    2013-10-01

    Reactive oxygen species producing NADPH oxidase (Nox) complexes are involved in defense reactions in animals and plants while they trigger infection-related processes in pathogenic fungi. Knowledge about the composition and localization of these complexes in fungi is limited; potential components identified thus far include two to three catalytical subunits, a regulatory subunit (NoxR), the GTPase Rac, the scaffold protein Bem1, and a tetraspanin-like membrane protein (Pls1). We showed that, in the biotrophic grass-pathogen Claviceps purpurea, the catalytical subunit CpNox1 is important for infection. Here, we present identification of major Nox complex partners and a functional analysis of CpNox2 and the tetraspanin CpPls1. We show that, as in other fungi, Nox complexes are important for formation of sclerotia; CpRac is, indeed, a complex partner because it interacts with CpNoxR, and CpNox1/2 and CpPls1 are associated with the endoplasmatic reticulum. However, unlike in all other fungi, Δcppls1 is more similar to Δcpnox1 than to Δcpnox2, and CpNox2 is not essential for infection. In contrast, Δcpnox2 shows even more pronounced disease symptoms, indicating that Cpnox2 controls the infection process and moderates damage to the host. These data confirm that fungal Nox complexes have acquired specific functions dependent of the lifestyle of the pathogen. PMID:23777432

  13. Echinacea Purpurea Significantly Induces Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) but does not alter Lopinavir-Ritonavir Exposure in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Penzak, Scott R.; Robertson, Sarah M.; Hunt, Jennifer D.; Chairez, Cheryl; Malati, Christine Y.; Alfaro, Raul M.; Stevenson, James M.; Candidate, Pharm.D.; Kovacs, Joseph A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective To determine the influence of Echinacea purpurea on the pharmacokinetics of lopinavir-ritonavir, and on CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity using the probe substrates midazolam, and fexofenadine, respectively. Design Open label, single-sequence pharmacokinetic study. Setting Outpatient clinic in a Federal Government research hospital. Subjects Thirteen (8 males) healthy volunteers (median age: 31 yrs). Measurements and main results Healthy volunteers received lopinavir-ritonavir (400/100 mg) twice daily for 30 days. On study day 16, subjects began taking Echinacea purpurea 500 mg three times daily, which they continued for four weeks, the first two weeks in combination with lopinavir-ritonavir. On days 15 and 30 of lopinavir-ritonavir administration (pre and post-Echinacea, respectively), serial blood samples were collected over 12 hrs to determine lopinavir and ritonavir concentrations and subsequent pharmacokinetic parameters using non-compartmental methods. Study subjects also received single doses of midazolam (8 mg orally) and fexofenadine (120 mg orally) before- and after 28 days of Echinacea purpurea to assess CYP3A and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity, respectively. Neither lopinavir nor ritonavir pharmacokinetics were significantly altered by 2 weeks of Echinacea coadministration. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 90% CI) for lopinavir area under the concentration vs. time curve from zero to 12 hrs (AUC0–12) and maximum concentration (post-Echinacea/pre-Echinacea) were 0.96 (0.83, 1.10) and 1.00 (0.88, 1.12), respectively (P > 0.05). Conversely, GMRs (90% CIs) for midazolam AUC from time zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and oral clearance were 0.73 (0.61, 0.85) (P = 0.008) and 1.37 (1.10, 1.63) (P = 0.02), respectively. Fexofenadine pharmacokinetics did not significantly differ pre- and post-echinacea administration (P > 0.05). Conclusion Echinacea purpurea induced CYP3A activity but did not alter lopinavir concentrations, most likely due to

  14. Genomics and proteomics of immune modulatory effects of a butanol fraction of echinacea purpurea in human dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chien-Yu; Staniforth, Vanisree; Chiao, Ming-Tsang; Hou, Chia-Chung; Wu, Han-Ming; Yeh, Kuo-Chen; Chen, Chun-Houh; Hwang, Pei-Ing; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Shyur, Lie-Fen; Yang, Ning-Sun

    2008-01-01

    Background Echinacea spp. extracts and the derived phytocompounds have been shown to induce specific immune cell activities and are popularly used as food supplements or nutraceuticals for immuno-modulatory functions. Dendritic cells (DCs), the most potent antigen presenting cells, play an important role in both innate and adaptive immunities. In this study, we investigated the specific and differential gene expression in human immature DCs (iDCs) in response to treatment with a butanol fraction containing defined bioactive phytocompounds extracted from stems and leaves of Echinacea purpurea, that we denoted [BF/S+L/Ep]. Results Affymetrix DNA microarray results showed significant up regulation of specific genes for cytokines (IL-8, IL-1β, and IL-18) and chemokines (CXCL 2, CCL 5, and CCL 2) within 4 h after [BF/S+L/Ep] treatment of iDCs. Bioinformatics analysis of genes expressed in [BF/S+L/Ep]-treated DCs revealed a key-signaling network involving a number of immune-modulatory molecules leading to the activation of a downstream molecule, adenylate cyclase 8. Proteomic analysis showed increased expression of antioxidant and cytoskeletal proteins after treatment with [BF/S+L/Ep] and cichoric acid. Conclusion This study provides information on candidate target molecules and molecular signaling mechanisms for future systematic research into the immune-modulatory activities of an important traditional medicinal herb and its derived phytocompounds. PMID:18847511

  15. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant properties of Cyclotrichium niveum, Thymus praecox subsp. caucasicus var. caucasicus, Echinacea purpurea and E. pallida.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I; Senol, F S; Gülpinar, A R; Kartal, M; Sekeroglu, N; Deveci, M; Kan, Y; Sener, B

    2009-06-01

    The dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and aqueous extracts of Cyclotrichium niveum (CN) and Thymus praecox subsp. caucasicus var. caucasicus (TP), Echinacea purpurea (EPU), and E. pallida (EPA) along with the essential oils of CN and TP were assessed for their anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant activities. AChE inhibition was estimated using spectrophotometric method of Ellman. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging and ferrous ion-chelating power tests. Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of CN and TP were also tested. CN essential oil was found to contain isomenthone (56.21%) and pulegone (19.76%). The ethyl acetate (83.11-87.98%) and dichloromethane (73.45-84.02%) extracts of CN showed the highest AChE inhibition. The ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of TP exerted significant DPPH scavenger effect. The water extracts of CN and TP and the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of EPU displayed the highest ferrous ion-chelating effect. The leaf and flower essential oils of TP had the best FRAP. PMID:19285534

  16. Morphological and Genetic Variation along a North-to-South Transect in Stipa purpurea, a Dominant Grass on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau: Implications for Response to Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Zhao, Yao; You, Jianling; Qi, Danhui; Zhou, Yin; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    Estimating the potential of species to cope with rapid environmental climatic modifications is of vital importance for determining their future viability and conservation. The variation between existing populations along a climatic gradient may predict how a species will respond to future climate change. Stipa purpurea is a dominant grass species in the alpine steppe and meadow of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Ecological niche modelling was applied to S. purpurea, and its distribution was found to be most strongly correlated with the annual precipitation and the mean temperature of the warmest quarter. We established a north-to-south transect over 2000 km long on the QTP reflecting the gradients of temperature and precipitation, and then we estimated the morphological by sampling fruited tussocks and genetic divergence by using 11 microsatellite markers between 20 populations along the transect. Reproductive traits (the number of seeds and reproductive shoots), the reproductive-vegetative growth ratio and the length of roots in the S. purpurea populations varied significantly with climate variables. S. purpurea has high genetic diversity (He = 0.585), a large effective population size (Ne >1,000), and a considerable level of gene flow between populations. The S. purpurea populations have a mosaic genetic structure: some distant populations (over 1000 km apart) clustered genetically, whereas closer populations (< 100 km apart) had diverged significantly, suggesting local adaptation. Asymmetrical long-distance inter-population gene flow occurs along the sampling transect and might be mediated by seed dispersal via migratory herbivores, such as the chiru (Pantholops hodgsonii). These findings suggest that population performance variation and gene flow both facilitate the response of S. purpurea to climate change. PMID:27580056

  17. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee.

    PubMed

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants' ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation. PMID:26263160

  18. The three-dimensional structure of "Lonely Guy" from Claviceps purpurea provides insights into the phosphoribohydrolase function of Rossmann fold-containing lysine decarboxylase-like proteins.

    PubMed

    Dzurová, Lenka; Forneris, Federico; Savino, Simone; Galuszka, Petr; Vrabka, Josef; Frébort, Ivo

    2015-08-01

    The recently discovered cytokinin (CK)-specific phosphoribohydrolase "Lonely Guy" (LOG) is a key enzyme of CK biosynthesis, converting inactive CK nucleotides into biologically active free bases. We have determined the crystal structures of LOG from Claviceps purpurea (cpLOG) and its complex with the enzymatic product phosphoribose. The structures reveal a dimeric arrangement of Rossmann folds, with the ligands bound to large pockets at the interface between cpLOG monomers. Structural comparisons highlight the homology of cpLOG to putative lysine decarboxylases. Extended sequence analysis enabled identification of a distinguishing LOG sequence signature. Taken together, our data suggest phosphoribohydrolase activity for several proteins of unknown function. PMID:26010010

  19. Novel Approach to Identify Potential Bioactive Plant Metabolites: Pharmacological and Metabolomics Analyses of Ethanol and Hot Water Extracts of Several Canadian Medicinal Plants of the Cree of Eeyou Istchee

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Nan; Saleem, Ammar; Musallam, Lina; Walshe-Roussel, Brendan; Badawi, Alaa; Cuerrier, Alain; Arnason, John T.; Haddad, Pierre S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated and compared the antidiabetic potential and molecular mechanisms of 17 Cree plants’ ethanol extracts (EE) and hot water extracts (HWE) on glucose homeostasis in vitro and used metabolomics to seek links with the content of specific phytochemicals. Several EE of medical plants stimulated muscle glucose uptake and inhibited hepatic G6Pase activity. Some HWE partially or completely lost these antidiabetic activities in comparison to EE. Only R. groenlandicum retained similar potential between EE and HWE in both assays. In C2C12 muscle cells, EE of R. groenlandicum, A. incana and S. purpurea stimulated glucose uptake by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and increasing glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) expression. In comparison to EE, HWE of R. groenlandicum exhibited similar activities; HWE of A. incana completely lost its effect on all parameters; interestingly, HWE of S. purpurea activated insulin pathway instead of AMPK pathway to increase glucose uptake. In the liver, for a subset of 5 plants, HWE and EE activated AMPK pathway whereas the EE and HWE of S. purpurea and K. angustifolia also activated insulin pathways. Quercetin-3-O-galactoside and quercetin 3-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside, were successfully identified by discriminant analysis as biomarkers of HWE plant extracts that stimulate glucose uptake in vitro. More importantly, the latter compound was not identified by previous bioassay-guided fractionation. PMID:26263160

  20. Echinacea purpurea up-regulates CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activation of pregnane X receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Awortwe, Charles; Manda, Vamshi K.; Avonto, Cristina; Khan, Shabana I.; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Bouic, Patrick J.; Rosenkranz, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanism underlying Echinacea-mediated induction of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 in terms of human pregnane X receptor (PXR) activation. Crude extracts and fractions of Echinacea purpurea were tested for PXR activation in HepG2 cells by a reporter gene assay. Quantitative real-time PCR was carried out to determine their effects on CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 mRNA expressions. Capsules and fractions were risk ranked as high, intermediate and remote risk of drug-metabolizing enzymes induction based on EC50 values determined for respective CYPs. Fractions F1, F2 and capsule (2660) strongly activated PXR with 5-, 4- and 3.5-fold increase in activity, respectively. Echinacea preparations potentiated up-regulation of CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and MDR1 via PXR activation. Thus E. purpurea preparations cause herb–drug interaction by up-regulating CYP1A2, CYP3A4 and P-gp via PXR activation. PMID:25377539

  1. Genetic variation for resistance to ergot (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) among full-sib families of five populations of winter rye (Secale cereale L.).

    PubMed

    Mirdita, V; Dhillon, B S; Geiger, H H; Miedaner, T

    2008-12-01

    Ergot (Claviceps purpurea [Fr.] Tul.) is a serious disease of rye (Secale cereale L.) and it adversely affects the quality of grain. The present investigation was undertaken to study genotypic variability among full-sib families (FSF) of five open-pollinated (OP) winter rye populations of highly diverse origin, namely Dankovskie Selekcyine (Poland), Charkovskaja (Ukraine), NEM4 (Russia), Halo and Carokurz, both from Germany. About 50 FSF were developed at random in each population, and the FSF of each population were evaluated in separate but adjacent experiments conducted in four environments under artificial inoculation. A mixture of conidia of C. purpurea isolates was sprayed thrice during the flowering period. The materials were manually harvested at yellow-ripe stage. Resistance trait recorded was disease severity, i.e. percent ergot sclerotia in grain by weight. Mean ergot severity ranged from 2.29 to 4.08% for the five populations across environments. Significant genotypic variation (P < 0.01) due to FSF and FSF x environment interaction was observed within each population. Genotypic variation within all populations was higher than that among five populations. All populations showed high estimates of heritability (0.72-0.89). The study indicated that the evaluated OP populations are rich reservoirs of genetic variation that should also be used in hybrid breeding. Recurrent selection to further improve ergot resistance should be successful. PMID:18797841

  2. Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  3. Fenestration: a window of opportunity for carnivorous plants.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, Graeme D

    2014-01-01

    A long-standing but controversial hypothesis assumes that carnivorous plants employ aggressive mimicry to increase their prey capture success. A possible mechanism is that pitcher plants use aggressive mimicry to deceive prey about the location of the pitcher's exit. Specifically, species from unrelated families sport fenestration, i.e. transparent windows on the upper surfaces of pitchers which might function to mimic the exit of the pitcher. This hypothesis has not been evaluated against alternative hypotheses predicting that fenestration functions to attract insects from afar. By manipulating fenestration, we show that it does not increase the number of Drosophila flies or of two ant species entering pitchers in Sarracenia minor nor their retention time or a pitcher's capture success. However, fenestration increased the number of Drosophila flies alighting on the pitcher compared with pitchers of the same plant without fenestration. We thus suggest that fenestration in S. minor is not an example of aggressive mimicry but rather functions in long-range attraction of prey. We highlight the need to evaluate aggressive mimicry relative to alternative concepts of plant-animal communication. PMID:24789140

  4. Effect of Rhizosphere Enzymes on Phytoremediation in PAH-Contaminated Soil Using Five Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Dai, Yuanyuan; Sun, Libo

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was performed to study the effectiveness of remediation using different plant species and the enzyme response involved in remediating PAH-contaminated soil. The study indicated that species Echinacea purpurea, Festuca arundinacea Schred, Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. possess the potential for remediation in PAH-contaminated soils. The study also determined that enzymatic reactions of polyphenol oxidase (except Fire Phoenix), dehydrogenase (except Fire Phoenix), and urease (except Medicago sativa L.) were more prominent over cultivation periods of 60d and 120d than 150d. Urease activity of the tested species exhibited prominently linear negative correlations with alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen content after the tested plants were cultivated for 150d (R2 = 0.9592). The experiment also indicated that alkaline phosphatase activity in four of the five tested species (Echinacea purpurea, Callistephus chinensis, Festuca arundinacea Schred and Fire Phoenix) was inhibited during the cultivation process (at 60d and 120d). At the same time, the study determined that the linear relationship between alkaline phosphatase activity and effective phosphorus content in plant rhizosphere soil exhibited a negative correlation after a growing period of 120d (R2 = 0.665). Phytoremediation of organic contaminants in the soil was closely related to specific characteristics of particular plant species, and the catalyzed reactions were the result of the action of multiple enzymes in the plant rhizosphere soil. PMID:25822167

  5. Comparative studies on plant range size: Linking reproductive and regenerative traits in two Ipomoea species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astegiano, Julia; Funes, Guillermo; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-09-01

    Reproductive and regenerative traits associated with colonization and persistence ability may determine plant range size. However, few comparative studies on plant distribution have assessed these traits simultaneously. Pollinator richness and frequency of visits, autonomous self-pollination ability, reproductive output (i.e., reproductive traits), seed bank strategy and seedling density (i.e., regenerative traits) were compared between the narrowly distributed Ipomoea rubriflora O'Donnell (Convolvulaceae) and its widespread congener Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. The narrowly distributed species showed higher ecological specialization to pollinators and lower autonomous self-pollination ability. Frequency of visits, natural seed/ovule ratio and fruit set, and total fruit production did not differ between species. However, the number of seeds produced per fruit was lower in the narrowly distributed species, translating into lower total seed production per plant. Indeed, I. rubriflora formed smaller transient and persistent seed banks and showed lower seedling density than the widespread I. purpurea. These reproductive and regenerative trait results suggest that the narrowly distributed species may have lower colonization and persistence ability than its widespread congener. They further suggest that the negative effects of lower fecundity in the narrowly distributed species might persist in time through the long-lasting effects of total seed production on seed bank size, reducing the species' ability to buffered environmental stochasticity. However, other regenerative traits, such as seed size, and processes such as pre- and post-dispersal seed predation, might modulate the effects of plant fecundity on plant colonization and persistence ability and thus range size.

  6. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  7. Preparation of iron nanoparticles-loaded Spondias purpurea seed waste as an excellent adsorbent for removal of phosphate from synthetic and natural waters.

    PubMed

    Arshadi, M; Foroughifard, S; Etemad Gholtash, J; Abbaspourrad, A

    2015-08-15

    The synthesis and characterization of nanoscale zerovalent iron particles (NZVI) supported on Spondias purpurea seed waste (S-NaOH-NZVI) was performed for the adsorption of phosphate (P) ions from waste waters. The effects of various parameters, such as contact time, pH, concentration, reusability and temperature were studied. The adsorption of phosphate ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, and Langmuir isotherms models have also been used to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation. The thermodynamic parameters (ΔG, ΔH and ΔS) indicated that the adsorption of phosphate ions were feasible, spontaneous and endothermic at 25-80 °C. No significant loss of activity was observed; confirming that the S-NaOH-NZVI has high stability during the adsorption process even after 12th runs. The suggested adsorbent in this paper was also implemented to remove P from the Persian Gulf water. XRD, FTIR and EDX analysis indicated the presence of Fe3 (PO4)2⋅8H2O (vivianite) on the S-NaOH-NZVI@P surface. PMID:25919431

  8. Echinacea purpurea root extract inhibits TNF release in response to Pam3Csk4 in a phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Fast, David J; Balles, John A; Scholten, Jeffrey D; Mulder, Timothy; Rana, Jatinder

    2015-10-01

    Polysaccharides derived from Echinacea have historically been shown to be immunostimulatory. We describe in this work however the anti-inflammatory effect of a water extract of Echinacea purpurea roots (EPRW) that inhibited Pam3Csk4 stimulated production of TNFα by human monocytic THP-1 cells. The polyphenols and alkylamides typically found in Echinacea extracts were absent in EPRW suggesting that the anti-inflammatory component(s) was a polysaccharide. This anti-inflammatory activity was shown to be mediated by the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway as chemical inhibition of PI3K abolished the EPRW anti-inflammatory effect. Demonstration of phosphorylation of Akt and ribosomal S6 proteins, downstream targets of PI3K confirmed EPRW-mediated activation of this pathway. In conclusion, this observation suggests that non-alkylamide/non-polyphenolic phytochemicals from Echinacea may contribute in part to some of the anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects such as reduced severity of symptoms that have been observed in vivo in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections with Echinacea. PMID:26190752

  9. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-06-01

    Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg(-1) TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

  10. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sativa L. could effectively reduce TPHs and its composition in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. After a 30-day pot-culture experiment, the removal rates were 37.16%, 46.74%, 49.42%, 41.00%, and 37.93%, respectively, significantly higher than that in the control (only 12.93%). Removal rates of TPH composition including saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbon, asphaltene, and polar compound reached 39.41%, 38.47%, 45.11%, 42.92%, and 37.52%, respectively, also higher than that in the control (only 6.90%). Further, the total biomass did not significantly decrease for all plants tested in 10,000 mg kg−1 TPH-contaminated soil. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of oil in the plant tissues. These results suggested that the typical ornamental species including G. aristata, E. purpurea, Fawn, Fire Phoenix, and M. sativa can be adopted in phytoremediation of oil-contaminated soil. PMID:22693416

  11. Flood and debris flow interactions with roads promote the invasion of exotic plants along steep mountain streams, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watterson, Nicholas A.; Jones, Julia A.

    2006-08-01

    This study examines the interactions among geomorphic and biogeographic processes that govern the invasion by two contrasting exotic plant species—a shrub, scotch broom ( Cytisus scoparius) and an herb, foxglove ( Digitalis purpurea), over several decades of road and stream networks in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest in western Oregon. Distributions of C. scoparius and D. purpurea were mapped along hillslopes and streams in 1993, 2002, and 2003. The mapped distributions were related to debris flow pathways and changes in stream morphology interpreted from field surveys and air photos over the period 1993 to 2003. Laboratory trials examined the response of seed germination to scarification (to test effects of transport by debris flows), soaking (to test effects of fluvial transport), and substrate texture (to test effects on establishment). C. scoparius and D. purpurea were present along roads and in clearcuts in the Andrews Forest from the 1970s to 2003, but invaded the stream (Lookout Creek) only after debris flows and floods during an extreme storm in 1996. Laboratory trials demonstrated that seeds could germinate on a variety of substrates after scarification and flood transport. Mapping and air photo/GIS analysis indicated that the distributions of exotic plants were located on freshly scoured bars and floodplains adjacent to the active channel, downstream of seed sources along roads that were connected to the main stem of Lookout Creek by road ditch drainage systems, and debris flow paths. This paper outlines a conceptual model for the invasion of exotic plants, highlighting the connectivity between road and stream networks provided by geomorphic processes in steep forested landscapes.

  12. Carnivorous Syndrome in Asian Pitcher Plants of the Genus Nepenthes

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovič, Andrej; Masarovičová, Elena; Hudák, Ján

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Pitcher plants Nepenthes alata and N. mirabilis are carnivorous species with leaves composed of a photosynthetic part (lamina) and a pitcher trap. This characteristic permitted direct physiological and anatomical comparison between these two distinct parts of the leaves to determine those features involved in the ‘carnivorous syndrome’, which include low net photosynthetic assimilation rate (AN) and low photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (PNUE). Methods Photosynthetic rate (AN) and respiration rate (Rd) were measured gasometrically, chlorophyll concentration was determined spectrophotometrically and nitrogen concentration was determined using a CHN elemental analyser in lamina and trap separately. Anatomy of N. alata was observed using light, fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. AN, foliar nitrogen and chlorophyll concentration were also compared with values for other carnivorous plant species (genera Sarracenia, Drosera) that combine both autotrophic and carnivorous functions into the same physical organ. Key Results It was found that the AN in Nepenthes lamina was low and PNUE was only slightly higher or similar in comparison with other carnivorous plants. It was not observed that the pitcher had a higher Rd than the lamina, but AN in the pitcher was significantly lower than in the lamina. Nepenthes possesses a cluster of characters that could result in reduced photosynthesis in the pitcher and be responsible for carnivorous function of the leaf: replacement of chlorophyll-containing cells with digestive glands, low chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration, compact mesophyll with a small portion of intercellular spaces, absence of palisade parenchyma and low stomatal density. Conclusion Low photosynthetic capacity, nitrogen efficiency, chlorophyll and nitrogen concentration of Nepenthes pitchers was found, together with a set of features that characterized the carnivorous syndrome. Dual use of leaves for photosynthesis and

  13. Echinacea species (Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell., Echinacea pallida (Nutt.) Nutt.,Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench): a review of their chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne; Anderson, Linda A; Gibbons, Simon; Phillipson, J David

    2005-08-01

    This paper reviews the chemistry, pharmacology and clinical properties of Echinacea species used medicinally. The Echinacea species Echinacea angustifolia, Echinacea pallida and Echinacea purpurea have a long history of medicinal use for a variety of conditions, particularly infections, and today echinacea products are among the best-selling herbal preparations in several developed countries. Modern interest in echinacea is focused on its immunomodulatory effects, particularly in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. The chemistry of Echinacea species is well documented, and several groups of constituents, including alkamides and caffeic acid derivatives, are considered important for activity. There are, however, differences in the constituent profile of the three species. Commercial echinacea samples and marketed echinacea products may contain one or more of the three species, and analysis of samples of raw material and products has shown that some do not meet recognized standards for pharmaceutical quality. Evidence from preclinical studies supports some of the traditional and modern uses for echinacea, particularly the reputed immunostimulant (or immunomodulatory) properties. Several, but not all, clinical trials of echinacea preparations have reported effects superior to those of placebo in the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory tract infections. However, evidence of efficacy is not definitive as studies have included different patient groups and tested various different preparations and dosage regimens of echinacea. On the basis of the available limited safety data, echinacea appears to be well tolerated. However, further investigation and surveillance are required to establish the safety profiles of different echinacea preparations. Safety issues include the possibility of allergic reactions, the use of echinacea by patients with autoimmune diseases and the potential for echinacea preparations to interact with

  14. The impact of dense willow stands (Salix purpurea L.) on the hydrology and soil stability of heavily compacted soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammeranner, Walter; Obriejetan, Michael; Florineth, Florin

    2010-05-01

    Willows are often used in soil bioengineering techniques for stabilizing heavily compacted soils (e.g. embankments, landfills, levees etc.). Beyond reinforcing and anchoring effects by their root matrix, plants enhance soil stability by decreasing pore-water pressure due to evapotranspiration. In the common praxis of soil bioengineering, it is taken for granted that willow stands have higher evapotranspiration rates than grass-herb (turf) vegetation. But the positive effect of dense willow stands on pore water pressure from the soil bioengineering point of view is insufficiently studied and therefore difficult to quantify. Hence, the study investigates the effect of willow stands on evapotranspiration and seepage compared to grass-herb vegetation using a lysimeter-like setup. The weighable lysimeters are composed of two planted barrels (one with a dense willow stand grown from brush mattresses; one with turf vegetation) and one unplanted barrel. The fill material used is a mineral silt-sand-gravel classified as silty sand compacted to 97% Proctor [DPr], meaning a dry density [ρD] of 1.97 g/cm³. Each barrel is equipped with two soil moisture sensors, four tensiometers and seepage measurement devices. Furthermore the relevant meteorological parameters as precipitation, air temperature, air moisture wind speed and radiation are measured. Plant parameters such as biomass, leaf area index and root growth are observed in 17 additional barrels. The talk is going to deal with methodology and setup of the lysimeter investigations, showing the results of the first growing season of these two vegetation types compared to bare soil. As result of the first growing season, evapotranspiration rates of the willow stands were significantly higher than those found with grass-herb vegetation, whereas seepage was significantly lower.

  15. Simultaneous determination and pharmacokinetic study of four phenol compounds in rat plasma by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract.

    PubMed

    Gan, Chunli; Liu, Lu; Du, Yan; Wang, Liqian; Gao, Mingjie; Wu, Lijun; Yang, Chunjuan

    2016-05-01

    A rapid and sensitive assay based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was established and validated for the simultaneous determination of cichoric acid, chlorogenic acid, quinic acid, and caffeic acid in rat plasma after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract using butylparaben as the internal standard. Samples were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate. The separations for analytes were performed on an ACQUITY UPLC HSS C18 column (1.8 μm 2.1 × 100 mm) using a gradient elution program with acetonitrile/10 mM ammonium acetate (pH 5.6) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode with negative electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification of each analyte was not higher than 10.85 ng/mL. The relative standard deviation of the intraday and interday precisions was less than 14.69%. The relative errors of accuracies were in the range of -13.80 to 14.91%. The mean recoveries for extraction recovery and matrix effect were higher than 80.79 and 89.98%, respectively. The method validation results demonstrated that the proposed method was sensitive, specific, and reliable, which was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of four components after oral administration of Echinacea purpurea extract. PMID:26924074

  16. Unraveling carbohydrate transport mechanisms in young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea) by 13CO2 efflux measurements from stem and soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Ronny; Muhr, Jan; Keitel, Claudia; Kayler, Zachary; Gavrichkova, Olga; Köhler, Michael; Gessler, Arthur; Gleixner, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    Transport mechanisms of soluble carbohydrates and diurnal CO2 efflux from tree stems and surrounding soil are well studied. However, the effect of transport carbohydrates on respiration and their interaction with storage processes is largely unknown. Therefore, we performed a set of 13CO2 pulse labeling experiments on young trees of European beech (Fagus sylvatica f. purpurea). We labeled the whole tree crowns in a closed transparent plastic chamber with 99% 13CO2 for 30 min. In one experiment, only a single branch was labeled and removed 36 hours after labeling. In all experiments, we continuously measured the 13CO2 efflux from stem, branch and soil and sampled leaf and stem material every 3 h for 2 days, followed by a daily sampling of leaves in the successive 5 days. The compound specific δ 13C value of extracted soluble carbohydrates from leaf and stem material was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography linked with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (HPLC-IRMS). The 13CO2 signal from soil respiration occurred only few hours after labeling indicating a very high transport rate of carbohydrates from leaf to roots and to the rhizosphere. The label was continuously depleted within the next 5 days. In contrast, we observed a remarkable oscillating pattern of 13CO2 efflux from the stem with maximum 13CO2 enrichment at noon and minima at night time. This oscillation suggests that enriched carbohydrates are respired during the day, whereas in the night the enriched sugars are not respired. The observed oscillation in stem 13CO2 enrichment remained unchanged even when only single branches were labelled and cut right afterwards. Thus, storage and conversion of carbohydrates only occurred within the stem. The δ13C patterns of extracted soluble carbohydrates showed, that a transformation of transitory starch to carbohydrates and vice versa was no driver of the oscillating 13CO2 efflux from the stem. Carbohydrates might have been transported in the phloem to

  17. Screening of condensed tannins from Canadian prairie forages for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 with an emphasis on purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent).

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Jin, L; Ominski, K H; He, M; Xu, Z; Krause, D O; Acharya, S N; Wittenberg, K M; Liu, X L; Stanford, K; McAllister, T A

    2013-04-01

    Tannins from forages grown (n = 10) on the Canadian prairie, as well as from Quebracho, Rhus semialata, and brown seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum), were screened for anti-Escherichia coli O157:H7 activity against E. coli O157:H7 strain 3081 at a concentration of 400 μg/ml for each tannin type, except for brown seaweed, which was at 50 μg/ml. Growth of the bacteria was assessed by measuring the optical density at 600 nm over 24 h. Tannin from seaweed at a concentration of 50 μg/ml inhibited growth of strain 3081. Among the terrestrial forages, only condensed tannins (CT) from purple prairie clover (Dalea purpurea Vent; PPC) increased (P < 0.05) the lag time and reduced (P < 0.05) the growth rate of E. coli O157:H7. The anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT was further assessed by culturing E. coli strain ATCC 25922 and eight strains of E. coli O157:H7 with PPC CT at 0, 25, 50, 100, or 200 μg/ml. Selected strains were enumerated after 0, 6, and 24 h of incubation, and fatty acid composition was determined after 24 h of incubation. E. coli strain 25922 was cultured with 0, 50, or 200 μg of CT per ml and harvested during the exponential growth phase for examination by transmission electron microscopy. Increasing CT concentration linearly increased (P < 0.001) the lag times of seven strains and linearly reduced (P < 0.001) the growth rates of eight E. coli O157:H7 strains. Proportions of unsaturated fatty acids in the total fatty acids were decreased (P < 0.01) by CT at 50 μg/ml. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT disrupted the outer membrane structure. Anti-E. coli O157:H7 activity of PPC CT at levels of up to 200 μg/ml was bacteriostatic rather than bactericidal, and the mechanism of anti-E. coli activity may involve alteration in the fatty acid composition and disruption of the outer membrane of the cell. PMID:23575115

  18. Organic-matter loading determines regime shifts and alternative states in an aquatic ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Sirota, Jennie; Baiser, Benjamin; Gotelli, Nicholas J.; Ellison, Aaron M.

    2013-01-01

    Slow changes in underlying state variables can lead to “tipping points,” rapid transitions between alternative states (“regime shifts”) in a wide range of complex systems. Tipping points and regime shifts routinely are documented retrospectively in long time series of observational data. Experimental induction of tipping points and regime shifts is rare, but could lead to new methods for detecting impending tipping points and forestalling regime shifts. By using controlled additions of detrital organic matter (dried, ground arthropod prey), we experimentally induced a shift from aerobic to anaerobic states in a miniature aquatic ecosystem: the self-contained pools that form in leaves of the carnivorous northern pitcher plant, Sarracenia purpurea. In unfed controls, the concentration of dissolved oxygen ([O2]) in all replicates exhibited regular diurnal cycles associated with daytime photosynthesis and nocturnal plant respiration. In low prey-addition treatments, the regular diurnal cycles of [O2] were disrupted, but a regime shift was not detected. In high prey-addition treatments, the variance of the [O2] time series increased until the system tipped from an aerobic to an anaerobic state. In these treatments, replicate [O2] time series predictably crossed a tipping point at ∼45 h as [O2] was decoupled from diurnal cycles of photosynthesis and respiration. Increasing organic-matter loading led to predictable changes in [O2] dynamics, with high loading consistently driving the system past a well-defined tipping point. The Sarracenia microecosystem functions as a tractable experimental system in which to explore the forecasting and management of tipping points and alternative regimes. PMID:23613583

  19. Reversed-phase high-performance Liquid Chromatography-ultraviolet Photodiode Array Detector Validated Simultaneous Quantification of six Bioactive Phenolic Acids in Roscoea purpurea Tubers and their In vitro Cytotoxic Potential against Various Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sharad; Misra, Ankita; Kumar, Dharmesh; Srivastava, Amit; Sood, Anil; Rawat, AKS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Roscoea purpurea or Roscoea procera Wall. (Zingiberaceae) is traditionally used for nutrition and in the treatment of various ailments. Objective: Simultaneous reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet (RP-HPLC) photodiode array detector identification of phenolic acids (PA's) was carried out in whole extract of tuber and their cytotoxic potential was estimated along with radical scavenging action. Bioactivity guided fractionation was also done to check the response potential against the same assay. Materials and Methods: Identification and method validation was performed on RP-HPLC column and in vitro assays were used for bioactivity. Results: Protocatechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin, and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774%, 0.064%, 0.265%, 1.125%, 0.128%, and 0.528%, respectively. Validated method for simultaneous determination of PA's was found to be accurate, reproducible, and linearity was observed between peak area response and concentration. Recovery of identified PA's was within the acceptable limit of 97.40–104.05%. Significant pharmacological response was observed in whole extract against in vitro cytotoxic assay, that is, Sulforhodamine B assay, however, fractionation results in decreased action potential. Similar pattern of results were observed in the antioxidant assay, as total phenolic content and total flavonoid content were highest in whole extract and decreases with fractionation. Radical scavenging activity was prominent in chloroform fraction, exhibiting IC50 at 0.25 mg/mL. Conclusion: Study, thus, reveals that R. purpurea exhibit significant efficacy in cytotoxic activity with the potentiality of scavenging free radicals due the presence of PA's as reported through RP-HPLC. SUMMARY Proto-catechuic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, rutin, apigenin and kaempferol were quantified as 0.774, 0.064, 0.265, 1.125, 0.128 and 0.528 %Preliminary cytotoxic activity revealed that whole

  20. The relative influence of habitat amount and configuration on genetic structure across multiple spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Millette, Katie L; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-01-01

    Despite strong interest in understanding how habitat spatial structure shapes the genetics of populations, the relative importance of habitat amount and configuration for patterns of genetic differentiation remains largely unexplored in empirical systems. In this study, we evaluate the relative influence of, and interactions among, the amount of habitat and aspects of its spatial configuration on genetic differentiation in the pitcher plant midge, Metriocnemus knabi. Larvae of this species are found exclusively within the water-filled leaves of pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea) in a system that is naturally patchy at multiple spatial scales (i.e., leaf, plant, cluster, peatland). Using generalized linear mixed models and multimodel inference, we estimated effects of the amount of habitat, patch size, interpatch distance, and patch isolation, measured at different spatial scales, on genetic differentiation (FST) among larval samples from leaves within plants, plants within clusters, and clusters within peatlands. Among leaves and plants, genetic differentiation appears to be driven by female oviposition behaviors and is influenced by habitat isolation at a broad (peatland) scale. Among clusters, gene flow is spatially restricted and aspects of both the amount of habitat and configuration at the focal scale are important, as is their interaction. Our results suggest that both habitat amount and configuration can be important determinants of genetic structure and that their relative influence is scale dependent. PMID:25628865

  1. Hydrology and Geostatistics of a Vermont, USA Kettlehole Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouser, Paula J.; Hession, W. Cully; Rizzo, Donna M.; Gotelli, Nicholas J.

    2005-01-01

    The ability to predict the response of peatland ecosystems to hydrologic changes is imperative for successful conservation and remediation efforts. We studied a 1.25-ha Vermont kettlehole bog for one year (September 2001-October 2002) to identify hydrologic controls, temporal and spatial variability in flow regimes, and to link hydrologic processes to density of the carnivorous plant ( Sarracenia purpurea), an ombrotrophic bog specialist. Using a spatial array of nested piezometers, we measured surface and subsurface flow in shallow peat and surrounding mineral soil. Our unique sampling array was based on a repeated measures factorial design with: (1) incremental distances from a central kettlehole pond; (2) equal distances between piezometers; and (3) at three depths from the peat surface. Local flow patterns in the peat were controlled by snowpack storage during winter and spring months and by evapotranspiration and pond water elevation during summer and fall months. Hydraulic head values showed a local reversal within the peat during spring months which was reflected in higher chemical constituent concentrations in these wells. On a regional scale, higher permeable soils diverted groundwater beneath the peatland to a nearby wetland complex. Horizontal water gradient magnitudes were larger in zones where the peatland was perched above regional groundwater and smaller in zones where a hydraulic connection existed between the peatland and the regional groundwater. The density of pitcher plants ( S. purpurea) is strongly correlated to the distance from a central pond, [Fe 3+], [Na +], [Cl -], and [SO42-]. The pH, conductivity, and [Ca 2+] had significant effects of depth and time with horizontal distance correlations between 20 and 26 m. The pH samples had temporal correlations between 27 and 79 days. The link between pitcher plants and ion chemistry; significant effects of peatland chemistry on distance, depth, and time; and spatial and temporal correlations are

  2. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. 1. Screening of 84 plants against enterobacteria.

    PubMed

    Caceres, A; Cano, O; Samayoa, B; Aguilar, L

    1990-08-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are important causes of morbidity in developing countries. Natural healing is the traditional way of treating these diseases in Guatemala. Ethnobotanical surveys and literature reviews showed that 385 plants from 95 families are used in Guatemala for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The activity of 84 of the most commonly used plants was screened in vitro against five enterobacteria pathogenic to man (enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri). Results indicate that 34 (40.48%) plants inhibit one or more of the enterobacteria tested. The most commonly inhibited bacterium was S. typhi (33.73%) and the most resistant was E. coli (7.35%). The plants of American origin which exhibited the best antibacterial activity were: Byrsonima crassifolia, Diphysa robinioides, Gnaphalium stramineum, Guazuma ulmifolia, Psidium guajava, Sambucus mexicana, Simarouba glauca, Smilax lundelii, Spondias purpurea and Tagetes lucida. These results indicate a scientific basis for use of these medicinal plants for attacking enterobacterial infections in man. PMID:2214824

  3. The effect of polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected medicinal plants of Asteraceae family on the peroxynitrite-induced changes in blood platelet proteins.

    PubMed

    Saluk-Juszczak, Joanna; Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Olas, Beata; Kołodziejczyk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michal; Nowak, Pawel; Tsirigotis-Wołoszczak, Marta; Wachowicz, Barbara; Gancarz, Roman

    2010-12-01

    Lots of plants belonging to Asteraceae family are very popular in folk medicine in Poland. These plants are also known as being rich in acidic polysaccharides, due to the presence of hexuronic acids or its derivatives. Our preliminary experiments have shown that the extract from Conyza canadensis L. possesses various biological activity, including antiplatelet, antiocoagulant and antioxidant properties. The aim of our study was to assess if macromolecular glycoconjugates from selected herbal plants of Asteraceae family: Achillea millefolium L., Arnica montana L., Echinacea purpurea L., Solidago virgaurea L., Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert., and Conyza canadensis L. protect platelet proteins against nitrative and oxidative damage induced by peroxynitrite, which is responsible for oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins: the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine and carbonyl groups. These modifications may lead to changes of blood platelet functions and can have pathological consequences. The role of these different medicinal plants in the defence against oxidative/nitrative stress in human platelets is still unknown, therefore the oxidative damage to platelet proteins induced by peroxynitrite and protectory effects of tested conjugates by the estimation of carbonyl group level and nitrotyrosine formation (a marker of protein nitration) were studied in vitro. The antioxidative properties of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide conjugates from selected tested medicinal plants were also compared with the action of a well characterized antioxidative commercial polyphenol - resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). The obtained results demonstrate that the compounds from herbal plants: A. millefolium, A. montana, E. purpurea, C. recutita, S. virgaurea, possess antioxidative properties and protect platelet proteins against peroxynitrite toxicity in vitro, similar to the glycoconjugates from C. canadensis. However, in the comparative studies, the polyphenolic

  4. Mechanics of water collection in plants via morphology change of conical hairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Fuyu; Komatsubara, Satoshi; Shigezawa, Naoki; Morikawa, Hideaki; Murakami, Yasushi; Yoshino, Katsumi; Yamanaka, Shigeru

    2015-03-01

    In an arid area like the Namib Desert, plants and animals obtain moisture needed for life from mist in the air. There, some plants have hairs or fibrous structures on their leaf surface that reportedly collect fresh water from the air. We examined the morphology and function of leaf hairs of plants during water collection under different circumstances. We studied the water collecting mechanics of several plants having fibrous hairs on their leaves: tomato, balsam pear, Berkheya purpurea, and Lychnis sieboldii. This plant was selected for detailed investigation as a model because this plant originated from dry grassland near Mount Aso in Kyusyu, Japan. We found a unique feature of water collection and release in this plant. The cone-shaped hairs having inner microfibers were reversibly converted to crushed plates that were twisted perpendicularly in dry conditions. Microfibers found in the hairs seem to be responsible for water storage and release. Their unique reciprocal morphological changes, cone-shaped hairs transformed into perpendicularly twisted shapes, depend on the moisture level in the air, and water stored during wet external conditions was released onto the leaf in drier conditions. These morphological changes were recorded as a movie. Simulations explained the formation of the twisted structure. In theoretical analyses, twisted structures were found to give higher mechanical strength. Similar phenomena were found in the other plants described above. These findings pave the way to new bioinspired technology for alleviating global water shortages.

  5. Proliferative activity of a blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939 cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; He, Xiao Qiong

    2015-01-01

    Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect). Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939) and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP)). However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC. Further animal

  6. Proliferative activity of a blend of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea root extracts in human vein epithelial, HeLa, and QBC-939 cell lines, but not in Beas-2b cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cichello, Simon Angelo; Yao, Qian; He, Xiao Qiong

    2016-04-01

    Echinacea is used for its immunostimulating properties and may have a role in modulating adverse immune effects of chemotherapy (i.e., use of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); fluorouracil and its immunosuppressive effect). Patients may seek herbal remedies such as Echinacea (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) for immune stimulation. Echinacea extracts have been prescribed to supplement cancer chemotherapy for their immune-supportive effects; however, the extracts may also influence tumourgenesis. Our study aimed to determine the proliferative effect of the ethanolic blend of E. angustifolia and E. purpurea on various cancer cervical and bile duct cell lines, including HELA and QBC-939. Various cancer cells (HeLa and QBC-939) and human vein epithelial cells (HUVEC) were treated with the Echinacea blend sample that was evaporated and reconstituted in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). As the extract concentration of Echinacea was increased from 12.5 μg/mL to 25 μg/mL, there was an increase in cell inhibition up to 100%, which then reduced to 90% over the next three concentrations, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, and 200 μg/mL, in HeLa cells; further inhibitory effects were observed in QBC-939 cells, from 9% inhibition at a concentration of 25 μg/mL up to 37.96% inhibition at 100 μg/mL concentration. Moreover, this is the first study to report the growth-promoting effects of this Echinacea blend in HUVEC, up to 800% at a dose concentration of 200 μg/mL. Previous studies have suggested that chicoric acid of Echinacea spp. is responsible for the increased cell growth. The results of this study show that the hydroethanolic extract of Echinacea herbal medicine promotes the growth of HeLa cells and QBC-939 cancer cell proliferation, and may interfere with cancer treatment (i.e., chemotherapy drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and Cisplatin (DDP)). However, the Echinacea blend shows potential in neurodegenerative diseases with growth-promoting effects in HUVEC. Further animal

  7. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  8. HPTLC Analysis, Antioxidant and Antigout Activity of Indian Plants.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Park, Se Won

    2014-01-01

    The HPTLC analysis, antioxidant, and antigout activity of Asparagus racemosus, Withania somnifera, Vitex negundo, Plumbago zeylanica, Butea monosperma and Tephrosia purpurea extracts were investigated. The chemical fingerprinting were carried out by high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), antioxidant activity by ABTS, DPPH, FRAP radical scavenging assays, and antiogout activity by cow milk xanthine oxidase. The HPTLC fingerprint qualitatively revealed predominant amount of flavonoids. The TEAC values ranged from 45.80 to 140 µM trolox/100 g dry weight for ABTS, from 85 to 430 µM trolox/ 100 g dw DPPH, and 185 to 560 µM trolox/100 g dw for FRAP respectively. Plants used in this study was found to inhibit the toxicity, as seen from the decreased LPO and increased GSH, SOD and CAT levels. The total phenolic and flavonoid content ranged from 10.21 to 28.17 and 5.80 to 10.1 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 gdw respectively. The plant extracts demonstrated significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity at 100 g/mL and revealed an inhibition greater than 50 % and IC50 values below the standard. This effect was almost similar to the activity of allopurinol (Standard drug) against xanthine oxidase (90.2 ± 0.4 %). These plant root extract will be subjected for further extensive studies to isolate and identify their active constituents which are useful for against inflammation and gout. PMID:25237348

  9. The use of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) to assess the quality and stability of fruit products: an example using red mombin pulp (Spondias purpurea L.).

    PubMed

    Todisco, Katieli Martins; Castro-Alves, Victor Costa; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Costa, José Maria Correia da; Clemente, Edmar

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the volatiles profile of red mombin (Spondias purpurea) pulp and its powder produced by spray-drying (SD) as an example to show utility of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) in the analysis of parameters such as the quality and stability of fruit products. Volatiles profiles of the pulp were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quantified by gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and compared to the profile of the powder stored at 0, 60 and 120 days in plastic (PP) or laminated packages (LP). The results showed that the technique was able to identify 36 compounds in the red mombin pulp, 17 out of which have been described for the first time in this fruit, showing that red mombin fresh pulp appears to be unique in terms of volatiles composition. However, only 24 compounds were detected in the powder. This decrease is highly correlated (r2 = 0.99), at least for the majority of compounds, to the degree of volatility of compounds. Furthermore, the powder stored in PP or LP showed no statistical differences in the amounts of its components for a period of 120 days of storage. Finally, this work shows how HS-SPME analysis can be a valuable tool to assess the quality and stability of fruit products. PMID:25338176

  10. Fire and nitrogen effects on purple threeawn invaded plant communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea) is a native grass capable of rapidly increasing on rangelands, where it forms near monocultures, and alters succession. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reducing over...

  11. Fire and nitrogen effects on purple threeawn invaded plant communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea) is a native grass capable of rapidly increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and arresting ecological succession. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, leadin...

  12. Species Composition and Seasonal Distribution of Mosquito Larvae (Diptera: Culicidae) in Southern New Jersey, Burlington County.

    PubMed

    Verna, Thomas N

    2015-09-01

    A total of 36,495 larvae consisting of 45 species from 11 genera were collected from 7,189 sites from southern New Jersey, Burlington County between the months of March and October, 2001-2014. Density and seasonal distribution were determined among natural and artificial habitat. The most dominant species collected from natural habitat was Aedes vexans (Meigen) followed by Ochlerotatus canadensis canadensis (Theobald), Culex restuans Theobald, Culex pipiens L., and Culex territans Walker. The most dominant species collected from artificial habitat was Aedes albopictus (Skuse) followed by Ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus (Theobald), Cx. restuans, Cx. pipiens, and Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say). Cx. restuans and Cx. pipiens were the only species categorized as dominant among both natural and artificial habitat and comprised greater than half the total density. Sympatry was common among dominant species from artificial habitat where a significant percentage of the total collection contained multiple species. The most common types of natural habitats were forested depressions and stream flood plains whereas rimless vehicle tires and various plastic containers were the most common artificial habitats. The pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea L. was the only habitat exclusive to one species. PMID:26336214

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of a 16SrII-A Subgroup Phytoplasma Associated with Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Witches’ Broom Disease in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shu-Heng; Cho, Shu-Ting; Chen, Chung-Li

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial genus “Candidatus Phytoplasma” contains a group of insect-transmitted plant pathogens in the class Mollicutes. Here, we report a draft genome assembly and annotation of strain NCHU2014, which belongs to the 16SrII-A subgroup within this genus and is associated with purple coneflower witches’ broom disease in Taiwan. PMID:26607900

  14. Medicinal plants: a public resource for metabolomics and hypothesis development.

    PubMed

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Jones, A Daniel; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; P Widrlechner, Mark; Nikolau, Basil J

    2012-01-01

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range of antioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The

  15. Laboratory observations on the larvicidal efficacy of three plant species against mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue/dengue hemorrhagic fever (DF/DHF) and lymphatic filariasis in the semi-arid desert.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Sharma, Sapna; Sherwani, M R K

    2012-05-01

    Comparative larvicidal efficacy of aqueous and organic solvent extracts from seeds, leaves and flowers of three desert plants viz. Calotropis procera (Aiton), Tephrosia purpurea (L.) Pers. and Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. was evaluated against Anopheles stephensi (Liston), Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). For this purpose larvae of all the three mosquito species were reared in the laboratory and studies carried out on late 3rd or early 4th instars using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data 24 and 48 hr LC50and LC90 values along with their 95% fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/ heterogeneity of the response were determined by log probit regression analysis. Experiments were carried out with different solvent extracts of seeds of C. procera which revealed that methanol (24 hr LC50: 127.2, 194.8, 361.0) and acetone (229.9, 368.1,193.0 mg l(-1)) extracts were more effective with the three mosquito species, respectively. Petroleum ether extract was effective only on An. stephensi while aqueous extracts were not effective at all with any of the mosquito species (mortality < 10-30%). Tests carried out with methanol extracts of fresh leaves (24 hr LC50: 89.2, 171.2, 369.7) and flowers (24 hr LC50: 94.7,617.3, 1384.0 mg l-(-1)) of Calotropis showed that preparations from fresh parts were 2-3 times more effective as compared to the stored plant parts. Efficacy was less than 10-30% with both An. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus while An. stephensi was still susceptible to extracts from both leaves and flowers even after two years of storage. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for methanol extracts of seeds of T. purpurea and leaves of P. juliflora were 74.9, 63.2 and 47.0 and 96.2,128.1 and 118.8 mg l(-1) for the above three mosquito species, respectively. Experiments carried out up to 500 mg l-(1) with leaves (T. purpurea) and seeds (P. juliflora) extracts show only up to 10-30% mortality indicating that

  16. Production of biomass and useful compounds from adventitious roots of high-value added medicinal plants using bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Baque, Md Abdullahil; Moh, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Eun-Jung; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2012-01-01

    The increasing global demand for biomass of medicinal plant resources reflects the issues and crisis created by diminishing renewable resources and increasing consumer populations. Moreover, diverse usage of plants and reduced land for cultivation in the world accelerated the deficiency of plant resources. In addition, the preparation of safety of plant based medicine whips up demand for biomass of valuable medicinal plants. As one of alternative approach to upswing the productivity of plant-based pharmaceutical compounds, automation of adventitious root culture system in air-lift bioreactor was adopted to produce cosmic amount of root biomass along with enriched diverse bioactive molecules. In this review, various physiological, engineering parameters, and selection of proper cultivation strategy (fed-batch, two-stage etc.) affecting the biomass production and secondary metabolite accumulation have been discussed. In addition, advances in adventitious root cultures including factors for process scale-up as well as recent research aimed at maximizing automation of the bioreactor production processes are also highlighted. Examples of the scale-up of cultures of adventitious roots of Morinda citrifolia, Echinacea purpurea and angustifolia, Hypericum perforatum and Panax ginseng by applying 20 L to 10,000 L bioreactors in our lab were demonstrated with a view of commercial application. PMID:22123438

  17. Ecosystem engineering and manipulation of host plant tissues by the insect borer Oncideres albomarginata chamela.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Cortés, Nancy; Uribe-Mú, Claudia A; Martínez-Méndez, A Karen; Escalera-Vázquez, Luis H; Cristobal-Pérez, E Jacob; García-Oliva, Felipe; Quesada, Mauricio

    2016-01-01

    Ecosystem engineering by insect herbivores occurs as the result of structural modification of plants manipulated by insects. However, only few studies have evaluated the effect of these modifications on the plant responses induced by stem-borers that act as ecosystem engineers. In this study, we evaluated the responses induced by the herbivory of the twig-girdler beetle Oncideres albomarginata chamela (Cerambycidae: Lamiinae) on its host plant Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae), and its relationship with the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer. Our results demonstrated that O. albomarginata chamela branch removal induced the development of lateral branches increasing the resources needed for the development of future insect generations, of its own offspring and of many other insect species. Detached branches represent habitats with high content of nitrogen and phosphorous, which eventually can be incorporated into the ecosystem, increasing nutrient cycling efficiency. Consequently, branch removal and the subsequent plant tissue regeneration induced by O. albomarginata chamela represent key mechanisms underlying the ecosystem engineering process carried out by this stem-borer, which enhances arthropod diversity in the ecosystem. PMID:26654885

  18. Anti-viral properties and mode of action of standardized Echinacea purpurea extract against highly pathogenic avian Influenza virus (H5N1, H7N7) and swine-origin H1N1 (S-OIV)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Influenza virus (IV) infections are a major threat to human welfare and animal health worldwide. Anti-viral therapy includes vaccines and a few anti-viral drugs. However vaccines are not always available in time, as demonstrated by the emergence of the new 2009 H1N1-type pandemic strain of swine origin (S-OIV) in April 2009, and the acquisition of resistance to neuraminidase inhibitors such as Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) is a potential problem. Therefore the prospects for the control of IV by existing anti-viral drugs are limited. As an alternative approach to the common anti-virals we studied in more detail a commercial standardized extract of the widely used herb Echinacea purpurea (Echinaforce®, EF) in order to elucidate the nature of its anti-IV activity. Results Human H1N1-type IV, highly pathogenic avian IV (HPAIV) of the H5- and H7-types, as well as swine origin IV (S-OIV, H1N1), were all inactivated in cell culture assays by the EF preparation at concentrations ranging from the recommended dose for oral consumption to several orders of magnitude lower. Detailed studies with the H5N1 HPAIV strain indicated that direct contact between EF and virus was required, prior to infection, in order to obtain maximum inhibition in virus replication. Hemagglutination assays showed that the extract inhibited the receptor binding activity of the virus, suggesting that the extract interferes with the viral entry into cells. In sequential passage studies under treatment in cell culture with the H5N1 virus no EF-resistant variants emerged, in contrast to Tamiflu®, which produced resistant viruses upon passaging. Furthermore, the Tamiflu®-resistant virus was just as susceptible to EF as the wild type virus. Conclusion As a result of these investigations, we believe that this standard Echinacea preparation, used at the recommended dose for oral consumption, could be a useful, readily available and affordable addition to existing control options for IV replication and

  19. Resprout and survival of willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana), Poplars (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica) cuttings in marly gullies with Southern aspect in a mountainous and Mediterranean climate (Southern Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, Freddy; Labonne, Sophie; Dangla, Laure; Lavandier, Géraud

    2014-05-01

    In the Southern French Alps under a mountainous and Mediterranean climate, a current strategy of bioengineering is developed for trapping sediment in marly gullies with surface area less than 1 ha. It is based on the use of structures in the form of brush layers and brush mats of cuttings on deadwood microdams. Purple and white Willows (Salix purpurea and S. incana) are recommended here as they proved their efficiency to resprout and survive in such environment. However, these species installed in Southern gullies did not survive in previous experiments, due to the too harsh conditions of solar radiation and drought. We thus decided to test other species, namely black Poplar (Populus nigra) and Tamaris (Tamarix gallica), which proved their resistance to drought conditions in other experiments. To this view, bioengineering structures have been built in 2010 in eroded marly gullies in the Roubines and Fontaugier catchments (Southern Alps, France). We tested two installation modalities: one in spring and a second in autumn. Seventy-eight bioengineering structures (50 in spring and 28 in autumn), among which 32 made with Poplar cuttings and 28 with Tamaris cuttings, as well as 11 structures with purple Willow and 7 with white Willow as controls, were built in 6 experimental gullies. After 3 observation years for each modality (2010 to 2012, and 2011 to 2013, respectively), results first revealed that Willow species succeeded in surviving in gullies in Southern aspect (76 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 52 % for those installed in autumn), which is in contradiction with previous results. Second, Poplar showed a good ability to survive (62 % for the cuttings installed in spring and 33 % for those installed in autumn). Tamaris obtained the worst score with 26 % and 38 % of survival for the cuttings installed in spring and autumn, respectively. Globally, excepted for Tamaris, survival rates were better for the cuttings installed in spring. The bioengineering

  20. Streamlining Plant Sample Preparation: The Use of High-Throughput Robotics to Process Echinacea Samples for Biomarker Profiling by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Leasa A.; Isaac, Issa; Gray, Dean E.; Schwartz, Sarah A.

    2007-01-01

    Several species in the genus Echinacea are beneficial herbs popularly used for many ailments. The most popular Echinacea species for cultivation, wild collection, and herbal products include E. purpurea (L.) Moench, E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., and E. angustifolia (DC). Product adulteration is a key concern for the natural products industry, where botanical misidentification and introduction of other botanical and nonbotanical contaminants exist throughout the formulation and production process. Therefore, rapid and cost-effective methods that can be used to monitor these materials for complex product purity and consistency are of benefit to consumers and producers. The objective of this continuing research was to develop automated, high-throughput processing methods that, teamed with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analysis, differentiate Echinacea species by their mass profiles. Small molecules, peptide, and proteins from aerial parts (leaf/stem/flowers), seeds, and roots from E. purpurea and E. angustifolia; seeds and roots from E. pallida; and off-the-shelf Echinacea supplements were extracted and analyzed by MS using methods developed on the ProPrep liquid handling system (Genomic Solutions). Analysis of these samples highlighted key MS signal patterns from both small molecules and proteins that characterized the individual Echinacea materials analyzed. Based on analysis of pure Echinacea samples, off-the-shelf products containing Echinacea could then be evaluated in a streamlined process. Corresponding analysis of dietary supplements was used to monitor for product composition, including Echinacea species and plant materials used. These results highlight the potential for streamlined, automated approaches for agricultural species differentiation and botanical product evaluation. PMID:17916796

  1. Plant assemblage composition and soil P concentration differentially affect communities of AM and total fungi in a semi-arid grassland.

    PubMed

    Klabi, Rim; Bell, Terrence H; Hamel, Chantal; Iwaasa, Alan; Schellenberg, Mike; Raies, Aly; St-Arnaud, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Adding inorganic P- and N-fixing legumes to semi-arid grasslands can increase forage yield, but soil nutrient concentrations and plant cover may also interact to modify soil fungal populations, impacting short- and long-term forage production. We tested the effect of plant assemblage (seven native grasses, seven native grasses + the domesticated N-fixing legume Medicago sativa, seven native grasses + the native N-fixing legume Dalea purpurea or the introduced grass Bromus biebersteinii + M. sativa) and soil P concentration (addition of 0 or 200 P2O5 kg ha(-1) at sowing) on the diversity and community structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and total fungi over two consecutive years, using 454-pyrosequencing of 18S rDNA and ITS amplicons. Treatment effects were stronger in the wet year (2008) than the dry year (2009). The presence of an N-fixing legume with native grasses generally increased AM fungal diversity, while the interaction between soil P concentration and plant assemblage modified total fungal community structure in 2008. Excluding interannual variations, which are likely driven by moisture and plant productivity, AM fungal communities in semi-arid grasslands appear to be primarily affected by plant assemblage composition, while the composition of other fungi is more closely linked to soil P. PMID:25764537

  2. Considering Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    1991-01-01

    Examples from research that incorporate plants to illustrate biological principles are presented. Topics include dried pea shape, homeotic genes, gene transcription in plants that are touched or wounded, production of grasslands, seaweed defenses, migrating plants, camouflage, and family rivalry. (KR)

  3. The plant 2-Cys peroxiredoxin BAS1 is a nuclear-encoded chloroplast protein: its expressional regulation, phylogenetic origin, and implications for its specific physiological function in plants.

    PubMed

    Baier, M; Dietz, K J

    1997-07-01

    2-Cys peroxiredoxins constitute a family of enzymes which catalyze the transfer of electrons from sulfhydryl residues to peroxides and are ubiquitously distributed among all organisms. This paper characterizes the higher plant 2-Cys-peroxiredoxin BAS1. (i) Escherichia coli over-expressing BAS1 exhibit increased tolerance for alkyl hydroperoxides in vivo. This result substantiates the peroxiredoxin function of BAS1. (ii) BAS1 protein is associated with the soluble chloroplast fraction of mesophyll protoplasts. Import and processing of in vitro-transcribed and cell-free translated BAS1 protein into isolated chloroplasts provides conclusive evidence that the plant-specific N-terminal extension of bas1 encodes the chloroplast import signal which targets the pre-form of BAS1 to the chloroplast stroma where it is cleaved to its mature size. (iii) Genomic analysis reveals that the targeting signal is encoded by a separate exon in Arabidopsis thalina. (iv) The amino acid sequence of the BAS1 core protein of higher plants has a higher degree of similarity to open reading frames in the genome of the bluegreen algae Synechochystis PCC sp. 6803 and in the plastome of the red algae Porphyra purpurea than to any other nuclear-encoded 2-Cys peroxiredoxin. Therefore, it is tempting to speculate that the chloroplast import signal was added to an ancestor gene of endosymbiotic origin in the course of plant evolution. (v) The bas1 gene expression is regulated under the control of the cellular redox state which is in accordance with the anti-oxidant function of the enzyme. While oxidative stressors increased expression only slightly, antioxidants such as reduced thiols strongly suppressed the transcript level. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to the possible physiological functions of BAS1. PMID:9263459

  4. Soil fertility increases with plant species diversity in a long-term biodiversity experiment.

    PubMed

    Dybzinski, Ray; Fargione, Joseph E; Zak, Donald R; Fornara, Dario; Tilman, David

    2008-11-01

    Most explanations for the positive effect of plant species diversity on productivity have focused on the efficiency of resource use, implicitly assuming that resource supply is constant. To test this assumption, we grew seedlings of Echinacea purpurea in soil collected beneath 10-year-old, experimental plant communities containing one, two, four, eight, or 16 native grassland species. The results of this greenhouse bioassay challenge the assumption of constant resource supply; we found that bioassay seedlings grown in soil collected from experimental communities containing 16 plant species produced 70% more biomass than seedlings grown in soil collected beneath monocultures. This increase was likely attributable to greater soil N availability, which had increased in higher diversity communities over the 10-year-duration of the experiment. In a distinction akin to the selection/complementarity partition commonly made in studies of diversity and productivity, we further determined whether the additive effects of functional groups or the interactive effects of functional groups explained the increase in fertility with diversity. The increase in bioassay seedling biomass with diversity was largely explained by a concomitant increase in N-fixer, C4 grass, forb, and C3 grass biomass with diversity, suggesting that the additive effects of these four functional groups at higher diversity contributed to enhance N availability and retention. Nevertheless, diversity still explained a significant amount of the residual variation in bioassay seedling biomass after functional group biomass was included in a multiple regression, suggesting that interactions also increased fertility in diverse communities. Our results suggest a mechanism, the fertility effect, by which increased plant species diversity may increase community productivity over time by increasing the supply of nutrients via both greater inputs and greater retention. PMID:18690478

  5. The mitochondrial genomes of the early land plants Treubia lacunosa and Anomodon rugelii: dynamic and conservative evolution.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wang, Bin; Li, Libo; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2011-01-01

    Early land plant mitochondrial genomes captured important changes of mitochondrial genome evolution when plants colonized land. The chondromes of seed plants show several derived characteristics, e.g., large genome size variation, rapid intra-genomic rearrangement, abundant introns, and highly variable levels of RNA editing. On the other hand, the chondromes of charophytic algae are still largely ancestral in these aspects, resembling those of early eukaryotes. When the transition happened has been a long-standing question in studies of mitochondrial genome evolution. Here we report complete mitochondrial genome sequences from an early-diverging liverwort, Treubia lacunosa, and a late-evolving moss, Anomodon rugelii. The two genomes, 151,983 and 104,239 base pairs in size respectively, contain standard sets of protein coding genes for respiration and protein synthesis, as well as nearly full sets of rRNA and tRNA genes found in the chondromes of the liverworts Marchantia polymorpha and Pleurozia purpurea and the moss Physcomitrella patens. The gene orders of these two chondromes are identical to those of the other liverworts and moss. Their intron contents, with all cis-spliced group I or group II introns, are also similar to those in the previously sequenced liverwort and moss chondromes. These five chondromes plus the two from the hornworts Phaeoceros laevis and Megaceros aenigmaticus for the first time allowed comprehensive comparative analyses of structure and organization of mitochondrial genomes both within and across the three major lineages of bryophytes. These analyses led to the conclusion that the mitochondrial genome experienced dynamic evolution in genome size, gene content, intron acquisition, gene order, and RNA editing during the origins of land plants and their major clades. However, evolution of this organellar genome has remained rather conservative since the origin and initial radiation of early land plants, except within vascular plants. PMID

  6. Poisonous Plants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH POISONOUS PLANTS Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Photo courtesy ... U.S. Department of Agriculture Many native and exotic plants are poisonous to humans when ingested or if ...

  7. Land Contamination and Soil-Plant Interactions in the Imperina Valley Mine (Belluno, Venetian Region, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Wahsha, Mohammad; Fontana, Silvia; Zilioli, Diana

    2010-05-01

    that the plants considered seem to be rather highly tolerant towards environmental pollution, since their metabolic equilibrium is not altered by increased metal uptake. This suggests that the selected plants could be useful in phytoremediation of metal contaminated sites. The phytoremediation ability of Salix species (S. eleagnos, S. purpurea and S. caprea) for heavy metals and in particular zinc was estimated. Plantago major has very high metal concentrations in the roots and could be recommended for phytostabilization.

  8. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  9. Electronic plants.

    PubMed

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-11-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants' "circuitry" has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  10. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    PubMed

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life. PMID:24954142

  11. Electronic plants

    PubMed Central

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  12. Transfer of elements relevant to nuclear fuel cycle from soil to boreal plants and animals in experimental meso- and microcosms.

    PubMed

    Tuovinen, Tiina S; Kasurinen, Anne; Häikiö, Elina; Tervahauta, Arja; Makkonen, Sari; Holopainen, Toini; Juutilainen, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Uranium (U), cobalt (Co), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and zinc (Zn) occur naturally in soil but their radioactive isotopes can also be released into the environment during the nuclear fuel cycle. The transfer of these elements was studied in three different trophic levels in experimental mesocosms containing downy birch (Betula pubescens), narrow buckler fern (Dryopteris carthusiana) and Scandinavian small-reed (Calamagrostis purpurea ssp. Phragmitoides) as producers, snails (Arianta arbostorum) as herbivores, and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) as decomposers. To determine more precisely whether the element uptake of snails is mainly via their food (birch leaves) or both via soil and food, a separate microcosm experiment was also performed. The element uptake of snails did not generally depend on the presence of soil, indicating that the main uptake route was food, except for U, where soil contact was important for uptake when soil U concentration was high. Transfer of elements from soil to plants was not linear, i.e. it was not correctly described by constant concentration ratios (CR) commonly applied in radioecological modeling. Similar nonlinear transfer was found for the invertebrate animals included in this study: elements other than U were taken up more efficiently when element concentration in soil or food was low. PMID:26363398

  13. Plant Factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hideo

    Recently, much attention is paid on the plant factory, as it enable to grow plants stably under extraordinary climate condition such as high and/or low air temperature and less rain. Lots of questions such as decreasing investing cost, realizing stable plant production and developing new growing technique should be solved for making popular this growing system. However, I think that we can introduce a highly developed Japanese industrial now-how to plant factory system and can produce a business chance to the world market.

  14. Plant Minders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Indoor plants are automatically watered by the Aqua Trends watering system. System draws water from building outlets or from pump/reservoir module and distributes it to the plants via a network of tubes and adjustable nozzles. Key element of system is electronic controller programmed to dispense water according to the needs of various plants in an installation. Adjustable nozzle meters out exactly right amount of water at proper time to the plant it's serving. More than 100 Aqua/Trends systems are in service in the USA, from a simple residential system to a large Mirage III system integrated to water all greenery in a large office or apartment building.

  15. Towards the production of high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid in transgenic plants: the effects of different host species, genes and promoters.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bifang; Wu, Guohai; Vrinten, Patricia; Falk, Kevin; Bauer, Joerg; Qiu, Xiao

    2010-04-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) plays an important role in many aspects of human health. In our efforts towards producing high levels of EPA in plants, we investigated the effects of different host species, genes and promoters on EPA biosynthesis. Zero-erucic acid Brassica carinata appeared to be an outstanding host species for EPA production, with EPA levels in transgenic seed of this line reaching up to 25%. Two novel genes, an 18-carbon omega3 desaturase (CpDesX) from Claviceps purpurea and a 20-carbon omega3 desaturase (Pir-omega3) from Pythium irregulare, proved to be very effective in increasing EPA levels in high-erucic acid B. carinata. The conlinin1 promoter from flax functioned reasonably well in B. carinata, and can serve as an alternative to the napin promoter from B. napus. In summary, the judicious selection of host species and promoters, together with the inclusion of genes that enhance the basic very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthetic pathway, can greatly influence the production of EPA in plants. PMID:19582587

  16. Plant Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Dennis W. C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants are a huge and diverse group of organisms, ranging from microscopic marine phytoplankton to enormous terrestrial trees epitomized by the giant sequoia: 300 feet tall, living 3000 years, and weighing as much as 3000 tons. For this plant issue of "CBE-Life Sciences Education," the author focuses on a botanical topic that most…

  17. Plant Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of 12 Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing teachers and students with informational reading on plants. The bulletins include these titles: The Parade of Spring Wild Flowers, Wild Flowers of Our Prairies, Seeds and How They Travel, Poison Ivy and Other Poisonous Plants, The Forest Community, Common Trees and Their…

  18. Plant Immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are faced with defending themselves against a multitude of pathogens, including bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes, etc. Immunity is multi-layered and complex. Plants can induce defenses when they recognize small peptides, proteins or double-stranded RNA associated with pathogens. Recognitio...

  19. Carnivorous Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canipe, Stephen

    This biology lesson on carnivorous (insectivorous) plants is designed to supplement the textbook in the areas of plant diversity, ecology, and distribution. An introduction provides general background information for use as lecture material by the teacher or as reading and/or study material for students. The introduction also includes…

  20. Plant intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trewavas, Anthony

    2005-09-01

    Intelligent behavior is a complex adaptive phenomenon that has evolved to enable organisms to deal with variable environmental circumstances. Maximizing fitness requires skill in foraging for necessary resources (food) in competitive circumstances and is probably the activity in which intelligent behavior is most easily seen. Biologists suggest that intelligence encompasses the characteristics of detailed sensory perception, information processing, learning, memory, choice, optimisation of resource sequestration with minimal outlay, self-recognition, and foresight by predictive modeling. All these properties are concerned with a capacity for problem solving in recurrent and novel situations. Here I review the evidence that individual plant species exhibit all of these intelligent behavioral capabilities but do so through phenotypic plasticity, not movement. Furthermore it is in the competitive foraging for resources that most of these intelligent attributes have been detected. Plants should therefore be regarded as prototypical intelligent organisms, a concept that has considerable consequences for investigations of whole plant communication, computation and signal transduction.

  1. PLANT DIVERSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Habitat change statistics and species-area curves were used to estimate the effects of alternative future scenarios for agriculture on plant diversity in Iowa farmlands. Study areas were two watersheds in central Iowa of about 50 and 90 square kilometers, respectively. Future s...

  2. Toxic plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproductive performance is the single most important economic animal trait to the livestock industry and is reported to be 5 and 10 times more significant than carcass quality and growth traits respectively. Poisonous plants impact livestock reproductive function in a major way and have been shown...

  3. YIELD POTENTIAL OF SELECTED MEDICINAL HERBS AT THREE PLANT SPACINGS IN NEW MEXICO

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field studies were conducted to determine the production potential of echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), valerian (Valeriana officinalis), mullein (Verbascum thapsus) and yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica) medicinal herbs at two sites in New Mexico. Las Cruces, N.M. is at an elevation of 1,186 m and h...

  4. Audubon Plant Study Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    Included are an illustrated student reader, "The Story of Plants and Flowers," an adult leaders' guide, and a large wall chart picturing 37 wildflowers and describing 23 major plant families. The student reader presents these main topics: The Plant Kingdom, The Wonderful World of Plants, Plants Without Flowers, Flowering Plants, Plants Make Food…

  5. Plant chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Abeles, F B

    1978-11-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N(2) gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O(2) gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN(3) and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence.It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  6. Plant Chemiluminescence

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Fred B.; Leather, Gerald R.; Forrence, Leonard E.

    1978-01-01

    Light production by plants was confirmed by measuring chemiluminescence from root and stem tissue of peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and corn (Zea mays) in a modified scintillation spectrophotometer. Chemiluminescence was inhibited by treating pea roots with boiling ethanol or by placing them in a N2 gas phase. Chemiluminescence was increased by an O2 gas phase or by the addition of luminol. NaN3 and NaCN blocked both in vitro and in vivo chemiluminescence. It is postulated that the source of light is the hydrogen peroxide-peroxidase enzyme system. It is known that this system is responsible for chemiluminescence in leukocytes and it seems likely that a similar system occurs in plants. PMID:16660587

  7. Plant cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  8. Plant cooperation.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The study of plant behaviour will be aided by conceptual approaches and terminology for cooperation, altruism and helping. The plant literature has a rich discussion of helping between species while the animal literature has an extensive and somewhat contentious discussion of within-species helping. Here, I identify and synthesize concepts, terminology and some practical methodology for speaking about helping in plant populations and measuring the costs and benefits. I use Lehmann and Keller's (2006) classification scheme for animal helping and McIntire and Fajardo's (2014) synthesis of facilitation to provide starting points for classifying the mechanisms of how and why organisms help each other. Contextual theory is discussed as a mechanism for understanding and measuring the fitness consequences of helping. I synthesize helping into four categories. The act of helping can be costly to the helper. If the helper gains indirect fitness by helping relatives but loses direct fitness, this is altruism, and it only occurs within species. Helpers can exchange costly help, which is called mutualism when between species, and reciprocation when within a species. The act of helping can directly benefit the helper as well as the recipient, either as an epiphenomenon resulting from behaviours under natural selection for other reasons, or because the helper is creating a mutual benefit, such as satiating predators or supporting a mutualism. Facilitation between species by stress amelioration, creation of novel ecosystems and habitat complexity often meets the definition of epiphenomenon helping. Within species, this kind of helping is called by-product mutualism. If the helping is under selection to create a mutual benefit shared by others, between species this is facilitation with service sharing or access to resources and within species, direct benefits by mutual benefits. These classifications provide a clear starting point for addressing the subject of helping behaviours

  9. Plants: Novel Developmental Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Robert B.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the diversity of plants. Outlines novel developmental and complex genetic processes that are specific to plants. Identifies approaches that can be used to solve problems in plant biology. Cites the advantages of using higher plants for experimental systems. (RT)

  10. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Plant fertilizers and household plant foods are used to improve plant growth. Poisoning can occur if someone swallows these products. Plant fertilizers are mildly poisonous if small amounts are swallowed. ...

  11. The Essence of "Plantness."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darley, W. Marshall

    1990-01-01

    Major differences between plants and animals are presented. Discussed are autotrophs and heterotrophs, plant growth and development, gas exchange, the evolution of plants, ecosystem components, the alleged inferiority of plants, and fungi. (CW)

  12. Plants. Environmental Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    The study of plants is often limited to studying plant structure with little emphasis on the vital role plants play in our natural system and the variety of ways man uses plants. This unit, designed for intermediate level elementary students, reviews basic plant structure, discusses roles of plants in nature's system, illustrates plant…

  13. Plants on Display

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawniczak, Stefanie; Gerber, D. Timothy; Beck, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Food, medicine, clothing--much of what people encounter every day comes from plants or plant products. However, plants often do not get as much attention in the K-12 curriculum as they deserve. Because of the essential role plants play in peoples lives, it is important to include standards-based plant units in the elementary science curriculum.…

  14. Plant-plant interactions and environmental change.

    PubMed

    Brooker, Rob W

    2006-01-01

    Natural systems are being subjected to unprecedented rates of change and unique pressures from a combination of anthropogenic environmental change drivers. Plant-plant interactions are an important part of the mechanisms governing the response of plant species and communities to these drivers. For example, competition plays a central role in mediating the impacts of atmospheric nitrogen deposition, increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, climate change and invasive nonnative species. Other plant-plant interaction processes are also being recognized as important factors in determining the impacts of environmental change, including facilitation and evolutionary processes associated with plant-plant interactions. However, plant-plant interactions are not the only factors determining the response of species and communities to environmental change drivers - their activity must be placed within the context of the wide range of factors that regulate species, communities and ecosystems. A major research challenge is to understand when plant-plant interactions play a key role in regulating the impact of environmental change drivers, and the type of role that plant-plant interactions play. Although this is a considerable challenge, some areas of current research may provide the starting point to achieving these goals, and should be pursued through large-scale, integrated, multisite experiments. PMID:16866935

  15. Caffeic Acid Derivatives in Dried Lamiaceae and Echinacea purpurea Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The concentrations of caffeic acid derivatives within Lamiaceae and Echinacea (herb, spice, tea, and dietary supplement forms) readily available in the U.S. marketplace (n=72) were determined. After the first identification of chicoric acid in Ocimum basilicum (basil), the extent to which chicoric a...

  16. Teaching Plant Reproduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  17. The plant microbiome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Plant genomes contribute to the structure and function of the plant microbiome, a key determinant of plant health and productivity. High-throughput technologies are revealing interactions between these complex communities and their hosts in unprecedented detail. PMID:23805896

  18. Poinsettia plant exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Christmas flower poisoning; Lobster plant poisoning; Painted leaf poisoning ... Leaves, stem, sap of the poinsettia plant ... Poinsettia plant exposure can affect many parts of the body. EYES (IF DIRECT CONTACT OCCURS) Burning Redness STOMACH AND ...

  19. Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    This student plant growth investigation on the International Space Station compares plant growth on the ground with plant growth in space. Brassica rapa seeds, commonly known as a turnip mustard, w...

  20. Breeding Horticultural Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant breeding involves selection of plants with combinations of improved traits that are inherited in a predictable manner. Collecting, understanding, and incorporating genetic variation into a horticultural breeding program are critical to success. Clearly defined goals help plant breeders choose ...

  1. Plant stress signalling: understanding and exploiting plant-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Pickett, J A; Rasmussen, H B; Woodcock, C M; Matthes, M; Napier, J A

    2003-02-01

    When plants are attacked by insects, volatile chemical signals can be released, not only from the damaged parts, but also systemically from other parts of the plant and this continues after cessation of feeding by the insect. These signals are perceived by olfactory sensory mechanisms in both the herbivorous insects and their parasites. Molecular structures involved can be characterized by means of electrophysiological assays, using the insect sensory system linked to chemical analysis. Evidence is mounting that such signals can also affect neighbouring intact plants, which initiate defence by the induction of further signalling systems, such as those that increase parasitoid foraging. Furthermore, insect electrophysiology can be used in the identification of plant compounds having effects on the plants themselves. It has been found recently that certain plants can release stress signals even when undamaged, and that these can cause defence responses in intact plants. These discoveries provide the basis for new crop protection strategies, that are either delivered by genetic modification of plants or by conventionally produced plants to which the signal is externally applied. Delivery can also be made by means of mixed seed strategies in which the provoking and recipient plants are grown together. Related signalling discoveries within the rhizosphere seem set to extend these approaches into new ways of controlling weeds, by exploiting the elusive potential of allelopathy, but through signalling rather than by direct physiological effects. PMID:12546668

  2. Beginning Plant Biotechnology Laboratories Using Fast Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Mike

    This set of 16 laboratory activities is designed to illustrate the life cycle of Brassicae plants from seeds in pots to pods in 40 days. At certain points along the production cycle of the central core of labs, there are related lateral labs to provide additional learning opportunities employing this family of plants, referred to as "fast plants,"…

  3. THE PLANT ONTOLOGY CONSORTIUM AND PLANT ONTOLOGIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of the Plant OntologyTM Consortium is to produce structured controlled vocabularies, arranged in ontologies, that can be applied to plant-based database information even as knowledge of the biology of the relevant plant taxa (e.g., development, anatomy, morphology, genomics, proteomics) is ...

  4. Students' Ideas about Plants and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barman, Charles R.; Stein, Mary; McNair, Shannan; Barman, Natalie S.

    2006-01-01

    Because the National Science Education Standards (1996) outline specific things K-8 students should know about plants, and previous data indicated that elementary students had difficulty understanding some major ideas about plants and plant growth, the authors of this article thought it appropriate to initiate an investigation to determine the…

  5. Assessment of phytochemical content, polyphenolic composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Leguminosae medicinal plants in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many medicinal plants from Leguminosae family can be found easily in Malaysia. These plants have been used as traditional medicines by local ethnic groups, where they are prepared as decoction, pastes for wound infections, and some have been eaten as salad. This paper focused on the assessment of antioxidant potential, antibacterial activity and classes of phytochemicals of nine plants from the Leguminosae family. Methods Acacia auriculiformis, Bauhinia kockiana, Bauhinia purpurea, Caesalpinia pulcherrima, Calliandra tergemina, Cassia surattensis, Leucaena leucocephala, Peltophorum pterocarpum, and Samanea saman were extracted with aqueous methanol and dichloromethane:methanol mixture to test for antioxidant and antibacterial activities. The Folin-Ciocalteu assay was conducted to quantify the total phenolic content and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay was used to determine the free radical quenching capacity. Antibacterial activity was assessed using disc diffusion (Kirby-Bauer) assay. Screening for major classes of phytochemical was done using standard chemical tests. Results B. kockiana flowers and C. pulcherrima leaves contained high total phenolic content (TPC) and strong DPPH radical scavenging ability with TPC of 8280 ± 498 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 27.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL and TPC of 5030 ± 602 mg GAE/100 g, IC50 of 50.0 ± 5.0 μg/mL respectively. Positive correlation was observed between TPC and free radical scavenging ability. Most extracts showed antibacterial activity against Gram positive bacteria at 1 mg, while none showed activity against Gram negative bacteria at the same dose. All extracts (except Samanea saman flower) showed antibacterial activity against two strains of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MID values ranging between 100 μg/disc and 500 μg/disc. Conclusion The potential source of antioxidant and antibacterial agents, especially for MRSA infection treatments were found in B. kockiana, C

  6. Plant Biology Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    This book contains science projects about seed plants that deal with plant physiology, plant ecology, and plant agriculture. Each of the projects includes a step-by-step experiment followed by suggestions for further investigations. Chapters include: (1) "Bean Seed Imbibition"; (2) "Germination Percentages of Different Types of Seeds"; (3)…

  7. Plant Growth Regulators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickell, Louis G.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the effect of "plant growth regulators" on plants, such as controlling the flowering, fruit development, plant size, and increasing crop yields. Provides a list of plant growth regulators which includes their chemical, common, and trade names, as well as their different use(s). (GA)

  8. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... a protein found in the plant Note: All parts of the plants are poisonous if large amounts are eaten. ... Symptoms from eating parts of the plant or from the plant touching the eye include: Burning in the mouth or throat Damage to the outer clear ...

  9. Ethylene insensitive plants

    DOEpatents

    Ecker, Joseph R.; Nehring, Ramlah; McGrath, Robert B.

    2007-05-22

    Nucleic acid and polypeptide sequences are described which relate to an EIN6 gene, a gene involved in the plant ethylene response. Plant transformation vectors and transgenic plants are described which display an altered ethylene-dependent phenotype due to altered expression of EIN6 in transformed plants.

  10. Polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis in plants

    DOEpatents

    Srienc, Friedrich; Somers, David A.; Hahn, J. J.; Eschenlauer, Arthur C.

    2000-01-01

    Novel transgenic plants and plant cells are capable of biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). Heterologous enzymes involved in PHA biosynthesis, particularly PHA polymerase, are targeted to the peroxisome of a transgenic plant. Transgenic plant materials that biosynthesize short chain length monomer PHAs in the absence of heterologous .beta.-ketothiolase and acetoacetyl-CoA reductase are also disclosed.

  11. GCFR plant control system

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-05-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

  12. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  13. Comparative Transcriptomic Approaches Exploring Contamination Stress Tolerance in Salix sp. Reveal the Importance for a Metaorganismal de Novo Assembly Approach for Nonmodel Plants.

    PubMed

    Brereton, Nicholas J B; Gonzalez, Emmanuel; Marleau, Julie; Nissim, Werther Guidi; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E

    2016-05-01

    Metatranscriptomic study of nonmodel organisms requires strategies that retain the highly resolved genetic information generated from model organisms while allowing for identification of the unexpected. A real-world biological application of phytoremediation, the field growth of 10 Salix cultivars on polluted soils, was used as an exemplar nonmodel and multifaceted crop response well-disposed to the study of gene expression. Sequence reads were assembled de novo to create 10 independent transcriptomes, a global transcriptome, and were mapped against the Salix purpurea 94006 reference genome. Annotation of assembled contigs was performed without a priori assumption of the originating organism. Global transcriptome construction from 3.03 billion paired-end reads revealed 606,880 unique contigs annotated from 1588 species, often common in all 10 cultivars. Comparisons between transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic methodologies provide clear evidence that nonnative RNA can mistakenly map to reference genomes, especially to conserved regions of common housekeeping genes, such as actin, α/β-tubulin, and elongation factor 1-α. In Salix, Rubisco activase transcripts were down-regulated in contaminated trees across all 10 cultivars, whereas thiamine thizole synthase and CP12, a Calvin Cycle master regulator, were uniformly up-regulated. De novo assembly approaches, with unconstrained annotation, can improve data quality; care should be taken when exploring such plant genetics to reduce de facto data exclusion by mapping to a single reference genome alone. Salix gene expression patterns strongly suggest cultivar-wide alteration of specific photosynthetic apparatus and protection of the antenna complexes from oxidation damage in contaminated trees, providing an insight into common stress tolerance strategies in a real-world phytoremediation system. PMID:27002060

  14. Comparative Transcriptomic Approaches Exploring Contamination Stress Tolerance in Salix sp. Reveal the Importance for a Metaorganismal de Novo Assembly Approach for Nonmodel Plants1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Brereton, Nicholas J. B.; Marleau, Julie; Nissim, Werther Guidi; Labrecque, Michel; Joly, Simon; Pitre, Frederic E.

    2016-01-01

    Metatranscriptomic study of nonmodel organisms requires strategies that retain the highly resolved genetic information generated from model organisms while allowing for identification of the unexpected. A real-world biological application of phytoremediation, the field growth of 10 Salix cultivars on polluted soils, was used as an exemplar nonmodel and multifaceted crop response well-disposed to the study of gene expression. Sequence reads were assembled de novo to create 10 independent transcriptomes, a global transcriptome, and were mapped against the Salix purpurea 94006 reference genome. Annotation of assembled contigs was performed without a priori assumption of the originating organism. Global transcriptome construction from 3.03 billion paired-end reads revealed 606,880 unique contigs annotated from 1588 species, often common in all 10 cultivars. Comparisons between transcriptomic and metatranscriptomic methodologies provide clear evidence that nonnative RNA can mistakenly map to reference genomes, especially to conserved regions of common housekeeping genes, such as actin, α/β-tubulin, and elongation factor 1-α. In Salix, Rubisco activase transcripts were down-regulated in contaminated trees across all 10 cultivars, whereas thiamine thizole synthase and CP12, a Calvin Cycle master regulator, were uniformly up-regulated. De novo assembly approaches, with unconstrained annotation, can improve data quality; care should be taken when exploring such plant genetics to reduce de facto data exclusion by mapping to a single reference genome alone. Salix gene expression patterns strongly suggest cultivar-wide alteration of specific photosynthetic apparatus and protection of the antenna complexes from oxidation damage in contaminated trees, providing an insight into common stress tolerance strategies in a real-world phytoremediation system. PMID:27002060

  15. Plants that attack plants: molecular elucidation of plant parasitism.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Satoko; Shirasu, Ken

    2012-12-01

    Obligate parasitic plants in the family Orobanchaceae, such as Striga and Orobanche (including Phelipanche) spp., parasitize important crops and cause severe agricultural damage. Recent molecular studies have begun to reveal how these parasites have adapted to hosts in a parasitic lifecycle. The parasites detect nearby host roots and germinate by a mechanism that seems to have evolved from a conserved germination system found in non-parasites. The development of a specialized infecting organ called a haustorium is a unique feature of plant parasites and is triggered by host compounds and redox signals. Newly developed genomic and genetic resources will facilitate more rapid progress toward a molecular understanding of plant parasitism. PMID:22898297

  16. Thrips management program for plants for planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrips Management includes sanitation, exclusion, chemical control and biological control. Sanitation. Remove weeds, old plant debris, and growing medium from within and around the greenhouse. Eliminate old stock plants as these are a source of thrips and viruses. Removing old flowers may reduce the...

  17. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  18. Aspects of Plant Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    TREWAVAS, ANTHONY

    2003-01-01

    Intelligence is not a term commonly used when plants are discussed. However, I believe that this is an omission based not on a true assessment of the ability of plants to compute complex aspects of their environment, but solely a reflection of a sessile lifestyle. This article, which is admittedly controversial, attempts to raise many issues that surround this area. To commence use of the term intelligence with regard to plant behaviour will lead to a better understanding of the complexity of plant signal transduction and the discrimination and sensitivity with which plants construct images of their environment, and raises critical questions concerning how plants compute responses at the whole‐plant level. Approaches to investigating learning and memory in plants will also be considered. PMID:12740212

  19. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2007-06-05

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  20. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer; Zieler, Helge; Jin, James; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-06-26

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  1. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory; Preuss, Daphne

    2006-10-10

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  2. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach, Jennifer M.; Zieler, Helge; Jin, RongGuan; Keith, Kevin; Copenhaver, Gregory P.; Preuss, Daphne

    2011-08-02

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  3. Plant centromere compositions

    DOEpatents

    Mach; Jennifer M. , Zieler; Helge , Jin; RongGuan , Keith; Kevin , Copenhaver; Gregory P. , Preuss; Daphne

    2011-11-22

    The present invention provides for the nucleic acid sequences of plant centromeres. This will permit construction of stably inherited recombinant DNA constructs and minichromosomes which can serve as vectors for the construction of transgenic plant and animal cells.

  4. Caladium plant poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... KA. Toxic plant ingestions. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011: ... AB. Plant-induced dermatitis. In: Auerbach PS, ed. Wilderness Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011: ...

  5. Plant fertilizer poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Household plant food poisoning; Plant food - household - poisoning ... Belson M. Ammonia and nitrogen oxides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. Haddad and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug Overdose . 4th ...

  6. New baseload power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-01

    This is a tabulation of the results of this magazines survey of current plans for new baseload power plants. The table lists the unit name, capacity, fuel, engineering firm, constructor, suppliers for steam generator, turbine generator and flue gas desulfurization equipment, date due on-line, and any non-utility participants. The table includes fossil-fuel plants, nuclear plants, geothermal, biomass and hydroelectric plants.

  7. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  8. TRANSGENIC PLANT CONTAINMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The new technology using plant genetics to produce chemicals, pharmaceuticals, and therapeuitics in a wide array of new plant forms requires sufficient testing to ensure that these new plant introductions are benign in the environment. A recent effort to provide necessary guidan...

  9. Plant Interactions With Herbivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants are eaten by a tremendous array of herbivores, including almost half of known insect species. Although herbivores consume most plants to some degree, many plants are also relatively well defended, and herbivore populations are often limited by predators. The net result of these processes is t...

  10. Plant sampling guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document provides GRACEnet guidelines for sampling plant shoots and roots with additional guidelines and references for determining plant quality. Plant biomass including rhizodeposition provides the majority of net primary production that fuels above- and below-ground ecosystems. Thus, high ca...

  11. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  12. Advanced Plant Habitat (APH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Reed, David W.

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Plant Habitat (APH) hardware will be a large growth volume plant habitat, capable of hosting multigenerational studies, in which environmental variables (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide level light intensity and spectral quality) can be tracked and controlled in support of whole plant physiological testing and Bio-regenerative Life Support System investigations.

  13. Cycling Through Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavallo, Ann

    2005-01-01

    Children notice seeds and plants every day. But do they really understand what seeds are and how they are related to plants? Have they ever observed what is inside the seed? What happens to the "things" inside a seed when it grows? What do plants need to grow, and what do they need to stay healthy? Through a sequence of three related learning…

  14. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Living things respond to a stimulus, which is a change in the surroundings. Some common stimuli are noises, smells, and things the people see or feel, such as a change in temperature. Animals often respond to a stimulus by moving. Because plants can't move around in the same way animals do, plants have to respond in a different way. Plants can…

  15. Emerging infectious plant diseases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Healthy plants are essential to the survival of humans and animals on earth. Despite the value of plants, however, threats to plant health are generally considered secondary in importance to those of humans and animals. Although the most extensively studied pathogens are those causing disease on s...

  16. Antibodies in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The expression of antibodies in plants has several promising applications that are currently being developed. Plants are being considered for the large scale production of antibodies needed for medical purposes. The benefit of using plants is that they are able to perform post-translational modifi...

  17. Plant bugs on alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper treats the most important plant bugs, or Miridae, found on alfalfa in North America. It is estimated that more than 10 species of plant bugs have the potential to develop on this important forage legume. Of these, the alfalfa plant bug (Adelphocoris lineolatus), pale legume bug (Lygus e...

  18. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  19. Plant Regulatory Organizations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The chapter on Plant Regulatory Organizations is part of a book titled Pest Management and Phytosanitary Trade Barriers authored by Neil Heather (Australia) and Guy Hallman. It covers the role of plant regulatory organizations from the international to state level in protecting plant health. At on...

  20. 4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. STEAM PLANT MARINE BOILERS WEST OF STEAM PLANT AND SOUTH OF ORIGINAL STEAM PLANT BOILERS, FROM SOUTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  2. The plant pathology of native plant restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of ecologically degraded sites will benefit from the convergence of knowledge drawn from such disparate and often compartmentalized (and heretofore not widely considered) areas of research as soil microbial ecology, plant pathology and agronomy. Restoration following biological control w...

  3. Bumper transgenic plant crop

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, A.S.

    1991-07-05

    Although it may seem hard to believe, it's been almost 10 years since researchers showed that they could use gene transfer technology on plants. Since then the plant genetic engineers have taken great strides. With several dozen field trials already under way, they may soon achieve their original goal - the development of high-yielding plant varieties with enhanced resistance to herbicides, disease, or insects. So now the researchers are branching out, beginning to design plants with improved consumer appeal, such as tomatoes that hold up better to freezing, as well as creating plants that can serve as factories for pharmaceuticals and industrial oils, just as researchers are now attempting to use pigs to make human hemoglobin. Some of the plant varieties being developed include: tobacco plants, soybeans, tomatoes, and dry, navy and green beans.

  4. Safe genetically engineered plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosellini, D.; Veronesi, F.

    2007-10-01

    The application of genetic engineering to plants has provided genetically modified plants (GMPs, or transgenic plants) that are cultivated worldwide on increasing areas. The most widespread GMPs are herbicide-resistant soybean and canola and insect-resistant corn and cotton. New GMPs that produce vaccines, pharmaceutical or industrial proteins, and fortified food are approaching the market. The techniques employed to introduce foreign genes into plants allow a quite good degree of predictability of the results, and their genome is minimally modified. However, some aspects of GMPs have raised concern: (a) control of the insertion site of the introduced DNA sequences into the plant genome and of its mutagenic effect; (b) presence of selectable marker genes conferring resistance to an antibiotic or an herbicide, linked to the useful gene; (c) insertion of undesired bacterial plasmid sequences; and (d) gene flow from transgenic plants to non-transgenic crops or wild plants. In response to public concerns, genetic engineering techniques are continuously being improved. Techniques to direct foreign gene integration into chosen genomic sites, to avoid the use of selectable genes or to remove them from the cultivated plants, to reduce the transfer of undesired bacterial sequences, and make use of alternative, safer selectable genes, are all fields of active research. In our laboratory, some of these new techniques are applied to alfalfa, an important forage plant. These emerging methods for plant genetic engineering are briefly reviewed in this work.

  5. Plant Communities of Rough Rock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Linda

    A unit of study on plants grown in the Navajo community of Rough Rock, Arizona, is presented in sketches providing the common Navajo name for the plant, a literal English translation, the English name of the plant, and the Latin name. A brief description of each plant includes where the plant grows, how the Navajos use the plant, and the color and…

  6. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  7. Plant Habitat (PH)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  8. Software aids plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Winiger, T. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports that for most utilities, computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are currently used for operating plant support rather than new plant design particularly for nuclear plant maintenance. For nuclear power generating utilities, switching to a modern, integrated CAE information system can offer significant benefits. During the last decade, however, most engineering automation in the power generation industry focused on computer-aided drafting and stand-alone engineering applications. An integrated CAE system can be a useful too, assisting engineers with many engineering and operational activities. It also can be used to manage the massive amount of information created throughout the life of a plant.

  9. Plant Cyclic Nucleotide Signalling

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Atienza, Juliana; Van Ingelgem, Carl; Roef, Luc

    2007-01-01

    The presence of the cyclic nucleotides 3′,5′-cyclic adenyl monophosphate (cAMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic guanyl monophosphate (cGMP) in plants is now generally accepted. In addition, cAMP and cGMP have been implicated in the regulation of important plant processes such as stomatal functioning, monovalent and divalent cation fluxes, chloroplast development, gibberellic acid signalling, pathogen response and gene transcription. However, very little is known regarding the components of cyclic nucleotide signalling in plants. In this addendum, the evidence for specific mechanisms of plant cyclic nucleotide signalling is evaluated and discussed. PMID:19704553

  10. Modeling plant morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prusinkiewicz, Przemyslaw; Rolland-Lagan, Anne-Gaëlle

    2006-02-01

    Applications of computational techniques to developmental plant biology include the processing of experimental data and the construction of simulation models. Substantial progress has been made in these areas over the past few years. Complex image-processing techniques are used to integrate sequences of two-dimensional images into three-dimensional descriptions of development over time and to extract useful quantitative traits. Large amounts of data are integrated into empirical models of developing plant organs and entire plants. Mechanistic models link molecular-level phenomena with the resulting phenotypes. Several models shed light on the possible properties of active auxin transport and its role in plant morphogenesis. PMID:16376602

  11. Leatherwood prep plant upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Hollis, R.W.; Jain, S.M.

    2007-06-15

    The Blue Diamond Coal Co. recently implemented major circuit modifications to the Leatherwood coal preparation plant (formerly known as the J.K. Cornett prep plant) in Slemp, KY, USA. The plant was originally built in the late 1980s, and then modified in 1999. The 2006 plant modifications included: two Krebs 33-inch heavy-media cyclones; five 10 x 20 ft single deck Conn-Weld Banana type vibrating screens; two 10 ft x 48 inch Eriez self-leveling magnetic separators; two Derrick Stacksizer high frequency screens; two CMI EBR-48 centrifugal dryers; Warman process pumps; and eight triple start MDL spiral concentrators. 2 figs.

  12. Pilot plant becomes demonstration plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.

  13. ROS and Phytohormones in Plant-Plant Allelopathic Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Gniazdowska, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    Allelopathy refers to plant-plant interference mediated mostly by plant released products of secondary metabolism. It was recently suggested that allelochamicals may influence growth of neighboring plants by induction of oxidative stress. We have focused on the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phytohormons (ABA and ethylene) in the biochemical and molecular regulation of plant response to sunflower phytotoxins. PMID:19704634

  14. Some Plants We Eat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Mary E.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various plant parts used as food (including seeds, roots, stems, and leaves), emphasizing the origin of plant materials bought in the supermarket. Also discusses several concepts of nutrition, menu planning, and the relationship between food and energy from the sun. (JM)

  15. Kashaya Pomo Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Jennie; And Others

    The monograph describes more than 200 plants growing within the approximately 300 square miles of the original land of the Kashaya Pomo Indians, which lies along the coast of Sonoma County, California. An introduction provides information on the plant communities represented (redwood forest, mixed evergreen forest, oak woodland, Douglas fir…

  16. Power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This overviews basic theories and concepts of power plant design using an accessible approach that moves smoothly from simple to real configurations. Utilizing a large number of worked examples the book provides a treatment and understanding of all aspects of power plant design from basic thermodynamics to complex applications.

  17. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  18. Carotenoid metabolism in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are mostly C40 terpenoids, a class of hydrocarbons that participate in various biological processes in plants, such as photosynthesis, photomorphogenesis, photoprotection, and development. Carotenoids also serve as precursors for two plant hormones and a diverse set of apocarotenoids. Th...

  19. Plant Water Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomley, David

    1982-01-01

    Some simple field investigations on plant water relations are described which demonstrate links between physiological and external environmental factors. In this way, a more complex picture of a plant and how it functions within its habitat and the effects the environment has on it can be built up. (Author/JN)

  20. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  1. Stress detection in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    How can the status of plant stress be measured rapidly and accurately in the hundreds of trees managed within a commercial orchard? Two technologies have been developed over the past two decades that will provide useful information to detect plant stress in orchard systems: 1) Reflectance of visibl...

  2. Plant pathogen resistance

    DOEpatents

    Greenberg, Jean T; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2012-11-27

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  3. Better Plants Program Overview

    SciTech Connect

    2015-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Better Buildings, Better Plants Program is a voluntary partnership initiative to drive significant energy efficiency improvement across energy intensive companies and organizations. 157 leading manufacturers and public water and wastewater treatment utilities are partnering with DOE through Better Plants to improve energy efficiency, slash carbon emissions, and cut energy costs.

  4. Evolution & Diversity in Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lorentz C.

    1988-01-01

    Summarizes recent findings that help in understanding how evolution has brought about the diversity of plant life that presently exists. Discusses basic concepts of evolution, diversity and classification, the three-line hypothesis of plant evolution, the origin of fungi, and the geologic time table. Included are 31 references. (CW)

  5. Cholesterol and Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrman, E. J.; Gopalan, Venkat

    2005-01-01

    There is a widespread belief among the public and even among chemist that plants do not contain cholesterol. This wrong belief is the result of the fact that plants generally contain only small quantities of cholesterol and that analytical methods for the detection of cholesterol in this range were not developed until recently.

  6. Plant names and classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter updates one of the same title from Edition 12 of Stearn’s Introductory Biology published in 2011. It reviews binomial nomenclature, discusses three codes of plant nomenclature (the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants...

  7. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  8. Plant Light Measurement & Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, David R.

    1991-01-01

    The differences between measuring light intensity for the human eye and for plant photosynthesis are discussed. Conversion factors needed to convert various units of light are provided. Photosynthetic efficiency and the electricity costs for plants to undergo photosynthesis using interior lighting are described. (KR)

  9. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants.

    PubMed

    Tam, James P; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  10. Plant growth promoting rhizobacterium

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John; Pelletier, Dale A.; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Tuskan, Gerald A.; Weston, David

    2015-08-11

    The present invention is directed to the Pseudomonas fluorescens strain GM30 deposited under ATCC Accession No. PTA-13340, compositions containing the GM30 strain, and methods of using the GM30 strain to enhance plant growth and/or enhance plant resistance to pathogens.

  11. Insect--plant adaptations.

    PubMed

    Southwood, T R

    1984-01-01

    The adaptation of insects to plants probably commenced in the early Permian period, though most current associations will be more recent. A major burst of adaptation must have followed the rise of the Angiosperms in the Cretaceous period, though some particular associations are as recent as this century. Living plants form a large proportion of the potential food in most habitats, though insects have had to overcome certain general hurdles to live and feed on them. Insects affect the reproduction and survival of plants, and thus the diversity of plant secondary chemicals may have evolved as a response. Where an insect species has a significant effect on a plant species that is its only host, coevolution may be envisaged. A spectacular example is provided by Heliconius butterflies and passion flower vines, studied by L.E. Gilbert and others. But such cases may be likened to 'vortices in the evolutionary stream': most plant species are influenced by a range of phytophagous insects so that selection will be for general defences--a situation termed diffuse coevolution. Evidence is presented on recent host-plant shifts to illustrate both the restrictions and the flexibility in current insect-plant associations. PMID:6559112

  12. Plant Gall Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Jacqueline Gage

    1997-01-01

    Describes a field trip to study, collect, and analyze galls in the field and classroom. Students hypothesize about factors that cause gall formation, develop a basic understanding of the complex and fragile interactions between plants and insects that result in the formation of plant galls, and determine the broader role of galls within the…

  13. Plants without arbuscular mycorrhizae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    P is second to N as the most limiting element for plant growth. Plants have evolved a number of effective strategies to acquire P and grow in a P-limited environment. Physiological, biochemical, and molecular studies of P-deficiency adaptations that occur in non-mycorrhizal species have provided str...

  14. Plant pathogen resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, Jean T.; Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy

    2015-10-20

    Azelaic acid or its derivatives or analogs induce a robust and a speedier defense response against pathogens in plants. Azelaic acid treatment alone does not induce many of the known defense-related genes but activates a plant's defense signaling upon pathogen exposure.

  15. Plant Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    Appropriate for secondary school botany instruction, this study guide focuses on the important roles of plants in human lives. Following a rationale for learning the basic skills of a botanist, separate sections discuss the process sunlight undergoes during photosynthesis, the flow of energy in the food chain, alternative plant lifestyles, plant…

  16. Lifestyles of plant viruses

    PubMed Central

    Roossinck, Marilyn J.

    2010-01-01

    The vast majority of well-characterized eukaryotic viruses are those that cause acute or chronic infections in humans and domestic plants and animals. However, asymptomatic persistent viruses have been described in animals, and are thought to be sources for emerging acute viruses. Although not previously described in these terms, there are also many viruses of plants that maintain a persistent lifestyle. They have been largely ignored because they do not generally cause disease. The persistent viruses in plants belong to the family Partitiviridae or the genus Endornavirus. These groups also have members that infect fungi. Phylogenetic analysis of the partitivirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes suggests that these viruses have been transmitted between plants and fungi. Additional families of viruses traditionally thought to be fungal viruses are also found frequently in plants, and may represent a similar scenario of persistent lifestyles, and some acute or chronic viruses of crop plants may maintain a persistent lifestyle in wild plants. Persistent, chronic and acute lifestyles of plant viruses are contrasted from both a functional and evolutionary perspective, and the potential role of these lifestyles in host evolution is discussed. PMID:20478885

  17. Growing Plants in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salt, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    Background information on the methods and varieties used to demonstrate the cultivation of plants without the use of chemical pesticides is provided. Discussed are species and variety selection, growing plants from seed and from seedlings, soil preparation, using cuttings, useful crops, and pest control. (CW)

  18. Antimicrobial Peptides from Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tam, James P.; Wang, Shujing; Wong, Ka H.; Tan, Wei Liang

    2015-01-01

    Plant antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have evolved differently from AMPs from other life forms. They are generally rich in cysteine residues which form multiple disulfides. In turn, the disulfides cross-braced plant AMPs as cystine-rich peptides to confer them with extraordinary high chemical, thermal and proteolytic stability. The cystine-rich or commonly known as cysteine-rich peptides (CRPs) of plant AMPs are classified into families based on their sequence similarity, cysteine motifs that determine their distinctive disulfide bond patterns and tertiary structure fold. Cystine-rich plant AMP families include thionins, defensins, hevein-like peptides, knottin-type peptides (linear and cyclic), lipid transfer proteins, α-hairpinin and snakins family. In addition, there are AMPs which are rich in other amino acids. The ability of plant AMPs to organize into specific families with conserved structural folds that enable sequence variation of non-Cys residues encased in the same scaffold within a particular family to play multiple functions. Furthermore, the ability of plant AMPs to tolerate hypervariable sequences using a conserved scaffold provides diversity to recognize different targets by varying the sequence of the non-cysteine residues. These properties bode well for developing plant AMPs as potential therapeutics and for protection of crops through transgenic methods. This review provides an overview of the major families of plant AMPs, including their structures, functions, and putative mechanisms. PMID:26580629

  19. Plants Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brynildson, Inga

    This study quide is intended to provide students with information about the types and functions of plants, along with some individual learning activities. The guide contains sections about: (1) the contributions of plants to life on earth and the benefits they afford to humanity; (2) the processes of photosynthesis and respiration; (3) the flow of…

  20. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  1. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  2. Modulating lignin in plants

    DOEpatents

    Apuya, Nestor; Bobzin, Steven Craig; Okamuro, Jack; Zhang, Ke

    2013-01-29

    Materials and methods for modulating (e.g., increasing or decreasing) lignin content in plants are disclosed. For example, nucleic acids encoding lignin-modulating polypeptides are disclosed as well as methods for using such nucleic acids to generate transgenic plants having a modulated lignin content.

  3. Overview of plant pigments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids and betalains are four major classes of biological pigments produced in plants. Chlorophylls are the primary pigments responsible for plant green and photosynthesis. The other three are accessary pigments and secondary metabolites that yield non-green colors and...

  4. Plant Plastid Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Shabir H.; Haider, Nadia; Kumar, Hitesh; Singh, N.B.

    2010-01-01

    Genetic material in plants is distributed into nucleus, plastids and mitochondria. Plastid has a central role of carrying out photosynthesis in plant cells. Plastid transformation is becoming more popular and an alternative to nuclear gene transformation because of various advantages like high protein levels, the feasibility of expressing multiple proteins from polycistronic mRNAs, and gene containment through the lack of pollen transmission. Recently, much progress in plastid engineering has been made. In addition to model plant tobacco, many transplastomic crop plants have been generated which possess higher resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses and molecular pharming. In this mini review, we will discuss the features of the plastid DNA and advantages of plastid transformation. We will also present some examples of transplastomic plants developed so far through plastid engineering, and the various applications of plastid transformation. PMID:21532834

  5. Plant Sex Chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Charlesworth, Deborah

    2016-04-29

    Although individuals in most flowering plant species, and in many haploid plants, have both sex functions, dioecious species-in which individuals have either male or female functions only-are scattered across many taxonomic groups, and many species have genetic sex determination. Among these, some have visibly heteromorphic sex chromosomes, and molecular genetic studies are starting to uncover sex-linked markers in others, showing that they too have fully sex-linked regions that are either too small or are located in chromosomes that are too small to be cytologically detectable from lack of pairing, lack of visible crossovers, or accumulation of heterochromatin. Detailed study is revealing that, like animal sex chromosomes, plant sex-linked regions show evidence for accumulation of repetitive sequences and genetic degeneration. Estimating when recombination stopped confirms the view that many plants have young sex-linked regions, making plants of great interest for studying the timescale of these changes. PMID:26653795

  6. Plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferl, Robert; Wheeler, Raymond; Levine, Howard G.; Paul, Anna Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Virtually all scenarios for the long-term habitation of spacecraft and other extraterrestrial structures involve plants as important parts of the contained environment that would support humans. Recent experiments have identified several effects of spaceflight on plants that will need to be more fully understood before plant-based life support can become a reality. The International Space Station (ISS) is the focus for the newest phase of space-based research, which should solve some of the mysteries of how spaceflight affects plant growth. Research carried out on the ISS and in the proposed terrestrial facility for Advanced Life Support testing will bring the requirements for establishing extraterrestrial plant-based life support systems into clearer focus.

  7. Plants on the move

    PubMed Central

    Scorza, Livia Camilla Trevisan; Dornelas, Marcelo Carnier

    2011-01-01

    One may think that plants seem relatively immobile. Nevertheless, plants not only produce movement but these movements can be quite rapid such as the closing traps of carnivorous plants, the folding up of leaflets in some Leguminosae species and the movement of floral organs in order to increase cross pollination. We focus this review on thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements, both in vegetative and reproductive parts of higher plants. Ultrastructural studies revealed that most thigmotropic and thigmonastic movements are caused by differentially changing cell turgor within a given tissue. Auxin has emerged as a key molecule that modulates proton extrusion and thus causing changes in cell turgor by enhancing the activity of H+ATPase in cell membranes. Finding conserved molecules and/or operational molecular modules among diverse types of movements would help us to find universal mechanisms controlling movements in plants and thus improve our understanding about the evolution of such phenomena. PMID:22231201

  8. Poultry Plant Noise Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A demonstration conducted last winter at the Tip Top Poultry Plant intended to show poultry plant managers from all over the U.S. potential solutions to the problem of plant noise. Plastic covers used over sound absorbing materials need to meet cleanability requirements, high- pressure water cleaning and other harsh maintenance procedures peculiar to the poultry processing industry. For the demonstration, Fiber Flex, Inc. manufactured and donated 750 noise panels; Owens-Corning Fiberglas Corporation donated the fiberglas cores; and the cover material was purchased from Howe and Bainbridge. The Engineering Experiment Station (EES) conducted before and after noise surveys and is evaluating the effect of noise reduction on turnover and productivity in the demonstration plant. EES plans to conduct a noise abatement workshop and update a handbook to help poultry processors with noise problems. EES study and demonstration may be applicable to other food processing plants where similar sanitary constraints exist.

  9. Automatic micropropagation of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otte, Clemens; Schwanke, Joerg; Jensch, Peter F.

    1996-12-01

    Micropropagation is a sophisticated technique for the rapid multiplication of plants. It has a great commercial potential due to the speed of propagation, the high plant quality, and the ability to produce disease-free plants. However, micropropagation is usually done by hand which makes the process cost-intensive and tedious for the workers especially because it requires a sterile work-place. Therefore, we have developed a prototype automation system for the micropropagation of a grass species (miscanthus sinensis gigantheus). The objective of this paper is to describe the robotic system in an overview and to discuss the vision system more closely including the implemented morphological operations recognizing the cutting and gripping points of miscanthus plants. Fuzzy controllers are used to adapt the parameters of image operations on-line to each individual plant. Finally, we discuss our experiences with the developed prototype an give a preview of a possible real production line system.

  10. Aquaporins in Plants.

    PubMed

    Maurel, Christophe; Boursiac, Yann; Luu, Doan-Trung; Santoni, Véronique; Shahzad, Zaigham; Verdoucq, Lionel

    2015-10-01

    Aquaporins are membrane channels that facilitate the transport of water and small neutral molecules across biological membranes of most living organisms. In plants, aquaporins occur as multiple isoforms reflecting a high diversity of cellular localizations, transport selectivity, and regulation properties. Plant aquaporins are localized in the plasma membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, vacuoles, plastids and, in some species, in membrane compartments interacting with symbiotic organisms. Plant aquaporins can transport various physiological substrates in addition to water. Of particular relevance for plants is the transport of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia or metalloids such as boron and silicon. Structure-function studies are developed to address the molecular and cellular mechanisms of plant aquaporin gating and subcellular trafficking. Phosphorylation plays a central role in these two processes. These mechanisms allow aquaporin regulation in response to signaling intermediates such as cytosolic pH and calcium, and reactive oxygen species. Combined genetic and physiological approaches are now integrating this knowledge, showing that aquaporins play key roles in hydraulic regulation in roots and leaves, during drought but also in response to stimuli as diverse as flooding, nutrient availability, temperature, or light. A general hydraulic control of plant tissue expansion by aquaporins is emerging, and their role in key developmental processes (seed germination, emergence of lateral roots) has been established. Plants with genetically altered aquaporin functions are now tested for their ability to improve plant tolerance to stresses. In conclusion, research on aquaporins delineates ever expanding fields in plant integrative biology thereby establishing their crucial role in plants. PMID:26336033

  11. Shaping plant architecture.

    PubMed

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  12. Shaping plant architecture

    PubMed Central

    Teichmann, Thomas; Muhr, Merlin

    2015-01-01

    Plants exhibit phenotypical plasticity. Their general body plan is genetically determined, but plant architecture and branching patterns are variable and can be adjusted to the prevailing environmental conditions. The modular design of the plant facilitates such morphological adaptations. The prerequisite for the formation of a branch is the initiation of an axillary meristem. Here, we review the current knowledge about this process. After its establishment, the meristem can develop into a bud which can either become dormant or grow out and form a branch. Many endogenous factors, such as photoassimilate availability, and exogenous factors like nutrient availability or shading, have to be integrated in the decision whether a branch is formed. The underlying regulatory network is complex and involves phytohormones and transcription factors. The hormone auxin is derived from the shoot apex and inhibits bud outgrowth indirectly in a process termed apical dominance. Strigolactones appear to modulate apical dominance by modification of auxin fluxes. Furthermore, the transcription factor BRANCHED1 plays a central role. The exact interplay of all these factors still remains obscure and there are alternative models. We discuss recent findings in the field along with the major models. Plant architecture is economically significant because it affects important traits of crop and ornamental plants, as well as trees cultivated in forestry or on short rotation coppices. As a consequence, plant architecture has been modified during plant domestication. Research revealed that only few key genes have been the target of selection during plant domestication and in breeding programs. Here, we discuss such findings on the basis of various examples. Architectural ideotypes that provide advantages for crop plant management and yield are described. We also outline the potential of breeding and biotechnological approaches to further modify and improve plant architecture for economic needs

  13. The Development of Plant Biotechnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrey, John G.

    1985-01-01

    Examines major lines of thought leading to what is meant by plant biotechnology, namely, the application of existing techniques of plant organ, tissue, and cell culture, plant molecular biology, and genetic engineering to the improvement of plants and of plant productivity for the benefit of man. (JN)

  14. 37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Photocopy of photograph. STEEL PLANT, OPEN HOUSE INSIDE PLANT AT TIME OF ITS OPENING, 1910. (From the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Collection, Seattle, WA) - Irondale Iron & Steel Plant, Port Townsend, Jefferson County, WA

  15. 5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. STEAM PLANT COOLING TOWER LOCATED WEST OF STEAM PLANT BUILDING, FROM SOUTH. SHOWS CURRENT LEVEL OF DISREPAIR. December 4, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. Medicinal plants: conception / contraception.

    PubMed

    Chaing, H S; Merino-chavez, G; Yang, L L; Wang, F N; Hafez, E S

    1994-01-01

    Researchers have conducted considerable experiments on the effectiveness and therapeutic values of Chinese herbs and parts of plants. We should not ignore the significance of natural medicine. The Chinese have been perfecting medicinal therapy based on the raw ingredients of plants/herbs and their derivatives for thousands of years. Chinese practitioners of traditional medicine prescribe medicines based on yin and yang. Traditional medicine is communicated in a verb or written form. Natural resources used in traditional medicine to treat diseases are not limited to just medicinal plants but also include animals, shell fish, and minerals. Parts of plants used in traditional medicine are leaves, stems, flowers, bark, and root. Chinese medicine is the world's oldest continuous surviving tradition. The Chinese experimented with local plants, often resulting in mild to violent reactions. This process allowed them to become familiar with poisonous plants and those that could relieve pain or successfully treat illness. Current allopathic medicines are composed of synthetic compounds copied from natural chemical derivatives, which tend to be more potent than the original compound. Some medicinal plants used to effect conception/contraception include Striga astiatica (contraceptive); Eurycoma longifolia (male virility); and a mixture of lengkuas, mengkudu masak, black pepper seeds, ginger, salt, and 2 eggs (increase libido). Women in Malaysia take jamu to preserve their body shape and to provide nutrition during pregnancy. Praneem causes local cell-mediated immunity in the uterus. Clinical trials of Praneem with or without the hCG vaccine are planned. PMID:12287843

  17. Hierarchies of plant stiffness.

    PubMed

    Brulé, Veronique; Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Pasini, Damiano; Western, Tamara L

    2016-09-01

    Plants must meet mechanical as well as physiological and reproductive requirements for survival. Management of internal and external stresses is achieved through their unique hierarchical architecture. Stiffness is determined by a combination of morphological (geometrical) and compositional variables that vary across multiple length scales ranging from the whole plant to organ, tissue, cell and cell wall levels. These parameters include, among others, organ diameter, tissue organization, cell size, density and turgor pressure, and the thickness and composition of cell walls. These structural parameters and their consequences on plant stiffness are reviewed in the context of work on stems of the genetic reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), and the suitability of Arabidopsis as a model system for consistent investigation of factors controlling plant stiffness is put forward. Moving beyond Arabidopsis, the presence of morphological parameters causing stiffness gradients across length-scales leads to beneficial emergent properties such as increased load-bearing capacity and reversible actuation. Tailoring of plant stiffness for old and new purposes in agriculture and forestry can be achieved through bioengineering based on the knowledge of the morphological and compositional parameters of plant stiffness in combination with gene identification through the use of genetics. PMID:27457986

  18. Plants and weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karminskiy, V.; Tarkhanovskiy, V.

    1980-01-01

    The growth of two plants, wall cress and short-day red goosefoot, was traced for their entire lifetime in weightlessness. In the beginning both plants grew normally: the seeds sprouted in the normal periods, and the shoots did not differ in any way from the control plants. It is true that certain roots lost their normal orientation and did not go deeper into the nutrient medium, but rather crept over its surface. But then both the wall cress and the goosefoot slowed down their normal rate of growth, which became noticeable from the rate of formation of new leaves in the wall cress and stem development in the goosefoot. Although no disorders were successfully found in the morphology of the two plants, almost half of the experimental cress and goosefoot plants ceased growth completely, yellowed and died. The other part continued to develop normally and by the end of vegetation, differed from the control plants only in a lower height. Not all were fertile since certain experimental plants, after losing spatial orientation, became twisted and produced sterile flowers.

  19. Plants as Environmental Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Ranatunga, Don Rufus A

    2006-01-01

    Plants are continuously exposed to a wide variety of perturbations including variation of temperature and/or light, mechanical forces, gravity, air and soil pollution, drought, deficiency or surplus of nutrients, attacks by insects and pathogens, etc., and hence, it is essential for all plants to have survival sensory mechanisms against such perturbations. Consequently, plants generate various types of intracellular and intercellular electrical signals mostly in the form of action and variation potentials in response to these environmental changes. However, over a long period, only certain plants with rapid and highly noticeable responses for environmental stresses have received much attention from plant scientists. Of particular interest to our recent studies on ultra fast action potential measurements in green plants, we discuss in this review the evidence supporting the foundation for utilizing green plants as fast biosensors for molecular recognition of the direction of light, monitoring the environment, and detecting the insect attacks as well as the effects of pesticides, defoliants, uncouplers, and heavy metal pollutants. PMID:19521490

  20. Plant ABC Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Joohyun; Park, Jiyoung; Choi, Hyunju; Burla, Bo; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Lee, Youngsook; Martinoia, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    ABC transporters constitute one of the largest protein families found in all living organisms. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis and can act as exporters as well as importers. The plant genome encodes for more than 100 ABC transporters, largely exceeding that of other organisms. In Arabidopsis, only 22 out of 130 have been functionally analyzed. They are localized in most membranes of a plant cell such as the plasma membrane, the tonoplast, chloroplasts, mitochondria and peroxisomes and fulfill a multitude of functions. Originally identified as transporters involved in detoxification processes, they have later been shown to be required for organ growth, plant nutrition, plant development, response to abiotic stresses, pathogen resistance and the interaction of the plant with its environment. To fulfill these roles they exhibit different substrate specifies by e.g. depositing surface lipids, accumulating phytate in seeds, and transporting the phytohormones auxin and abscisic acid. The aim of this review is to give an insight into the functions of plant ABC transporters and to show their importance for plant development and survival. PMID:22303277

  1. The illuminated plant cell.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Jaideep

    2007-11-01

    The past decade has provided biologists with a palette of genetically encoded, multicolored fluorescent proteins. The living plant cell turned into a 'coloring book' and today, nearly every text-book organelle has been highlighted in scintillating fluorescent colors. This review provides a concise listing of the earliest representative fluorescent-protein probes used to highlight various targets within the plant cell, and introduces the idea of using the numerous multicolor, subcellular probes for the development of an early intracellular response profile of plants. PMID:17933577

  2. Pretraining plant operators

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.J.; Claypoole, G.T.; Sherren, D.C.

    1980-06-01

    A new approach to training utility plant operators who can cope with the increasing technological demands of plant operation precedes industry training programs with formal entry-level training at educational and research facilities. This pretraining allows potential operators to be screened and offers an appropriate curriculum prior to employment. The educational guidelines can be set out in a manual and reinforced with qualification tests, counseling, and student assessments. Classroom instruction can give students a basic knowledge of plant procedures. Students who aim for managerial positions can continue beyond the vocational technical setting to university courses. (DCK)

  3. PFBC plant operations

    SciTech Connect

    Kinsinger, F.L. )

    1992-01-01

    By operating a fluidized bed at elevated pressures, known as pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC), advantages can be gained over atmospheric fluidized bed technology. Operating the process at elevated pressures allows electrical production from both the steam and the gas cycles which results in higher plant efficiencies. Additional benefits of operating at elevated pressures include the further reduction of emissions and the reduction in the physical size of the power plant. This paper describes the operation of a PFBC plant and its application at the Tidd clean coal demonstration project. Actual operating experience will be presented.

  4. FRIB Cryogenic Plant Status

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter N.; Casagranda, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    After practical changes were approved to the initial conceptual design of the cryogenic system for MSU FRIB and an agreement was made with JLab in 2012 to lead the design effort of the cryogenic plant, many activities are in place leading toward a cool-down of the linacs prior to 2018. This is mostly due to using similar equipment used at CHLII for the 12 GeV upgrade at JLab and an aggressive schedule maintained by the MSU Conventional Facilities department. Reported here is an updated status of the cryogenic plant, including the equipment procurement status, plant layout, facility equipment and project schedule.

  5. Optofluidics of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psaltis, Demetri; Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Choi, Jae-Woo

    2016-05-01

    Optofluidics is a tool for synthesizing optical systems, making use of the interaction of light with fluids. In this paper we explore optofluidic mechanisms that have evolved in plants where sunlight and fluidic control combine to define most of the functionality of the plan. We hope that the presentation of how plants function, from an optofluidics point of view, will open a window for the optics community to the vast literature of plant physiology and provide inspiration for new ideas for the design of bio-mimetic optofluidic devices.

  6. Our World: Plants in Space

    NASA Video Gallery

    Find out how plants use light to make their own food in a process called photosynthesis. See how NASA uses LED lights to help grow plants in space. Design your own plant growth chamber like the one...

  7. Environments for Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mier, Robert; Poling, Donald

    1970-01-01

    Reviews some recent research on the effects of environment on plant growth. Also offers some how-to-do-it information on building low-cost, easy-to-construct greenhouses and growth chambers for school use. Bibliography. (LC)

  8. Plant stem cell niches.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis. PMID:22404469

  9. Cyanogenesis in Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1990-01-01

    Several thousand plant species, including many economically important food plants, synthesize cyanogenic glycosides and cyanolipids. Upon tissue disruption, these natural products are hydrolyzed liberating the respiratory poison hydrogen cyanide. This phenomenon of cyanogenesis accounts for numerous cases of acute and chronic cyanide poisoning of animals including man. This article reviews information gathered during the past decade about the enzymology and molecular biology of cyanogenesis in higher plants. How compartmentation normally prevents the large-scale, suicidal release of HCN within the intact plant is discussed. A renewed interest in the physiology of these cyanogenic compounds has revealed that, in addition to providing protection for some species against herbivory, they may also serve as storage forms for reduced nitrogen. PMID:16667728

  10. Roots in plant ecology.

    PubMed

    Cody, M L

    1986-09-01

    In 1727 the pioneer vegetation scientist Stephen Hales realized that I much that was of importance to his subject material took place below on ground. A good deal of descriptive work on plant roots and root systems was done in the subsequent two centuries; in crop plants especially, the gross morphology of root systems was well known by the early 20th century. These descriptive studies were extended to natural grasslands by Weaver and his associates and to deserts by Cannon by the second decade of this century, but since that time the study of subterranean growth form appears to have lapsed, as a recent review by Kummerow indicates. Nevertheless, growth form is an important aspect of plant ecology, and subterranean growth form is especially relevant to the study of vegetation in and areas (which is the main subject of this commentary). Moreover, there is a real need for more research to be directed towards understanding plant root systems in general. PMID:21227785

  11. Plant Vascular Biology 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Biao

    2014-11-17

    This grant supported the Second International Conference on Plant Vascular Biology (PVB 2010) held July 24-28, 2010 on the campus of Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Biao Ding (Ohio State University; OSU) and David Hannapel (Iowa State University; ISU) served as co-chairs of this conference. Biao Ding served as the local organizer. PVB is defined broadly here to include studies on the biogenesis, structure and function of transport systems in plants, under conditions of normal plant growth and development as well as of plant interactions with pathogens. The transport systems cover broadly the xylem, phloem, plasmodesmata and vascular cell membranes. The PVB concept has emerged in recent years to emphasize the integrative nature of the transport systems and approaches to investigate them.

  12. Plant Growth Facility (PGF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In a microgravity environment aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia Life and Microgravity Mission STS-78, compression wood formation and hence altered lignin deposition and cell wall structure, was induced upon mechanically bending the stems of the woody gymnosperms, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda). Although there was significant degradation of many of the plant specimens in space-flight due to unusually high temperatures experienced during the mission, it seems evident that gravity had little or no effect on compression wood formation upon bending even in microgravity. Instead, it apparently results from alterations in the stress gradient experienced by the plant itself during bending under these conditions. This preliminary study now sets the stage for long-term plant growth experiments to determine whether compression wood formation can be induced in microgravity during phototropic-guided realignment of growing woody plant specimens, in the absence of any externally provided stress and strain.

  13. The Plant Population Explosion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaminathan, M. S.

    1973-01-01

    Results achieved by researchers in the field of genetic plant engineering are described. However, it is believed that if their efforts were more decentralized, more farmers, especially in developing countries, could benefit and substantial advances made in production. (BL)

  14. Desalination Plant Optimization

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-10-01

    MSF21 and VTE21 perform design and costing calculations for multistage flash evaporator (MSF) and multieffect vertical tube evaporator (VTE) desalination plants. An optimization capability is available, if desired. The MSF plant consists of a recovery section, reject section, brine heater, and associated buildings and equipment. Operating costs and direct and indirect capital costs for plant, buildings, site, and intakes are calculated. Computations are based on the first and last stages of each section and amore » typical middle recovery stage. As a result, the program runs rapidly but does not give stage by stage parameters. The VTE plant consists of vertical tube effects, multistage flash preheater, condenser, and brine heater and associated buildings and equipment. Design computations are done for each vertical tube effect, but preheater computations are based on the first and last stages and a typical middle stage.« less

  15. Martin Drake power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmoller, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    The relatively old Martin Drake coal-fired plant at Colorado Springs is facing challenges to meet environmental requirements whilst satisfying power demands and remaining competition. The article describes measures taken and planned to tackle these challenges. 2 photos.

  16. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants. PMID:15676441

  17. Amedee geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, S.F.

    1988-12-01

    In September 1988, the power plant began generating electricity in Northern California, near Honey Lake. The plant generates 2 megawatts, net, of electricity in the winter, and from 20 to 30% less in the summer, depending on the temperature. Geothermal fluids from two wells are used to operate the plant, and surface discharge is used to dispose of the spent fluids. This is possible because the geothermal fluids have a very low salinity and a composition the same as area hot spring waters. The binary power plant has a Standard Offer No. 4 contract for 5 megawatts with pacific Gas and Electric Company. Sometime in the near future, they will expand the project to add another 3 megawatts of electrical generation.

  18. Overnight Scentsation Rose Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    International Flavors and Fragrances Inc., Dr. Braja Mookherjee with the Overnight Scentsation rose plant after its flight aboard NASA's shuttle mission STS-95 for experimentation on scent in microgravity.

  19. Poinsettia plant exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... steps if a person is exposed to the plant. Rinse the mouth out with water if leaves or stems were eaten. Rinse eyes with water, if needed. Wash the skin of any area that appears irritated with soap and water.

  20. Chitosan in Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    El Hadrami, Abdelbasset; Adam, Lorne R.; El Hadrami, Ismail; Daayf, Fouad

    2010-01-01

    Chitin and chitosan are naturally-occurring compounds that have potential in agriculture with regard to controlling plant diseases. These molecules were shown to display toxicity and inhibit fungal growth and development. They were reported to be active against viruses, bacteria and other pests. Fragments from chitin and chitosan are known to have eliciting activities leading to a variety of defense responses in host plants in response to microbial infections, including the accumulation of phytoalexins, pathogen-related (PR) proteins and proteinase inhibitors, lignin synthesis, and callose formation. Based on these and other proprieties that help strengthen host plant defenses, interest has been growing in using them in agricultural systems to reduce the negative impact of diseases on yield and quality of crops. This review recapitulates the properties and uses of chitin, chitosan, and their derivatives, and will focus on their applications and mechanisms of action during plant-pathogen interactions. PMID:20479963

  1. Geiselbullach refuse incineration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The vast diversity of wastes, heightened awareness of environmental problems, and unabating demand for power and raw materials, are making it imperative to minimize waste-dumping. Refuse incineration power plants present an ecologically and economically sound answer to this problem, since they also enable communities and large industrial facilities to convert their wastes into electricity and energy for district heating. The refuse produced each year by 1,000,000 people represents a resource equivalent to $30 million of fuel oil. This plant is now converting into energy the waste produced by a population of 280,000. The conversion and expansion were completed without any significant interruption to plant operation. The modernized plant complies fully with today's stringent legal requirements for obtaining an operating license in West Germany. Because landfill sites are becoming increasingly scarce everywhere, thermal processes that dispose of refuse and simultaneously generate electrical power and heat are creating a great deal of interest.

  2. Memristors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander G; Tucket, Clayton; Reedus, Jada; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    We investigated electrical circuitry of the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera. The goal was to discover if these plants might have a new electrical component—a resistor with memory. This element has attracted great interest recently and the researchers were looking for its presence in different systems. The analysis was based on cyclic current-voltage characteristic where the resistor with memory should manifest itself. We found that the electrostimulation of plants by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induces electrical responses in the Venus flytrap, Mimosa pudica and Aloe vera with fingerprints of memristors. Tetraethylammonium chloride, an inhibitor of voltage gated K+ channels, transforms a memristor to a resistor in plant tissue. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. This study can be a starting point for understanding mechanisms of memory, learning, circadian rhythms, and biological clocks. PMID:24556876

  3. DNA methylation in plants.

    PubMed

    Vanyushin, B F

    2006-01-01

    DNA in plants is highly methylated, containing 5-methylcytosine (m5C) and N6-methyladenine (m6A); m5C is located mainly in symmetrical CG and CNG sequences but it may occur also in other non-symmetrical contexts. m6A but not m5C was found in plant mitochondrial DNA. DNA methylation in plants is species-, tissue-, organelle- and age-specific. It is controlled by phytohormones and changes on seed germination, flowering and under the influence of various pathogens (viral, bacterial, fungal). DNA methylation controls plant growth and development, with particular involvement in regulation of gene expression and DNA replication. DNA replication is accompanied by the appearance of under-methylated, newly formed DNA strands including Okazaki fragments; asymmetry of strand DNA methylation disappears until the end of the cell cycle. A model for regulation of DNA replication by methylation is suggested. Cytosine DNA methylation in plants is more rich and diverse compared with animals. It is carried out by the families of specific enzymes that belong to at least three classes of DNA methyltransferases. Open reading frames (ORF) for adenine DNA methyltransferases are found in plant and animal genomes, and a first eukaryotic (plant) adenine DNA methyltransferase (wadmtase) is described; the enzyme seems to be involved in regulation of the mitochondria replication. Like in animals, DNA methylation in plants is closely associated with histone modifications and it affects binding of specific proteins to DNA and formation of respective transcription complexes in chromatin. The same gene (DRM2) in Arabidopsis thaliana is methylated both at cytosine and adenine residues; thus, at least two different, and probably interdependent, systems of DNA modification are present in plants. Plants seem to have a restriction-modification (R-M) system. RNA-directed DNA methylation has been observed in plants; it involves de novo methylation of almost all cytosine residues in a region of si

  4. Plant Carbonic Anhydrases

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, C. A.; Patterson, B. D.; Graham, D.

    1972-01-01

    On the basis of polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis of leaf extracts from 24 species of higher plants, two main forms of carbonic anhydrase (EC 4.2.1.1) were recognized; the “dicotyledon” type and the “monocotyledon” type. More than one band of enzyme was found on gels from most species, suggesting the possibility of carbonic anhydrase isoenzymes in higher plants. Images PMID:16658144

  5. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  6. Synthetic plant defense elicitors

    PubMed Central

    Bektas, Yasemin; Eulgem, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    To defend themselves against invading pathogens plants utilize a complex regulatory network that coordinates extensive transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming. Although many of the key players of this immunity-associated network are known, the details of its topology and dynamics are still poorly understood. As an alternative to forward and reverse genetic studies, chemical genetics-related approaches based on bioactive small molecules have gained substantial popularity in the analysis of biological pathways and networks. Use of such molecular probes can allow researchers to access biological space that was previously inaccessible to genetic analyses due to gene redundancy or lethality of mutations. Synthetic elicitors are small drug-like molecules that induce plant defense responses, but are distinct from known natural elicitors of plant immunity. While the discovery of some synthetic elicitors had already been reported in the 1970s, recent breakthroughs in combinatorial chemical synthesis now allow for inexpensive high-throughput screens for bioactive plant defense-inducing compounds. Along with powerful reverse genetics tools and resources available for model plants and crop systems, comprehensive collections of new synthetic elicitors will likely allow plant scientists to study the intricacies of plant defense signaling pathways and networks in an unparalleled fashion. As synthetic elicitors can protect crops from diseases, without the need to be directly toxic for pathogenic organisms, they may also serve as promising alternatives to conventional biocidal pesticides, which often are harmful for the environment, farmers and consumers. Here we are discussing various types of synthetic elicitors that have been used for studies on the plant immune system, their modes-of-action as well as their application in crop protection. PMID:25674095

  7. Urea metabolism in plants.

    PubMed

    Witte, Claus-Peter

    2011-03-01

    Urea is a plant metabolite derived either from root uptake or from catabolism of arginine by arginase. In agriculture, urea is intensively used as a nitrogen fertilizer. Urea nitrogen enters the plant either directly, or in the form of ammonium or nitrate after urea degradation by soil microbes. In recent years various molecular players of plant urea metabolism have been investigated: active and passive urea transporters, the nickel metalloenzyme urease catalyzing the hydrolysis of urea, and three urease accessory proteins involved in the complex activation of urease. The degradation of ureides derived from purine breakdown has long been discussed as a possible additional metabolic source for urea, but an enzymatic route for the complete hydrolysis of ureides without a urea intermediate has recently been described for Arabidopsis thaliana. This review focuses on the proteins involved in plant urea metabolism and the metabolic sources of urea but also addresses open questions regarding plant urea metabolism in a physiological and agricultural context. The contribution of plant urea uptake and metabolism to fertilizer urea usage in crop production is still not investigated although globally more than half of all nitrogen fertilizer is applied to crops in the form of urea. Nitrogen use efficiency in crop production is generally well below 50% resulting in economical losses and creating ecological problems like groundwater pollution and emission of nitric oxides that can damage the ozone layer and function as greenhouse gasses. Biotechnological approaches to improve fertilizer urea usage bear the potential to increase crop nitrogen use efficiency. PMID:21421389

  8. Plant Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Greb, Thomas; Lohmann, Jan U

    2016-09-12

    Among the trending topics in the life sciences, stem cells have received a fair share of attention in the public debate - mostly in connection with their potential for biomedical application and therapies. While the promise of organ regeneration and the end of cancer have captured our imagination, it has gone almost unnoticed that plant stem cells represent the ultimate origin of much of the food we eat, the oxygen we breathe, as well the fuels we burn. Thus, plant stem cells may be ranked among the most important cells for human well-being. Research by many labs in the last decades has uncovered a set of independent stem cell systems that fulfill the specialized needs of plant development and growth in four dimensions. Surprisingly, the cellular and molecular design of these systems is remarkably similar, even across diverse species. In some long-lived plants, such as trees, plant stem cells remain active over hundreds or even thousands of years, revealing the exquisite precision in the underlying control of proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation. In this minireview, we introduce the basic features of the three major plant stem cell systems building on these facts, highlight their modular design at the level of cellular layout and regulatory underpinnings and briefly compare them with their animal counterparts. PMID:27623267

  9. Regulation of transgenic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Arntzen, C.J. )

    1991-09-04

    Plants modified by recombinant DNA (rDNA) have been known since 1983 when three research teams independently reported the first stable integration of foreign DNA into plant cells and the regeneration of genetically modified plants. By 1987 rDNA-modified crop species were available that warranted field evaluation of traits conferred by the new genes. By the end of 1992 more than 40 species of rDNA-modified food and fiber crops will have been described and almost 600 field tests of rDNA-modified plants will be completed or in progress in more than 20 countries around the world. Many of these tests will involve plants of potential commercial value since they represent genetic improvements in disease or pest resistance, hybridization technologies, or value-added food traits such as nutritional or processing enhancements. The field tests evidence the substantial public and private commitments that have been made to agricultural biotechnology. They also provide tangible proof of very successful technology transfer from basic plant molecular biology laboratories to problem-solving research programs that should help ensure agricultural sufficiency into the next century.

  10. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal.« less

  11. Coal Preparation Plant Simulation

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1992-02-25

    COALPREP assesses the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and mode of operation. It allows the user to simulate coal preparation plants to determine an optimum plant configuration for a given degree of cleaning. The user can compare the performance of alternative plant configurations as well as determine the impact of various modes of operation for a proposed configuration. The devices that can be modelled include froth flotationmore » devices, washers, dewatering equipment, thermal dryers, rotary breakers, roll crushers, classifiers, screens, blenders and splitters, and gravity thickeners. The user must specify the plant configuration and operating conditions and a description of the coal feed. COALPREP then determines the flowrates within the plant and a description of each flow stream (i.e. the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, BTU content, recoveries, and specific gravity of separation). COALPREP also includes a capability for calculating the cleaning cost per ton of coal. The IBM PC version contains two auxiliary programs, DATAPREP and FORLIST. DATAPREP is an interactive preprocessor for creating and editing COALPREP input data. FORLIST converts carriage-control characters in FORTRAN output data to ASCII line-feed (X''0A'') characters.« less

  12. Pellet plant energy simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordeasu, D.; Vasquez Pulido, T.; Nielsen, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Pellet Plant energy simulator is a software based on advanced algorithms which has the main purpose to see the response of a pellet plant regarding certain location conditions. It combines energy provided by a combined heat and power, and/or by a combustion chamber with the energy consumption of the pellet factory and information regarding weather conditions in order to predict the biomass consumption of the pellet factory together with the combined heat and power, and/or with the biomass consumption of the combustion chamber. The user of the software will not only be able to plan smart the biomass acquisition and estimate its cost, but also to plan smart the preventive maintenance (charcoal cleaning in case of a gasification plant) and use the pellet plant at the maximum output regarding weather conditions and biomass moisture. The software can also be used in order to execute a more precise feasibility study for a pellet plant in a certain location. The paper outlines the algorithm that supports the Pellet Plant Energy Simulator idea and presents preliminary tests results that supports the discussion and implementation of the system

  13. Detecting Plant Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Through an exclusive patent license from NASA Stennis Space Center, Spectrum Technologies, Inc., has developed a hand-held tool that helps farmers, foresters and other growers detect unhealthy crops before the human eye can see the damage. Developed by two NASA researchers, the Observer,TM shows the viewer which plants are under stress through multispectral imaging, a process that uses specific wavelengths of the light spectrum to obtain information about objects-in this case, plants. With this device, several wavelengths of light collect information about the plant and results are immediately processed and displayed. NASA research found that previsible signs of stress, such as such as a lack of nutrients, insufficient water, disease, or insect damage, can be detected by measuring the chlorophyll content based on light energy reflected from the plant. The Observer detects stress up to 16 days before deterioration is visible to the eye. Early detection provides an opportunity to reverse stress and save the plant. The hand-held, easily operated unit works in both natural and artificial light, making it suitable for outdoor or indoor planting.

  14. Variable plant spacing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bledsoe, Jim; Weiss, Lee

    1988-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop a system for varying the spacings between soybean plants as they grow to maximize the number of plants grown in a given volume. The project was studied to aid in the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The resulting design consists of plant trays which are three dimensional trapezoids arranged into circles in a compact geometrical configuration. These circles are stacked together in back to back pairs to form a long cylinder. In each growth tray, plants will be housed in individual containers containing a nutrient delivery system and a plant support mechanism. Between the containers, a half trellis has been designed to space the plants for maximum space efficiency. The design allows for localized seeding and harvesting mechanisms due to the chambers' geometrical configuration. In addition, the components have been designed for ease of cleaning and minimal maintenance. Next semester, the individual components will be constructed and tested to determine the success of the design.

  15. PlantGDB: A Resource for Comparative Plant Genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PlantGDB (http://www.plantgdb.org/) is a genomics database encompassing sequence data for green plants (Viridiplantae). PlantGDB provides annotated transcript assemblies for >100 plant species, with transcripts mapped to their cognate genomic context where available, integrated with a variety of seq...

  16. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  17. The iPlant collaborative: cyberinfrastructure for plant biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The iPlant Collaborative (iPlant) is a United States National Science Foundation (NSF)funded project that aims to create an innovative, comprehensive, and foundational cyberinfrastructure in support of plant biology research (PSCIC, 2006). iPlant is developing cyberinfrastructure that uniquely enabl...

  18. Promoting Interest in Plant Biology with Biographies of Plant Hunters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daisey, Peggy

    1996-01-01

    Describes the use of biographical stories to promote student interest in plant biology. Discusses plant hunters of various time periods, including ancient, middle ages, renaissance, colonial Americas, and 18th and 19th centuries; women plant hunters of the 1800s and early 1900s; and modern plant hunters. Discusses classroom strategies for the…

  19. Shoreham Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    The United States Supreme Court, with PG&E and Silkwood, and in the eight years since, has expanded the acceptable extent of state regulation of commercial nuclear power plants. In PG&E, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation that purports to be concerned with the non-radiological aspects of nuclear plant operations but that, as a practical matter, is concerned with their radiological hazards. In Silkwood, the Court established the acceptability of state regulation of radiological hazards when its impact on federal regulation of radiological hazards is indirect and incidental. Finally, in Goodyear and English, the Court confirmed and elaborated on such state regulation. Subject to political demands either for additional involvement in commercial nuclear power plant regulation or from political interests opposed altogether to nuclear power, some states, in the 1980s, sought to expand even further the involvement of state and local governments in nuclear plant regulation. Indeed, some states sought and in some instances acquired, through innovative and extraordinary means, a degree of involvement in the regulation of radiological hazards that seriously erodes and undermines the role of the federal government in such regulation. In particular, the State of New York concluded with the Long Island Lighting Company (LILCO), in February 1989, an agreement for the purchase of New York of the Shoreham nuclear power plant on Long Island. A response to failed efforts by New York to prevent the issuance by the NRC of a license to LILCO to operate the plant, the agreement was concluded to allow New York to close the plant either altogether or to convert it to a fossil fuel facility. The opposition to the sale of Shoreham is discussed.

  20. Electroanalysis of Plant Thiols

    PubMed Central

    Supalkova, Veronika; Huska, Dalibor; Diopan, Vaclav; Hanustiak, Pavel; Zitka, Ondrej; Stejskal, Karel; Baloun, Jiri; Pikula, Jiri; Havel, Ladislav; Zehnalek, Josef; Adam, Vojtech; Trnkova, Libuse; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2007-01-01

    Due to unique physico-chemical properties of –SH moiety thiols comprise wide group of biologically important compounds. A review devoted to biological functions of glutathione and phytochelatins with literature survey of methods used to analysis of these compounds and their interactions with cadmium(II) ions and Murashige-Skoog medium is presented. For these purposes electrochemical techniques are used. Moreover, we revealed the effect of three different cadmium concentrations (0, 10 and 100 μM) on cadmium uptake and thiols content in maize plants during 192 hours long experiments using differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry to detect cadmium(II) ions and high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection to determine glutathione. Cadmium concentration determined in tissues of the plants cultivated in nutrient solution containing 10 μM Cd was very low up to 96 hours long exposition and then the concentration of Cd markedly increased. On the contrary, the addition of 100 μM Cd caused an immediate sharp increase in all maize plant parts to 96 hours Cd exposition but subsequently the Cd concentration increased more slowly. A high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection was used for glutathione determination in treated maize plants after 96 and 192 hours of treatment. The highest total content of glutathione per one plant was 6 μg (96 h, 10 μM Cd) in comparison with non-treated plant (control) where glutathione content was 1.5 μg. It can be concluded that electrochemical techniques have proved to be useful to analyse plant thiols.

  1. Aquatic Plants and their Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing.

    Aquatic plants can be divided into two types: algae and macrophytes. The goal of aquatic plant management is to maintain a proper balance of plants within a lake and still retain the lake's recreational and economic importance. Aquatic plant management programs have two phases: long-term management (nutrient control), and short-term management…

  2. Plant ID. Agricultural Lesson Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale. Dept. of Agricultural Education and Mechanization.

    This lesson plan is intended for use in conducting classes on plant identification. Presented first are a series of questions and answers designed to convey general information about the scientific classification of plants. The following topics are among those discussed: main types of plants; categories of vascular plants; gymnosperms and…

  3. Plant the Seeds of Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2004-01-01

    Both indoor and outdoor garden plants can cause problems. For example, the foliage of the bird-of-paradise and philodendron plants is toxic. A poinsettia leaf can kill a young child. Outdoor plants such as castor beans are highly dangerous. All parts of the potato and tomato plant are poisonous, except the potato and tomato themselves. Large…

  4. A Botany Unit: Seed Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smythe, Cathy

    1983-01-01

    Presents a botany unit designed to provide understanding of a plant life cycle, plant parts and functions, and variety within the plant world. The unit is organized according to plant morphology (structure). Each section includes concepts fostered, suggestions for focused discussions, experiments, and activities to support concept development.…

  5. Who Needs Plants? Science (Experimental).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ropeik, Bernard H.; Kleinman, David Z.

    The basic elective course in introductory botany is designed for secondary students who probably will not continue study in plant science. The objectives of the course are to help the student 1) identify, compare and differentiate types of plants; 2) identify plant cell structures; 3) distinguish between helpful and harmful plants; 4) predict…

  6. Plant chlorophyll content meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiering, Bruce A. (Inventor); Carter, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A plant chlorophyll content meter is described which collects light reflected from a target plant and separates the collected light into two different wavelength bands. These wavelength bands, or channels, are described as having center wavelengths of 700 nm and 840 nm. The light collected in these two channels are processed using photo detectors and amplifiers. An analog to digital converter is described which provides a digital representation of the level of light collected by the lens and falling within the two channels. A controller provided in the meter device compares the level of light reflected from a target plant with a level of light detected from a light source, such as light reflected by a target having 100% reflectance, or transmitted through a diffusion receptor. The percent of reflection in the two separate wavelength bands from a target plant are compared to provide a ratio which indicates a relative level of plant physiological stress. A method of compensating for electronic drift is described where a sample is taken when a collection lens is covered to prevent light from entering the device. This compensation method allows for a more accurate reading by reducing error contributions due to electronic drift from environmental conditions at the location where a hand-held unit is used.

  7. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  8. Plant based butters.

    PubMed

    Gorrepati, Kalyani; Balasubramanian, S; Chandra, Pitam

    2015-07-01

    During the last few years the popularity for the plant based butters (nut and seed butters) has increased considerably. Earlier peanut butter was the only alternative to the dairy butter, but over the years development in the technologies and also the consumer awareness about the plant based butters, has led the development of myriad varieties of butters with different nuts and seeds, which are very good source of protein, fiber, essential fatty acids and other nutrients. These days' different varieties of plant based butters are available in the market viz., peanut butter, soy butter, almond butter, pistachio butter, cashew butter and sesame butter etc. The form of butter is one of the healthy way of integrating nuts and seeds in to our regular diet. Nut and seed butters are generally prepared by roasting, grinding and refrigerated to consume it when it is still fresh. During this process it is imperative to retain the nutritional properties of these nuts and seeds in order to reap the benefits of the fresh nuts and seeds in the form of butter as well. Proper care is needed to minimize the conversion of healthful components in to unhealthy components during processing and further storage. Roasting temperature, temperatures during grinding and storage are the vital factors to be considered in order to have healthy and nutritious plant based butters. In this article, different plant based butters and their processing methods have been described. PMID:26139864

  9. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  10. Population genetic structure of native versus naturalized sympatric shrub willows (Salix; Salicaceae).

    PubMed

    Lin, Juan; Gibbs, James P; Smart, Lawrence B

    2009-04-01

    Vegetative propagation of an introduced species can contribute significantly to its ability to spread and become naturalized, potentially in competition with native species. This study focused on the naturalization of a willow shrub, Salix purpurea, which was introduced to the United States from Europe and is commonly sympatric with the native shrub willow, S. eriocephala. Both species are capable of vegetative and sexual reproduction, but little is known about their relative frequency, nor the impact of clonal propagation on population-level genetic diversity. We analyzed genotypes at several microsatellite loci in 993 individuals belonging to 30 subpopulations of S. eriocephala and 28 subpopulations of S. purpurea in areas of sympatry across three watersheds to compare their genetic diversity and genetic structure. Our results revealed six subpopulations of S. purpurea containing plants with identical multilocus genotypes, while clonal individuals were rare among S. eriocephala populations. These species are dioecious with relatively high levels of heterozygosity, but S. eriocephala had much higher allelic diversity and genotypic diversity than did S. purpurea. These results strongly suggest that vegetative propagation has contributed to the naturalization of S. purpurea and has resulted in higher levels of genetic differentiation among S. purpurea populations than among native S. eriocephala populations. PMID:21628232

  11. Calcium in Plants

    PubMed Central

    WHITE, PHILIP J.; BROADLEY, MARTIN R.

    2003-01-01

    Calcium is an essential plant nutrient. It is required for various structural roles in the cell wall and membranes, it is a counter‐cation for inorganic and organic anions in the vacuole, and the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) is an obligate intracellular messenger coordinating responses to numerous developmental cues and environmental challenges. This article provides an overview of the nutritional requirements of different plants for Ca, and how this impacts on natural flora and the Ca content of crops. It also reviews recent work on (a) the mechanisms of Ca2+ transport across cellular membranes, (b) understanding the origins and specificity of [Ca2+]cyt signals and (c) characterizing the cellular [Ca2+]cyt‐sensors (such as calmodulin, calcineurin B‐like proteins and calcium‐dependent protein kinases) that allow plant cells to respond appropriately to [Ca2+]cyt signals. PMID:12933363

  12. Geothermal Plant Capacity Factors

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Mines; Jay Nathwani; Christopher Richard; Hillary Hanson; Rachel Wood

    2015-01-01

    The capacity factors recently provided by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) indicated this plant performance metric had declined for geothermal power plants since 2008. Though capacity factor is a term commonly used by geothermal stakeholders to express the ability of a plant to produce power, it is a term frequently misunderstood and in some instances incorrectly used. In this paper we discuss how this capacity factor is defined and utilized by the EIA, including discussion on the information that the EIA requests from operations in their 923 and 860 forms that are submitted both monthly and annually by geothermal operators. A discussion is also provided regarding the entities utilizing the information in the EIA reports, and how those entities can misinterpret the data being supplied by the operators. The intent of the paper is to inform the facility operators as the importance of the accuracy of the data that they provide, and the implications of not providing the correct information.

  13. Tungsten Toxicity in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S.; Panteris, Emmanuel; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.

    2012-01-01

    Tungsten (W) is a rare heavy metal, widely used in a range of industrial, military and household applications due to its unique physical properties. These activities inevitably have accounted for local W accumulation at high concentrations, raising concerns about its effects for living organisms. In plants, W has primarily been used as an inhibitor of the molybdoenzymes, since it antagonizes molybdenum (Mo) for the Mo-cofactor (MoCo) of these enzymes. However, recent advances indicate that, beyond Mo-enzyme inhibition, W has toxic attributes similar with those of other heavy metals. These include hindering of seedling growth, reduction of root and shoot biomass, ultrastructural malformations of cell components, aberration of cell cycle, disruption of the cytoskeleton and deregulation of gene expression related with programmed cell death (PCD). In this article, the recent available information on W toxicity in plants and plant cells is reviewed, and the knowledge gaps and the most pertinent research directions are outlined. PMID:27137642

  14. Willow plant name 'Preble'

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.

    2014-06-10

    A distinct female cultivar of Salix viminalis.times.(Salix sachalinensis.times.Salix miyabeana) named `Preble`, characterized by rapid stem growth producing 29% more woody biomass than the average of three current production cultivars (Salix.times.dasyclados `SV1` (unpatented), Salix sachalinensis `SX61` (unpatented), and Salix miyabeana `SX64` (unpatented)) when grown in the same field for the same length of time (three growing seasons after coppice) in two different trials in Constableville, N.Y. and Middlebury, Vt. `Preble` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested repeatedly after two to four years of growth. `Preble` displays a low incidence of rust disease and is not damaged by potato leafhoppers.

  15. [Imprinted genes in plants].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Geng; Yang, Ruo-Fei; Fu, Feng-Ling; Li, Wan-Chen

    2010-12-01

    The expression of imprinted genes is regulated by epigenetic mechanism. In plant endosperm, the allele of imprinted genes is expressed in a pattern of parent-of-origin-dependent. The expression of imprinted genes plays essential roles in the development of embryos and their annexe structures, as well as seed size, reproductive barriers and apomixis. Along with the progress of plant epigenetic research, the exploration of imprinted genes is becoming hotspot in epigenetic research. This review focused on the parental conflict theory about the origin of imprinted genes, and the latest research advances in expression regulation mechanism of plant imprinted genes, using the examples of the important imprinted genes MEA, FIS2, FWA, MPC, and PHE1 in Arabidopsis, and FIEI and FIE2 in maize. PMID:21513148

  16. Plants in light

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In nature, plants have to face frequent fluctuations of intensity and spectral quality of their primary source of life—light, whose energy is needed to drive the processes of photosynthesis. A multilevel network of adaptations exists to help the plant to track and cope with fluctuations in the light environment. At the molecular level, the light harvesting antenna complex of photosystem II (LHCII), which collects the most significant part of the light energy, was found to play a central regulatory role by finely controlling the amount of energy delivered to the reaction centers. This is achieved by several mechanisms, which are summarized in this review. The fundamental features of the design of the photosynthetic antenna make photosynthetic light harvesting efficient, physiologically competent and flexible at the same time, ensuring high levels of plant survival and productivity within a wide range of light environments on our planet. PMID:19513265

  17. Polyesters in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kolattukudy, P E

    2001-01-01

    Polyesters occur in higher plants as the structural component of the cuticle that covers the aerial parts of plants. This insoluble polymer, called cutin, attached to the epidermal cell walls is composed of interesterified hydroxy and hydroxy epoxy fatty acids. The most common chief monomers are 10,16-dihydroxy C16 acid, 18-hydroxy-9,10 epoxy C18 acid, and 9,10,18-trihydroxy C18 acid. These monomers are produced in the epidermal cells by omega hydroxylation, in-chain hydroxylation, epoxidation catalyzed by P450-type mixed function oxidase, and epoxide hydration. The monomer acyl groups are transferred to hydroxyl groups in the growing polymer at the extracellular location. The other type of polyester found in the plants is suberin, a polymeric material deposited in the cell walls of a layer or two of cells when a plant needs to erect a barrier as a result of physical or biological stress from the environment, or during development. Suberin is composed of aromatic domains derived from cinnamic acid, and aliphatic polyester domains derived from C16 and C18 cellular fatty acids and their elongation products. The polyesters can be hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase and cutinase, a polyesterase produced by bacteria and fungi. Catalysis by cutinase involves the active serine catalytic triad. The major function of the polyester in plants is as a protective barrier against physical, chemical, and biological factors in the environment, including pathogens. Transcriptional regulation of cutinase gene in fungal pathogens is being elucidated at a molecular level. The polyesters present in agricultural waste may be used to produce high value polymers, and genetic engineering might be used to produce large quantities of such polymers in plants. PMID:11217409

  18. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  19. Plant proton pumps.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola, Roberto A; Palmgren, Michael G; Schumacher, Karin

    2007-05-25

    Chemiosmotic circuits of plant cells are driven by proton (H(+)) gradients that mediate secondary active transport of compounds across plasma and endosomal membranes. Furthermore, regulation of endosomal acidification is critical for endocytic and secretory pathways. For plants to react to their constantly changing environments and at the same time maintain optimal metabolic conditions, the expression, activity and interplay of the pumps generating these H(+) gradients have to be tightly regulated. In this review, we will highlight results on the regulation, localization and physiological roles of these H(+)- pumps, namely the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase and the vacuolar H(+)-PPase. PMID:17412324

  20. Plant Flavoprotein Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Christie, John M.; Blackwood, Lisa; Petersen, Jan; Sullivan, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Plants depend on the surrounding light environment to direct their growth. Blue light (300–500 nm) in particular acts to promote a wide variety of photomorphogenic responses including seedling establishment, phototropism and circadian clock regulation. Several different classes of flavin-based photoreceptors have been identified that mediate the effects of blue light in the dicotyledonous genetic model Arabidopsis thaliana. These include the cryptochromes, the phototropins and members of the Zeitlupe family. In this review, we discuss recent advances, which contribute to our understanding of how these photosensory systems are activated by blue light and how they initiate signaling to regulate diverse aspects of plant development. PMID:25516569

  1. DOES SECONDARY PLANT METABOLISM PROVIDE A MECHANISM FOR PLANT DEFENSES IN WEEDY NIGHTSHADE PLANTS?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant-mediated competition among insect herbivores occurs when one species induces changes in plant biochemistry that render plants resistant to attack by the same or other species. We explored plant-mediated interspecific and intraspecific interactions between the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) ...

  2. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders.

    PubMed

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant-parasite interactions. PMID:26322059

  3. Improvements in plant performance [Sequoyah Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lorek, M.J.

    1999-11-01

    The improvements in plant reliability and performance at Sequoyah in the last two years can be directly attributed to ten key ingredients; teamwork, management stability, a management team that believes in teamwork, clear direction from the top, a strong focus on human performance, the company wide STAR 7 initiative, strong succession planning, a very seasoned and effective outage management organization, an infrastructure that ensures that the station is focused on the right hardware priorities, and a very strong line organization owned self-assessment program. Continued focus on these key ingredients and realization on a daily basis that good performance can lead to complacency will ensure that performance at Sequoyah will remain at a very high level well into the 21st century.

  4. Channel Islands rare plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, K.

    1999-01-01

    Database contains information on 65 rare plant taxa on six islands from archive searches and field surveys, including population location, size and extent 1920-1999, population and habitat conditions, census data, phenological information, associated species. USGS-BRD, Channel Islands Field Station, Ventura, CA.

  5. Parasites, Plants, and People.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marion; Moore, Tony

    2016-06-01

    Anthelminthic resistance is acknowledged worldwide and is a major problem in Aotearoa New Zealand, thus alternative parasite management strategies are imperative. One Health is an initiative linking animal, human, and environmental health. Parasites, plants, and people illustrate the possibilities of providing diverse diets for stock thereby lowering parasite burdens, improving the cultural wellbeing of a local community, and protecting the environment. PMID:27105933

  6. Egg Processing Plant Sanitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hazard analysis and critical control programs (HACCP) will eventually be required for commercial shell egg processing plants. Sanitation is an essential prerequisite program for HACCP and is based upon current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs) as listed in the Code of Federal Regulations. Good ...

  7. Plants and Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunsell, Eric; Hug, J. William

    2007-01-01

    Investigations with Wisconsin Fast Plants can make the subject matter come alive...or dead, depending on the experimental treatment. This became apparent when a university-based teacher educator and a fifth-grade teacher collaborated on a professional development experience aimed at increasing understanding of how science inquiry could be used…

  8. Diagnosing Physical Plant Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, B. P.; Smith, H. W.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a survey designed to help administrators evaluate functional aspects, adequacy of employee work areas, quality of housekeeping methods, maintenance response, interior and exterior appearances, alteration and renovation satisfaction, employee feelings about parking adequacy, plant security, and attraction and function of roads and…

  9. [Spuriously healthy plant fats].

    PubMed

    Cichosz, Grazyna; Czeczot, Hanna

    2011-10-01

    Since long plant fats are considered by nutritionists, dieticians and doctors, as main source of essential unsaturated fatty acids) n-6 and n-3 in human diet. On the market there is plenty of oils that can be consumed directly or used to frying. Last four decades consumption of oils increased several times due to stimulated by advertisement popularization of their pro-health activity. Plant oils supply mostly multi unsaturated fatty acids n-6 excess of which disadvantageously influence human health. Determinations of changes of oxidative stability of plant fats (during processing and storage) proved that consumption of oxidation products of fatty acids and sterols may be a reason of various diseases. Both epidemiologic and clinic studies indicated that if plant fats (both oils except this from olives and margarines) have possessed pro-health properties, their several times increased consumption would liquidate the problem of arteriosclerosis and its clinical complications (heart attack, stroke). For the present, every second death in the industrial countries results from the cardiovascular disease. Morbidity of cancer is also increasing and of neurological and neurodegenerative diseases is growing up vigorously. PMID:22097183

  10. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  11. Aquatic plant management

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Twelve fact sheets are presented which cover different forms of aquatic plant management in Guntersville Reservoir. These cover the introduction of grass carp and other biological controls, drawdown of reservoir water, herbicide use, harvesting, impacts on recreational uses, and other issues of concern. (SM)

  12. T Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-27

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the T Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  13. Plants on the Move

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bricker, Mary

    2009-01-01

    When it comes to directly interacting with and doing experiments with organisms, plants have some distinct advantages over animals. Their diversity and accessibility allows students to use them in experiments, thus practicing important science inquiry skills. This article describes an investigation that was designed to help students appreciate the…

  14. Rethinking Tree Planting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Henry

    1994-01-01

    This author contends that observing and understanding natural succession is far more valuable to students than memories of planting lonely seedlings in a schoolyard. An approach that provides a richer experience using an holistic approach to habitat restoration is explored. (LZ)

  15. Plant and Crop Databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Databases have become an integral part of all aspects of biological research, including basic and applied plant biology. The importance of databases continues to increase as the volume of data from direct and indirect genomics approaches expands. What is not always obvious to users of databases is t...

  16. Peru, People and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dennis

    Designed for horticulture, horticulture therapy, and botany students at Edmonds Community College (Washington), this 6-hour module explores the pre-Columbian use of plant materials in Peru and its relationships to cultural practices in modern Peru. The first sections provide basic information about the module, such as its objectives, the concepts…

  17. Planting for Wildlife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chad P.; Decker, Daniel J.

    1979-01-01

    Songbirds and small mammals can be encouraged to visit and live in residential yards if structures such as bird feeders and birdbaths are provided and if vegetation is planted to provide basic requirements of wildlife habitat. Examples and instructions are provided. (RE)

  18. Plant Biotech Lab Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tant, Carl

    This book provides laboratory experiments to enhance any food science/botany curriculum. Chapter 1, "Introduction," presents a survey of the techniques used in plant biotechnology laboratory procedures. Chapter 2, "Micronutrition," discusses media and nutritional requirements for tissue culture studies. Chapter 3, "Sterile Seeds," focuses on the…

  19. Salinity and Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langsford, Simon; Meredith, Steve; Munday, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents science activities that mirror real life issues relating to plants and sustainability. Describes how to turn seed growing activities into an environmental simulation. Discusses the advantages of cross-curriculum learning opportunities. Includes student references and notes for teachers. (KHR)

  20. Wanted: Schoolyard Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Priscilla L.; Wright, Emmett L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity for studying weeds in grades four through nine. "Wanted" posters are prepared with the scientific name of a common weed and a few identifying features. Students find the plant, give it an "alias" or common name, and then draw the "wanted" picture. Presents six wanted posters and describes expansion lessons and follow-up…

  1. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  2. Microgravity Plant Growth Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Two visitors watch a TV monitor showing plant growth inside a growth chamber designed for operation aboard the Space Shuttle as part of NASA's Space Product Development program. The exhibit, featuring work by the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics, was at AirVenture 2000 sponsored by the Experimental Aircraft Association in Oshkosh, WI.

  3. B Plant hazards assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-09-23

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning Activities for B Plant on the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE Order 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific , Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated.

  4. Plant Tissue Culture Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Plant tissue culture has developed into a valid botanical discipline and is considered a key area of biotechnology, but it has not been a key component of the science curriculum because of the expensive and technical nature of research in this area. This manual presents a number of activities that are relatively easy to prepare and perform. The…

  5. Plants of the Desert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on plants of the desert, including various adaptations for life with limited water supplies. Each activity includes objective(s), recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. A ready-to-copy student worksheet is included. (DH)

  6. PLANTS OF RAMAYANA*

    PubMed Central

    Balapure, K. M.; Maheshwari, J. K.; Tandon, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    The article presents a list of plants mentioned in Ramayana one of the two great epics of this country which has been compiled and the probable equivalent botanical names have been fixed. This study will be useful to the botanists, palaeo – botanists, ethonobotanists, foresters, naturalists and environmentalists as well. PMID:22557592

  7. Dehydration Tolerance in Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    All plants have to cope with the constant tendency of their tissues to equilibrate to the water potential ('w) of their surrounding environment, whether it is the substrate upon or within which they grow, the soil within which they are rooted, or the air that surrounds them. The gradient in water po...

  8. Plant salt tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many factors have led to increased interest in using recycled wastewaters to irrigate agronomic and horticultural crops as well as plants in ornamental landscapes. One major driving force is the uncertainty of the allocation and dependability of good quality water in the future as competition among...

  9. Plant peptide hormone signalling.

    PubMed

    Motomitsu, Ayane; Sawa, Shinichiro; Ishida, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-receptor-based cell-to-cell communication system is one of the most important molecular bases for the establishment of complex multicellular organisms. Plants have evolved highly complex intercellular communication systems. Historical studies have identified several molecules, designated phytohormones, that function in these processes. Recent advances in molecular biological analyses have identified phytohormone receptors and signalling mediators, and have led to the discovery of numerous peptide-based signalling molecules. Subsequent analyses have revealed the involvement in and contribution of these peptides to multiple aspects of the plant life cycle, including development and environmental responses, similar to the functions of canonical phytohormones. On the basis of this knowledge, the view that these peptide hormones are pivotal regulators in plants is becoming increasingly accepted. Peptide hormones are transcribed from the genome and translated into peptides. However, these peptides generally undergo further post-translational modifications to enable them to exert their function. Peptide hormones are expressed in and secreted from specific cells or tissues. Apoplastic peptides are perceived by specialized receptors that are located at the surface of target cells. Peptide hormone-receptor complexes activate intracellular signalling through downstream molecules, including kinases and transcription factors, which then trigger cellular events. In this chapter we provide a comprehensive summary of the biological functions of peptide hormones, focusing on how they mature and the ways in which they modulate plant functions. PMID:26374891

  10. Pinellas Plant facts

    SciTech Connect

    1990-11-01

    The Pinellas Plant, near St. Petersburg, Florida, is wholly owned by the United States Government. It is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) by GE Aerospace, Neutron Devices (GEND). This plant was built in 1956 to manufacture neutron generators, a principal component in nuclear weapons. The neutron generators built at Neutron Devices consist of a miniaturized linear ion accelerator assembled with the pulsed electrical power supplies required for its operation. Production of these devices has necessitated the development of several uniquely specialized areas of competence and supporting facilities. The ion accelerator, or neutron tube, requires ultra clean, high vacuum technology; hermetic seals between glass, ceramic, glass-ceramic, and metal materials; plus high voltage generation and measurement technology. The existence of these capabilities at Neutron Devices has led directly to the assignment of other weapon application products: the lightning arrester connector, specialty capacitor, vacuum switch, and crystal resonator. Other product assignments such as active and reserve batteries and the radioisotopically-powered thermoelectric generator evolved from the plant`s materials measurement and controls technologies which are required to ensure neutron generator life.

  11. Mechanisms in Plant Development

    SciTech Connect

    Hake, Sarah

    2013-08-21

    This meeting has been held every other year for the past twenty-two years and is the only regularly held meeting focused specifically on plant development. Topics covered included: patterning in developing tissues; short and long distance signaling; differentiation of cell types; the role of epigenetics in development; evolution; growth.

  12. Herbicides and plant hormesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide hormesis is commonly observed at sub-toxic doses of herbicides and other phytotoxins. The occurrence and magnitude of this phenomenon is influenced by plant growth stage and physiological status, environmental factors, the endpoint measured, and the timing between treatment and endpoint me...

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  14. Plant biochemistry course, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This paper provides a brief description of a summer lecture course on metabolic pathways and regulation of flow through these pathways in plants. Descriptions of the 1992 course held at La Jolla,Ca; 1993 course held in Madison, Wis, and plans for the 1994 course projected for East Lansing, MI.

  15. TEXTILE PLANT WASTEWATER TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a study to provide chemical and toxicological baseline data on wastewater samples collected from 32 textile plants in the U.S. Raw waste and secondary effluent wastewater samples were analyzed for 129 consent decree priority pollutants, effluent guideli...

  16. Glyphosate metabolism in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many soil microbes and plant species metabolically degrade the herbicide glyphosate. The primary degradation routes are by a glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX) to form aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) as the distinctive metabolite and by a C-P lyase that forms sarcosine as a main metabolite. AMPA app...

  17. Evolution of plant senescence

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Howard; Huang, Lin; Young, Mike; Ougham, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Background Senescence is integral to the flowering plant life-cycle. Senescence-like processes occur also in non-angiosperm land plants, algae and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Increasing numbers of genes have been assigned functions in the regulation and execution of angiosperm senescence. At the same time there has been a large expansion in the number and taxonomic spread of plant sequences in the genome databases. The present paper uses these resources to make a study of the evolutionary origins of angiosperm senescence based on a survey of the distribution, across plant and microbial taxa, and expression of senescence-related genes. Results Phylogeny analyses were carried out on protein sequences corresponding to genes with demonstrated functions in angiosperm senescence. They include proteins involved in chlorophyll catabolism and its control, homeoprotein transcription factors, metabolite transporters, enzymes and regulators of carotenoid metabolism and of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Evolutionary timelines for the origins and functions of particular genes were inferred from the taxonomic distribution of sequences homologous to those of angiosperm senescence-related proteins. Turnover of the light energy transduction apparatus is the most ancient element in the senescence syndrome. By contrast, the association of phenylpropanoid metabolism with senescence, and integration of senescence with development and adaptation mediated by transcription factors, are relatively recent innovations of land plants. An extended range of senescence-related genes of Arabidopsis was profiled for coexpression patterns and developmental relationships and revealed a clear carotenoid metabolism grouping, coordinated expression of genes for anthocyanin and flavonoid enzymes and regulators and a cluster pattern of genes for chlorophyll catabolism consistent with functional and evolutionary features of the pathway. Conclusion The expression and phylogenetic characteristics of senescence

  18. Apoplastic interactions between plants and plant root intruders

    PubMed Central

    Mitsumasu, Kanako; Seto, Yoshiya; Yoshida, Satoko

    2015-01-01

    Numerous pathogenic or parasitic organisms attack plant roots to obtain nutrients, and the apoplast including the plant cell wall is where the plant cell meets such organisms. Root parasitic angiosperms and nematodes are two distinct types of plant root parasites but share some common features in their strategies for breaking into plant roots. Striga and Orobanche are obligate root parasitic angiosperms that cause devastating agricultural problems worldwide. Parasitic plants form an invasion organ called a haustorium, where plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are highly expressed. Plant-parasitic nematodes are another type of agriculturally important plant root parasite. These nematodes breach the plant cell walls by protruding a sclerotized stylet from which PCWDEs are secreted. Responding to such parasitic invasion, host plants activate their own defense responses against parasites. Endoparasitic nematodes secrete apoplastic effectors to modulate host immune responses and to facilitate the formation of a feeding site. Apoplastic communication between hosts and parasitic plants also contributes to their interaction. Parasitic plant germination stimulants, strigolactones, are recently identified apoplastic signals that are transmitted over long distances from biosynthetic sites to functioning sites. Here, we discuss recent advances in understanding the importance of apoplastic signals and cell walls for plant–parasite interactions. PMID:26322059

  19. Plant functional genomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtorf, Hauke; Guitton, Marie-Christine; Reski, Ralf

    2002-04-01

    Functional genome analysis of plants has entered the high-throughput stage. The complete genome information from key species such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice is now available and will further boost the application of a range of new technologies to functional plant gene analysis. To broadly assign functions to unknown genes, different fast and multiparallel approaches are currently used and developed. These new technologies are based on known methods but are adapted and improved to accommodate for comprehensive, large-scale gene analysis, i.e. such techniques are novel in the sense that their design allows researchers to analyse many genes at the same time and at an unprecedented pace. Such methods allow analysis of the different constituents of the cell that help to deduce gene function, namely the transcripts, proteins and metabolites. Similarly the phenotypic variations of entire mutant collections can now be analysed in a much faster and more efficient way than before. The different methodologies have developed to form their own fields within the functional genomics technological platform and are termed transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and phenomics. Gene function, however, cannot solely be inferred by using only one such approach. Rather, it is only by bringing together all the information collected by different functional genomic tools that one will be able to unequivocally assign functions to unknown plant genes. This review focuses on current technical developments and their impact on the field of plant functional genomics. The lower plant Physcomitrella is introduced as a new model system for gene function analysis, owing to its high rate of homologous recombination.

  20. Autophagy in plants and phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Kohki; Takano, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

    2010-04-01

    Plants and plant-associated microorganisms including phytopathogens have to adapt to drastic changes in environmental conditions. Because of their immobility, plants must cope with various types of environmental stresses such as starvation, oxidative stress, drought stress, and invasion by phytopathogens during their differentiation, development, and aging processes. Here we briefly describe the early studies of plant autophagy, summarize recent studies on the molecular functions of ATG genes, and speculate on the role of autophagy in plants and phytopathogens. Autophagy regulates senescence and pathogen-induced cell death in plants, and autophagy and pexophagy play critical roles in differentiation and the invasion of host cells by phytopathogenic fungi. PMID:20079356

  1. Top 10 Plant Viruses in Molecular Plant Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scientific and economic importance were used to rank plant viruses to indicate the Top 10. Each virus is discussed to open debate and conversation within and beyond the plant virology community as new pathogens come and go in importance....

  2. Curvilinear Effects of Invasive Plants on Plant Diversity: Plant Community Invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, De-Li; Chen, Si-Chong; Si, Chun-Can; Huang, Ping; Wang, Rui-Ping; Zhong, Qiong-Xin; Du, Dao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    The effects of invasive plants on the species diversity of plant communities are controversial, showing either a positive or negative linear relationship. Based on community data collected from forty 5 m×5 m plots invaded by Sphagneticola trilobata in eight cities across Hainan Island, China, we found S. trilobata decreased plant community diversity once its cover was beyond 10%. We demonstrated that the effects of invasive/native plants on the plant diversity of communities invaded by S. trilobata were curvilinear. These effects, which showed peaks under different degrees of vegetation cover, appeared not only for S. trilobata and all invasive plants, but also for all native plants. Invasive plants primarily had negative effects on plant diversity when they became abundant at a much lower cover level (less than 35%), compared with the native plants (over 60%). Thus, it is necessary to distinguish a range for assessing the effects of plants, especially invasive plants. Our results also confirmed that the invasion intensity of invasive alien plants increased with the intensity of local economic development. We highlight and further discuss the critical importance of curvilinear effects of biological invasion to provide ideas regarding the conservation of local biodiversity and the management of invasive plants. PMID:25426856

  3. Plant-to-plant variability in corn production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Corn (Zea mays L.) grain yields are known to vary from plant to plant, but the extent of this variability across a range of environments has not been evaluated. This study was initiated to evaluate by-plant corn grain yield variability over a range of production environments and to establish the rel...

  4. Plant Genetic Resources: Not Just for Plant Breeding Anymore

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Plant Germplasm System maintains over 480,000 accessions of plant genetic resources from 2,000 genera and 12,400 species. These genetic resources consist of agronomic crops, horticultural crops, fruit and nut crops, medicinal plants, ornamental crops, and other species. Each year...

  5. Evaluating plant and plant oil repellency against the sweetpotato whitefly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci is a major insect pest of vegetables world-wide. We evaluated the effect of commercial plant oils – garlic oil, hot pepper wax, and mustard oil against B. tabaci. Cucumber plants served as the control. Additional treatments included no plants or oil (clear ai...

  6. Convergence of plant-rich and plant-only diets.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, J

    1999-09-01

    Discussants at the Third International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition considered the nutritional adequacy, benefits, and health outcomes of plant-only (e.g., vegan and fruitarian), plant-based (e.g., macrobiotic, lactovegetarian, semivegetarian, and meatless), and omnivorous dietary patterns. The increased availability of a variety of plant foods, the advent of nutrient-fortified plant foods, the use of vitamin and mineral supplements, and the widespread dissemination of sound information on dietary patterns mean that convergence between the essential nutrient profiles of plant-only and plant-rich, plant-based diets is possible. Special attention should be paid to nutrition among vulnerable groups by age or physiologic status if they consume diets based solely on plants. Research has shown that both plant-only and plant-based eating patterns have health benefits, most notably in reducing the risk of chronic, degenerative diseases. The panel concluded that evidence for a convergence of scientific opinion on the safety and healthfulness of plant-only diets that are appropriately planned to meet all nutrient requirements compared with plant-based diets is considerable. PMID:10479241

  7. PLANT WATER STATUS INFLUENCES OZONE SENSITIVITY OF BEAN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted in a controlled environment chamber to determine the association between plant water status and ozone sensitivity. Bean plants were subjected to various water stress regimes for 4 to 10 days using a semipermeable membrane system which controlled plant water...

  8. Plant hydraulics as a hub integrating plant and ecosystem function

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water plays a central role in plant biology and the efficiency of water transport throughout the plant (i.e., “plant hydraulics”) affects both photosynthetic rate and growth, an influence that scales up deterministically to the productivity of terrestrial ecosystems. Moreover, hydraulic traits media...

  9. Cyberinfrastructure for (Comparative) Plant Genome Research Through PlantGDB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate and comprehensive gene structure annotation in emerging and assembled genomes is fundamental to comparative, functional, and translational genomics. We plan to build the cyberinfrastructure necessary for defining and accessing the plant gene space. Our Plant Genetic Data Base (PlantGDB) r...

  10. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  11. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  12. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  13. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  14. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  15. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  16. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  17. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  18. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  19. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  1. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  2. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at...

  3. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  4. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified in paragraph (h)...

  5. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  6. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  7. 7 CFR 52.81 - Plant survey.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Plant survey. 52.81 Section 52.81 Agriculture... for Plants to Be Approved and for Plants Using Contract In-Plant Inspection Services 1 § 52.81 Plant survey. Prior to a plant being approved, or the inauguration of in-plant inspection services, and at...

  8. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  9. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (j) of...

  10. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, or a plant specified in paragraph (i) of...

  11. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  12. 7 CFR 1033.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant is required to... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1033.7 Section 1033.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1033.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants...

  13. 7 CFR 1030.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant is required to... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1030.7 Section 1030.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1030.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants...

  14. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1001.7 Section 1001.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1001.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant described in paragraph (h)...

  15. 7 CFR 1124.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1124.7 Section 1124.7 Agriculture... Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or a system of plants as specified in paragraphs (a) through (f) of this section, but excluding a plant specified...

  16. 7 CFR 1032.7 - Pool plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a majority of its route distribution in this marketing area for 3 consecutive months or if the plant... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Pool plant. 1032.7 Section 1032.7 Agriculture... Handling Definitions § 1032.7 Pool plant. Pool plant means a plant, unit of plants, or system of plants...

  17. Birth of space plant growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mashinskiy, A.; Nechitaylo, G.

    1983-01-01

    The attempts, and successes, to grow plants in space, and get them to fully develop, bloom and produce seeds using orchids are presented. The psychological advantages of the presence of plants onboard space vehicles and space stations is indicated.

  18. Production of virus resistant plants

    DOEpatents

    Dougherty, W.G.; Lindbo, J.A.

    1996-12-10

    A method of suppressing virus gene expression in plants using untranslatable plus sense RNA is disclosed. The method is useful for the production of plants that are resistant to virus infection. 9 figs.

  19. USING TERRESTRIAL PLANTS IN BIOMONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Terrestrial plants have been used as monitors of environmental pollutants since at least the beginning of this century & have recently received attention in response to the need for ecological assessments at hazardous waste sites & monitoring pesticide damage to nontarget plants....

  20. TRIBAL MEDICINAL PLANTS OF CHITTOOR

    PubMed Central

    Vedavathy, S.; Sudhakar, A.; Mrdula, V.

    1997-01-01

    Medicinal plants used in tribal medicine from chittoor district have been surveyed and documented systematically. The paper deals with 202 medicinal plants, indexed along with important tribal applications for the cure of various ailments. PMID:22556807