Science.gov

Sample records for plant systems design

  1. Feedback system design with an uncertain plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milich, D.; Valavani, L.; Athans, M.

    1986-01-01

    A method is developed to design a fixed-parameter compensator for a linear, time-invariant, SISO (single-input single-output) plant model characterized by significant structured, as well as unstructured, uncertainty. The controller minimizes the H(infinity) norm of the worst-case sensitivity function over the operating band and the resulting feedback system exhibits robust stability and robust performance. It is conjectured that such a robust nonadaptive control design technique can be used on-line in an adaptive control system.

  2. Waste receiving and processing plant control system; system design description

    SciTech Connect

    LANE, M.P.

    1999-02-24

    The Plant Control System (PCS) is a heterogeneous computer system composed of numerous sub-systems. The PCS represents every major computer system that is used to support operation of the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) facility. This document, the System Design Description (PCS SDD), includes several chapters and appendices. Each chapter is devoted to a separate PCS sub-system. Typically, each chapter includes an overview description of the system, a list of associated documents related to operation of that system, and a detailed description of relevant system features. Each appendice provides configuration information for selected PCS sub-systems. The appendices are designed as separate sections to assist in maintaining this document due to frequent changes in system configurations. This document is intended to serve as the primary reference for configuration of PCS computer systems. The use of this document is further described in the WRAP System Configuration Management Plan, WMH-350, Section 4.1.

  3. Design and simulation of a plant control system for a GCFR demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-02-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a 300 MW(e) Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. Plant models and simulations are being developed to generate information necessary to further define control system requirements for subsequent plant design iterations.

  4. Engineering system co-design with limited plant redesign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, James T.

    2014-02-01

    Rather than designing engineering systems from the ground up, engineers often redesign strategic portions of existing systems to accommodate emerging needs. In the redesign of mechatronic systems, engineers typically seek to meet the requirements of a new application via control redesign only, but this is often insufficient and physical system (plant) design changes must be explored. Here, an integrated approach is presented for the redesign of mechatronic systems involving partial plant redesign that avoids costly complete redesign. Candidate plant modifications are identified using sensitivity analysis, and then an optimization problem is solved that minimizes redesign cost while satisfying system requirements. This formal methodology for Plant-Limited Co-Design (PLCD) is demonstrated using a robotic manipulator design problem. The PLCD result costs significantly less than the full redesign, and parametric studies illustrate the tradeoff between redesign cost and performance. It is shown that the proposed sensitivity analysis results in the lowest cost limited redesign.

  5. System Definition and Analysis: Power Plant Design and Layout

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This is the Topical report for Task 6.0, Phase 2 of the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program. The report describes work by Westinghouse and the subcontractor, Gilbert/Commonwealth, in the fulfillment of completing Task 6.0. A conceptual design for critical and noncritical components of the gas fired combustion turbine system was completed. The conceptual design included specifications for the flange to flange gas turbine, power plant components, and balance of plant equipment. The ATS engine used in the conceptual design is an advanced 300 MW class combustion turbine incorporating many design features and technologies required to achieve ATS Program goals. Design features of power plant equipment and balance of plant equipment are described. Performance parameters for these components are explained. A site arrangement and electrical single line diagrams were drafted for the conceptual plant. ATS advanced features include design refinements in the compressor, inlet casing and scroll, combustion system, airfoil cooling, secondary flow systems, rotor and exhaust diffuser. These improved features, integrated with prudent selection of power plant and balance of plant equipment, have provided the conceptual design of a system that meets or exceeds ATS program emissions, performance, reliability-availability-maintainability, and cost goals.

  6. Initial detailed designs for intermediate photovoltaic systems: Bottling plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, J.; Obrien, G.

    1982-08-01

    The detailed design of a 155 kW roof mounted PV-thermal concentrating array system is described and is analyzed for performance and economics. The building architectural features and load demands of the bottling plant are defined, and photovoltaic array, electrical system design, and system installation are defined and discussed. Alternative mechanical design choices are also presented. Appended are a drawing set list, specifications, and installation details.

  7. Resilient Plant Monitoring System: Design, Analysis, and Performance Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Humberto E. Garcia; Wen-Chiao Lin; Semyon M. Meerkov; Maruthi T. Ravichandran

    2013-12-01

    Resilient monitoring systems are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools, and the performance of the overall system is evaluated using simulations. The measure of resiliency of the resulting system is evaluated using Kullback Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  8. Design and implementation of power system stabilizers in wind plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Carlos

    Wind energy, increasing its share in the generation mix, is intended to replace fossil fuel plants in order to reduce green house gas emissions. However, the replacement of conventional synchronous units by wind generators reduces the number of online Power Systems Stabilizers (PSS) and may therefore deteriorate the damping of critical swing modes, leading to a reduction of the power transfer capacity in transmission corridors. Several reports indicate that angular instability, due to insufficient damping and inadequate tuning or disabling of power system stabilizers, is one of the major events that lead and/or contributed to wide area blackouts. Variable speed wind turbine generators are capable of fast decoupled real and reactive power control. A damping torque can be generated by modulating a fraction of the real and reactive power output of the wind farm. Supplementary active and reactive power control loops are designed and integrated in the wind turbine controls. Operating limits are added to restrict the kinetic energy exchange of the supplementary control loop within a specified turbine speed. An analytical method is developed in order to assess the effectiveness of real and reactive power modulation in damping inter-area oscillations and to justify the use and commissioning of wind based PSS. A wide area measurement based power system stabilizer suitable for wind farms is designed and integrated in the global and local controls of wind turbines. Feedback signals are selected based on an observability index of the selected mode(s). The proposed stabilizer transfer function is derived via a constrained Hinfinity optimization. The controller is tested in time domain simulations using a two area four generators benchmark suffering from interarea oscillatory mode within the range of 0.4-0.6Hz. Testing scenarios show the resiliency and effectiveness of the wind based PSS in damping angular oscillations and stabilizing the power system. The damping contribution

  9. EVALUATION OF THE LIMESTONE DUAL ALKALI PROTOTYPE SYSTEM PLANT SCHOLZ: SYSTEM DESIGN AND PROGRAM PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the (Phase I) design of both a limestone dual alkali system at Gulf Power Co.'s Scholz steam plant and a related test program. The limestone dual alkali process will be tested at an existing 20 MWe prototype facility at the Scholz plant. The intent of the pro...

  10. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  11. Higher Plants in life support systems: design of a model and plant experimental compartment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hezard, Pauline; Farges, Berangere; Sasidharan L, Swathy; Dussap, Claude-Gilles

    The development of closed ecological life support systems (CELSS) requires full control and efficient engineering for fulfilling the common objectives of water and oxygen regeneration, CO2 elimination and food production. Most of the proposed CELSS contain higher plants, for which a growth chamber and a control system are needed. Inside the compartment the development of higher plants must be understood and modeled in order to be able to design and control the compartment as a function of operating variables. The plant behavior must be analyzed at different sub-process scales : (i) architecture and morphology describe the plant shape and lead to calculate the morphological parameters (leaf area, stem length, number of meristems. . . ) characteristic of life cycle stages; (ii) physiology and metabolism of the different organs permit to assess the plant composition depending on the plant input and output rates (oxygen, carbon dioxide, water and nutrients); (iii) finally, the physical processes are light interception, gas exchange, sap conduction and root uptake: they control the available energy from photosynthesis and the input and output rates. These three different sub-processes are modeled as a system of equations using environmental and plant parameters such as light intensity, temperature, pressure, humidity, CO2 and oxygen partial pressures, nutrient solution composition, total leaf surface and leaf area index, chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, water potential, organ biomass distribution and composition, etc. The most challenging issue is to develop a comprehensive and operative mathematical model that assembles these different sub-processes in a unique framework. In order to assess the parameters for testing a model, a polyvalent growth chamber is necessary. It should permit a controlled environment in order to test and understand the physiological response and determine the control strategy. The final aim of this model is to have an envi

  12. Design considerations for an integrated safeguards system for fuel-reprocessng plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cartan, F O

    1982-05-01

    This report presents design ideas for safeguards systems in nuclear fuels reprocessing plants. The report summarizes general safeguards requirements and describes a safeguards system concept being developed and tested at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. The report gives some general concepts intended for design consideration and a checklist of specific problems that should be considered. The report is intended as an aid for the safeguards system designer and as a source of useful information.

  13. Full system engineering design and operation of an oxygen plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colvin, James; Schallhorn, Paul; Ramonhalli, Kumar

    1992-01-01

    The production of oxygen from the indigenous resources on Mars is described. After discussing briefly the project's background and the experimental system design, specific experimental results of the electrolytic cell are presented. At the heart of the oxygen production system is a tubular solid zirconia electrolyte cell that will electrochemically separate oxygen from a high-temperature stream of Coleman grade carbon dioxide. Experimental results are discussed and certain system efficiencies are defined. The parameters varied include (1) the cell operating temperature; (2) the carbon dioxide flow rate; and (3) the voltage applied across the cell. The results confirm our theoretical expectations.

  14. A graphical user interface for design, simulation and analysis of power plant electrical auxiliary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, D.C.; Jamal, N.; Wang, W.; Zhang, X.G. ); Brandt, J.R. )

    1994-06-01

    An interactive Graphical User Interface (GUI) package for the design, simulation and analysis of a power plant electrical auxiliary system is presented in this paper. The purpose of this package is to assist the engineer in performing non real-time, what-if, analysis in an interactive and intuitive environment. The package, AUXSYS, is capable of performing load flow and motor starting simulations. It provides a graphical interface for designing the one-line diagram of the plant and analyzing the output of the simulations. It is currently used for modeling Wisconsin Electric Power Company's (WEPCO) power plant electrical auxiliary systems and is implemented for use on PC's.

  15. Security Design of Remote Maintenance Systems for Nuclear Power Plants Based on ISO/IEC 15408

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watabe, Ryosuke; Oi, Tadashi; Endo, Yoshio

    This paper presents a security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants. Based on ISO/IEC 15408, we list assets to be protected, threats to the assets, security objectives against the threats, and security functional requirements that achieve the security objectives. Also, we show relations between the threats and the security objectives, and relations between the security objectives and the security functional requirements. As a result, we concretize a necessary and sufficient security design of remote maintenance systems for nuclear power plants that can protect the instrumentation and control system against intrusion, impersonation, tapping, obstruction and destruction.

  16. Engineering sciences design. Design and implementation of components for a bioregenerative system for growing higher order plants in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    The primary goal was to address specific needs in the design of an integrated system to grow higher plants in space. With the needs defined, the emphasis was placed on the design and fabrication of devices to meet these needs. Specific attention was placed on a hand-held harvester, a nutrient concentration sensor, an air-water separator, and a closed-loop biological system simulation.

  17. Sensitivity Analysis of Wind Plant Performance to Key Turbine Design Parameters: A Systems Engineering Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Veers, P.

    2014-02-01

    This paper introduces the development of a new software framework for research, design, and development of wind energy systems which is meant to 1) represent a full wind plant including all physical and nonphysical assets and associated costs up to the point of grid interconnection, 2) allow use of interchangeable models of varying fidelity for different aspects of the system, and 3) support system level multidisciplinary analyses and optimizations. This paper describes the design of the overall software capability and applies it to a global sensitivity analysis of wind turbine and plant performance and cost. The analysis was performed using three different model configurations involving different levels of fidelity, which illustrate how increasing fidelity can preserve important system interactions that build up to overall system performance and cost. Analyses were performed for a reference wind plant based on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 5-MW reference turbine at a mid-Atlantic offshore location within the United States.

  18. GCFR plant control system

    SciTech Connect

    Estrine, E.A.; Greiner, H.G.

    1980-05-01

    A plant control system is being designed for a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) demonstration plant. Control analysis is being performed as an integral part of the plant design process to ensure that control requirements are satisfied as the plant design evolves. The load control portion of the plant control system provides stable automatic (closed-loop) control of the plant over the 25% to 100% load range. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate load control system performance. The results show that the plant is controllable at full load with the control system structure selected, but gain scheduling is required to achieve desired performance over the load range.

  19. Design of feedback control systems for unstable plants with saturating actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapasouris, Petros; Athans, Michael; Stein, Gunter

    1988-01-01

    A new control design methodology is introduced for multi-input/multi-output systems with unstable open loop plants and saturating actuators. A control system is designed using well known linear control theory techniques and then a reference prefilter is introduced so that when the references are sufficiently small, the control system operates linearly as designated. For signals large enough to cause saturations, the control law is modified in such a way to ensure stability and to preserve, to the extent possible, the behavior of the linear control design. Key benefits of this methodology are: the modified feedback system never produces saturating control signals, integrators and/or slow dynamics in the compensator never windup, the directionaL properties of the controls are maintained, and the closed loop system has certain guaranteed stability properties. The advantages of the new design methodology are illustrated in the simulation of an approximation of the AFTI-16 (Advanced Fighter Technology Integration) aircraft multivariable longitudinal dynamics.

  20. An Axenic Plant Culture System for Optimal Growth in Long-Term Studies: Design and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Amelia; Doucette, William; Norton, Jeanette; Jones, Scott; Chard, Julie; Bugbee, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    The symbiotic co-evolution of plants and microbes leads to difficulties in understanding which of the two components is responsible for a given environmental response. Plant-microbe studies greatly benefit from the ability to grow plants in axenic (sterile) culture. Several studies have used axenic plant culture systems, but experimental procedures are often poorly documented, the plant growth environment is not optimal, and axenic conditions are not rigorously verified. We developed a unique axenic system using inert components that promotes plant health and can be kept sterile for at least 70 d. Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum cv. DII) plants were grown in sand within flow-through glass columns that were positively pressured with filtered air. Plant health was optimized by regulating temperature, light level, CO2 concentration, humidity, and nutrients. The design incorporates several novel aspects, such as pretreatment of the sand with Fe, graduated sand layers to optimize the air-water balance of the root zone, and modification of a laminar flow hood to serve as a plant growth chamber. Adaptations of several sterile techniques were necessary for maintenance of axenic conditions. Axenic conditions were verified by plating and staining leachates as well as rhizoplane stain. This system was designed to study nutrient and water stress effects on root exudates, but is useful for assessing a broad range of plant-microbe-environment interactions. Based on total organic C analysis, 74% of exudates was recovered in the leachate, 6% was recovered in the bulk sand, and 17% was recovered in the rhizosphere sand. Carbon in the leachate after 70 d reached 255 micro-g/d. Fumaric, malic, malonic, oxalic, and succinic acids were measured as components of the root exudates.

  1. The Conceptual Design of an Integrated Nuclearhydrogen Production Plant Using the Sulfur Cycle Water Decomposition System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, G. H.

    1976-01-01

    A hydrogen production plant was designed based on a hybrid electrolytic-thermochemical process for decomposing water. The sulfur cycle water decomposition system is driven by a very high temperature nuclear reactor that provides 1,283 K helium working gas. The plant is sized to approximately ten million standard cubic meters per day of electrolytically pure hydrogen and has an overall thermal efficiently of 45.2 percent. The economics of the plant were evaluated using ground rules which include a 1974 cost basis without escalation, financing structure and other economic factors. Taking into account capital, operation, maintenance and nuclear fuel cycle costs, the cost of product hydrogen was calculated at $5.96/std cu m for utility financing. These values are significantly lower than hydrogen costs from conventional water electrolysis plants and competitive with hydrogen from coal gasification plants.

  2. Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor balance of plant and supporting systems design

    SciTech Connect

    Memmott, M. J.; Stansbury, C.; Taylor, C.

    2012-07-01

    The Westinghouse Small Modular Reactor (SMR) is an 800 MWt (>225 MWe) integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR), in which all of the components typically associated with the nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) of a nuclear power plant are incorporated within a single reactor pressure vessel. This paper is the second in a series of four papers which describe the design and functionality of the Westinghouse SMR. It focuses, in particular, upon the supporting systems and the balance of plant (BOP) designs of the Westinghouse SMR. Several Westinghouse SMR systems are classified as safety, and are critical to the safe operation of the Westinghouse SMR. These include the protection and monitoring system (PMS), the passive core cooling system (PXS), and the spent fuel cooling system (SFS) including pools, valves, and piping. The Westinghouse SMR safety related systems include the instrumentation and controls (I and C) as well as redundant and physically separated safety trains with batteries, electrical systems, and switch gears. Several other incorporated systems are non-safety related, but provide functions for plant operations including defense-in-depth functions. These include the chemical volume control system (CVS), heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems, component cooling water system (CCS), normal residual heat removal system (RNS) and service water system (SWS). The integrated performance of the safety-related and non-safety related systems ensures the safe and efficient operation of the Westinghouse SMR through various conditions and transients. The turbine island consists of the turbine, electric generator, feedwater and steam systems, moisture separation systems, and the condensers. The BOP is designed to minimize assembly time, shipping challenges, and on-site testing requirements for all structures, systems, and components. (authors)

  3. US GCFR demonstration plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, P.S.; Snyder, H.J.

    1980-05-01

    A general description of the US GCFR demonstration plant conceptual design is given to provide a context for more detailed papers to follow. The parameters selected for use in the design are presented and the basis for parameter selection is discussed. Nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) and balance of plant (BOP) component arrangements and systems are briefly discussed.

  4. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M.; Ravichandran, Maruthi T.

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.

  5. Resilient Monitoring Systems: Architecture, Design, and Application to Boiler/Turbine Plant

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Garcia, Humberto E.; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M.; Ravichandran, Maruthi T.

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this work is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliencymore » is quantified using Kullback-Leibler divergence, and is shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered.« less

  6. Resilient monitoring systems: architecture, design, and application to boiler/turbine plant.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Humberto E; Lin, Wen-Chiao; Meerkov, Semyon M; Ravichandran, Maruthi T

    2014-11-01

    Resilient monitoring systems, considered in this paper, are sensor networks that degrade gracefully under malicious attacks on their sensors, causing them to project misleading information. The goal of this paper is to design, analyze, and evaluate the performance of a resilient monitoring system intended to monitor plant conditions (normal or anomalous). The architecture developed consists of four layers: data quality assessment, process variable assessment, plant condition assessment, and sensor network adaptation. Each of these layers is analyzed by either analytical or numerical tools. The performance of the overall system is evaluated using a simplified boiler/turbine plant. The measure of resiliency is quantified based on the Kullback-Leibler divergence and shown to be sufficiently high in all scenarios considered. PMID:24816628

  7. Design of a fault diagnosis system for next generation nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, K.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Wood, R.T.

    2004-07-01

    A new design approach for fault diagnosis is developed for next generation nuclear power plants. In the nuclear reactor design phase, data reconciliation is used as an efficient tool to determine the measurement requirements to achieve the specified goal of fault diagnosis. In the reactor operation phase, the plant measurements are collected to estimate uncertain model parameters so that a high fidelity model can be obtained for fault diagnosis. The proposed algorithm of fault detection and isolation is able to combine the strength of first principle model based fault diagnosis and the historical data based fault diagnosis. Principal component analysis on the reconciled data is used to develop a statistical model for fault detection. The updating of the principal component model based on the most recent reconciled data is a locally linearized model around the current plant measurements, so that it is applicable to any generic nonlinear systems. The sensor fault diagnosis and process fault diagnosis are decoupled through considering the process fault diagnosis as a parameter estimation problem. The developed approach has been applied to the IRIS helical coil steam generator system to monitor the operational performance of individual steam generators. This approach is general enough to design fault diagnosis systems for the next generation nuclear power plants. (authors)

  8. Plant System Design of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Direct Cycle Gas Turbine Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuhiro, Tozawa; Nobumasa, Tsuji; Yasushi, Muto; Yasuyoshi, Kato

    2006-07-01

    The conceptual plant design and preliminary safety analysis of SCDFR, Supercritical CO{sub 2} Direct Cycle Gas Turbine Fast Reactor, were performed. Plant thermal power is 600 MW. Core outlet/inlet pressure and temperature are 12.5/12.8 MPa and 527/388 deg C respectively. The core height and equivalent diameter are about 1.2 m and about 3.146 m respectively. The core can be burning for 10 years without refueling by adding 6.5% content of {sup 237}Np into the fuel as a burnable poison. Reactor pressure vessel height and inner diameter are about 19.3 m and about 6.55 m respectively. Steel containment vessel contains the reactor system and the gas turbine system. Preliminary analysis of core temperature behavior during the depressurization accident in SCDFR was performed. In the result of the analysis, core temperature is limited under 900 deg C, assumed limit temperature of the fuel clad, at the condition of minimum gas circulation flow rate of 2.0 m{sup 3}/s. On the other hand, gas circulator designed flow rate of the auxiliary core cooling system is over 11.6 m{sup 3}/s. These show that the integrity of the fuel clad during depressurization accident is maintained. We conclude that the plant concept of SCDFR is developed and the plant safety under depressurization accident conditions is confirmed by preliminary analysis. (authors)

  9. Applying Human Factors Evaluation and Design Guidance to a Nuclear Power Plant Digital Control System

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Ulrich; Ronald Boring; William Phoenix; Emily Dehority; Tim Whiting; Jonathan Morrell; Rhett Backstrom

    2012-08-01

    The United States (U.S.) nuclear industry, like similar process control industries, has moved toward upgrading its control rooms. The upgraded control rooms typically feature digital control system (DCS) displays embedded in the panels. These displays gather information from the system and represent that information on a single display surface. In this manner, the DCS combines many previously separate analog indicators and controls into a single digital display, whereby the operators can toggle between multiple windows to monitor and control different aspects of the plant. The design of the DCS depends on the function of the system it monitors, but revolves around presenting the information most germane to an operator at any point in time. DCSs require a carefully designed human system interface. This report centers on redesigning existing DCS displays for an example chemical volume control system (CVCS) at a U.S. nuclear power plant. The crucial nature of the CVCS, which controls coolant levels and boration in the primary system, requires a thorough human factors evaluation of its supporting DCS. The initial digital controls being developed for the DCSs tend to directly mimic the former analog controls. There are, however, unique operator interactions with a digital vs. analog interface, and the differences have not always been carefully factored in the translation of an analog interface to a replacement DCS. To ensure safety, efficiency, and usability of the emerging DCSs, a human factors usability evaluation was conducted on a CVCS DCS currently being used and refined at an existing U.S. nuclear power plant. Subject matter experts from process control engineering, software development, and human factors evaluated the DCS displays to document potential usability issues and propose design recommendations. The evaluation yielded 167 potential usability issues with the DCS. These issues should not be considered operator performance problems but rather opportunities

  10. Power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, E.E. )

    1990-01-01

    This overviews basic theories and concepts of power plant design using an accessible approach that moves smoothly from simple to real configurations. Utilizing a large number of worked examples the book provides a treatment and understanding of all aspects of power plant design from basic thermodynamics to complex applications.

  11. Design, simulation, analysis and optimization of transportation system for a biomass to ethanol conversion plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravula, Poorna P.

    The US Department of Energy has set an ambitious goal of replacing 30% of current petroleum consumption with biomass and its products by the year 2030. To achieve this goal, various systems capable of handling biomass at this magnitude have to be designed and built. The transportation system for a cotton gin was studied and modeled with the current management policy (FIFO) used by the gin to gain understanding of a logistic system where the processing plant (gin) pays for the transportation of the feedstock. Alternate management policies for transporting cotton modules showed significant time savings of 24% in days-to-haul. To design a logistics system and management strategy that will minimize the cost of biomass delivery (round bales of switchgrass), a seven-county region in southern Piedmont region of Virginia was selected as the location for a 50 Mg/h bioprocessing plant which operates 24 h/day, 7 days/week. Some of the equipment are not be commercially available and need to be developed. The transport equipment (trucks, loaders and unloaders) was defined and the operational parameters estimated. One hundred and fifty-five secondary storage locations (SSLs) along with a 3.2-km procurement area for each SSL were determined for the region. The travel time from each SSL to the plant was calculated based on a network flow analysis. Seven different policies (strategies) for scheduling loaders were studied. The two key variables were maximum number of trucks required and the maximum at-plant inventory. Five policies were based on "Shortest Travel Time - Longest Travel Time" allocation and two policies were based on "Sector-based" allocation. Policies generating schedules with minimum truck requirement and at-plant storage were simulated. A discrete event simulation model for the logistic system was constructed and the productive operating times for system equipment and inventory was computed. Lowest delivered cost was 14.68/Mg with truck cost averaging 8.44/Mg and

  12. Component and System Sensitivity Considerations for Design of a Lunar ISRU Oxygen Production Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linne, Diane L.; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Hegde, Uday G.; Balasubramaniam, Ramaswamy; Santiago-Maldonado, Edgardo

    2009-01-01

    Component and system sensitivities of some design parameters of ISRU system components are analyzed. The differences between terrestrial and lunar excavation are discussed, and a qualitative comparison of large and small excavators is started. The effect of excavator size on the size of the ISRU plant's regolith hoppers is presented. Optimum operating conditions of both hydrogen and carbothermal reduction reactors are explored using recently developed analytical models. Design parameters such as batch size, conversion fraction, and maximum particle size are considered for a hydrogen reduction reactor while batch size, conversion fraction, number of melt zones, and methane flow rate are considered for a carbothermal reduction reactor. For both reactor types the effect of reactor operation on system energy and regolith delivery requirements is presented.

  13. Design of the Fully Digitalized SOE System in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jong Yong, Keum; Geun Ok, Park; Heui Youn, Park; Gui Sook, Jang

    2006-07-01

    With the spread of the digital technologies, the Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems including the Sequence of Events (SOE) system in the nuclear power plants gradually follow these general trends. This paper discusses the methods for calculating SOE events' occurrence time in each of the non-safety systems and the safety systems. This paper presents the structure of a fully digitalized SOE system in the I and C systems and takes the important design elements of the SOE systems into consideration, including the time resolution, time protocol, and the properties of the data communication networks in the non-safety systems and the safety systems. The feature of the SOE system is that the processing of the SOE events' occurrence time is distributed in their individual systems except for the safety systems processed in a gateway. The commercial data communication networks adopting TCP/IP are used in the non-safety systems and the safety systems use the deterministic data communication networks in order to produce their output within restricted time. Under the two different data communications networks, the methods for establishing the SOE events' occurrence time which are classified into a safety grade and a non-safety grade are applied here. The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is used to synchronize the time keeping among the time servers and the clients in the non-safety systems. When the SOE events occur, the clients record the time information from their own local clocks. The safety systems are designed to precisely calculate the SOE events' occurrence time. The equation defined as a function of a transmission time, a transmission waiting time and an arrival time to a gateway is presented here. This paper analyzed the time errors of the SOE events in non-safety systems by using NTP through an experimental environment. In the case of the safety systems, the principle for the calculation of the SOE events' occurrence time is explained by an example. (authors)

  14. Design and optimization of an experimental bioregenerative life support system with higher plants and silkworms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Enzhu; Bartsev, Sergey I.; Zhao, Ming; Liu, Professor Hong

    The conceptual scheme of an experimental bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) for planetary exploration was designed, which consisted of four elements - human metabolism, higher plants, silkworms and waste treatment. 15 kinds of higher plants, such as wheat, rice, soybean, lettuce, mulberry, et al., were selected as regenerative component of BLSS providing the crew with air, water, and vegetable food. Silkworms, which producing animal nutrition for crews, were fed by mulberry-leaves during the first three instars, and lettuce leaves last two instars. The inedible biomass of higher plants, human wastes and silkworm feces were composted into soil like substrate, which can be reused by higher plants cultivation. Salt, sugar and some household material such as soap, shampoo would be provided from outside. To support the steady state of BLSS the same amount and elementary composition of dehydrated wastes were removed periodically. The balance of matter flows between BLSS components was described by the system of algebraic equations. The mass flows between the components were optimized by EXCEL spreadsheets and using Solver. The numerical method used in this study was Newton's method.

  15. Controlled Ecological Life Support System. Design, Development, and Use of a Ground-Based Plant Growth Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.; Rummel, John D.

    1987-01-01

    Problems of food production by higher plants are addressed. Experimentation requirements and necessary equipment for designing an experimental Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) Plant Growth Module are defined. A framework is provided for the design of laboratory sized plant growth chambers. The rationale for the development of an informal collaborative effort between investigators from universities and industry and those at Ames is evaluated. Specific research problems appropriate for collaborative efforts are identified.

  16. A Systems Engineering Framework for Design, Construction and Operation of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edward J. Gorski; Charles V. Park; Finis H. Southworth

    2004-06-01

    Not since the International Space Station has a project of such wide participation been proposed for the United States. Ten countries, the European Union, universities, Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories, and industry will participate in the research and development, design, construction and/or operation of the fourth generation of nuclear power plants with a demonstration reactor to be built at a DOE site and operational by the middle of the next decade. This reactor will be like no other. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will be passively safe, economical, highly efficient, modular, proliferation resistant, and sustainable. In addition to electrical generation, the NGNP will demonstrate efficient and cost effective generation of hydrogen to support the President’s Hydrogen Initiative. To effectively manage this multi-organizational and technologically complex project, systems engineering techniques and processes will be used extensively to ensure delivery of the final product. The technological and organizational challenges are complex. Research and development activities are required, material standards require development, hydrogen production, storage and infrastructure requirements are not well developed, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission may further define risk-informed/performance-based approach to licensing. Detailed design and development will be challenged by the vast cultural and institutional differences across the participants. Systems engineering processes must bring the technological and organizational complexity together to ensure successful product delivery. This paper will define the framework for application of systems engineering to this $1.5B - $1.9B project.

  17. Conceptual designs of NDA instruments for the NRTA system at the Rokkasho Reprocessing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Menlove, H.O.

    1996-09-01

    The authors are studying conceptual designs of selected nondestructive assay (NDA) instruments for the near-real-time accounting system at the rokkasho Reprocessing Plant (RRP) of Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL). The JNFL RRP is a large-scale commercial reprocessing facility for spent fuel from boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors. The facility comprises two major components: the main process area to separate and produce purified plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate from irradiated reactor spent fuels, and the co-denitration process area to combine and convert the plutonium nitrate and uranyl nitrate into mixed oxide (MOX). The selected NDA instruments for conceptual design studies are the MOX-product canister counter, holdup measurement systems for calcination and reduction furnaces and for blenders in the co-denitration process, the isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometer for the spent fuel dissolver solution, and unattended verification systems. For more effective and practical safeguards and material control and accounting at RRP, the authors are also studying the conceptual design for the UO{sub 3} large-barrel counter. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art NDA conceptual design and research and development activities for the above instruments.

  18. Microreactor System Design for a NASA In Situ Propellant Production Plant on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TeGrotenhuis, W. E.; Wegeng, R. S.; Vanderwiel, D. P.; Whyatt, G. A.; Viswanathan, V. V.; Schielke, K. P.; Sanders, G. B.; Peters, T. A.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) program is planning near-term missions to Mars that will include chemical processes for converting the carbon dioxide (CO2) and possibly water from the Martian environment to propellants, oxygen, and other useful chemicals. The use of indigenous resources reduces the size and weight of the payloads from Earth significantly, representing enormous cost savings that make human exploration of Mars affordable. Extraterrestrial chemical processing plants will need to be compact, lightweight, highly efficient under reduced gravity, and extraordinarily reliable for long periods. Microchemical and thermal systems represent capability for dramatic reduction in size and weight, while offering high reliability through massive parallelization. In situ propellant production (ISPP), one aspect of the ISRU program, involves collecting and pressurizing atmospheric CO2, conversion reactions, chemical separations, heat exchangers, and cryogenic storage. A preliminary system design of an ISPP plant based on microtechnology has demonstrated significant size, weight, and energy efficiency gains over the current NASA baseline. Energy management is a strong driver for Mars-based processes, not only because energy is a scarce resource, but because heat rejection is problematic; the low pressure environment makes convective heat transfer ineffective. Energy efficiency gains are largely achieved in the microchemical plant through extensive heat recuperation and energy cascading, which has a small size and weight penalty because the added micro heat exchangers are small. This leads to additional size and weight gains by reducing the required area of waste heat radiators. The microtechnology-based ISPP plant is described in detail, including aspects of pinch analysis for optimizing the heat exchanger network. Three options for thermochemical compression Of CO2 from the Martian atmosphere, adsorption, absorption, and cryogenic freezing, are presented

  19. Balance of Plant System Analysis and Component Design of Turbo-Machinery for High Temperature Gas Reactor Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ballinger, Ronald G.; Wang, Chun Yun; Kadak, Andrew; Todreas, Neil; Mirick, Bradley; Demetri, Eli; Koronowski, Martin

    2004-08-30

    The Modular Pebble Bed Reactor system (MPBR) requires a gas turbine cycle (Brayton cycle) as the power conversion system for it to achieve economic competitiveness as a Generation IV nuclear system. The availability of controllable helium turbomachinery and compact heat exchangers are thus the critical enabling technology for the gas turbine cycle. The development of an initial reference design for an indirect helium cycle has been accomplished with the overriding constraint that this design could be built with existing technology and complies with all current codes and standards. Using the initial reference design, limiting features were identified. Finally, an optimized reference design was developed by identifying key advances in the technology that could reasonably be expected to be achieved with limited R&D. This final reference design is an indirect, intercooled and recuperated cycle consisting of a three-shaft arrangement for the turbomachinery system. A critical part of the design process involved the interaction between individual component design and overall plant performance. The helium cycle overall efficiency is significantly influenced by performance of individual components. Changes in the design of one component, a turbine for example, often required changes in other components. To allow for the optimization of the overall design with these interdependencies, a detailed steady state and transient control model was developed. The use of the steady state and transient models as a part of an iterative design process represents a key contribution of this work. A dynamic model, MPBRSim, has been developed. The model integrates the reactor core and the power conversion system simultaneously. Physical parameters such as the heat exchangers; weights and practical performance maps such as the turbine characteristics and compressor characteristics are incorporated into the model. The individual component models as well as the fully integrated model of the

  20. Design of feedback control systems for stable plants with saturating actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kapasouris, Petros; Athans, Michael; Stein, Gunter

    1988-01-01

    A systematic control design methodology is introduced for multi-input/multi-output stable open loop plants with multiple saturations. This new methodology is a substantial improvement over previous heuristic single-input/single-output approaches. The idea is to introduce a supervisor loop so that when the references and/or disturbances are sufficiently small, the control system operates linearly as designed. For signals large enough to cause saturations, the control law is modified in such a way as to ensure stability and to preserve, to the extent possible, the behavior of the linear control design. Key benefits of the methodology are: the modified compensator never produces saturating control signals, integrators and/or slow dynamics in the compensator never windup, the directional properties of the controls are maintained, and the closed loop system has certain guaranteed stability properties. The advantages of the new design methodology are illustrated in the simulation of an academic example and the simulation of the multivariable longitudinal control of a modified model of the F-8 aircraft.

  1. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Campbell, William A; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-01

    A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle reduced the output irregularity further to 13%, with an air supply of 50 slpm as the minimum air supply to drive this injector. After commissioning of this final system to the FBG reactor, the injection nozzle was found to plug with char however, and was subsequently removed from the system. Final operation of the reactor continues satisfactorily with the two screw conveyors operating at matching pressure with the fluidized bed, with the output rate of the system estimated based on system characteristic equations, and confirmed by static weight measurements made before

  2. Information system design of inventory control spare parts maintenance (valuation class 5000) (case study: plant kw)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitriana, Rina; Moengin, Parwadi; Riana, Mega

    2016-02-01

    Plat KW hadn't using optimal inventory level planning yet and hadn't have an information system that well computerized. The research objective is to be able to design an information system related inventory control of spare parts maintenance. The study focused on five types of spare parts with the highest application rate during February 2013- March 2015 and included in the classification of fast on FSN analysis Grinding stones Cut 4". Cable Tie 15". Welding RB 26-32MM. Ring Plat ½" and Ring Plate 5/8 ". Inventory calculation used Economic Order Quantity (EOQ). Safety Stock (SS) and Reorder Point (ROP) methods. System analysis conducted using the framework PIECES with the proposed inventory control system. the performance of the plant KW relating to the supply of spare parts maintenance needs can be more efficient as well as problems at the company can be answered and can perform inventory cost savings amounting Rp.267.066. A computerized information system of inventory control spare parts maintenance provides a menu that can be accessed by each departments as the user needed.

  3. Design and modelling of an innovative three-stage thermal storage system for direct steam generation CSP plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Pierre; Vuillerme, Valéry; Olcese, Marco; El Mourchid, Nadim

    2016-05-01

    Thermal Energy Storage systems (TES) for a Direct Steam Generation (DSG) solar plant feature preferably three stages in series including a latent heat storage module so that steam can be recovered with a limited temperature loss. The storage system designed within the Alsolen Sup project is characterized by an innovative combination of sensible and latent modules. A dynamic model of this three-stage storage has been developed and applied to size the storage system of the Alsolen Sup® plant demonstrator at CEA Cadarache. Results of this simulation show that this promising concept is an efficient way to store heat in DSG solar plants.

  4. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, William A.; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 1-5 g/s fuel feeding system for pilot scale FBG was designed, built and tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple conveying stages improve pressure balancing, flow control and stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary conveyor stage reduced output irregularity from 47% to 15%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic air sparging effective in dealing with poor flow ability of MBM powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic injection port plugs with char at gasification temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50 mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle

  5. Design of Plant Eco-physiology Monitoring System Based on Embedded Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yunbing; Wang, Cheng; Qiao, Xiaojun; Liu, Yanfei; Zhang, Xinlu

    A real time system has been developed to collect plant's growth information comprehensively. Plant eco-physiological signals can be collected and analyzed effectively. The system adopted embedded technology: wireless sensors network collect the eco-physiological information. Touch screen and ARM microprocessor make the system work independently without PC. The system is versatile and all parameters can be set by the touch screen. Sensors' intelligent compensation can be realized in this system. Information can be displayed by either graphically or in table mode. The ARM microprocessor provides the interface to connect with the internet, so the system support remote monitoring and controlling. The system has advantages of friendly interface, flexible construction and extension. It's a good tool for plant's management.

  6. Bivalve fouling of nuclear power plant service-water systems. Volume 1. Correlation of bivalve biological characteristics and raw-water system design

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Page, T.L.; Young, J.S.; Daling, P.M.

    1984-12-01

    Fouling of raw-water systems in nuclear power plants in the US can affect the safe operation of a power plant. This report describes correlations between the biology of bivalve organisms and the design and operation of power plants that allow bivalves to enter and reside in nuclear power plants. Discussions are focused on safety-related raw-water systems subject to fouling by the Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea), the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), and the American oyster (Crassostrea virginica). Score sheets to rate fouling potential of power plant systems and components are provided.

  7. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  8. 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package. Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The Gasification, Gas Treating, Compression, and Sulfur Recovery Areas constitute the Gas Systems Area of the SRC-I demonstration plant. The dust preparation unit receives the supplemental coal (if required) from the Coal Preparation Area, and the ash concentrate (KMAC) from the SRC Deashing Area. This unit is designed to provide the proper blend and particle size distribution for feeding the coal gasification unit. The GKT coal gasification process will be used to generate the required makeup hydrogen for the SRC Process Area and for the Expanded-Bed Hydrocracker Area from the KMAC/coal mixture. The wash water treatment unit is designed to remove the solid material (fly ash and slag) from the raw water used in the coal gasification unit for the various quenching, cooling, and washing steps. The raw syngas compression unit will be provided to boost the pressure of the raw syngas from the coal gasification unit. A shift unit will be designed to convert most of the carbon monoxide in the raw syngas to hydrogen. The Selexol process will be used to remove acid gases from the makeup hydrogen gas. A methanation unit will be provided to process a portion of the makeup hydrogen exiting the Selexol Unit for use in the Expanded-Bed Hydrocracker Area. The DEA process will be used to remove acid gases from the high pressure raw recycle hydrogen-rich gas (generated in the SRC Process Area and in the Expanded Bed Hydrocracker Area) and for treating the various low pressure raw fuel gas streams generated in the facility. The hydrogen compression unit will compress a portion of the treated makeup hydrogen stream from the Selexol unit, a portion of the treated hydrogen-rich from the DEA unit, and the recycle hydrogen stream from the hydrogen purification unit for use in the SRC Process Area.

  9. Advanced Light Water Reactor Plants System 80+{trademark} Design Certification Program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1993 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW{sub t} (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design consists of an essentially complete plant. It is based on evolutionary improvements to the Standardized System 80 nuclear steam supply system in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3, and the Duke Power Company P-81 balance-of-plant (BOP) that was designed and partially constructed at the Cherokee plant site. The System 80/P-81 original design has been substantially enhanced to increase conformance with the EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD). Some design enhancements incorporated in the System 80+ design are included in the four units currently under construction in the Republic of Korea. These units form the basis of the Korean standardization program. The full System 80+ standard design has been offered to the Republic of China, in response to their recent bid specification. The ABB-CE Standard Safety Analysis Report (CESSAR-DC) was submitted to the NRC and a Draft Safety Evaluation Report was issued by the NRC in October 1992. CESSAR-DC contains the technical basis for compliance with the EPRI URD for simplified emergency planning. The Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) is the standard ABB-Combustion Engineering two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard plant includes a sperical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual containment.

  10. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith; Steven M. Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; David L. Black; Karl V. Meredith

    2005-01-01

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool was developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. Vision 21 combustion systems, such as combustors for gas turbines, combustors for indirect fired cycles, furnaces and sequestrian-ready combustion systems, will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. The simulation tool will greatly reduce the number of experimental tests; this is especially desirable for gas turbine combustor design since the cost of the high pressure testing is extremely costly. In addition, the software will stimulate new ideas, will provide the capability of assessing and adapting low-emission combustors to alternate fuels, and will greatly reduce the development time cycle of combustion systems. The revolutionary combustion simulation software is able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled (e.g. natural gas, low BTU syngas, hydrogen, biogas etc.) turbulent combustion and assess innovative concepts needed for Vision 21 plants. In addition, the software is capable of analyzing liquid-fueled combustion systems since that capability was developed under a concurrent Air Force Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The complex physics of the reacting flow field are captured using 3D Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods, in which large scale transient motion is resolved by time-accurate numerics, while the small scale motion is modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. In this way, LES combustion simulations can model many physical aspects that, until now, were impossible to predict with 3D steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) analysis, i.e. very low NOx emissions, combustion instability (coupling of unsteady heat and acoustics), lean blowout, flashback, autoignition, etc. LES methods are becoming more and more practical by linking together tens

  11. Conceptual design of a lunar oxygen pilot plant Lunar Base Systems Study (LBSS) task 4.2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective was to develop conceptual designs of two pilot plants to produce oxygen from lunar materials. A lunar pilot plant will be used to generate engineering data necessary to support an optimum design of a larger scale production plant. Lunar oxygen would be of primary value as spacecraft propellant oxidizer. In addition, lunar oxygen would be useful for servicing nonregenerative fuel cell power systems, providing requirements for life support, and to make up oxygen losses from leakage and airlock cycling. Thirteen different lunar oxygen production methods are described. Hydrogen reduction of ilmenite and extraction of solar-wind hydrogen from bulk lunar soil were selected for conceptual design studies. Trades and sensitivity analyses were performed with these models.

  12. The Performance of a Miniature Plant Cultivation System Designed for Space Flight Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyenga, Gerard; Kliss, Mark; Blackford, Cameron

    2005-01-01

    Constraints in both launch opportunities and the availability of in-flight resources for Shuttle and Space Station life science habitat facilities has presented a compelling impetus to improve the operational flexibility, efficiency and miniaturization of many of these systems. Such advances would not only invigorate the level of research being conducted in low Earth orbit but also present the opportunity to expand life science studies to outer space and planetary bodies. Work has been directed towards the development of a miniature plant cultivation module (PCM) capable of supporting the automated and controlled growth and spectral monitoring of small plant species such as Arabidopsis thaliana. This paper will present data on the operational performance and efficiency of the cultivation module, and the extent to which such a system may be used to support plant growth studies in low Earth orbit and beyond.

  13. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford E. Smith

    2005-04-01

    Vision 21 combustion systems will require innovative low emission designs and low development costs if Vision 21 goals are to be realized. In this three-year project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. The combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) software will be able to accurately simulate the highly transient nature of gaseous-fueled turbulent combustion so that innovative concepts can be assessed and developed with fewer high-cost experimental tests. During the first year, the project included the development and implementation of improved chemistry (reduced GRI mechanism), subgrid turbulence (localized dynamic), and subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction (Linear Eddy) models into the CFDACE+ code. University expertise (Georgia Tech and UC Berkeley) was utilized to help develop and implement these advanced submodels into the unstructured, parallel CFD flow solver, CFD-ACE+. Efficient numerical algorithms that rely on in situ look-up tables or artificial neural networks were implemented for chemistry calculations. In the second year, the combustion LES software was evaluated and validated using experimental data from lab-scale and industrial test configurations. This code testing (i.e., alpha testing) was performed by CFD Research Corporation's engineers. During the third year, six industrial and academic partners used the combustion LES code and exercised it on problems of their choice (i.e., beta testing). Final feedback and optimizations were then be implemented in the final release version of the combustion LES software that will be licensed to the general public. An additional one-year task was added for the fourth year of this program entitled, ''LES Simulations of SIMVAL Results''. For this task, CFDRC performed LES calculations of selected SIMVAL cases, and compared predictions with measurements. In addition to comparisons with NO{sub x

  14. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  15. Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine power plant (MORE). Phase IA final report: system design of MORE power plant for industrial energy conservation emphasizing the cement industry

    SciTech Connect

    Bair, E.K.; Breindel, B.; Collamore, F.N.; Hodgson, J.N.; Olson, G.K.

    1980-01-31

    The Multi-Megawatt Organic Rankine Engine (MORE) program is directed towards the development of a large, organic Rankine power plant for energy conservation from moderate temperature industrial heat streams. Organic Rankine power plants are ideally suited for use with heat sources in the temperature range below 1100/sup 0/F. Cement manufacture was selected as the prototype industry for the MORE system because of the range of parameters which can be tested in a cement application. This includes process exit temperatures of 650/sup 0/F to 1110/sup 0/F for suspension preheater and long dry kilns, severe dust loading, multi-megawatt power generation potential, and boiler exhaust gas acid dew point variations. The work performed during the Phase IA System Design contract period is described. The System Design task defines the complete MORE system and its installation to the level necessary to obtain detailed performance maps, equipment specifications, planning of supporting experiments, and credible construction and hardware cost estimates. The MORE power plant design is based upon installation in the Black Mountain Quarry Cement Plant near Victorville, California.

  16. Principles of Design And Operations Of Wastewater Treatment Pond Systems For Plant Operators, Engineers, And Managers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wastewater pond systems provide reliable, low cost, and relatively low maintenance treatment for municipal and industrial discharges. However, they do have certain design, operations, and maintenance requirements. While the basic models have not changed in the 30-odd years sinc...

  17. Design of the monitoring system at the Sant'Alessio induced riverbank filtration plant (Lucca, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Borsi, Iacopo; Mazzanti, Giorgio; Picciaia, Daniele; Vienken, Thomas; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    In Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes the monitoring system, for both water quality and quantity issues, plays a key role in assuring that a groundwater recharge plant is really managed. Considering induced Riverbank Filtration (RBF) schemes, while the effect of the augmented filtration consists in an improvement of the quality and quantity of the water infiltrating the aquifer, there is in turn the risk for groundwater contamination, as surface water bodies are highly susceptible to contamination. Within the framework of the MARSOL (2014) EU FPVII-ENV-2013 project, an experimental monitoring system has been designed and will be set in place at the Sant'Alessio RBF well field (Lucca, Italy) to demonstrate the sustainability and the benefits of managing induced RBF versus the unmanaged option. The RBF scheme in Sant'Alessio (Borsi et al. 2014) allows abstraction of an overall amount of about 0,5 m3/s groundwater providing drinking water for about 300000 people of the coastal Tuscany. Water is derived by ten vertical wells set along the Serchio River embankments inducing river water filtration into a high yield (10-2m2/s transmissivity) sand and gravel aquifer. Prior to the monitoring system design, a detailed site characterization has been completed taking advantage of previous and new investigations, the latter performed by means of MOSAIC on-site investigation platform (UFZ). A monitoring network has been set in place in the well field area using existing wells. There groundwater head and the main physico-chemical parameters (temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity and redox potential) are routinely monitored. Major geochemical compounds along with a large set of emerging pollutants are analysed (in cooperation with IWW Zentrum Wasser, Germany) both in surface-water and ground-water. The experimental monitoring system (including sensors in surface- and ground-water) has been designed focusing on managing abstraction efficiency and safety at

  18. Advanced light water reactor plants system 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80{sup +}{trademark} during the U.S. government`s 1994 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems. Some design enhancements incorporated in the System 80+ design are included in the four units currently under construction in the Republic of Korea. These units and the System 80+ design form the basis of the Korean standardization program. The Nuclear Island portion of the System 80+ standard design has also been offered to the Republic of China, in response to their bid specification for an ALWR. The ABB-CE Standard Safety Analysis Report (CESSAR-DC) was docketed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1991 and a Draft Safety Evaluation Report (DSER) was issued in October 1992.

  19. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  20. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    SciTech Connect

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  1. Waste heat recovery from the European Spallation Source cryogenic helium plants - implications for system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurns, John M.; Bäck, Harald; Gierow, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) neutron spallation project currently being designed will be built outside of Lund, Sweden. The ESS design includes three helium cryoplants, providing cryogenic cooling for the proton accelerator superconducting cavities, the target neutron source, and for the ESS instrument suite. In total, the cryoplants consume approximately 7 MW of electrical power, and will produce approximately 36 kW of refrigeration at temperatures ranging from 2-16 K. Most of the power consumed by the cryoplants ends up as waste heat, which must be rejected. One hallmark of the ESS design is the goal to recycle waste heat from ESS to the city of Lund district heating system. The design of the cooling system must optimize the delivery of waste heat from ESS to the district heating system and also assure the efficient operation of ESS systems. This report outlines the cooling scheme for the ESS cryoplants, and examines the effect of the cooling system design on cryoplant design, availability and operation.

  2. Design of an Unattended Environmental Aerosol Sampling and Analysis System for Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Munley, John T.; Alexander, M. L.

    2011-07-19

    the in-facility misuse detection devices. Onsite environmental sample collection offers the ability to collect fleeting uranium hexafluoride emissions before they are lost to the ventilation system or before they disperse throughout the facility, to become deposited onto surfaces that are contaminated with background and historical production material. Onsite aerosol sample collection, combined with enrichment analysis, provides the unique ability to quickly detect stepwise enrichment level changes within the facility, leading to a significant strengthening of facility misuse deterence. We report in this paper our study of several GCEP environmental sample release scenarios and simulation results of a newly designed aerosol collection and particle capture system that is fully integrated with the Laser Ablation, Absorbance Ratio Spectrometry (LAARS) uranium particle enrichment analysis instrument that was developed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  3. Modeling and Analysis of Power Processing Systems. [use of a digital computer for designing power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fegley, K. A.; Hayden, J. H.; Rehmann, D. W.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of formulating a methodology for the modeling and analysis of aerospace electrical power processing systems is investigated. It is shown that a digital computer may be used in an interactive mode for the design, modeling, analysis, and comparison of power processing systems.

  4. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, Steven M.; Adumitroaie, Virgil; McDaniel, Keith S.; Smith, Clifford E.

    2001-11-06

    In this project, an advanced computational software tool will be developed for the design of low emission combustion systems required for Vision 21 clean energy plants. This computational tool will utilize Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods to predict the highly transient nature of turbulent combustion. The time-accurate software will capture large scale transient motion, while the small scale motion will be modeled using advanced subgrid turbulence and chemistry closures. This three-year project is composed of: Year 1--model development/implementation, Year 2--software alpha validation, and Year 3--technology transfer of software to industry including beta testing. In this first year of the project, subgrid models for turbulence and combustion are being developed through university research (Suresh Menon-Georgia Tech and J.-Y. Chen- UC Berkeley) and implemented into a leading combustion CFD code, CFD-ACE+. The commercially available CFDACE+ software utilizes unstructured , parallel architecture and 2nd-order spatial and temporal numerics. To date, the localized dynamic turbulence model and reduced chemistry models (up to 19 species) for natural gas, propane, hydrogen, syngas, and methanol have been incorporated. The Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid combustion-turbulence interaction has been developed and implementation into CFD-ACE+ has started. Ways of reducing run-time for complex stiff reactions is being studied, including the use of in situ tabulation and neural nets. Initial validation cases have been performed. CFDRC has also completed the integration of a 64 PC cluster to get highly scalable computing power needed to perform the LES calculations ({approx} 2 million cells) in several days. During the second year, further testing and validation of the LES software will be performed. Researchers at DOE-NETL are working with CFDRC to provide well-characterized high-pressure test data for model validation purposes. To insure practical, usable software is

  5. Application of the MIAS methodology in design of the data acquisition system for wastewater treatment plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ćwikła, G.; Krenczyk, D.; Kampa, A.; Gołda, G.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of MIAS (Manufacturing Information Acquisition System) methodology to develop customized data acquisition system supporting management of the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant (CWWTP) in Gliwice, Poland, being example of production systems leading continuous flow, automated production processes. Access to current data on the state of production system is a key to efficient management of a company, allowing fast reaction or even anticipation of future problems with equipment and reduction of waste. Overview of both analysis and synthesis of organisational solutions, data sources, data pre-processing and communication interfaces, realised according to proposed MIAS methodology, had been presented. The stage of analysis covered i.e.: organisational structure of the company, IT systems used in the company, specifics of technological processes, machines and equipment, structure of control systems, assignments of crew members, materials used in the technological processes. This paper also presents results of the stage of synthesis of technical and organisational solutions of MIAS for CWWTP, including proposed solutions covering MIAS architecture and connections with other IT systems, data sources in production system that are currently available and newly created, data preprocessing procedures, and necessary communication interfaces.

  6. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  7. Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1996 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

  8. Design of heat and power recovery systems for energy conservation in chemical plants

    SciTech Connect

    Colmenares Torrealba, T.R.

    1988-01-01

    The heat and power integration problem is formulated as a nonlinear programming (NLP) model using an optimality criterion as a design objective that includes the energy-capital trade-offs for the power cycles. The strategies utilize the Temperature Interval method and permit the efficient use of negative heat deficits to obtain lower cost designs. Also, a technique for the lumping of temperature intervals is developed, which often increases the efficiency of optimization without adversely affecting the solution. Initially, a NLP model is formulated for the integration of the heat engines and heat pumps with the process. The model permits an easy assessment of the alternatives for integration and the potential working fluids. Then, an algorithm is presented for the synthesis of cascade refrigeration systems, integrated with the process, with alternate working fluids, and optimized over a continuous range of operating temperatures. Finally, a nonlinear programming strategy is presented for the synthesis of utility systems that satisfy the heating and power demands of the process at 100 percent efficiency. The utility system is modeled as a cascade of heat engines that exchange heat with the process and among themselves. Mass exchange between the adjacent heat engines produces lower pressure designs and provides heat for the process over a broader range of temperatures for a given power demand. Through mass integration, it was discovered that simple Rankine cycles are adequate to generate the complex utility systems that characterize industrial practice. Process examples are presented to illustrate the utility of these models.

  9. Optimal control system design of an acid gas removal unit for an IGCC power plants with CO2 capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture should be operated optimally in the face of disturbances without violating operational and environmental constraints. To achieve this goal, a systematic approach is taken in this work to design the control system of a selective, dual-stage Selexol-based acid gas removal (AGR) unit for a commercial-scale integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture. The control system design is performed in two stages with the objective of minimizing the auxiliary power while satisfying operational and environmental constraints in the presence of measured and unmeasured disturbances. In the first stage of the control system design, a top-down analysis is used to analyze degrees of freedom, define an operational objective, identify important disturbances and operational/environmental constraints, and select the control variables. With the degrees of freedom, the process is optimized with relation to the operational objective at nominal operation as well as under the disturbances identified. Operational and environmental constraints active at all operations are chosen as control variables. From the results of the optimization studies, self-optimizing control variables are identified for further examination. Several methods are explored in this work for the selection of these self-optimizing control variables. Modifications made to the existing methods will be discussed in this presentation. Due to the very large number of candidate sets available for control variables and due to the complexity of the underlying optimization problem, solution of this problem is computationally expensive. For reducing the computation time, parallel computing is performed using the Distributed Computing Server (DCS®) and the Parallel Computing® toolbox from Mathworks®. The second stage is a bottom-up design of the control layers used for the operation of the process. First, the regulatory control layer is

  10. Engineering strategies for the design of plant nutrient delivery systems for use in space: approaches to countering microbiological contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, A. A.; Schuerger, A. C.; Barford, C.; Mitchell, R.

    1996-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of crops within space-based plant growth research chambers has been postulated as a potentially significant problem. Microbial infestations; fouling of Nutrient Delivery System (NDS) fluid loops; and the formation of biofilms have been suggested as the most obvious and important manifestations of the problem. Strict sanitation and quarantine procedures will reduce, but not eliminate, microbial species introduced into plant growth systems in space habitats. Microorganisms transported into space most likely will occur as surface contaminants on spacecraft components, equipment, the crew, and plant-propagative materials. Illustrations of the potential magnitude of the microbiological contamination issue will be drawn from the literature and from documentation of laboratory and commercial field experience. Engineering strategies for limiting contamination and for the development of countermeasures will be described. Microbiological control technologies and NDS hardware will be discussed. Configurations appropriate for microgravity research facilities, as well as anticipated bio-regenerative life support system implementations, will be explored. An efficiently designed NDS, capable of adequately meeting the environmental needs of crop plants in space, is considered to be critical in both the research and operational domains. Recommended experiments, tests, and technology developments, structured to allow the development of prudent engineering solutions also will be presented.

  11. Engineering strategies for the design of plant nutrient delivery systems for use in space: approaches to countering microbiological contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzales, A. A.; Schuerger, A. C.; Barford, C.; Mitchell, R.

    Microbiological contamination of crops within space-based plant growth research chambers has been postulated as a potentially significant problem. Microbial infestations; fouling of Nutrient Delivery System (NDS) fluid loops; and the formation of biofilms have been suggested as the most obvious and important manifestations of the problem. Strict sanitation and quarantine procedures will reduce, but not eliminate, microbial species introduced into plant growth systems in space habitats. Microorganisms transported into space most likely will occur as surface contaminants on spacecraft components, equipment, the crew, and plant-propagative materials. Illustrations of the potential magnitude of the microbiological contamination issue will be drawn from the literature and from documentation of laboratory and commercial field experience. Engineering strategies for limiting contamination and for the development of countermeasures will be described. Microbiological control technologies and NDS hardware will be discussed. Configurations appropriate for microgravity research facilities, as well as anticipated bio-regenerative life support system implementations, will be explored. An efficiently designed NDS, capable of adequately meeting the environmental needs of crop plants in space, is considered to be critical in both the research and operational domains. Recommended experiments, tests, and technology developments, structured to allow the development of prudent engineering solutions also will be presented.

  12. Plant Growth Module (PGM) conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, Steven H.; Rasmussen, Daryl

    1987-01-01

    The Plant Growth Module for the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), designed to answer basic science questions related to growing plants in closed systems, is described functionally with artist's conception drawings. Subsystems are also described, including enclosure and access; data acquisition and control; gas monitor and control; heating, ventilation, and air conditioning; air delivery; nutrient monitor and control; microbial monitoring and control; plant support and nutrient delivery; illumination; and internal operations. The hardware development plan is outlined.

  13. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant shaft sealing system compliance submittal design report. Volume 2 of 2: Appendix E

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  14. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  15. Plant growth chamber M design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, R. P.; Knott, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    Crop production is just one of the many processes involved in establishing long term survival of man in space. The benefits of integrating higher plants into the overall plan was recognized early by NASA through the Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program. The first step is to design, construct, and operate a sealed (gas, liquid, and solid) plant growth chamber. A 3.6 m diameter by 6.7 m high closed cylinder (previously used as a hypobaric vessel during the Mercury program) is being modified for this purpose. The chamber is mounted on legs with the central axis vertical. Entrance to the chamber is through an airlock. This chamber will be devoted entirely to higher plant experimentation. Any waste treatment, food processing or product storage studies will be carried on outside of this chamber. Its primary purpose is to provide input and output data on solids, liquids, and gases for single crop species and multiple species production using different nutrient delivery systems.

  16. DOE small scale fuel alcohol plant design

    SciTech Connect

    LaRue, D.M.; Richardson, J.G.

    1980-01-01

    The Department of Energy, in an effort to facilitate the deployment of rural-based ethanol production capability, has undertaken this effort to develop a basic small-scale plant design capable of producing anhydrous ethanol. The design, when completed, will contain all necessary specifications and diagrams sufficient for the construction of a plant. The design concept is modular; that is, sections of the plant can stand alone or be integrated into other designs with comparable throughput rates. The plant design will be easily scaled up or down from the designed flow rate of 25 gallons of ethanol per hour. Conversion factors will be provided with the final design package to explain scale-up and scale-down procedures. The intent of this program is to provide potential small-scale producers with sound information about the size, engineering requirements, costs and level of effort in building such a system.

  17. System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

    2000-09-30

    The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

  18. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford Smith

    2003-09-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 12th quarterly report. In this quarter, continued validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-SimVal combustor. Also, beta testing by six consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. A list of suggested code improvements by the beta testers was itemized. Work will continue in FY04. A conditional modification to the contract will be granted. The additional work will focus on modeling/analyzing the SimVal experiments.

  19. Engineering Strategies for the Design of Plant Nutrient Delivery Systems for Use in Space: Approaches to Countering Microbiological Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzales, A. A.; Schuerger, A. C.; Mitchell, R.; Harper, Lynn D. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Microbiological contamination of crops within space-based crop growth research chambers has been postulated as a potentially significant problem. Microbial infestations; fouling of Nutrient Delivery System (NDS) fluid loops; and the formation of biofilms, have been suggested as the most obvious and important manifestations of the problem. Strict sanitation and quarantine procedures will reduce, but not eliminate, microbial species introduced into plant growing systems in space habitats. Microorganisms transported into space will most likely occur as contaminants on spacecraft components, equipment, the crew, and plant-propagative materials. Illustrations of the potential magnitude of the microbiological contamination issue will be drawn from the literature and from documentation of laboratory and commercial field experience. Engineering strategies for limiting contamination and for the development of countermeasures will be described. Microbiological control technologies and NDS hardware will be discussed. Configurations appropriate for microgravity research facilities, as well as anticipated bio-regenerative life support system implementations, will be explored. An efficiently designed NDS, capable of adequately meeting the environmental needs of crop plants in space, is considered to be critical in both the research and operational domains. Recommended experiments, tests and technology developments, structured to allow the development of prudent engineering solutions, will also be presented.

  20. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-07-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this seventh quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, the Localized Dynamic subgrid Kinetic energy Model (LDKM) was improved and an initial Turbulent Artificial Neural Net (TANN) was developed. Validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the Vanderbilt lean premixed combustor and the Loughborough University combustor port flow experiment. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of the subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the In Situ Adaptive Tabulation (ISAT) approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the TANN approach in CFD-ACE+ will be accomplished.

  1. Optical Design of Plant Canopy Measurement System and Fabrication of Two-Dimensional High-Speed Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Photodetector Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarto, Anthony; VanZeghbroeck, Bart; Vanderbilt, Vern C.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical and optical designs for the prototype plant canopy architecture measurement system, including specified component and parts lists, are presented. Six single Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM) detectors are mounted in high-speed packages.

  2. LBB considerations for a new plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Swamy, S.A.; Mandava, P.R.; Bhowmick, D.C.; Prager, D.E.

    1997-04-01

    The leak-before-break (LBB) methodology is accepted as a technically justifiable approach for eliminating postulation of Double-Ended Guillotine Breaks (DEGB) in high energy piping systems. This is the result of extensive research, development, and rigorous evaluations by the NRC and the commercial nuclear power industry since the early 1970s. The DEGB postulation is responsible for the many hundreds of pipe whip restraints and jet shields found in commercial nuclear plants. These restraints and jet shields not only cost many millions of dollars, but also cause plant congestion leading to reduced reliability in inservice inspection and increased man-rem exposure. While use of leak-before-break technology saved hundreds of millions of dollars in backfit costs to many operating Westinghouse plants, value-impacts resulting from the application of this technology for future plants are greater on a per plant basis. These benefits will be highlighted in this paper. The LBB technology has been applied extensively to high energy piping systems in operating plants. However, there are differences between the application of LBB technology to an operating plant and to a new plant design. In this paper an approach is proposed which is suitable for application of LBB to a new plant design such as the Westinghouse AP600. The approach is based on generating Bounding Analyses Curves (BAC) for the candidate piping systems. The general methodology and criteria used for developing the BACs are based on modified GDC-4 and Standard Review Plan (SRP) 3.6.3. The BAC allows advance evaluation of the piping system from the LBB standpoint thereby assuring LBB conformance for the piping system. The piping designer can use the results of the BACs to determine acceptability of design loads and make modifications (in terms of piping layout and support configurations) as necessary at the design stage to assure LBB for the, piping systems under consideration.

  3. Central receiver solar thermal power system, Phase 1: CDRL Item 2, pilot plant preliminary design report. Volume VII. Pilot plant cost and commercial plant cost and performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hallet, Jr., R. W.; Gervais, R. L.

    1980-05-01

    Detailed cost and performance data for the proposed tower focus pilot plant and commercial plant are given. The baseline central receiver concept defined by the MDAC team consists of the following features: (A) an external receiver mounted on a tower, and located in a 360/sup 0/ array of sun-tracking heliostats which comprise the collector subsystem. (B) feedwater from the electrical power generation subsystem is pumped through a riser to the receiver, where the feedwater is converted to superheated steam in a single pass through the tubes of the receiver panels. (C) The steam from the receiver is routed through a downcomer to the ground and introduced to a turbine directly for expansion and generation of electricity, and/or to a thermal storage subsystem, where the steam is condensed in charging heat exchangers to heat a dual-medium oil and rock thermal storage unit (TSU). (D) Extended operation after daylight hours is facilitated by discharging the TSU to generate steam for feeding the admission port of the turbine. (E) Overall control of the system is provided by a master control unit, which handles the interactions between subsystems that take place during startup, shutdown, and transitions between operating modes. (WHK)

  4. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-10-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fourth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. A more efficient PK binary tree data structure is being developed and implemented to replace the original BSP-tree structure. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry has also started. In addition, Georgia Tech has shown that a chemical neural net (1-step chemistry) trained at certain turbulent conditions can be used at different turbulent conditions without expensive chemical kinetic integrations. Initial evaluations of the code accuracy have also been carried out. The evaluations cases included the unstable DOE-NETL combustor and a lid-driven cavity. Next quarter, the ISAT algorithm for efficient chemistry will be tested for the unstable DOE-NETL combustor. Initial flame calculations, with the LEM subgrid chemistry model are planned. Also, demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up, should be demonstrated for more advanced chemistry (8-species and 19-species mechanisms).

  5. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2002-01-01

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this fifth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was further tested in the LES code. The use of multiple trees and periodic tree dumping was investigated. Implementation of the Linear Eddy Model (LEM) for subgrid chemistry was finished for serial applications. Validation of the model on a backstep reacting case was performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment were performed for various barrel lengths, equivalence ratio, combustor shapes, and turbulence models. The effects of these variables on combustion instability was studied. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. Next quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting will be held at CFDRC. LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, should be accomplished.

  6. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Clifford Smith

    2003-04-01

    Application and testing of the new combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this 10th quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation has developed the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, validation and testing of the combustion LES code was performed for the DOE-Simval combustor. Also, Beta testing by consortium members was performed for various burner and combustor configurations. In the two quarters ahead, CFDRC will validate the code on the new DOE SimVal experiments. Experimental data from DOE should be available in June 2003, though LES calculations are currently being performed. This will ensure a truly predictive test of the software. CFDRC will also provide help to the consortium members on running their cases, and incorporate improvements to the software suggested by the beta testers. The beta testers will compare their predictions with experimental measurements and other numerical calculations. At the end of this project (October, 2003), a final released version of the software will be available for licensing to the general public.

  7. Plant Phenotype Characterization System

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel W McDonald; Ronald B Michaels

    2005-09-09

    This report is the final scientific report for the DOE Inventions and Innovations Project: Plant Phenotype Characterization System, DE-FG36-04GO14334. The period of performance was September 30, 2004 through July 15, 2005. The project objective is to demonstrate the viability of a new scientific instrument concept for the study of plant root systems. The root systems of plants are thought to be important in plant yield and thus important to DOE goals in renewable energy sources. The scientific study and understanding of plant root systems is hampered by the difficulty in observing root activity and the inadequacy of existing root study instrumentation options. We have demonstrated a high throughput, non-invasive, high resolution technique for visualizing plant root systems in-situ. Our approach is based upon low-energy x-ray radiography and the use of containers and substrates (artificial soil) which are virtually transparent to x-rays. The system allows us to germinate and grow plant specimens in our containers and substrates and to generate x-ray images of the developing root system over time. The same plant can be imaged at different times in its development. The system can be used for root studies in plant physiology, plant morphology, plant breeding, plant functional genomics and plant genotype screening.

  8. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Cannon; Baifang Zuo; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Clifford Smith

    2002-04-30

    Further development of a combustion Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this sixth quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. In this quarter, in-situ adaptive tabulation (ISAT) for efficient chemical rate storage and retrieval was implemented and tested within the Linear Eddy Model (LEM). ISAT type 3 is being tested so that extrapolation can be performed and further improve the retrieval rate. Further testing of the LEM for subgrid chemistry was performed for parallel applications and for multi-step chemistry. Validation of the software on backstep and bluff-body reacting cases were performed. Initial calculations of the SimVal experiment at Georgia Tech using their LES code were performed. Georgia Tech continues the effort to parameterize the LEM over composition space so that a neural net can be used efficiently in the combustion LES code. A new and improved Artificial Neural Network (ANN), with log-transformed output, for the 1-step chemistry was implemented in CFDRC's LES code and gave reasonable results. This quarter, the 2nd consortium meeting was held at CFDRC. Next quarter, LES software development and testing will continue. Alpha testing of the code will continue to be performed on cases of interest to the industrial consortium. Optimization of subgrid models will be pursued, particularly with the ISAT approach. Also next quarter, the demonstration of the neural net approach, for multi-step chemical kinetics speed-up in CFD-ACE+, will be accomplished.

  9. LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Cannon; Virgil Adumitroaie; Keith McDaniel; Cliff Smith

    2001-05-01

    Further development of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this second quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. CFDRC has implemented and tested Smagorinsky and localized dynamic subgrid turbulence models on a 2.1 million cell DOE-NETL combustor case and a 400,000 cell nonreacting backstep case. Both cases showed good agreement between predicted and experimental results. The large DOE-NETL case results provided better agreement with the measured oscillation frequency than previous attempts because massive parallel computing (on a cluster of 24 pcs) allowed the entire computational domain, including the swirler vanes and fuel spokes, to be modeled. Subgrid chemistry models, including the conditional moment closure (CMC) and linear eddy model (LEM), are being tested and implemented. Reduced chemical mechanisms have been developed for emissions, ignition delay, extinction, and flame propagation using a computer automated reduction method (CARM). A 19-species natural gas mechanism, based on GRI2.11 and Miller-NO{sub x}, was shown to predict rich NO{sub x} emissions better than any previously published mechanisms. The ability to handle this mechanism in CFD-ACE+ was demonstrated by implementing operator splitting and a stiff ODE solver (DVODE). Efficient tabulation methods, including in situ adaptation and artificial neural nets, are being studied and will be implemented in the LES code. The LES combustion code development and testing is on schedule. Next quarter, initial results (including the DOE-NETL unstable combustor) with the CMC and LEM subgrid chemistry models will be completed and summarized.

  10. Power Plant Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    Three basic thermodynamic cycles of advanced nuclear MHD power plant systems are studied. The effect of reactor exit temperature and space radiator temperature on the overall thermal efficiency of a regenerative turbine compressor power plant system is shown. The effect of MHD pressure ratio on plant efficiency is also described, along with the dependence of MHD power output, compressor power requirement, turbine power output, mass flow rate of H2, and overall plant efficiency on the reactor exit temperature for a specific configuration.

  11. 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package, Volume 7

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-20

    The Shift Section is designed to convert a minimum of 95 percent of the carbon monoxide in the syngas to hydrogen. This results in a product gas, after acid gas removal, containing a total of 77.5 MMSCFD hydrogen plus carbon monoxide with an overall hydrogen purity of approximately 96 percent. The design is based on a single operating train as the equipment will have a very high on-stream factor. The particulate-free raw syngas from the Gasification Section is compressed to the design pressure of 810.0 psia prior to processing in the Shift Section. The compressed raw syngas is then mixed with the required volume of superheated steam, heated by exchange with the first shift reactor effluent, and shifted in three stages with interstage cooling. The effluent from the third stage reactor is cooled to 100/sup 0/F for further processing in the Selexol Unit. The hydrogen compression unit compresses a portion of the makeup hydrogen gas stream from the Selexol unit (SRC makeup hydrogen), the recycle hydrogen gas stream from the hydrogen purification unit (HPU), and the bypass recycle hydrogen-rich gas stream from the DEA Unit. The multi-service reciprocating compressor compresses the SRC makeup hydrogen gas stream in the first section with two compressor stages. The recycle and the bypass hydrogen are compressed in the second section with two separate single stages. Design of the compression section is based on three 50% identical trains, two operating and one spare. Each train consists of a triple service reciprocating compressor servicing makeup hydrogen, recycle hydrogen and bypass hydrogen compressions. All three hydrogen streams, after being discharged from the compressors are combined and are ready for processing in the SRC Process Unit.

  12. Plant Systems Biology (editorial)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In June 2003, Plant Physiology published an Arabidopsis special issue devoted to plant systems biology. The intention of Natasha Raikhel and Gloria Coruzzi, the two editors of this first-of-its-kind issue, was ‘‘to help nucleate this new effort within the plant community’’ as they considered that ‘‘...

  13. Designing, installing and operating low NOx combustion systems in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lazzeri, L.; Santis, R. de

    1997-09-01

    Ansaldo Energia, in strict cooperation with the Italian Electricity Board (ENEL), has developed and implemented innovative technologies for in furnace NOx control which have been applied, both in italy and abroad, on over 20,000 MWe boilers of every kind (Tangentially Fired, Front Fired, Opposite Fired) and for different fuels like oil, gas, coal and ORIMULSION{reg_sign}. Taking advantage of innovative low NOx burners and of optimized air and fuel staging techniques NOx reductions up to 85% have been obtained with no significant impact on boiler efficiency. The paper describes: characteristics and industrial application of TEA{reg_sign} oil/gas LNB which is now capable of attaining NOx reductions up to 60% in respect to original circular burners; development and industrial applications of the TEA C{reg_sign} (oil/coal) LNB, capable of attaining NOx reductions up to 50% with contemporary control of unburned carbon levels (typical values less than 300 ppm NOx corrected to 6% O{sub 2} and less than 7% UBC); application of reburning oil over oil and gas over oil for both tangential and front-opposite fired boilers rated up 660 MWe; and information on the CEE THERMIE projects of gas over coal reburning in a 600 MWe Scottish Power boiler and oil over coal and coal over coal reburning in the ENEL plant of Vado Ligure unit 4, rated 320 MWe.

  14. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant. Lunar base systems study task 3. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  15. 6000 tpd SRC-I Demonstration Plant gas systems. Design baseline package. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    The Methanation Unit is designed to convert the carbon oxides in the treated make-up hydrogen to methane. This results in a product gas containing 26.26 MMSCFD hydrogen with an overall hydrogen purity of approximately 94.5 percent (dry basis) and a maximum carbon oxides concentration of 20 ppmv. The design is based on a single operating train as the equipment will have a very high on-stream factor. The treated make-up hydrogen feed from the Selexol Unit is heated by exchange with the Methanator effluent and then desulfurized in a two-stage desulfurization step. The desulfurized hydrogen stream is then methanated in the methanator. The effluent from the methanator is then cooled to 100/sup 0/F and sent to the Hydrocracker Unit for further processing. The treated make-up hydrogen from the Selexol Unit enters the Methanation Unit battery limit at a pressure of 670 psia and a temperature of 60/sup 0/F. The composition of the make-up hydrogen feed to the Methanation Unit is given in Table 1. As the sulfur content of the feed gas is very low, a significant temperature rise in the desulfurizers is not expected. The composition of the Desulfurizer No. 2 effluent (methanator feed) is given in Table 2. Desulfurized make-up hydrogen then enters the Methanator (R-15653). The exothermic methanation reaction then occurs over the catalyst bed raising the gas temperature to 912/sup 0/F (SOR) and 932/sup 0/F (EOR). The composition of the methanator effluent is given in Table 3.

  16. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  17. Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema salsugineum in a closed growing system designed for quantification of plant water use.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Jhon F; Yoo, Chan Yul; Gosney, Michael J; Mickelbart, Michael V

    2016-04-01

    The identification of genetic determinants for water-use efficiency (WUE) and their incorporation into crop plants is critical as world water resources are predicted to become less stable over the coming decades. However, quantification of WUE in small model species such as Arabidopsis is difficult because of low plant water loss relative to root zone evaporation. Furthermore, measurements of long-term WUE are labor-intensive and time-consuming. A novel high-throughput closed-container growing system for measuring plant WUE is described. The system eliminates nearly all water loss from the media and does not require irrigation throughout the duration of a typical experiment. Using the model species Arabidopsis thaliana and Eutrema salsugineum, it was confirmed that under growth chamber conditions, this system: (1) eliminates the need for irrigation for as much as 30 days with media water content remaining above 80% full capacity; (2) allows for quantification of WUE in plants with a leaf area as small as ca. 20 cm(2); (3) does not inhibit plant growth; and (4) does not alter media conditions outside of an acceptable range for these species. The growing system provides an efficient high-throughput system for quantifying plant water loss and WUE. PMID:26967004

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) supplement. Magnet system special investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The results of magnet system special investigations listed below are summarized: 4 Tesla Magnet Alternate Design Study; 6 Tesla Magnet Manufacturability Study. The conceptual design for a 4 Tesla superconducting magnet system for use with an alternate (supersonic) ETF power train is described, and estimated schedule and cost are identified. The magnet design is scaled from the ETF 6 T Tesla design. Results of a manufacturability study and a revised schedule and cost estimate for the ETF 6 T magnet are reported. Both investigations are extensions of the conceptual design of a 6 T magnet system performed earlier as a part of the overall MED-ETF conceptual design described in Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER) Vol. V, System Design Description (SDD) 503 dated September, 1981, DOE/NASA/0224-1; NASA CR-165/52.

  19. System and method for design and optimization of grid connected photovoltaic power plant with multiple photovoltaic module technologies

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, Bex George; Elasser, Ahmed; Bollapragada, Srinivas; Galbraith, Anthony William; Agamy, Mohammed; Garifullin, Maxim Valeryevich

    2016-03-29

    A system and method of using one or more DC-DC/DC-AC converters and/or alternative devices allows strings of multiple module technologies to coexist within the same PV power plant. A computing (optimization) framework estimates the percentage allocation of PV power plant capacity to selected PV module technologies. The framework and its supporting components considers irradiation, temperature, spectral profiles, cost and other practical constraints to achieve the lowest levelized cost of electricity, maximum output and minimum system cost. The system and method can function using any device enabling distributed maximum power point tracking at the module, string or combiner level.

  20. Design and initial operation of the Spray Dry FGD system at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel, T.F.; Arello, J.; Fortune, O.; Puska, E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the design issues, design decisions, start-up, and early operation of a Spray Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (SDFGD) system which went into operation at the Marquette Michigan Board of Light and Power Shiras number 3 in May 1983. This fortyfour (44) megawatt unit consisting of a rotary atomizer reactor, reverse air fabric filter, lime preparation, and reagent recycle system was engineered in the 1980-82 time period utilizing pilot plant and prototype industrial system results as a design basis. Initial operation has been uneventful with performance results in the expected ranges.

  1. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume II. Plant specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R. E.

    1983-12-31

    The specifications and design criteria for all plant systems and subsystems used in developing the preliminary design of Carrisa Plains 30-MWe Solar Plant are contained in this volume. The specifications have been organized according to plant systems and levels. The levels are arranged in tiers. Starting at the top tier and proceeding down, the specification levels are the plant, system, subsystem, components, and fabrication. A tab number, listed in the index, has been assigned each document to facilitate document location.

  2. The alc-GR system: a modified alc gene switch designed for use in plant tissue culture.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Gethin R; Garoosi, G Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J; Caddick, Mark X; Doonan, John H; Tomsett, A Brian

    2005-07-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: beta-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants. PMID:16010000

  3. The alc-GR System. A Modified alc Gene Switch Designed for Use in Plant Tissue Culture1[w

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Gethin R.; Garoosi, G. Ali; Koroleva, Olga; Ito, Masaki; Laufs, Patrick; Leader, David J.; Caddick, Mark X.; Doonan, John H.; Tomsett, A. Brian

    2005-01-01

    The ALCR/alcA (alc) two-component, ethanol-inducible gene expression system provides stringent control of transgene expression in genetically modified plants. ALCR is an ethanol-activated transcription factor that can drive expression from the ALCR-responsive promoter (alcA). However, the alc system has been shown to have constitutive expression when used in plant callus or cell suspension cultures, possibly resulting from endogenous inducer produced in response to lowered oxygen availability. To widen the use of the alc system in plant cell culture conditions, the receptor domain of the rat glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was translationally fused to the C terminus of ALCR to produce ALCR-GR, which forms the basis of a glucocorticoid-inducible system (alc-GR). The alc-GR switch system was tested in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension cells using a constitutively expressed ALCR-GR with four alternative alcA promoter-driven reporter genes: β-glucuronidase, endoplasmic reticulum-targeted green fluorescent protein, haemagglutinin, and green fluorescent protein-tagged Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Arath;CDKA;1 cyclin-dependent kinase. Gene expression was shown to be stringently dependent on the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone and, in cell suspensions, no longer required ethanol for induction. Thus, the alc-GR system allows tight control of alcA-driven genes in cell culture and complements the conventional ethanol switch used in whole plants. PMID:16010000

  4. Designing the Perfect Plant: Activities to Investigate Plant Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehnhoff, Erik; Woolbaugh, Walt; Rew, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Plant ecology is an important subject that often receives little attention in middle school, as more time during science classes is devoted to plant biology. Therefore, the authors have developed a series of activities, including a card game--Designing the Perfect Plant--to introduce student's to plant ecology and the ecological trade offs…

  5. Water Treatment Pilot Plant Design Manual: Low Flow Conventional/Direct Filtration Water Treatment Plant for Drinking Water Treatment Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual highlights the project constraints and concerns, and includes detailed design calculations and system schematics. The plant is based on engineering design principles and practices, previous pilot plant design experiences, and professional experiences and may serve as ...

  6. Pilot plant becomes demonstration plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Hook, J. van; Burkhard, F.

    1995-11-01

    Advanced or second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plants (APFBC) that generate electricity offer utilities the potential for significantly increased efficiencies with reduced costs of electricity and lower emissions while burning the nation`s abundant supply of high-sulfur coal. The three major objectives of Phase 3 are: test a 1.2-MWe equivalent carbonizer and Circulating Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustor (CPFBC) with their associated ceramic candle filters as an integrated subsystem; evaluate the effect of coal-water paste feed on carbonizer performance; and revise the commercial plant performance and economic predictions where necessary. This report describes the project.

  7. Generic small modular reactor plant design.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Tom Goslee,; Cipiti, Benjamin B.; Jordan, Sabina Erteza; Baum, Gregory A.

    2012-12-01

    This report gives an overview of expected design characteristics, concepts, and procedures for small modular reactors. The purpose of this report is to provide those who are interested in reducing the cost and improving the safety of advanced nuclear power plants with a generic design that possesses enough detail in a non-sensitive manner to give merit to their conclusions. The report is focused on light water reactor technology, but does add details on what could be different in a more advanced design (see Appendix). Numerous reactor and facility concepts were used for inspiration (documented in the bibliography). The final design described here is conceptual and does not reflect any proposed concept or sub-systems, thus any details given here are only relevant within this report. This report does not include any design or engineering calculations.

  8. Design & development fo a 20-MW flywheel-based frequency regulation power plant : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    SciTech Connect

    Rounds, Robert; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the successful efforts of Beacon Power to design and develop a 20-MW frequency regulation power plant based solely on flywheels. Beacon's Smart Matrix (Flywheel) Systems regulation power plant, unlike coal or natural gas generators, will not burn fossil fuel or directly produce particulates or other air emissions and will have the ability to ramp up or down in a matter of seconds. The report describes how data from the scaled Beacon system, deployed in California and New York, proved that the flywheel-based systems provided faster responding regulation services in terms of cost-performance and environmental impact. Included in the report is a description of Beacon's design package for a generic, multi-MW flywheel-based regulation power plant that allows accurate bids from a design/build contractor and Beacon's recommendations for site requirements that would ensure the fastest possible construction. The paper concludes with a statement about Beacon's plans for a lower cost, modular-style substation based on the 20-MW design.

  9. Advanced Neutron Sources: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) is a new, world class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. At the heart of the facility is a 350-MW{sub th}, heavy water cooled and moderated reactor. The reactor is housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides fans out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Office, laboratory, and shop facilities are included to provide a complete users facility. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory at the end of the decade. This Plant Design Requirements document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of the ANS. This document also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this Plant Design Requirements document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of the ANS.

  10. Designing geothermal power plants to avoid reinventing the corrosion wheel

    SciTech Connect

    Conover, Marshall F.

    1982-10-08

    This paper addresses how designers can take into account, the necessary chemical and materials precautions that other geothermal power plants have learned. Current worldwide geothermal power plant capacity is presented as well as a comparison of steam composition from seven different geothermal resources throughout the world. The similarities of corrosion impacts to areas of the power plants are discussed and include the turbines, gas extraction system, heat rejection system, electrical/electronic systems, and structures. Materials problems and solutions in these corrosion impact areas are identified and discussed. A geothermal power plant design team organization is identified and the efficacy of a new corrosion/materials engineering position is proposed.

  11. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Shaft Sealing System Compliance Submittal Design Report. Volume 1 and 2: Main report, appendices A, B, C, and D

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This report describes a shaft sealing system design for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a proposed nuclear waste repository in bedded salt. The system is designed to limit entry of water and release of contaminants through the four existing shafts after the WIPP is decommissioned. The design approach applies redundancy to functional elements and specifies multiple, common, low-permeability materials to reduce uncertainty in performance. The system comprises 13 elements that completely fill the shafts with engineered materials possessing high density and low permeability. Laboratory and field measurements of component properties and performance provide the basis for the design and related evaluations. Hydrologic, mechanical, thermal, and physical features of the system are evaluated in a series of calculations. These evaluations indicate that the design guidance is addressed by effectively limiting transport of fluids within the shafts, thereby limiting transport of hazardous material to regulatory boundaries. Additionally, the use or adaptation of existing technologies for placement of the seal components combined with the use of available, common materials assure that the design can be constructed.

  12. The design of solar tower power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  13. Design and test of an exhaust gas clean-up system for power plants using high sulphur content fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.N.

    1980-10-10

    This experimental program, initially designated to study an exhaust gas cleanup and water recovery system for a Cheng Cycle Dual-Fluid (CCDF) turbine power plant using sulfur rich fuels, has shown the potential of a general Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) system applicable to utility and industrial boilers as well. The process was studied both theoretically and experimentaly. Experiments were performed using a bench scale (25k equivalent) apparatus and a pilot scale (1Mw equivalent) apparatus. Data obtained indicated the IPT process potentially can out-perform the conventional FGD process with significant cost savings.

  14. Software Design Analyzer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  15. VLSI system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muroga, S.

    A complete picture of LSI/VLSI system design is provided, encompassing both engineering and economic considerations. The subjects discussed include: cost analysis based on production volume, yield, chip size, design manpower and other factors; bipolar and MOS logic families, logic design procedures, and mask designs; use of ROMs and PLAs in logic design, along with design algorithms; a survey of CAD used in LSI/VLSI chip design. Also covered are: full-custom and semicustom designs; microprocessor and dedicated processor chips; system design and hardware-software tradeoffs; LSI/VLSI technological trends; new products realized by LSI/VLSI technology; future production and management problems.

  16. System Analyses of High and Low-Temperature Interface Designs for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    E. A. Harvego; J. E. O'Brien

    2009-07-01

    As part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project, an evaluation of a low-temperature heat-pump interface design for a nuclear-driven high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production plant was performed using the UniSim process analysis software. The lowtemperature interface design is intended to reduce the interface temperature between the reactor power conversion system and the hydrogen production plant by extracting process heat from the low temperature portion of the power cycle rather than from the high-temperature portion of the cycle as is done with the current Idaho National Laboratory (INL) reference design. The intent of this design change is to mitigate the potential for tritium migration from the reactor core to the hydrogen plant, and reduce the potential for high temperature creep in the interface structures. The UniSim model assumed a 600 MWt Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) operating at a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa and a reactor outlet temperature of 900°C. The lowtemperature heat-pump loop is a water/steam loop that operates between 2.6 MPa and 5.0 MPa. The HTE hydrogen production loop operated at 5 MPa, with plant conditions optimized to maximize plant performance (i.e., 800°C electrolysis operating temperature, area specific resistance (ASR) = 0.4 ohm-cm2, and a current density of 0.25 amps/cm2). An air sweep gas system was used to remove oxygen from the anode side of the electrolyzer. Heat was also recovered from the hydrogen and oxygen product streams to maximize hydrogen production efficiencies. The results of the UniSim analysis showed that the low-temperature interface design was an effective heat-pump concept, transferring 31.5 MWt from the low-temperature leg of the gas turbine power cycle to the HTE process boiler, while consuming 16.0 MWe of compressor power. However, when this concept was compared with the current INL reference direct Brayton cycle design and with a modification of the reference design to

  17. Energy Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    PRESTO, a COSMIC program, handles energy system specifications and predicts design efficiency of cogeneration systems. These systems allow a company to use excess energy produced to generate electricity. PRESTO is utilized by the Energy Systems Division of Thermo Electron Corporation in the custom design of cogeneration systems.

  18. Control system design guide

    SciTech Connect

    Sellers, David; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Bourassa, Norman; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-05-01

    The ''Control System Design Guide'' (Design Guide) provides methods and recommendations for the control system design process and control point selection and installation. Control systems are often the most problematic system in a building. A good design process that takes into account maintenance, operation, and commissioning can lead to a smoothly operating and efficient building. To this end, the Design Guide provides a toolbox of templates for improving control system design and specification. HVAC designers are the primary audience for the Design Guide. The control design process it presents will help produce well-designed control systems that achieve efficient and robust operation. The spreadsheet examples for control valve schedules, damper schedules, and points lists can streamline the use of the control system design concepts set forth in the Design Guide by providing convenient starting points from which designers can build. Although each reader brings their own unique questions to the text, the Design Guide contains information that designers, commissioning providers, operators, and owners will find useful.

  19. User's manual for DELSOL2: a computer code for calculating the optical performance and optimal system design for solar-thermal central-receiver plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dellin, T.A.; Fish, M.J.; Yang, C.L.

    1981-08-01

    DELSOL2 is a revised and substantially extended version of the DELSOL computer program for calculating collector field performance and layout, and optimal system design for solar thermal central receiver plants. The code consists of a detailed model of the optical performance, a simpler model of the non-optical performance, an algorithm for field layout, and a searching algorithm to find the best system design. The latter two features are coupled to a cost model of central receiver components and an economic model for calculating energy costs. The code can handle flat, focused and/or canted heliostats, and external cylindrical, multi-aperture cavity, and flat plate receivers. The program optimizes the tower height, receiver size, field layout, heliostat spacings, and tower position at user specified power levels subject to flux limits on the receiver and land constraints for field layout. The advantages of speed and accuracy characteristic of Version I are maintained in DELSOL2.

  20. Optimized design of LED plant lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jian-sheng; Cai, Ruhai; Zhao, Yunyun; Zhao, Fuli; Yang, Bowen

    2014-12-01

    In order to fabricate the optimized LED plant lamp we demonstrated an optical spectral exploration. According to the mechanism of higher plant photosynthesis process and the spectral analysis we demonstrate an optical design of the LED plant lamp. Furthermore we built two kins of prototypes of the LED plant lamps which are suitable for the photosynthesis of higher green vegetables. Based on the simulation of the lamp box of the different alignment of the plants we carried out the growing experiment of green vegetable and obtain the optimized light illumination as well as the spectral profile. The results show that only blue and red light are efficient for the green leave vegetables. Our work is undoubtedly helpful for the LED plant lamping design and manufacture.

  1. Seismic monitoring system replacement at Temelin plant

    SciTech Connect

    Baltus, R.; Palusamy, S.S.

    1996-12-01

    The VVER-1000 plants under construction at Temelin (Czech Republic) were designed with an automatic reactor trip system triggered on seismic peak accelerations. Within the plant I and C upgrade, Westinghouse designed a digital Seismic Monitoring System to be integrated in an Artificial Intelligence based Diagnostic and Monitoring System. The system meets the requirements of the emerging standards prepared by the US NRC on the basis of EPRI studies, which recommend a detailed data evaluation and a pre-shutdown plant inspection before orderly shutdown, if required, rather than immediate emergency shutdown. The paper presents the arguments about automatic trip, as discussed in an IAEA meeting attended by expert consultants from Japan, Russia, US and Eastern and Western Europe. It describes the system installed at Temelin, including the plant specific criteria for OBE exceedance. Finally it presents the capabilities and limitations of the integration into an overall Diagnostic and Monitoring System.

  2. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 2; Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the preliminary design for a military fixed-base power system of 3 MWe nominal capacity using Westinghouse's tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell [SOFC] and Haldor Topsoe's logistic fuels processor [LFP]. The LFP provides to the fuel cell a methane rich sulfur free fuel stream derived from either DF-2 diesel fuel, or JP-8 turbine fuel. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate heat engine or dynamo. The SOFC is distinguished from other fuel cell types by its solid state ceramic structure and its high operating temperature, nominally 1000'C. The SOFC pioneered by Westinghouse has a tubular geometry closed at one end. A power generation stack is formed by aggregating many cells in an ordered array. The Westinghouse stack design is distinguished from other fuel cell stacks by the complete absence of high integrity seals between cell elements, cells, and between stack and manifolds. Further, the reformer for natural gas [predominantly methane] and the stack are thermally and hydraulically integrated with no requirement for process water. The technical viability of combining the tubular SOFC and a logistic fuels processor was demonstrated at 27 kWe scale in a test program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency [ARPA) and carried out at the Southern California Edison's [SCE] Highgrove generating station near San Bernardino, California in 1994/95. The LFP was a breadboard design supplied by Haldor Topsoe, Inc. under subcontract to Westinghouse. The test program was completely successful. The LFP fueled the SOFC for 766 hours on JP-8 and 1555 hours of DF-2. In addition, the fuel cell operated for 3261 hours on pipeline natural gas. Over the 5582 hours of operation, the SOFC generated 118 MVVH of electricity with no perceptible degradation in performance. The LFP processed military

  3. Conceptual design of a black liquor gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, E. G.

    1987-08-01

    In July 1985, Champion International completed a study of kraft black liquor gasification and use of the product gases in a combined cycle cogeneration system based on gas turbines. That study indicated that gasification had high potential as an alternative to recovery boiler technology and offered many advantages. This paper describes the design of the plant, the construction of the pilot plant, and finally presents data from operation of the plant.

  4. Design of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, W.B.; Zhang, L.; Dong, L.; Ma, W.G.; Jia, S.T.

    2009-08-15

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the chemical composition of coal prior to combustion in order to obtain optimal boiler control. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system comprising a LIBS apparatus and sampling equipment has been designed for possible application to power plants for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal. Special attention was given to the LIBS system, the data processing methods (especially the normalization with Bode Rule/DC Level) and the specific settings (the software-controlled triggering source, high-pressure gas cleaning device, sample preparation module, sampling module, etc.), which gave the best direct measurement for C, H, Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Al, and Ti with measurement errors less than 10% for pulverized coal. Therefore, the apparatus is accurate enough to be applied to industries for on-line monitoring of pulverized coal. The method of proximate analysis was also introduced and the experimental error of A(ad) (Ash, 'ad' is an abbreviation for 'air dried') was shown in the range of 2.29 to 13.47%. The programmable logic controller (PLC) controlled on-line coal sampling equipment, which is designed based upon aerodynamics, and is capable of performing multipoint sampling and sample-preparation operation.

  5. Design of a laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy system for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal in power plants.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wangbao; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Jia, Suotang

    2009-08-01

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the chemical composition of coal prior to combustion in order to obtain optimal boiler control. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) system comprising a LIBS apparatus and sampling equipment has been designed for possible application to power plants for on-line quality analysis of pulverized coal. Special attention was given to the LIBS system, the data processing methods (especially the normalization with Bode Rule/DC Level) and the specific settings (the software-controlled triggering source, high-pressure gas cleaning device, sample-preparation module, sampling module, etc.), which gave the best direct measurement for C, H, Si, Na, Mg, Fe, Al, and Ti with measurement errors less than 10% for pulverized coal. Therefore, the apparatus is accurate enough to be applied to industries for on-line monitoring of pulverized coal. The method of proximate analysis was also introduced and the experimental error of A(ad) (Ash, 'ad' is an abbreviation for 'air dried') was shown in the range of 2.29 to 13.47%. The programmable logic controller (PLC) controlled on-line coal sampling equipment, which is designed based upon aerodynamics, and is capable of performing multipoint sampling and sample-preparation operation. PMID:19678982

  6. Plant Stems: Functional Design and Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, Thomas; Burgert, Ingo

    2011-08-01

    Plant stems are one of nature's most impressive mechanical constructs. Their sophisticated hierarchical structure and multifunctionality allow trees to grow more than 100 m tall. This review highlights the advanced mechanical design of plant stems from the integral level of stem structures down to the fiber-reinforced-composite character of the cell walls. Thereby we intend not only to provide insight into structure-function relationships at the individual levels of hierarchy but to further discuss how growth forms and habits of plant stems are closely interrelated with the peculiarities of their tissue and cell structure and mechanics. This concept is extended to a further key feature of plants, namely, adaptive growth as a reaction to mechanical perturbation and/or changing environmental conditions. These mechanical design principles of plant stems can serve as concept generators for advanced biomimetic materials and may inspire materials and engineering sciences research.

  7. Agroforestry planting design affects loblolly pine growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of plantation design on resource utilization has not been adequately investigated in agroforestry plantations. An experiment was conducted near Booneville, AR on a silt loam soil with a fragipan. Loblolly pine trees were planted in 1994 in an east-west row orientation in three designs: ...

  8. Framework for Unified Systems Engineering and Design of Wind Plants (FUSED-Wind) cost models and case analyzer

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2014-09-10

    Cost and case analyzer components of the FUSED-Wind software. These are small pieces of code which define interfaces between software in order to do wind plant cost of energy on the one hand and analysis of load cases for an aeroelastic code on the other.

  9. Control system design for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture in IGCC power plants while loading-following

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01

    Load-following requirements for future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with precombustion CO{sub 2} capture are expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. In this work, loadfollowing studies are performed using a comprehensive dynamic model of an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture developed in Aspen Engineering Suite (AES). Considering multiple single-loop controllers for power demand load following, the preferred IGCC control strategy from the perspective of a power producer is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. The syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant time delay mainly because of the large piping and equipment volumes between the gasifier and the GT inlet. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for IGCC syngas pressure control. The desired CO{sub 2} capture rate must be maintained while the IGCC plant follows the load. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate, the control performance of PID control is compared with linear model predictive control (LMPC). The results show that the LMPC outperforms PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

  10. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 17. Plant section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 17 which reports the design of Plant Section 2500 - Plant and Instrument Air. The plant and instrument air system is designed to provide dry, compressed air for a multitude of uses in plant operations and maintenance. A single centrifugal air compressor provides the total plant and instrument air requirements. An air drying system reduces the dew point of the plant and instrument air. Plant Section 2500 is designed to provide air at 100/sup 0/F and 100 psig. Both plant and instrument air are dried to a -40/sup 0/F dew point. Normal plant and instrument air requirements total 1430 standard cubic feet per minute.

  11. Designing Simulation Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twelker, Paul A.

    1969-01-01

    "The purpose of this paper is to outline the approach to designing instructional simulation systems developed at Teaching Research. The 13 phases of simulation design will be summarized, and an effort will be made to expose the vital decision points that confront the designer as he develops simulation experiences. (Author)

  12. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 2: Designs, Assessments, and Comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C. D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability, economics, and technology development needs.

  13. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications. PMID:27066040

  14. An Automated and Continuous Plant Weight Measurement System for Plant Factory

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Tai; Yeh, Yu-Hui F.; Liu, Ting-Yu; Lin, Ta-Te

    2016-01-01

    In plant factories, plants are usually cultivated in nutrient solution under a controllable environment. Plant quality and growth are closely monitored and precisely controlled. For plant growth evaluation, plant weight is an important and commonly used indicator. Traditional plant weight measurements are destructive and laborious. In order to measure and record the plant weight during plant growth, an automated measurement system was designed and developed herein. The weight measurement system comprises a weight measurement device and an imaging system. The weight measurement device consists of a top disk, a bottom disk, a plant holder and a load cell. The load cell with a resolution of 0.1 g converts the plant weight on the plant holder disk to an analog electrical signal for a precise measurement. The top disk and bottom disk are designed to be durable for different plant sizes, so plant weight can be measured continuously throughout the whole growth period, without hindering plant growth. The results show that plant weights measured by the weight measurement device are highly correlated with the weights estimated by the stereo-vision imaging system; hence, plant weight can be measured by either method. The weight growth of selected vegetables growing in the National Taiwan University plant factory were monitored and measured using our automated plant growth weight measurement system. The experimental results demonstrate the functionality, stability and durability of this system. The information gathered by this weight system can be valuable and beneficial for hydroponic plants monitoring research and agricultural research applications. PMID:27066040

  15. Design of feedforward controllers for multivariable plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seraji, H.

    1987-01-01

    Simple methods for the design of feedforward controllers to achieve steady-state disturbance rejection and command tracking in stable multivariable plants are developed in this paper. The controllers are represented by simple and low-order transfer functions and are not based on reconstruction of the states of the commands and disturbances. For unstable plants, it is shown that the present method can be applied directly when an additional feedback controller is employed to stabilize the plant. The feedback and feedforward controllers do not affect each other and can be designed independently based on the open-loop plant to achieve stability, disturbance rejection and command tracking, respectivley. Numerical examples are given for illustration.

  16. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  17. Residential photovoltaic system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M. C.

    1981-01-01

    A project to develop Residential Photovoltaic Systems has begun at Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory with the construction and testing of five Prototype Systems. All of these systems utilize a roof-mounted photovoltaic array and allow excess solar-generated electric energy to be fed back to the local utility grid, eliminating the need for on-site storage. Residential photovoltaic system design issues are discussed and specific features of the five Prototype Systems now under test are presented.

  18. ILC cryogenic systems reference design

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, T.J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Theilacker, J.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; /CERN

    2008-01-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  19. Ilc Cryogenic Systems Reference Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, T. J.; Geynisman, M.; Klebaner, A.; Parma, V.; Tavian, L.; Theilacker, J.

    2008-03-01

    A Global Design Effort (GDE) began in 2005 to study a TeV scale electron-positron linear accelerator based on superconducting radio-frequency (RF) technology, called the International Linear Collider (ILC). In early 2007, the design effort culminated in a reference design for the ILC, closely based on the earlier TESLA design. The ILC will consist of two 250 GeV linacs, which provide positron-electron collisions for high energy physics research. The particle beams will be accelerated to their final energy in superconducting niobium RF cavities operating at 2 kelvin. At a length of about 12 km each, the main linacs will be the largest cryogenic systems in the ILC. Positron and electron sources, damping rings, and beam delivery systems will also have a large number and variety of other superconducting RF cavities and magnets, which require cooling at liquid helium temperatures. Ten large cryogenic plants with 2 kelvin refrigeration are envisioned to cool the main linacs and the electron and positron sources. Three smaller cryogenic plants will cool the damping rings and beam delivery system components predominately at 4.5 K. This paper describes the cryogenic systems concepts for the ILC.

  20. Control system design method

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  1. Instructional Design: System Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Bruce R.; Sleeman, Phillip J.

    This book is intended as a source for those who desire to apply a coherent system of instructional design, thereby insuring accountability. Chapter 1 covers the instructional design process, including: instructional technology; the role of evaluation; goal setting; the psychology of teaching and learning; task analysis; operational objectives;…

  2. DESIGN INFORMATION ON FINE PORE AERATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field studies were conducted over several years at municipal wastewater treatment plants employing line pore diffused aeration systems. These studies were designed to produce reliable information on the performance and operational requirements of fine pore devices under process ...

  3. Remote Systems Design & Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, Sharon A.; Baker, Carl P.; Valdez, Patrick LJ

    2009-08-28

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) to provide information and lessons learned relating to the design, development and deployment of remote systems, particularly remote arm/manipulator systems. This report reflects PNNL’s experience with remote systems and lays out the most important activities that need to be completed to successfully design, build, deploy and operate remote systems in radioactive and chemically contaminated environments. It also contains lessons learned from PNNL’s work experiences, and the work of others in the national laboratory complex.

  4. Design-only conceptual design report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A A

    2000-05-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be located at the Savannah River Site pursuant to the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement Record of Decision, January 4, 2000. This document reflects a new facility using the ceramic immobilization technology and the can-in-canister approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium oxide from pit conversion and plutonium and plutonium oxide from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors; it must also be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses a new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will receive and store feed materials, convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize the plutonium oxide in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister. The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility is used for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infrastructure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. This design-only conceptual design report also provides the cost for a Plutonium Immobilization Plant which would process

  5. Conceptual design of a lunar base solar power plant lunar base systems study task 3.3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The best available concepts for a 100 kW Solar Lunar Power Plant based on static and dynamic conversion concepts have been examined. The two concepts which emerged for direct comparison yielded a difference in delivered mass of 35 MT, the mass equivalent of 1.4 lander payloads, in favor of the static concept. The technologies considered for the various elements are either state-of-the-art or near-term. Two photovoltaic cell concepts should receive high priority for development: i.e., amorphous silicon and indium phosphide cells. The amorphous silicon, because it can be made so light weight and rugged; and the indium phosphide, because it shows very high efficiency potential and is reportedly not degraded by radiation. Also the amorphous silicon cells may be mounted on flexible backing that may roll up much like a carpet for compact storage, delivery, and ease of deployment at the base. The fuel cell and electrolysis cell technology is quite well along for lunar base applications, and because both the Shuttle and the forthcoming Space Station incorporate these devices, the status quo will be maintained. Early development of emerging improvements should be implemented so that essential life verification test programs may commence.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD, is summarized. Main elements of the design, systems, and plant facilities are illustrated. System design descriptions are included for closed cycle cooling water, industrial gas systems, fuel oil, boiler flue gas, coal management, seed management, slag management, plant industrial waste, fire service water, oxidant supply, MHD power ventilating

  7. The renewable electric plant information system

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, K.

    1995-12-01

    This report explains the procedures used for creating the Renewable Electric Plant Information System (REPiS) database, describes the database fields, and summarizes the data. The REPiS database contains comprehensive information on grid-connected renewable electric generation plants in the United States. Originally designed in 1987 and updated in 1990, the database includes information through 1994. The report also illustrates ways of using the data for analysis is and describes how researchers validated the data.

  8. Multirate digital control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, Martin C.; Amit, Naftali; Powell, J. David

    1988-01-01

    Methods for multirate digital control system design are discussed. A simple method for sampling rate selection based on control bandwidths is proposed. Methods for generating a discrete-time state model of a sampled-data plant and a discrete-time equivalent to an analog cost function for a sampled-data plant are described. The succesive loop closures and linear quadratic Gaussian synthesis methods are reviewed, and a constrained optimization synthesis method is introduced. The proposed sampling rate selection, discretization, and synthesis methods are applied to two example design problems. Multirate and single-rate compensators synthesized by the different methods are compared, based on closed-loop responses, with compensators having the same real-time computation load.

  9. [Signal systems of plant immunity].

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, A P

    2002-01-01

    Plants can recognise the penetrating pathogen and respond to the attack with an array of defense reactions. Signal transduction from receptor in plasma membrane to genome is necessary to activate these reactions. Plant cell signaling systems which take part in signal transduction were discovered and identified recently. The obtained results suggest that plant cells have complex and well coordinated signal network which regulates their immune potential. PMID:12187855

  10. Designing future photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    The large scale use of photovoltaic systems to generate our electricity is a dream for the future; but if this dream is to be realized, we must understand these systems today. As a result, there has been extensive research into the design and economic tradeoffs of utility interconnected photovoltaic applications. The understanding gained in this process has shown that photovoltaic system design can be a very simple and straight-forward endeavor. This paper reviews those past studies and shows how we have reached the present state of system design evolution. The concept of the utility interactive PV system with energy value determined by the utility's avoided cost will be explored. This concept simplifies the screening of potential applications for economic viability, and we will present several rules-of-thumb for this purpose.

  11. Designing and upgrading plants to blend coal

    SciTech Connect

    McCartney, R.H.

    2006-10-15

    Fuel flexibility isn't free. Whether you are equipping a new power plant to burn more than one type of coal or retrofitting an existing plant to handle coal blends, you will have to spend time and money to ensure that all three functions performed by its coal-handling system, unloading, stockout, and reclaim, are up to the task. The first half of this article lays out the available options for configuring each subsystem to support blending. The second half describes, in words and pictures, how 12 power plants in the USA, both new and old, address the issue. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Preliminary design of a 1-MWe OTEC test plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kajikawa, T.

    1982-02-01

    An ocean-based, 1-MWe (gross) test plant has been planned to establish the feasibility of OTEC (ocean thermal energy conversion) power generation in the revised Sunshine Project. The preliminary design of the proposed test plant employs a closed-cycle power system using ammonia as the working fluid on a barge-type platform with a rigid-arm-type, detachable, single-buoy mooring system. Two types each of titanium evaporators and condensers are to be included. The steel, cold-water pipe is suspended from the buoy. The design value of the ocean temperature difference is 20 K. The paper presents an overview of the preliminary design of the test plant and the tests to be conducted.

  13. Designing automatic resupply systems.

    PubMed

    Harding, M L

    1999-02-01

    This article outlines the process for designing and implementing autoresupply systems. The planning process includes determination of goals and appropriate participation. Different types of autoresupply mechanisms include kanban, breadman, consignment, systems contracts, and direct shipping from an MRP schedule. PMID:10345630

  14. Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 Computer Systems. The detaileds of the language, the translator, and the simulator, and the smulator programs are given. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  15. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed. PMID:12906279

  16. Designing Extraterrestrial Plant Growth Habitats With Low Pressure Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    2001-01-01

    In-situ resource utilization, provision of human life support requirements by bioregenerative methods, and engineering constraints for construction and deployment of plant growth structures on the surface of Mars all suggest the need for plant growth studies at hypobaric pressures. Past work demonstrated that plants will likely tolerate and grow at pressures at or below 10 kPa. Based upon this premise, concepts are developed for the design of reduced pressure atmospheres in lightweight, inflatable structures for plant growth systems on Mars with the goals of maximizing design simplicity and the use of local resources. A modular pod design is proposed as it could be integrated with large-scale production systems. Atmospheric modification of pod clusters would be based upon a pulse and scrub system using mass flow methods for atmospheric transport. A specific modification and control scenario is developed for a lettuce pod to illustrate the dynamics of carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange within a pod. Considerations of minimal atmospheric crop requirements will aid in the development of engineering designs and strategies for extraterrestrial plant growth structures that employ rarefied atmospheres.

  17. Designing Extraterrestrial Plant Growth Habitats with Low Pressure Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corey, Kenneth A.

    2002-01-01

    In-situ resource utilization, provision of human life support requirements by bioregenerative methods, and engineering constraints for construction and deployment of plant growth structures on the surface of Mars all suggest the need for plant growth studies at hypobaric pressures. Past work demonstrated that plants will likely tolerate and grow at pressures at or below 10 kPa. Based upon this premise, concepts are developed for the design of reduced pressure atmospheres in lightweight, inflatable structures for plant growth systems on Mars with the goals of maximizing design simplicity and the use of local resources. A modular pod design is proposed as it could be integrated with large-scale production systems. Atmospheric modification of pod clusters would be based upon a pulse and scrub system using mass flow methods for atmospheric transport. A specific modification and control scenario is developed for a lettuce pod to illustrate the dynamics of carbon dioxide and oxygen exchange within a pod. Considerations of minimal atmospheric crop requirements will aid in the development of engineering designs and strategies for extraterrestrial plant growth structures that employ rarefied atmospheres.

  18. Innovative Design of New Geothermal Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon; Geyer, John D.; Sifford, B. Alexander III

    1989-07-01

    This very significant and useful report assessed state-of-the-art geothermal technologies. The findings presented in this report are the result of site visits and interviews with plant owners and operators, representatives of major financial institutions, utilities involved with geothermal power purchases and/or wheeling. Information so obtained was supported by literature research and data supplied by engineering firms who have been involved with designing and/or construction of a majority of the plants visited. The interviews were conducted by representatives of the Bonneville Power Administration, the Washington State Energy Office, and the Oregon Department of Energy during the period 1986-1989. [DJE-2005

  19. Priming in Systemic Plant Immunity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Ho Won; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Wang, Lin; Glazebrook, Jane; Greenberg, Jean T.

    2009-01-01

    Upon local infection, plants possess inducible systemic defense responses against their natural enemies. Bacterial infection results in the accumulation to high levels of the mobile metabolite C9-dicarboxylic acid azelaic acid in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis. Azelaic acid confers local and systemic resistance against Pseudomonas syringae. The compound primes plants to strongly accumulate salicylic acid (SA), a known defense signal, upon infection. Mutation of a gene induced by azelaic acid (AZI1) results in the specific loss in plants of systemic immunity triggered by pathogen or azelaic acid and of the priming of SA induction. AZI1, a predicted secreted protein, is also important for generating vascular sap that confers disease resistance. Thus, azelaic acid and AZI1 comprise novel components of plant systemic immunity involved in priming defenses.

  20. Application and design of solar photovoltaic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianze, Li; Hengwei, Lu; Chuan, Jiang; Luan, Hou; Xia, Zhang

    2011-02-01

    Solar modules, power electronic equipments which include the charge-discharge controller, the inverter, the test instrumentation and the computer monitoring, and the storage battery or the other energy storage and auxiliary generating plant make up of the photovoltaic system which is shown in the thesis. PV system design should follow to meet the load supply requirements, make system low cost, seriously consider the design of software and hardware, and make general software design prior to hardware design in the paper. To take the design of PV system for an example, the paper gives the analysis of the design of system software and system hardware, economic benefit, and basic ideas and steps of the installation and the connection of the system. It elaborates on the information acquisition, the software and hardware design of the system, the evaluation and optimization of the system. Finally, it shows the analysis and prospect of the application of photovoltaic technology in outer space, solar lamps, freeways and communications.

  1. A Study on Structured Simulation Framework for Design and Evaluation of Human-Machine Interface System -Application for On-line Risk Monitoring for PWR Nuclear Power Plant-

    SciTech Connect

    Zhan, J.; Yang, M.; Li, S.C.; Peng, M.J.; Yan, S.Y.; Zhang, Z.J.

    2006-07-01

    The operators in the main control room of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) need to monitor plant condition through operation panels and understand the system problems by their experiences and skills. It is a very hard work because even a single fault will cause a large number of plant parameters abnormal and operators are required to perform trouble-shooting actions in a short time interval. It will bring potential risks if operators misunderstand the system problems or make a commission error to manipulate an irrelevant switch with their current operation. This study aims at developing an on-line risk monitoring technique based on Multilevel Flow Models (MFM) for monitoring and predicting potential risks in current plant condition by calculating plant reliability. The proposed technique can be also used for navigating operators by estimating the influence of their operations on plant condition before they take an action that will be necessary in plant operation, and therefore, can reduce human errors. This paper describes the risk monitoring technique and illustrates its application by a Steam Generator Tube Rupture (SGTR) accident in a 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Marine Nuclear Power Plant (MNPP). (authors)

  2. Operational development of small plant growth systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheld, H. W.; Magnuson, J. W.; Sauer, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a study undertaken on the first phase of an empricial effort in the development of small plant growth chambers for production of salad type vegetables on space shuttle or space station are discussed. The overall effort is visualized as providing the underpinning of practical experience in handling of plant systems in space which will provide major support for future efforts in planning, design, and construction of plant-based (phytomechanical) systems for support of human habitation in space. The assumptions underlying the effort hold that large scale phytomechanical habitability support systems for future space stations must evolve from the simple to the complex. The highly complex final systems will be developed from the accumulated experience and data gathered from repetitive tests and trials of fragments or subsystems of the whole in an operational mode. These developing system components will, meanwhile, serve a useful operational function in providing psychological support and diversion for the crews.

  3. Fossil power plant systems description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This single-volume, looseleaf text presents the functions and relationships between each major component and its auxiliaries within a system. The text also describes the relationships between systems. All major components are addressed, and system boundaries are defined for a generic fossil power plant.

  4. Integrated system design report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The primary objective of the integrated system test phase is to demonstrate the commercial potential of a coal fueled diesel engine in its actual operating environment. The integrated system in this project is defined as a coal fueled diesel locomotive. This locomotive, shown on drawing 41D715542, is described in the separate Concept Design Report. The test locomotive will be converted from an existing oil fueled diesel locomotive in three stages, until it nearly emulates the concept locomotive. Design drawings of locomotive components (diesel engine, locomotive, flatcar, etc.) are included.

  5. EHF SATCOM system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, M. Jamil

    Future satellite systems will differ considerably from the current versions. The impetus for change is a result of the need for more capacity, wider bandwidth requirements for enhanced services, increasing demand for mobile communications, advances in technology, developments in satellite payload systems, and a demand for secure military communications. To a large extent all of these needs can be satisfied by the use of extremely high frequency satellite communication (EHF Satcom) systems. EHF Satcom system design, features, pros and cons of using the system, particularly for military applications, and the current status of EHF SATCOM in Canada, U.S., Europe, and Japan are examined. The demand for bandwidth will continue to increase due to the growth of communication as well as due to enhanced services for business and entertainment. The increased bandwidth needs will be met by operating at higher frequencies, and perhaps by using extremely high frequency/superhigh frequency (EHF/SHF) satellites. Design of such systems involves a consideration of numerous aspects of design, technology, cost, and services. Advances in technology will make EHF/SHF systems feasible for military applications, as well as commercial mobile terminals, and high data rate terminals. The use of higher frequencies and small antennas will aid mobile communications. On-board processing will be akin to putting a switch in the space, providing flexibility of rates, connectivity, and services.

  6. Distributed System Design Checklist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Brendan; Driscoll, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a design checklist targeted to fault-tolerant distributed electronic systems. Many of the questions and discussions in this checklist may be generally applicable to the development of any safety-critical system. However, the primary focus of this report covers the issues relating to distributed electronic system design. The questions that comprise this design checklist were created with the intent to stimulate system designers' thought processes in a way that hopefully helps them to establish a broader perspective from which they can assess the system's dependability and fault-tolerance mechanisms. While best effort was expended to make this checklist as comprehensive as possible, it is not (and cannot be) complete. Instead, we expect that this list of questions and the associated rationale for the questions will continue to evolve as lessons are learned and further knowledge is established. In this regard, it is our intent to post the questions of this checklist on a suitable public web-forum, such as the NASA DASHLink AFCS repository. From there, we hope that it can be updated, extended, and maintained after our initial research has been completed.

  7. Maglev system design considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Coffey, H.T.

    1991-01-01

    Although efforts are now being made to develop magnetic levitation technologies in the United States, they have been underway for two decades in Germany and Japan. The characteristics of maglev systems being considered for implementation in the United States are speculative. A conference was held at Argonne National Laboratory on November 28--29, 1990, to discuss these characteristics and their implications for the design requirements of operational systems. This paper reviews some of the factors considered during that conference.

  8. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect

    G.I. Alekseev

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  9. 10-MWe solar-thermal central-receiver pilot plant, solar-facilities design integration: system integration laboratory test plan (RADL item 6-4)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    A general demonstration test plan is provided for the activities to be accomplished at the Systems Integration Laboratory. The Master Control System, Subsystem Distributed Process Control, Representative Signal Conditioning Units, and Redline Units from the Receiver Subsystem and the Thermal Storage Subsystem and other external interface operational functions will be integrated and functionally demonstrated. The Beckman Multivariable Control Unit will be tested for frequency response, static checks, configuration changes, switching transients, and input-output interfaces. Maximum System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of Pilot Plant controls and external interfaces that are available. Minimum System Integration Laboratory testing will be accomplished with reduced set of hardware, which will provide capability for continued development and demonstration of Operational Control System plant control application software. Beam Control System Integration Laboratory testing will demonstrate the operational readiness of the Beam Control System equipment and software. (LEW)

  10. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-12-31

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  11. BWID System Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, M.C.; Rudin, M.J.; Morrison, J.L.; Richardson, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) System Design Study is to identify and evaluate technology process options for the cradle-to-grave remediation of Transuranic (TRU)-Contaminated Waste Pits and Trenches buried at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Emphasis is placed upon evaluating system configuration options and associated functional and operational requirements for retrieving and treating the buried wastes. A Performance-Based Technology Selection Filter was developed to evaluate the identified remediation systems and their enabling technologies based upon system requirements and quantification of technical Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability (CERCLA) balancing criteria. Remediation systems will also be evaluated with respect to regulatory and institutional acceptance and cost-effectiveness.

  12. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  13. Intelligent design system for design automation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakeri, Cirrus; Deif, Ismail; Katragadda, Prasanna; Knutson, Stanley

    2000-10-01

    In order to succeed in today's global, competitive market, companies need continuous improvements in their product development processes. These improvements should result in expending fewer resources on the design process while achieving better quality. Automating the design process reduces resources needed and allows designers to spend more time on creative aspects that improve the quality of design. For the last three decades, engineers and designers have been searching for better ways to automate the product development process. For certain classes of design problems, which cover a large portion of real world design situations, the process can be automated using knowledge-based systems. These are design problems in which the knowledge sources are known in advance. Using techniques from Knowledge-Based Engineering, knowledge is codified and inserted into a knowledge-based system. The system activates the design knowledge, automatically generating designs that satisfy the design constraints. To increase the return on investment of building automated design systems, Knowledge management methodologies and techniques are required for capturing, formalizing, storing, and searching design knowledge.

  14. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  15. Evaluation of the ECAS open cycle MHD power plant design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seikel, G. R.; Staiger, P. J.; Pian, C. C. P.

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS) MHD/steam power plant is described. The NASA critical evaluation of the design is summarized. Performance of the MHD plant is compared to that of the other type ECAS plant designs on the basis of efficiency and the 30-year levelized cost of electricity. Techniques to improve the plant design and the potential performance of lower technology plants requiring shorter development time and lower development cost are then discussed.

  16. Refuse pile design considerations. [Coal preparation plant

    SciTech Connect

    Sawarynski, T.J.

    1981-12-01

    This paper discusses current trends of coarse and fine coal refuse disposal techniques. Emphasis is on site-specific engineering to tailor safe, cost effective, and environmentally sound refuse disposal systems to the needs of a particular mine. Geotechnical design considerations are discussed in relation to system performance, regulatory acceptance, and industry use. 2 refs.

  17. Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stys, Z. S.

    1983-09-01

    The design features and performance capabilities of Air Storage System Energy Transfer (ASSET) plants for transferring off-peak utility electricity to on-peak hours are described. The plant operations involve compressing ambient air with an axial flow compressor and depositing it in an underground reservoir at 70 bar pressure. Released during a peaking cycle, the pressure is reduced to 43 bar, the air is heated to 550 C, passed through an expander after a turbine, and passed through a low pressure combustion chamber to be heated to 850 C. A West German plant built in 1978 to supply over 300 MW continuous power for up to two hours is detailed, noting its availability factor of nearly 98 percent and power delivery cost of $230/kW installed. A plant being constructed in Illinois will use limestone caverns as the air storage tank.

  18. Design of a Hierarchical System Using PID Control with an Intelligent Sequence Controller and Its Application to Ethylene Plants in Unsteady State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Tetsuji; Takeuchi, Takeshi

    A hierarchical system is developed that consists of an intelligent sequence controller and a PID controller, where the intelligent sequence controller supervises the PID controller. In other words, the intelligent sequence controller plays the role of a well-experienced operator and mimics the operator's procedures. In an ethylene plant, the decoking operation of the cracking furnace makes the ethylene plant highly unstable. We apply this hierarchical system to the decoking process in an ethylene plant in order to demonstrate its effectiveness. As a result, the number of operational interventions in the decoking process is reduced by 95%, and the levels of the towers and the overhead temperatures of the towers can be satisfactorily stabilized during the decoking process.

  19. Passive Safety Features in Advanced Nuclear Power Plant Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, M.; Chughtai, I. R.; Aslam, M.

    2013-03-01

    For implementation of advance passive safety features in future nuclear power plant design, a passive safety system has been proposed and its response has been observed for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the cold leg of a reactor coolant system. In a transient simulation the performance of proposed system is validated against existing safety injection system for a reference power plant of 325 MWe. The existing safety injection system is a huge system and consists of many active components including pumps, valves, piping and Instrumentation and Control (I&C). A good running of the active components of this system is necessary for its functionality as high head safety injection system under design basis accidents. Using reactor simulation technique, the proposed passive safety injection system and existing safety injection system are simulated and tested for their performance under large break LOCA for the same boundary conditions. Critical thermal hydraulic parameters of both the systems are presented graphically and discussed. The results obtained are approximately the same in both the cases. However, the proposed passive safety injection system is a better choice for such type of reactors due to reduction in components with improved safety.

  20. Design Language for Digital Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is convenient hardware description language for developing and testing digital designs and for inputting design details into design automation system. Describes digital systems at gate, register transfer, and combinational block levels. DDL-based programs written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  1. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  2. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  3. System design description cone penetrometer system

    SciTech Connect

    Seda, R.Y., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The system design description documents in detail the design of the cone penetrometer system. The systems includes the cone penetrometer physical package, raman spectroscopy package and moisture sensor package. Information pertinent to the system design, development, fabrication and testing is provided.

  4. Diagnostic system monitors gearboxes at hydro plant

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This article describes how, by applying real-time, tooth-by-tooth vibration ``imaging,`` this system detects gear-tooth defects -- such as pitting and cracking. To keep Swan Falls hydroelectric generating station in service, Idaho Power Co constructed a new two-unit, open-pit-turbine powerhouse. Swan Falls, Kuna, Idaho, the oldest on the Snake River, services southern Idaho and parts of Oregon -- one of 17 hydroelectric plants maintained by the utility. The hydro units use speed increasers (gearboxes) so higher-speed generators are possible. To monitor these gearboxes, engineers at Swan Falls required a continuous on-line predictive maintenance system. The system monitors the planetary step-up gearboxes in the two main 12.5-MW pit turbine/generators. In some Idaho Power plants with a similar hydro turbine/generator design, the gearboxes have experienced major failures, leading to hundreds of thousands of dollars in collateral damage.

  5. Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant Safeguards System Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Elayat, H A; O'Connell, W J; Boyer, B D

    2006-06-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in developing tools and methods for potential U.S. use in designing and evaluating safeguards systems used in enrichment facilities. This research focuses on analyzing the effectiveness of the safeguards in protecting against the range of safeguards concerns for enrichment plants, including diversion of attractive material and unauthorized modes of use. We developed an Extend simulation model for a generic medium-sized centrifuge enrichment plant. We modeled the material flow in normal operation, plant operational upset modes, and selected diversion scenarios, for selected safeguards systems. Simulation modeling is used to analyze both authorized and unauthorized use of a plant and the flow of safeguards information. Simulation tracks the movement of materials and isotopes, identifies the signatures of unauthorized use, tracks the flow and compilation of safeguards data, and evaluates the effectiveness of the safeguards system in detecting misuse signatures. The simulation model developed could be of use to the International Atomic Energy Agency IAEA, enabling the IAEA to observe and draw conclusions that uranium enrichment facilities are being used only within authorized limits for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It will evaluate improved approaches to nonproliferation concerns, facilitating deployment of enhanced and cost-effective safeguards systems for an important part of the nuclear power fuel cycle.

  6. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Design Requirements Document (DRD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigo, H. S.; Bercaw, R. W.; Burkhart, J. A.; Mroz, T. S.; Bents, D. J.; Hatch, A. M.

    1981-01-01

    A description and the design requirements for the 200 MWe (nominal) net output MHD Engineering Test Facility (ETF) Conceptual Design, are presented. Performance requirements for the plant are identified and process conditions are indicated at interface stations between the major systems comprising the plant. Also included are the description, functions, interfaces and requirements for each of these major systems. The lastest information (1980-1981) from the MHD technology program are integrated with elements of a conventional steam electric power generating plant.

  7. LED Systems Target Plant Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    To help develop technologies for growing edible biomass (food crops) in space, Kennedy Space Center partnered with Orbital Technologies Corporation (ORBITEC), of Madison, Wisconsin, through the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. One result of this research was the High Efficiency Lighting with Integrated Adaptive Control (HELIAC) system, components of which have been incorporated into a variety of agricultural greenhouse and consumer aquarium lighting features. The new lighting systems can be adapted to a specific plant species during a specific growth stage, allowing maximum efficiency in light absorption by all available photosynthetic tissues.

  8. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 1: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These Volumes, describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This document, Volume 1, provides an introduction and general description of plant and site envelope characteristics.

  9. Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system

    SciTech Connect

    Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S; Zeller, A

    2012-06-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

  10. Design optimization of ADS plant proposed by JAERI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Tsujimoto, Kazufumi; Kikuchi, Kenji; Kurata, Yuji; Sasa, Toshinobu; Umeno, Makoto; Nishihara, Kenji; Mizumoto, Motoharu; Ouchi, Nobuo; Takei, Hayanori; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    JAERI is conducting R&D on the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) to transmute minor actinides (MAs). The present study discusses the design of the ADS plant and various R&D on the ADS. The reference design of ADS plant in JAERI is the 800 MW, Pb-Bi eutectic (LBE) cooled, tank-type subcritical reactor loaded with (MA+Pu) nitride fuel. LBE is selected as a spallation target material. In our results of the optimization study on the neutronics of the ADS, we have adopted the maximum multiplication factor ( keff) of 0.97. From the results of thermal-hydraulic and structural analysis, the feasibility of the beam window was confirmed for steady state. The R&D activities in JAERI cover the development of superconducting proton linear accelerator, the LBE technology, the irradiation damages of materials, and the reactor physics of the subcritical reactor.

  11. Phase I: the pipeline-gas demonstration plant. Demonstration plant engineering and design. Volume 18. Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    1981-05-01

    Contract No. EF-77-C-01-2542 between Conoco Inc. and the US Department of Energy provides for the design, construction, and operation of a demonstration plant capable of processing bituminous caking coals into clean pipeline quality gas. The project is currently in the design phase (Phase I). This phase is scheduled to be completed in June 1981. One of the major efforts of Phase I is the process and project engineering design of the Demonstration Plant. The design has been completed and is being reported in 24 volumes. This is Volume 18 which reports the design of Plant Section 2700 - Waste Water Treatment. The objective of the Waste Water Treatment system is to collect and treat all plant liquid effluent streams. The system is designed to permit recycle and reuse of the treated waste water. Plant Section 2700 is composed of primary, secondary, and tertiary waste water treatment methods plus an evaporation system which eliminates liquid discharge from the plant. The Waste Water Treatment Section is designed to produce 130 pounds per hour of sludge that is buried in a landfill on the plant site. The evaporated water is condensed and provides a portion of the make-up water to Plant Section 2400 - Cooling Water.

  12. Operator Serves as Integral Member of Plant Design Team

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dan P.; Collins, Floyd W.

    1978-01-01

    It is suggested that plant operators can be useful in designing sewage treatment plants. The advantages of this cooperative arrangement to the consulting engineers and the city, and the pitfalls, are discussed. (BB)

  13. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems.

    PubMed

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity. PMID:27347928

  14. Chitosan Effects on Plant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Malerba, Massimo; Cerana, Raffaella

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan (CHT) is a natural, safe, and cheap product of chitin deacetylation, widely used by several industries because of its interesting features. The availability of industrial quantities of CHT in the late 1980s enabled it to be tested in agriculture. CHT has been proven to stimulate plant growth, to protect the safety of edible products, and to induce abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in various horticultural commodities. The stimulating effect of different enzyme activities to detoxify reactive oxygen species suggests the involvement of hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide in CHT signaling. CHT could also interact with chromatin and directly affect gene expression. Recent innovative uses of CHT include synthesis of CHT nanoparticles as a valuable delivery system for fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, and micronutrients for crop growth promotion by a balanced and sustained nutrition. In addition, CHT nanoparticles can safely deliver genetic material for plant transformation. This review presents an overview on the status of the use of CHT in plant systems. Attention was given to the research that suggested the use of CHT for sustainable crop productivity. PMID:27347928

  15. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  16. System 80+{trademark} standard design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 5: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. The documents in this series describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design.

  17. ENGINEERING ASPECTS OF COLLEGE PLANT DESIGN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DALTON, LIAM F.; SEGNER, MARVIN

    THE ARTICLE FOCUSES ON MECHANICAL AND ELECTRICAL FACILITIES THAT SHOULD BE CONSIDERED WHEN DEVELOPING A LONG RANGE MASTER PLAN. DEVELOPMENT OF THE MASTER PLAN SHOULD CONSIDER THE FOLLOWING--(1) COMPARATIVE FUEL COSTS, (2) POWER DISTRIBUTION, (3) HEATING PLANT, (4) CENTRAL PLANT SITE, (5) COOLING PLANT, (6) WATER SUPPLY, (7) STORM DRAINAGE, (8)…

  18. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design B Appendix B to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. B Appendix B to Part 52—Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design I. Introduction Appendix...

  19. 10 CFR Appendix B to Part 52 - Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design B Appendix B to Part 52 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Pt. 52, App. B Appendix B to Part 52—Design Certification Rule for the System 80+ Design I. Introduction Appendix...

  20. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 3: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 3, in conjunction with Volume 2, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  1. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 2: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 2, in conjunction with Volume 3, provides the design of structures, components, equipment and systems.

  2. Loop chiller plant design dramatically lowers chilled water costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, T.

    1999-07-01

    Recent improvements in HVAC networking and speed control technologies, together with an improved understanding of the nature of cooling loads in buildings offer exciting opportunities for improving the energy efficiency of chiller plants. A new Loop chiller plant design has been developed that incorporates variable speed control on all plant components. Operation of this cooling plant is coordinated with the load it serves through a control network. This new approach has enormous advantages over traditional optimized plants. The two key advantages of these new Loop design chiller plants designs are: (1) Annual operating energy requirements are reduced by as much as 50% or more when compared to present state-of-the-art optimized chiller plants, and (2) A smaller sized and therefore less costly chiller plant can be designed to serve HVAC loads. The term Loop is employed to describe the technologies employed because the concept employs closed loop control by providing operational feedback from each point of use to the plant. The Loop concept also employs a single, series coupled chilled water loop for higher pumping and distribution efficiencies. This paper presents background and design theory and follows with a case study to introduce the new Loop design and operations concept. Specifics of an actual design are presented along with an explanation of how the principles can be applied economically to all new or existing chiller plant designs to achieve dramatic reductions in both construction costs and energy costs.

  3. Collecting in Central Asia: National Plant Germplasm System Plant Explorations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System is charged with the preservation of economically important crop plants and their wild relatives. Curators in the System strive to develop collections capturing the genetic diversity of each species. One mechanism for filling gaps in collections is through...

  4. Overall plant design specification Modular High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor. Revision 9

    SciTech Connect

    1990-05-01

    Revision 9 of the ``Overall Plant Design Specification Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor,`` DOE-HTGR-86004 (OPDS) has been completed and is hereby distributed for use by the HTGR Program team members. This document, Revision 9 of the ``Overall Plant Design Specification`` (OPDS) reflects those changes in the MHTGR design requirements and configuration resulting form approved Design Change Proposals DCP BNI-003 and DCP BNI-004, involving the Nuclear Island Cooling and Spent Fuel Cooling Systems respectively.

  5. Design of multivariable feedback control systems via spectral assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielke, R. R.; Tung, L. J.; Marefat, M.

    1983-01-01

    The applicability of spectral assignment techniques to the design of multivariable feedback control systems was investigated. A fractional representation design procedure for unstable plants is presented and illustrated with an example. A computer aided design software package implementing eigenvalue/eigenvector design procedures is described. A design example which illustrates the use of the program is explained.

  6. Design considerations for NDE systems in a factory setting and the application to transmission manufacture at the Chrysler Transmission Plant in Kokomo, Indiana

    SciTech Connect

    LaChapell, M.; Perkins, D.E.; Schneberk, D.J.; Erb, S.H.; Nicholson, R.E.

    1994-10-01

    Chrysler Corp. and LLNL have entered into a collaboration to enhance the NDE technology at the Kokomo transmission plant. The project spans 3 years and a wide variety of different projects. Goals are making NDE automated, reliable, and capable of avoiding destructive testing. This requires NDE systems to be better utilized by quality teams on the shop floor and better connected for providing in one place a sufficient set of data for identifying problems in a manufacturing operation, and prescribing an adjustment. The approach is illustrated on two different processes, laser welding and pressure die casting; in each case data are combined from different NDE systems to enable a decision on an adjustment in process variables.

  7. Design and construction of an inexpensive homemade plant growth chamber.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140-250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  8. Design and Construction of an Inexpensive Homemade Plant Growth Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Fumiaki; Canelon-Suarez, Dario; Griffin, Kelsey; Petersen, John; Meyer, Rachel K.; Siegle, Megan; Mase, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth chambers produce controlled environments, which are crucial in making reproducible observations in experimental plant biology research. Commercial plant growth chambers can provide precise controls of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and light cycle, and the capability via complex programming to regulate these environmental parameters. But they are expensive. The high cost of maintaining a controlled growth environment is often a limiting factor when determining experiment size and feasibility. To overcome the limitation of commercial growth chambers, we designed and constructed an inexpensive plant growth chamber with consumer products for a material cost of $2,300. For a comparable growth space, a commercial plant growth chamber could cost $40,000 or more. Our plant growth chamber had outside dimensions of 1.5 m (W) x 1.8 m (D) x 2 m (H), providing a total growth area of 4.5 m2 with 40-cm high clearance. The dimensions of the growth area and height can be flexibly changed. Fluorescent lights with large reflectors provided a relatively spatially uniform photosynthetically active radiation intensity of 140–250 μmoles/m2/sec. A portable air conditioner provided an ample cooling capacity, and a cooling water mister acted as a powerful humidifier. Temperature, relative humidity, and light cycle inside the chamber were controlled via a z-wave home automation system, which allowed the environmental parameters to be monitored and programmed through the internet. In our setting, the temperature was tightly controlled: 22.2°C±0.8°C. The one-hour average relative humidity was maintained at 75%±7% with short spikes up to ±15%. Using the interaction between Arabidopsis and one of its bacterial pathogens as a test experimental system, we demonstrate that experimental results produced in our chamber were highly comparable to those obtained in a commercial growth chamber. In summary, our design of an inexpensive plant growth chamber

  9. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  10. Comparisons of luminaires: Efficacies and system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, L. D.; Both, A. J.

    1994-03-01

    Lighting designs for architectural (aesthetic) purposes, vision and safety, and plant growth have many features in common but several crucial ones that are not. The human eye is very sensitive to the color (wavelength) of light, whereas plants are less so. There are morphological reactions, particularly to the red and blue portions of the light spectrum but, in general, plants appear to accept and use light for photosynthesis everywhere over the PAR region of the spectrum. In contrast, the human eye interprets light intensity on a logarithmic scale, making people insensitive to significant differences of light intensity. As a rough rule, light intensity must change by 30 to 50% for the human eye to recognize the difference. Plants respond much more linearly to light energy, at least at intensities below photosynthetic saturation. Thus, intensity differences not noticeable to the human eye can have significant effects on total plant growth and yield, and crop timing. These factors make luminaire selection and lighting system design particularly important when designing supplemental lighting systems for plant growth. Supplemental lighting for plant growth on the scale of commercial greenhouses is a relatively expensive undertaking. Light intensities are often much higher than required for task (vision) lighting, which increases both installation and operating costs. However, and especially in the northern regions of the United States (and Canada, Europe, etc.), supplemental lighting during winter may be necessary to produce certain crops (e.g., tomatoes) and very useful to achieve full plant growth potential and crop timing with most other greenhouse crops. Operating costs over the life of a luminaire typically will exceed the initial investment, making lighting efficacy a major consideration. This report reviews tests completed to evaluate the efficiencies of various commercially-available High-Pressure Sodium luminaires, and then describes the results of using a

  11. Linam Ranch cryogenic gas plant: A design and operating retrospective

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, L.J.; Kuscinski, J.

    1999-07-01

    GPM Gas Corporation's Linam Ranch Gas Plant is the processing hub of their southeastern New Mexico gathering system, producing a y-grade NGL product which is pipelined primarily to the Phillips petrochemical complex at Sweeney, Texas, GPM acquired the facility near Hobbs, N.M. late in 1994 when it was still operating as a refrigerated lean oil plant, renamed it, and commenced an upgrade project culminating in its conversion to a high recovery cryogenic facility in early 1996 with a processing capacity of 150 MMscfd. Facilities that were upgraded included inlet liquids receiving and handling, the amine system, mol sieve dehydration, the sulfur recovery unit, inlet compression, and the propane refrigeration system. A Foxboro I/A DCS was also placed into operation. The lean oil system was replaced with a high recovery turboexpander unit supplied by KTI Fish based on their Flash Vapor Reflux (FVR) process. Resulting ethane recovery was greater than 95% for the new facilities. New residue compression units were installed including steam generators on the turbine exhausts, which complemented the existing plant steam system. During the three years since conversion to cryogenic operation, GPM has steadily improved plant operations. Expansion of the mol sieve dehydration system and retrofit of evaporation combustion air cooling on gas turbines have expanded nameplate capacity to 170 MMscfd while maintaining ethane recovery at 95%. Future expansion to 200 MMscfd with high recovery is achievable. In addition, creative use of the Foxboro DCS has been employed to implement advanced control schemes for handling inlet liquid slugs, gas and amine balancing for parallel amine contactors, improved sulfur recovery unit (SRU) trim air control, and constraint-based process optimization to maximize horsepower utilization and ethane recovery. Some challenges remain, leaving room for additional improvements. However, GPM's progress so far has resulted in a current ethane recovery level in

  12. FNAL system patching design

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Jack; Lilianstrom, Al; Romero, Andy; Dawson, Troy; Sieh, Connie; /Fermilab

    2004-01-01

    FNAL has over 5000 PCs running either Linux or Windows software. Protecting these systems efficiently against the latest vulnerabilities that arise has prompted FNAL to take a more central approach to patching systems. Due to different levels of existing support infrastructures, the patching solution for linux systems differs from that of windows systems. In either case, systems are checked for vulnerabilities by Computer Security using the Nessus tool.

  13. Preliminary seal design evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J C

    1988-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary evaluation of design concepts for the eventual sealing of the shafts, drifts, and boreholes at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Facility. The purpose of the seal systems is to limit the flow of water into, through, and out of the repository. The principal design strategy involves the consolidation of crushed or granular salt in response to the closure of the excavations in salt. Other candidate seal materials are bentonite, cementitious mixtures, and possibly asphalt. Results from in situ experiments and modeling studies, as well as laboratory materials testing and related industrial experience, are used to develop seal designs for shafts, waste storage panel entryways, non-waste containing drifts, and boreholes. Key elements of the ongoing experimental program are identified. 112 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Systems design of long-life systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, R. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A long-life system is defined as a system which cannot be life-tested in its operational environment. Another restriction is that preventive maintenance and repair shall be either impossible or economically disadvantageous. Examples of such systems include planetary spacecraft, communication satellites, undersea telephone cables, and nuclear power plants. The questions discussed are related to the implementation of system functions, approaches to determine the required level of system reliability, and aspects of tradeoffs between requirements and reliability.

  15. Bolted Flanged Connection for Critical Plant/Piping Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Efremov, Anatoly

    2006-07-01

    A novel type of Bolted Flanged Connection with bolts and gasket manufactured on a basis of advanced Shape Memory Alloys is examined. Presented approach combined with inverse flexion flange design of plant/piping joint reveals a significant increase of internal pressure under conditions of a variety of operating temperatures relating to critical plant/piping systems. (author)

  16. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Designation of native plants. 670.21 Section 670.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  17. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Designation of native plants. 670.21 Section 670.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  18. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Designation of native plants. 670.21 Section 670.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  19. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation of native plants. 670.21 Section 670.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  20. 45 CFR 670.21 - Designation of native plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Designation of native plants. 670.21 Section 670.21 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION CONSERVATION OF ANTARCTIC ANIMALS AND PLANTS Native Mammals, Birds, Plants, and Invertebrates §...

  1. DDL system: Design systhesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Digital Systems Design Language was integrated into the CADAT system environment of NASA-MSFC. The major technical aspects of this integration are summarized. Automatic hardware synthesis is now possible starting with a high level description of the system to be synthesized. The DDL system provides a high level design verification capability, thereby minimizing design changes in the later stages of the design cycle. An overview of the DDL system covering the translation, simulation and synthesis capabilities is provided. Two companion documents (the user's and programmer's manuals) are to be consulted for detailed discussions.

  2. Plant Design for the Production of DUAGG

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrada, J.J.

    2003-02-04

    The cost of producing DUAGG is an important consideration for any interested private firm in determining whether DUCRETE is economically viable as a material of construction in next-generation spent nuclear fuel casks. This study analyzed this project as if it was a stand-alone project. The capital cost includes engineering design, equipment costs and installation, start up, and management; the study is not intended to be a life-cycle cost analysis. The costs estimated by this study are shown in Table ES.1, and the conclusions of this study are listed in Table ES.2. The development of DUAGG and DUCRETE is a major thrust of the Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Project. An obvious use of depleted uranium is as a shielding material (e.g., DUCRETE). DUCRETE is made by replacing the conventional stone aggregate in concrete with DUAGG. One objective of this project is to bring the development of DUCRETE to a point at which a demonstrated basis exists for its commercial deployment. The estimation of the costs to manufacture DUAGG is an important part of this effort. Paul Lessing and William Quapp developed DUAGG and DUCRETE as part of an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) program to find beneficial uses for depleted uranium (DU). Subsequently, this technology was licensed to Teton Technologies, Inc. The DUAGG process mixes DUO{sub 2} with sintering materials and additives to form pressed briquettes. These briquettes are sintered at 1300 C, and the very dense sintered briquettes are then crushed and classified into gap-graded size fractions. The graded DUAGG is then ready to be used to make high-strength heavy DUCRETE. The DUCRETE shielding will be placed into an annular steel cask-shell mold, which has internal steel reinforcing bars. The objectives of this study are to (1) use previous DUAGG process developments to design a plant that will produce DUAGG at a baseline rate, (2) determine the size of the equipment required to meet

  3. Insertion device vacuum system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Hoyer, E.

    1988-05-01

    Synchrotron light source insertion device vacuum systems now in operation and systems proposed for the future are reviewed. An overview of insertion devices is given and four generic vacuum chamber designs, transition section design and pumping considerations are discussed. Examples of vacuum chamber systems are presented.

  4. Baseload Nitrate Salt Central Receiver Power Plant Design Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tilley, Drake; Kelly, Bruce; Burkholder, Frank

    2014-12-12

    The objectives of the work were to demonstrate that a 100 MWe central receiver plant, using nitrate salt as the receiver coolant, thermal storage medium, and heat transport fluid in the steam generator, can 1) operate, at full load, for 6,400 hours each year using only solar energy, and 2) satisfy the DOE levelized energy cost goal of $0.09/kWhe (real 2009 $). To achieve these objectives the work incorporated a large range of tasks relating to many different aspects of a molten salt tower plant. The first Phase of the project focused on developing a baseline design for a Molten Salt Tower and validating areas for improvement. Tasks included a market study, receiver design, heat exchanger design, preliminary heliostat design, solar field optimization, baseline system design including PFDs and P&IDs and detailed cost estimate. The baseline plant met the initial goal of less than $0.14/kWhe, and reinforced the need to reduce costs in several key areas to reach the overall $0.09/kWhe goal. The major improvements identified from Phase I were: 1) higher temperature salt to improve cycle efficiency and reduce storage requirements, 2) an improved receiver coating to increase the efficiency of the receiver, 3) a large receiver design to maximize storage and meet the baseload hours objective, and 4) lower cost heliostat field. The second Phase of the project looked at advancing the baseline tower with the identified improvements and included key prototypes. To validate increasing the standard solar salt temperature to 600 °C a dynamic test was conducted at Sandia. The results ultimately proved the hypothesis incorrect and showed high oxide production and corrosion rates. The results lead to further testing of systems to mitigate the oxide production to be able to increase the salt temperature for a commercial plant. Foster Wheeler worked on the receiver design in both Phase I and Phase II looking at both design and lowering costs utilizing commercial fossil boiler

  5. Helium turbomachine design for GT-MHR power plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Orlando, R.J.; Cotzas, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    The power conversion system in the gas turbine modular helium reactor (GT-MHR) power plant is based on a highly recuperated closed Brayton cycle. The major component in the direct cycle system is a helium closed-cycle gas turbine rated at 286 MW(e). The rotating group consists of an intercooled helium turbocompressor coupled to a synchronous generator. The vertical rotating assembly is installed in a steel vessel, together with the other major components (i.e., recuperator, precooler, intercooler, and connecting ducts and support structures). The rotor is supported on an active magnetic bearing system. The turbine operates directly on the reactor helium coolant, and with a temperature of 850{degree}C (1562{degree}F) the plant efficiency is over 47%. This paper addresses the design and development planning of the helium turbomachine, and emphasizes that with the utilization of proven technology, this second generation nuclear power plant could be in service in the first decade of the 21st century.

  6. FTTH passive optical networks and fiber plant design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Steven; Rich, Bill

    2001-10-01

    With extraordinary increase of bandwidth requirement nowadays, service providers are compelled to push fiber deeper into the access networks in order to be able to offer the emerging services that customers are demanding. The economic aspects from the business side also put pressure on operators to deploy single network for multiple applications in order to maximize profitability. There are various technologies used today to increase the capacity of the access network. Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) utilizing ATM Passive Optical Networking (APON) has been developed for and field-tried in numerous networks all over the world. The advantages of APON solution lies in its future proof fiber based access technology (high bandwidth and long service life). Fiber and passive components used in the network are very reliable and low in the maintenance cost. The APON technology is standardized in ITU-T G.983, which is originated from Full Services Access Network (FSAN) initiatives. It supports multiple applications and provides powerful quality of service (QoS). In this paper, the requirements for APON FTTH network architecture, transport protocol and operation are examined in line with G.983 standards. The comparisons of APON to other existing high data rate access network solutions are then briefly discussed. Case studies of APON FTTH field trials are used as examples. These trials represented current status of APON FTTH development in US, on both network system elements and fiber plant components. A complete picture of APON FTTH network system and Outside Plant (OSP) design from CO to the residential homes is illustrated by these field trials. Discussions are given on topics related to APON FTTH system elements, such as OLT/ONT design, lifeline support, optical power budget and operation/fault management. Considerations regarding the design and deployment of OSP components focus on the configuration and construction of the fiber plant. Common issues related to field

  7. 21 CFR 129.20 - Plant construction and design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Plant construction and design. 129.20 Section 129.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 129.20 Plant construction and design. (a) The bottling room shall be separated from other...

  8. Designing the coal preparation plant of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Klima, M.S.; Bethell, P.J.

    2007-07-01

    How can we design more efficient plants and what will plants look like in the future? What are the new techniques for designing plant layouts, monitoring performance, and building in preventive maintenance? What challenges face the industry and how can operators capitalize on opportunities to maximise yield, reduce costs, and improve efficiency? More than a dozen experts address these and other issues, offering cutting-edge highlights and compelling case histories from industry leaders through the world in 15 chapters.

  9. Aerothermodynamic systems engineering and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A reference source for various aspects of aerothermodynamic systems engineering and design is presented. Air conditioning load analysis is addressed, including physiological requirements, heat and cooling load equations, skin temperature computational methods, cooling loads due to radiation through transparent areas, heating and cooling loads due to internal sources, and practical considerations in the determination of overall heating and cooling loads. Refrigeration system design is considered, including air cycle systems, vapor cycle systems, combined vapor cycle and air cycle systems, and thermoelectric cooling. Heating methods is heating system design and low pressure and high pressure systems in air distribution system design are addressed. Procedures and equations commonly used for aerospace applications of these technologies are included.

  10. Software-Design-Analyzer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    CRISP-90 software-design-analyzer system, update of CRISP-80, is set of computer programs constituting software tool for design and documentation of other software and supporting top-down, hierarchical, modular, structured methodologies for design and programming. Written in Microsoft QuickBasic.

  11. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  12. Plant health sensing system for determining nitrogen status in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomasson, J. A.; Sui, Ruixiu; Read, John J.; Reddy, K. R.

    2004-03-01

    A plant health sensing system was developed for determining nitrogen status in plants. The system consists of a multi-spectral optical sensor and a data-acquisition and processing unit. The optical sensor"s light source provides modulated panchromatic illumination of a plant canopy with light-emitting diodes, and the sensor measures spectral reflectance through optical filters that partition the energy into blue, green, red, and near-infrared wavebands. Spectral reflectance of plants is detected in situ, at the four wavebands, in real time. The data-acquisition and processing unit is based on a single board computer that collects data from the multi-spectral sensor and spatial information from a global positioning system receiver. Spectral reflectance at the selected wavebands is analyzed, with algorithms developed during preliminary work, to determine nitrogen status in plants. The plant health sensing system has been tested primarily in the laboratory and field so far, and promising results have been obtained. This article describes the development, theory of operation, and test results of the plant health sensing system.

  13. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 9: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 9 discusses Electric Power and Auxiliary Systems.

  14. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 10: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 10 discusses the Steam and Power Conversion System and Radioactive Waste Management.

  15. Thermal energy storage heat exchanger: Molten salt heat exchanger design for utility power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferarra, A.; Yenetchi, G.; Haslett, R.; Kosson, R.

    1977-01-01

    Sizing procedures are presented for latent heat thermal energy storage systems that can be used for electric utility off-peak energy storage, solar power plants and other preliminary design applications.

  16. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 4: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 4, provides a description of the reactor, reactor internals, fuel assemblies, and associated design requirements.

  17. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 16: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This Volume 16 details the application of Human Factors Engineering in the design process.

  18. OSIRIS and SOMBRERO Inertial Fusion Power Plant Designs, Volume 1: Executive Summary & Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W. R.; Bieri, R. L.; Monsler, M. J.; Hendricks, C.D.; Laybourne, P.; Shillito, K. R.

    1992-03-01

    This is a comprehensive design study of two Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) electric power plants. Conceptual designs are presented for a fusion reactor (called Osiris) using an induction-linac heavy-ion beam driver, and another (called SOMBRERO) using a KrF laser driver. The designs covered all aspects of IFE power plants, including the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, balance-of-plant facilities, target fabrication, target injection and tracking, as well as the heavy-ion and KrF drivers. The point designs were assessed and compared in terms of their environmental & safety aspects, reliability and availability economics, and technology development needs.

  19. Designing Systems for Environmental Sustainability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Smith will describe his U.S. EPA research which involves elements of design, from systems as diverse as biofuel supply chains to recycling systems and chemical processes. Design uses models that rate performance as part of a synthesis approach, where steps of analysis and sy...

  20. Design philosophy for reliable systems, including control

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1984-04-01

    In the past, use of computers and software to manage physical plant has usually involved systems similar to the clockwork automata of the 17th century. The next generation of plant control will include intelligent systems - computer systems having knowledge of the plant and being capable of intelligent behavior, even though only some control functions will need such expertise. This report develops a framework for a universe of discourse usable by such non-human experts. It is based on the idea that a design has many features of a contract and may be described as a contract between humans and a machine, defining what each must do to attain a goal. Several points are discussed: the use of techniques in analytical redundancy and their place as analogues in administrative control for conventional techniques in physical control; the use of redundant computer systems to protect against hardware faults; the necessity to prove properties of software used in redundant hardware, because software faults are common modes across redundant hardware; and some issues in choosing a programming language for provable control software. Because proof of correctness is costly, it should be used only where necessary. This report concludes that the degree of reliability needed by the plant model used in analytic redundancy protection need not be nearly as reliable as the mechanism to detect discrepancy between plant and model.

  1. REC Tracking Systems Design Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Meredith Wingate

    2004-02-03

    OAK-B135 The Design Guide is presented in three parts. Section II describes the need for REC tracking, the two principal tracking methods available, and, in simple terms, the operation of certificate-based systems. Section III presents the major issues in the design of certificate-based tracking systems and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of alternative solutions. Finally, Section IV offers design principles or recommendations for most of these issues.

  2. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  3. Salton Sea Solar Pond Power Plant Design Study and Regional Applicability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Ormat collected and organized the data base and conducted conceptual plant design, performance, and cost analysis. JPL conducted site-specific studies related to solar pond chemistry, soil biological activity, and dike design and construction. WESTEC conducted environmental investigation studies and performed an environmental assessment. SCE provided planning support for licensing and permitting and technical evaluations of the system design and cost estimate.

  4. Support systems design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The integration of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) ground support systems with the new launch processing system and new launch vehicle provided KSC with a unique challenge in system design and analysis for the Space Transportation System. Approximately 70 support systems are controlled and monitored by the launch processing system. Typical systems are main propulsion oxygen and hydrogen loading systems, environmental control life support system, hydraulics, etc. An End-to-End concept of documentation and analysis was chosen and applied to these systems. Unique problems were resolved in the areas of software analysis, safing under emergency conditions, sampling rates, and control loop analysis. New methods of performing End-to-End reliability analyses were implemented. The systems design approach selected and the resolution of major problem areas are discussed.

  5. Design Rules for Life Support Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2002-01-01

    This paper considers some of the common assumptions and engineering rules of thumb used in life support system design. One general design rule is that the longer the mission, the more the life support system should use recycling and regenerable technologies. A more specific rule is that, if the system grows more than half the food, the food plants will supply all the oxygen needed for the crew life support. There are many such design rules that help in planning the analysis of life support systems and in checking results. These rules are typically if-then statements describing the results of steady-state, "back of the envelope," mass flow calculations. They are useful in identifying plausible candidate life support system designs and in rough allocations between resupply and resource recovery. Life support system designers should always review the design rules and make quick steady state calculations before doing detailed design and dynamic simulation. This paper develops the basis for the different assumptions and design rules and discusses how they should be used. We start top-down, with the highest level requirement to sustain human beings in a closed environment off Earth. We consider the crew needs for air, water, and food. We then discuss atmosphere leakage and recycling losses. The needs to support the crew and to make up losses define the fundamental life support system requirements. We consider the trade-offs between resupplying and recycling oxygen, water, and food. The specific choices between resupply and recycling are determined by mission duration, presence of in-situ resources, etc., and are defining parameters of life support system design.

  6. The shielding design process--new plants to decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Graham; Cooper, Andrew; Hobson, John

    2005-01-01

    BNFL have over 25 years experience of designing nuclear plant for the whole-fuel cycle. In the UK, a Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) is to be set up to ensure that Britain's nuclear legacy is cleaned up safely, securely and cost effectively. The resulting challenges and opportunities for shielding design will be substantial as the shielding design process was originally devised for the design of new plants. Although its underlying principles are equally applicable to decommissioning and remediation of old plants, there are many aspects of detailed application that need to adapt to this radically different operating environment. The paper describes both the common issues and the different challenges of shielding design at different operational phases. Sample applications will be presented of both new plant and decommissioning projects that illustrate not only the robust nature of the processes being used, but also how they lead to cost-effective solutions making a substantive and appropriate contribution to radiological protection goals. PMID:16604700

  7. Experimental Design for Vector Output Systems

    PubMed Central

    Banks, H.T.; Rehm, K.L.

    2013-01-01

    We formulate an optimal design problem for the selection of best states to observe and optimal sampling times for parameter estimation or inverse problems involving complex nonlinear dynamical systems. An iterative algorithm for implementation of the resulting methodology is proposed. Its use and efficacy is illustrated on two applied problems of practical interest: (i) dynamic models of HIV progression and (ii) modeling of the Calvin cycle in plant metabolism and growth. PMID:24563655

  8. System Design Description PFP Thermal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    RISENMAY, H.R.

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this document is to provide a system design description (SDD) and design basis for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Thermal Stabilization project. The chief objective of the SDD is to document the Structures, Systems, and Components (SSCs) that establish and maintain the facility Safety Envelope necessary for normal safe operation of the facility; as identified in the FSAR, the OSRs, and Safety Assessment Documents (SADs). This safety equipment documentation should satisfy guidelines for the SDD given in WHC-SD-CP-TI-18 1, Criteria for Identification and Control of Equipment Necessary for Preservation of the Safety Envelope and Safe Operation of PFP. The basis for operational, alarm response, maintenance, and surveillance procedures are also identified and justified in this document. This document and its appendices address the following elements of the PFP Thermal Stabilization project: Functional and design requirements; Design description; Safety Envelope Analysis; Safety Equipment Class; and Operational, maintenance and surveillance procedures.

  9. PEMFC MEA and System Design Considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Knights, Shanna; Bashyam, Rajesh; He, Ping; Lauritzen, Michael; Startek, Cara; Colbow, Vesna; Cheng, Tommy; Kolodziej, Joanna; Wessel, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are being developed and sold commercially for multiple near term markets. Ballard Power Systems is focused on the near term markets of backup power, distributed generation, materials handling, and buses. Significant advances have been made in cost and durability of fuel cell products. Improved tolerance to a wide range of system operation and environmental noises will enable increased viability across a broad range of applications. In order to apply the most effective membrane electrode assembly (MEA) design for each market, the system requirements and associated MEA failures must be well understood. The failure modes associated with the electrodes and membrane degradation are discussed with respect to associated system operation and mitigating approaches. A few key system considerations that influence MEA design include expected fuel quality, balance-of-plant materials, time under idle or open circuit operation, and start-up and shut-down conditions.

  10. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  11. Feedback Control Systems Loop Shaping Design with Practical Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopsakis, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes loop shaping control design in feedback control systems, primarily from a practical stand point that considers design specifications. Classical feedback control design theory, for linear systems where the plant transfer function is known, has been around for a long time. But it s still a challenge of how to translate the theory into practical and methodical design techniques that simultaneously satisfy a variety of performance requirements such as transient response, stability, and disturbance attenuation while taking into account the capabilities of the plant and its actuation system. This paper briefly addresses some relevant theory, first in layman s terms, so that it becomes easily understood and then it embarks into a practical and systematic design approach incorporating loop shaping design coupled with lead-lag control compensation design. The emphasis is in generating simple but rather powerful design techniques that will allow even designers with a layman s knowledge in controls to develop effective feedback control designs.

  12. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  13. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  14. SP-100 Control System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Jaikaran N.; Halfen, Frank J.; Brynsvold, Glen V.; Syed, Akbar; Jiang, Thomas J.; Wong, Kwok K.; Otwell, Robert L.

    1994-07-01

    Recent work in lower power generic early applications for the SP-100 have resulted in control system design simplification for a 20 kWe design with thermoelectric power conversion. This paper presents the non-mission-dependent control system features for this design. The control system includes a digital computer based controller, dual purpose control rods and drives, temperature sensors, and neutron flux monitors. The thaw system is mission dependent and can be either electrical or based on NaK trace lines. Key features of the control system and components are discussed. As was the case for higher power applications, the initial on-orbit approach to criticality involves the relatively fast withdrawal of the control-rods to a near-critical position followed by slower movement through critical and into the power range. The control system performs operating maneuvers as well as providing for automatic startup, shutdown, restart, and reactor protection.

  15. Systems Design Orientation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Institutions, Social and Rehabilitation Services, Oklahoma City.

    A 40-hour course in systems design is described. The course was developed for presentation to non-data processing management personnel whose responsibilities include utilization of data processing services. All course material is included. (Author/JY)

  16. Design of Knight LED system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wen; Lou, Yuna; Xiao, Zhihong

    2010-02-01

    This design introduces a used car on the design of LED decorative light strip. This LED named Knight LED. In This system we use ATMEGA8 as the Master MCU Chip. Through the microcontroller to implement the wireless remote control receiver and the LED lights of different modes of switching, different brightness control. Also we use ULN2803 as the LED driver.

  17. Digital systems design language. Design synthesis of digital systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiva, S. G.

    1979-01-01

    The Digital Systems Design Language (DDL) is implemented on the SEL-32 computer systems. The details of the language, translator and simulator programs are included. Several example descriptions and a tutorial on hardware description languages are provided, to guide the user.

  18. System design projects for undergraduate design education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, S. M.; Pinkelman, J.

    1993-01-01

    Design education has received considerable in the recent past. This paper is intended to address one aspect of undergraduate design education and that is the selection and development of the design project for a capstone design course. Specific goals for a capstone design course are presented and their influence on the project selection are discussed. The evolution of a series of projects based upon the design of remotely piloted aircraft is presented along with students' perspective on the capstone experience.

  19. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A: Detailed report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, J. F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    Baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants are presented. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW sub e (net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and use underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market.

  20. Design of an energy efficient solar powered water desalting plant

    SciTech Connect

    Nadler, M.

    1981-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for a 6000 m/sup 3//day totally solar thermal energy powered seawater desalting plant. The objective was to design a process which would produce water at minimum cost using leading edge but commercial or near-commercial technology. Because the cost of solar energy is high, about half the cost of the plant is for solar equipment, minimum product water cost is achieved by minimizing energy consumption.

  1. The CCTV system design problem

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, P.E.

    1993-12-31

    There are numerous cases where CCTV system performance is less than ideal. The detection probability of a complete barrier system frequently relies upon the ability of the security operator to perform a particular visual task. This impacts directly upon the staffing costs for the response teams. This situation has given rise to the introduction of systems performance tests. The subsequent adoption of these tests for use in systems performance requirements at purchase time means that the system designer needs to be able to characterize the performance of all of the system components, and to understand the way in which each of them contribute to the performance of the whole system. Broadly this knowledge is not available. Work has been done to review the ways in which the operator performance impacts upon the specification of the different hardware components. A broader understanding of the whole system design problem has been obtained as a result of this work.

  2. Preliminary design study of underground pumped hydro and compressed-air energy storage in hard rock. Volume 12: Plant design, CAES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-04-01

    Detailed designs were developed for the major components and systems of the CAES plant. These designs were based upon the preliminary economic and technical evaluations and alternative designs developed in Task 3C. The detailed project design drawings for the major plant systems and structures are presented. The site development report, updated cost estimate, cost/schedule risk study, reliability/availability, analysis, and recommendations for additional research and development are included.

  3. Biomass Production System (BPS) plant growth unit.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R C; Crabb, T M

    2000-01-01

    The Biomass Production System (BPS) was developed under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program to meet science, biotechnology and commercial plant growth needs in the Space Station era. The BPS is equivalent in size to a double middeck locker, but uses its own custom enclosure with a slide out structure to which internal components mount. The BPS contains four internal growth chambers, each with a growing volume of more than 4 liters. Each of the growth chambers has active nutrient delivery, and independent control of temperature, humidity, lighting, and CO2 set-points. Temperature control is achieved using a thermoelectric heat exchanger system. Humidity control is achieved using a heat exchanger with a porous interface which can both humidify and dehumidify. The control software utilizes fuzzy logic for nonlinear, coupled temperature and humidity control. The fluorescent lighting system can be dimmed to provide a range of light levels. CO2 levels are controlled by injecting pure CO2 to the system based on input from an infrared gas analyzer. The unit currently does not scrub CO2, but has been designed to accept scrubber cartridges. In addition to providing environmental control, a number of features are included to facilitate science. The BPS chambers are sealed to allow CO2 and water vapor exchange measurements. The plant chambers can be removed to allow manipulation or sampling of specimens, and each chamber has gas/fluid sample ports. A video camera is provided for each chamber, and frame-grabs and complete environmental data for all science and hardware system sensors are stored on an internal hard drive. Data files can also be transferred to 3.5-inch disks using the front panel disk drive. PMID:11543164

  4. FFTF fuel systems design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Dutt, D.S.; Baars, R.E.; Jackson, R.J.; Weber, J.W.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to first enumerate the design considerations that were given to the fuel system, then secondly, show how these design allowances, methods, and criteria compare to the subsequent irradiation data. This comparison will show that decisions made by the design team were generally correct and, if in error, tended to be conservative. The FFTF driver fuel assemblies addressed by this paper are composed of the duct, a spacer system, and 217 fuel pins. Each of these subcomponents is described as the criteria are discussed and important parameters noted.

  5. Automatic design of IMA systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, U.; Reichel, R.

    During the last years, the integrated modular avionics (IMA) design philosophy became widely established at aircraft manufacturers, giving rise to a series of new design challenges, most notably the allocation of avionics functions to the various IMA components and the placement of this equipment in the aircraft. This paper presents a modelling approach for avionics that allows automation of some steps of the design process by applying an optimisation algorithm which searches for system configurations that fulfil the safety requirements and have low costs. The algorithm was implemented as a quite sophisticated software prototype, therefore we will also present detailed results of its application to actual avionics systems.

  6. Design considerations for an inertial confinement fusion reactor power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Massey, J.V.; Simpson, J.E.

    1981-08-10

    To further define the engineering and economic concerns for inertial confinement fusion reactors (ICR's), a conceptual design study was performed by Bechtel Group Incorporated under the direction of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The study examined alternatives to the LLNL HYLIFE concept and expanded the previous balance of plant design to incorporate information from recent liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) power plant studies. The majority of the effort was to incorporate present laser and target physics models into a reactor design with a low coolant flowrate and a high driver repetition rate. An example of such a design is the LLNL JADE concept. In addition to producing a power plant design for LLNL using the JADE example, Bechtel has also examined the applicability of the EAGLE (Energy Absorbing Gas Lithium Ejector) concept.

  7. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 11: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 11 discusses Radiation Protection, Conduct of Operations, and the Initial Test Program.

  8. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 6: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report - Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These documents describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{sup TM} Standard Design. This report, Volume 6, in conjunction with Volume 7, provides a description of engineered safety features.

  9. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 17: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describes the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This Volume 17 provides Appendix A of this report, closure of unresolved and Genetic Safety Issues.

  10. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 18: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design. This Volume 18 provides Appendix B, Probabilistic Risk Assessment.

  11. System 80+{trademark} Standard Design: CESSAR design certification. Volume 8: Amendment I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-21

    This report, entitled Combustion Engineering Standard Safety Analysis Report -- Design Certification (CESSAR-DC), has been prepared in support of the industry effort to standardize nuclear plant designs. These volumes describe the Combustion Engineering, Inc. System 80{sup +}{trademark} Standard Design. This volume 8 provides a description of instrumentation and controls.

  12. Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, Ellen

    1998-07-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  13. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  14. CERCLA wastewater treatment plant, Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado. Concept design analysis

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    This project is necessary to provide treatment to wastewaters generated through interim actions, well development, decontamination and other pertinent operations. This project shall consist of a treatment facility capable of treating a variety of influent wastewaters. The system must be designed with sufficient flexibility to allow customized operation of the treatment plant. The plant shall also have a decontamination facility incorporated within the final design package. The decontamination facility shall be utilized to clean drums, equipment, and vehicles.

  15. Robust power system controller design based on measured models

    SciTech Connect

    Fatehi, F.; Smith, J.R.; Pierre, D.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents combined system identification and controller design methods to dampen low-frequency oscillations in multimachine power systems. An iterative closed-loop identification method is used to find a linear model for the power system. Linear quadratic Gaussian controller design with loop transfer recovery (LQG/LTR), based on a generalized technique for the nonminimum phase (NMP) power system model, is used to design controllers. Simulation results are presented to demonstrate the robustness of controllers based on closed-loop identified plant models and the amount of loop transfer recovery that is possible for NMP plant models.

  16. DSC: software tool for simulation-based design of control strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ruano, M V; Ribes, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a computer tool called DSC (Simulation based Controllers Design) that enables an easy design of control systems and strategies applied to wastewater treatment plants. Although the control systems are developed and evaluated by simulation, this tool aims to facilitate the direct implementation of the designed control system to the PC of the full-scale WWTP (wastewater treatment plants). The designed control system can be programmed in a dedicated control application and can be connected to either the simulation software or the SCADA of the plant. To this end, the developed DSC incorporates an OPC server (OLE for process control) which facilitates an open-standard communication protocol for different industrial process applications. The potential capabilities of the DSC tool are illustrated through the example of a full-scale application. An aeration control system applied to a nutrient removing WWTP was designed, tuned and evaluated with the DSC tool before its implementation in the full scale plant. The control parameters obtained by simulation were suitable for the full scale plant with only few modifications to improve the control performance. With the DSC tool, the control systems performance can be easily evaluated by simulation. Once developed and tuned by simulation, the control systems can be directly applied to the full-scale WWTP. PMID:21330730

  17. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, G. J.

    The 10-MW(sub e) Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the U.S. Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the U.S. utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  18. The design of future central receiver power plants based on lessons learned from the Solar One Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Kolb, G.J.

    1991-01-01

    The 10-MW{sub e} Solar One Pilot Plant was the world's largest solar central receiver power plant. During its power production years it delivered over 37,000 MWhrs (net) to the utility grid. In this type of electric power generating plant, large sun-tracking mirrors called heliostats reflect and concentrate sunlight onto a receiver mounted on top a of a tower. The receiver transforms the solar energy into thermal energy that heats water, turning it into superheated steam that drives a turbine to generate electricity. The Solar One Pilot Plant successfully demonstrated the feasibility of generating electricity with a solar central receiver power plant. During the initial 2 years the plant was tested and 4 years the plant was operated as a power plant, a great deal of data was collected relating to the efficiency and reliability of the plant's various systems. This paper summarizes these statistics and compares them to goals developed by the US Department of Energy. Based on this comparison, improvements in the design and operation of future central receiver plants are recommended. Research at Sandia National Laboratories and the US utility industry suggests that the next generation of central receiver power plants will use a molten salt heat transfer fluid rather than water/steam. Sandia has recently completed the development of the hardware needed in a molten salt power plant. Use of this new technology is expected to solve many of the performance problems encountered at Solar One. Projections for the energy costs from these future central receiver plants are also presented. For reference, these projections are compared to the current energy costs from the SEGS parabolic trough plants now operating in Southern California.

  19. Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant Response to Common Mode Failure of the Digital Plant Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheol Shin; Park, Chan Eok; Choi, Chul Jin; Seo, Jong Tae

    2002-07-15

    The Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (KSNP) has adopted the digital plant protection system (PPS) to enhance the reliability and safety of the plant. Although the digital PPS can be designed with high reliability, it is considered to be vulnerable to common mode failure (CMF) in the system software, resulting in a total loss of the built-in hardware redundancy. Therefore, a comprehensive evaluation has been performed to demonstrate the intrinsic capability of the KSNP design in coping with the design-basis events concurrent with CMF in the digital PPS. Instead of the conservative bounding analysis methodology, a best-estimate analysis methodology has been developed and utilized since the design-basis events accompanied by CMF in the digital PPS are categorized as beyond-design-basis events. An additional reactor trip function on high containment pressure in the diverse protection system (DPS), which is totally diverse from the PPS and is not affected by the CMF in the digital PPS, has been proposed to meet the acceptance criteria of the evaluation results. A variety of diverse means such as the DPS, process control systems, and operator actions including design modification have been verified to be effective in mitigating the design-basis events with CMF in the digital PPS.

  20. Design, test and commercialization considerations of OTEC pilot plant riser cables

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T. F.; Eaton, R.; Dalton, T.; Pieroni, C.; Walsh, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Discussion addresses riser cable system development for OTEC pilot plants transmitting power in the range of 10 to 40 MW. Specifically, design, testing and status of riser cable system development are reviewed. Further discussion encompasses unique technical, hardware and operational considerations associated with the commercialization of riser cable systems.

  1. Advanced turbine systems: Studies and conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    van der Linden, S.; Gnaedig, G.; Kreitmeier, F.

    1993-11-01

    The ABB selection for the Advanced Turbine System (ATS) includes advanced developments especially in the hot gas path of the combustion turbine and new state-of-the-art units such as the steam turbine and the HRSG. The increase in efficiency by more than 10% multiplicative compared to current designs will be based on: (1) Turbine Inlet Temperature Increase; (2) New Cooling Techniques for Stationary and Rotating Parts; and New Materials. Present, projected component improvements that will be introduced with the above mentioned issues will yield improved CCSC turbine performance, which will drive the ATS selected gas-fired reference CC power plant to 6 % LHV or better. The decrease in emission levels requires a careful optimization of the cycle design, where cooling air consumption has to be minimized. All interfaces of the individual systems in the complete CC Plant need careful checks, especially to avoid unnecessary margins in the individual designs. This study is an important step pointing out the feasibility of the ATS program with realistic goals set by DOE, which, however, will present challenges for Phase II time schedule of 18 months. With the approach outlined in this study and close cooperation with DOE, ATS program success can be achieved to deliver low emissions and low cost of electricity by the year 2002. The ABB conceptual design and step approach will lead to early component demonstration which will help accelerate the overall program objectives.

  2. Design of dechlorination units for power plant cooling streams

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.S.; Berker, A.; Whitaker, S.

    1980-02-01

    The design of dechlorination units using sulfur dioxide as a reducing agent for once-through power plant cooling streams is considered. The average concentration of hypochlorite ions is determined downstream from the point of injection of sulfurous acid as a function of the number of injection points and the initial sulfurous acid concentration. The results can be used for the design of sulfurous acid injection units required to reduce the hypochlorite ion concentration to a specified level. A sample design calculation is presented for a typical power plant cooling stream.

  3. ESS Cryogenic System Process Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, P.; Hees, W.; Jurns, J.; Su, X. T.; Wang, X. L.; Weisend, J. G., II

    2015-12-01

    The European Spallation Source (ESS) is a neutron-scattering facility funded and supported in collaboration with 17 European countries in Lund, Sweden. Cryogenic cooling at ESS is vital particularly for the linear accelerator, the hydrogen target moderators, a test stand for cryomodules, the neutron instruments and their sample environments. The paper will focus on specific process design criteria, design decisions and their motivations for the helium cryoplants and auxiliary equipment. Key issues for all plants and their process concepts are energy efficiency, reliability, smooth turn-down behaviour and flexibility. The accelerator cryoplant (ACCP) and the target moderator cryoplant (TMCP) in particular need to be prepared for a range of refrigeration capacities due to the intrinsic uncertainties regarding heat load definitions. Furthermore the paper addresses questions regarding process arrangement, 2 K cooling methodology, LN2 precooling, helium storage, helium purification and heat recovery.

  4. GenoCAD Plant Grammar to Design Plant Expression Vectors for Promoter Analysis.

    PubMed

    Coll, Anna; Wilson, Mandy L; Gruden, Kristina; Peccoud, Jean

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid advances in prediction tools for discovery of new promoters and their cis-elements, there is a need to improve plant expression methodologies in order to facilitate a high-throughput functional validation of these promoters in planta. The promoter-reporter analysis is an indispensible approach for characterization of plant promoters. It requires the design of complex plant expression vectors, which can be challenging. Here, we describe the use of a plant grammar implemented in GenoCAD that will allow the users to quickly design constructs for promoter analysis experiments but also for other in planta functional studies. The GenoCAD plant grammar includes a library of plant biological parts organized in structural categories to facilitate their use and management and a set of rules that guides the process of assembling these biological parts into large constructs. PMID:27557770

  5. Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naklie, M.M.

    1997-06-30

    A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

  6. Flight Design System-1 System Design Document. Volume 9: Executive logic flow, program design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The detailed logic flow for the Flight Design System Executive is presented. The system is designed to provide the hardware/software capability required for operational support of shuttle flight planning.

  7. Simplified tornado depressurization design methods for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, N.M.; Krasnopoler, M.I.

    1983-05-01

    A simplified approach for the calculation of tornado depressurization effects on nuclear power plant structures and components is based on a generic computer depressurization analysis for an arbitrary single volume V connected to the atmosphere by an effective vent area A. For a given tornado depressurization transient, the maximum depressurization ..delta..P of the volume was found to depend on the parameter V/A. The relation between ..delta..P and V/A can be represented by a single monotonically increasing curve for each of the three design-basis tornadoes described in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.76. These curves can be applied to most multiple-volume nuclear power plant structures by considering each volume and its controlling vent area. Where several possible flow areas could be controlling, the maximum value of V/A can be used to estimate a conservative value for ..delta..P. This simplified approach was shown to yield reasonably conservative results when compared to detailed computer calculations of moderately complex geometries. Treatment of severely complicated geometries, heating and ventilation systems, and multiple blowout panel arrangements were found to be beyond the limitations of the simplified analysis.

  8. Development of plant maintenance management system (pmms): a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che Azhar, N. A.; Mansor, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    In large plant industry, it is not easy to maintain machine performance without using any method such as checklist system. Manual checklist is a common maintenance checklist used in industry. All machine, equipment and parts that need to be checked will be written down for the employee to do maintenance checks. Converting the manual checklist to the Plant Maintenance Management System (PMMS) can improve the way of employees work and make plant management easier. Therefore, a new system was designed to maintain the equipment so that the activities are more efficient and cost effective. The system consists of three frames that connect to each other. The frames divide to section, equipment and checklist. This system also builds to prevent data from arbitrarily changes. Only certain officers or staffs are permitted to make modifications to data. Using this system, a company can make the office environment a paperless environment.

  9. Computer-aided system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Carrie K.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for combining features of a systems architecture design and assessment tool and a software development tool. This technique reduces simulation development time and expands simulation detail. The Architecture Design and Assessment System (ADAS), developed at the Research Triangle Institute, is a set of computer-assisted engineering tools for the design and analysis of computer systems. The ADAS system is based on directed graph concepts and supports the synthesis and analysis of software algorithms mapped to candidate hardware implementations. Greater simulation detail is provided by the ADAS functional simulator. With the functional simulator, programs written in either Ada or C can be used to provide a detailed description of graph nodes. A Computer-Aided Software Engineering tool developed at the Charles Stark Draper Laboratory (CSDL CASE) automatically generates Ada or C code from engineering block diagram specifications designed with an interactive graphical interface. A technique to use the tools together has been developed, which further automates the design process.

  10. Design soil profiles for seismic analyses of AP600 plant standard design

    SciTech Connect

    Ostadan, F.; Gross, K.K.; Liu, C.I.T.; Orr, R.S.

    1996-12-01

    Future nuclear power plants are based on standard designs. For seismic qualification, a variety of subsurface conditions are considered in the design. While the soil properties play a significant role in the seismic responses, an unlimited number of site conditions can be postulated for analyses. In this paper, a systematic and effective approach is described to arrive at the design soil profiles for the AP600 nuclear plant.

  11. Design procedure for satisfying time domain bounds for nonminimum-phase systems. [feedback control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostheimer, W. D.

    1972-01-01

    Design techniques are presented applicable to nonminimum-phase systems. They are designed to handle plants with one right-half-plane zero which may vary, and any other variation of the plant parameters within known limits. The specifications that must be designed are given as a set of step response bounds in the time domain. A completed design will yield responses that stay within the time domain bounds at all times and utilize the entire region of allowed variation.

  12. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  13. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    SciTech Connect

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-10-30

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time.

  14. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    SciTech Connect

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R.

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  15. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs. Volume 2, Designs, assessments, and comparisons, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Bieri, R.L.; Monsler, M.J.

    1992-03-01

    The primary objective of the of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was to provide the Office of Fusion Energy with an evaluation of the potential of inertial fusion for electric power production. The term reactor studies is somewhat of a misnomer since these studies included the conceptual design and analysis of all aspects of the IFE power plants: the chambers, heat transport and power conversion systems, other balance of plant facilities, target systems (including the target production, injection, and tracking systems), and the two drivers. The scope of the IFE Reactor Design Studies was quite ambitious. The majority of our effort was spent on the conceptual design of two IFE electric power plants, one using an induction linac heavy ion beam (HIB) driver and the other using a Krypton Fluoride (KrF) laser driver. After the two point designs were developed, they were assessed in terms of their (1) environmental and safety aspects; (2) reliability, availability, and maintainability; (3) technical issues and technology development requirements; and (4) economics. Finally, we compared the design features and the results of the assessments for the two designs.

  16. Developing a synthetic signal transduction system in plants.

    PubMed

    Morey, Kevin J; Antunes, Mauricio S; Albrecht, Kirk D; Bowen, Tessa A; Troupe, Jared F; Havens, Keira L; Medford, June I

    2011-01-01

    One area of focus in the emerging field of plant synthetic biology is the manipulation of systems involved in sensing and response to environmental signals. Sensing and responding to signals, including ligands, typically involves biological signal transduction. Plants use a wide variety of signaling systems to sense and respond to their environment. One of these systems, a histidine kinase (HK) based signaling system, lends itself to manipulation using the tools of synthetic biology. Both plants and bacteria use HKs to relay signals, which in bacteria can involve as few as two proteins (two-component systems or TCS). HK proteins are evolutionarily conserved between plants and bacteria and plant HK components have been shown to be functional in bacteria. We found that this conservation also applies to bacterial HK components which can function in plants. This conservation of function led us to hypothesize that synthetic HK signaling components can be designed and rapidly tested in bacteria. These novel HK signaling components form the foundation for a synthetic signaling system in plants, but typically require modifications such as codon optimization and proper targeting to allow optimal function. We describe the process and methodology of producing a synthetic signal transduction system in plants. We discovered that the bacterial response regulator (RR) PhoB shows HK-dependent nuclear translocation in planta. Using this discovery, we engineered a partial synthetic pathway in which a synthetic promoter (PlantPho) is activated using a plant-adapted PhoB (PhoB-VP64) and the endogenous HK-based cytokinin signaling pathway. Building on this work, we adapted an input or sensing system based on bacterial chemotactic binding proteins and HKs, resulting in a complete eukaryotic signal transduction system. Input to our eukaryotic signal transduction system is provided by a periplasmic binding protein (PBP), ribose-binding protein (RBP). RBP interacts with the membrane

  17. Modelling and designing digital control systems with averaged measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, Michael E.; Beale, Guy O.

    1988-01-01

    An account is given of the control systems engineering methods applicable to the design of digital feedback controllers for aerospace deterministic systems in which the output, rather than being an instantaneous measure of the system at the sampling instants, instead represents an average measure of the system over the time interval between samples. The averaging effect can be included during the modeling of the plant, thereby obviating the iteration of design/simulation phases.

  18. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  19. Orbital Maneuvering system design evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, C.; Humphries, C.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary design considerations and changes made in the baseline space shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) to reduce cost and weight are detailed. The definition of initial subsystem requirements, trade studies, and design approaches are considered. Design features of the engine, its injector, combustion chamber, nozzle extension and bipropellant valve are illustrated and discussed. The current OMS consists of two identical pods that use nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) propellants to provide 1000 ft/sec of delta velocity for a payload of 65,000 pounds. Major systems are pressurant gas storage and control, propellant storage supply and quantity measurement, and the rocket engine, which includes a bipropellant valve, an injector/thrust chamber, and a nozzle. The subsystem provides orbit insertion, circularization, and on orbit and deorbit capability for the shuttle orbiter.

  20. High efficiency waste to energy facility -- Pilot plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Orita, Norihiko; Kawahara, Yuuzou; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Yamauchi, Toru; Hosoda, Takuo

    1998-07-01

    Waste To Energy facilities are commonly acceptable to the environment and give benefits in two main areas: one is a hygienic waste disposal and another is waste heat energy recovery to save fossil fuel consumption. Recovered energy is used for electricity supply, and it is required to increase the efficiency of refuse to electric energy conversion, and to spread the plant construction throughout the country of Japan, by the government. The national project started in 1992, and pilot plant design details were established in 1995. The objective of the project is to get 30% of energy conversion efficiency through the measure by raising the steam temperature and pressure to 500 C and 9.8 MPa respectively. The pilot plant is operating under the design conditions, which verify the success of applied technologies. This paper describes key technologies which were used to design the refuse burning boiler, which generates the highest steam temperature and pressure steam.

  1. MAP Propulsion System Thermal Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosier, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    The propulsion system of the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) had stringent requirements that made the thermal design unique. To meet instrument stability requirements the system had to be designed to keep temperatures of all components within acceptable limits without heater cycling. Although the spacecraft remains at a fixed 22 sun angle at L2, the variations in solar constant, property degradation, and bus voltage range all significantly affect the temperature. Large portions of the fuel lines are external to the structure and all components are mounted to non-conductive composite structure. These two facts made the sensitivity to the MLI effective emissivity and bus temperature very high. Approximately two years prior to launch the propulsion system was redesigned to meet MAP requirements. The new design utilized hardware that was already installed in order to meet schedule constraints. The spacecraft design and the thermal requirements were changed to compensate for inadequacies of the existing hardware. The propulsion system consists of fuel lines, fill and drain lines/valve, eight thrusters, a HXCM, and a propulsion tank. A voltage regulator was added to keep critical components within limits. Software was developed to control the operational heaters. Trim resistors were put in series with each operational heater circuits and the tank survival heater. A highly sophisticated test program, which included real time model correlation, was developed to determine trim resistors sizes. These trim resistors were installed during a chamber break and verified during thermal balance testing.

  2. Nanoscale control designs for systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yung-Yue

    2014-02-01

    Nanoscale control is the science of the control of objects at dimensions with 100 nm or less and the manipulation of them at this level of precision. The desired attributes of systems under nanoscale control design are extreme high resolution, accuracy, stability, and fast response. An important perspective of investigation in nanoscale control design includes system modeling and precision control devices and materials at a nanoscale dimension, i.e., design of nanopositioners. Nanopositioners are mechatronic systems with an ultraprecise resolution down to a fraction of an atomic diameter and developed to move objects over a small range in nanoscale dimension. After reviewing a lot of existing literatures for nanoscale control designs, the way to successful nanoscale control is accurate position sensing and feedback control of the motion. An overview of nanoscale identification, linear, and nonlinear control technologies, and devices that are playing a key role in improving precision, accuracy, and response of operation of these systems are introduced in this research. PMID:24749455

  3. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  4. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 3. Appendices. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. K.

    1983-12-31

    The auxiliary heat transport systems of the Carrisa Plains Solar Power Plant (CPSPP) comprise facilities which are used to support plant operation and provide plant safety and maintenance. The facilities are the sodium purification system, argon cover gas system, sodium receiving and filling system, sodium-water reaction product receiving system, and safety and maintenance equipment. The functions of the facilities of the auxiliary system are described. Design requirements are established based on plant operating parameters. Descriptions are given on the system which will be adequate to perform the function and satisfy the requirements. Valve and equipment lists are included in the appendix.

  5. Potential of plant genetic systems for monitoring and screening mutagens

    PubMed Central

    Nilan, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    developed and more widely used in mutagen monitoring and screening, especially for in situ monitoring, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on pollen systems in which changes in pollen structure, chemistry, and chromosomes can be scored for monitoring; and screening systems which can record low levels of genetic effects as well as provide information on the nature of induced mutations. The value of plant systems for monitoring and screening mutagens can be improved by: greater knowledge of plant cell processes at the molecular and ultrastructural levels; relating these processes to mutagen effects and plant cell responses; improving current systems for increased sensitivity, ease of detecting genetic and chromosome changes, recording of data (including automation), and for extending the range of genetic and chromosome end points; and designing and developing new systems with the aid of previous and current botanical and genetic knowledge. PMID:367768

  6. Power plant system assessment. Final report. SP-100 Program

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.V.; Atkins, D.F.; Bost, D.S.; Berman, B.; Clinger, D.A.; Determan, W.R.; Drucker, G.S.; Glasgow, L.E.; Hartung, J.A.; Harty, R.B.

    1983-10-31

    The purpose of this assessment was to provide system-level insights into 100-kWe-class space reactor electric systems. Using these insights, Rockwell was to select and perform conceptual design studies on a ''most attractive'' system that met the preliminary design goals and requirements of the SP-100 Program. About 4 of the 6 months were used in the selection process. The remaining 2 months were used for the system conceptual design studies. Rockwell completed these studies at the end of FY 1983. This report summarizes the results of the power plant system assessment and describes our choice for the most attractive system - the Rockwell SR-100G System (Space Reactor, 100 kWe, Growth) - a lithium-cooled UN-fueled fast reactor/Brayton turboelectric converter system.

  7. Expert System Control of Plant Growth in an Enclosed Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Lanoue, Mark; Bathel, Matthew; Ryan, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    The Expert System is an enclosed, controlled environment for growing plants, which incorporates a computerized, knowledge-based software program that is designed to capture the knowledge, experience, and problem-solving skills of one or more human experts in a particular discipline. The Expert System is trained to analyze crop/plant status, to monitor the condition of the plants and the environment, and to adjust operational parameters to optimize the plant-growth process. This system is intended to provide a way to remotely control plant growth with little or no human intervention. More specifically, the term control implies an autonomous method for detecting plant states such as health (biomass) or stress and then for recommending and implementing cultivation and/or remediation to optimize plant growth and to minimize consumption of energy and nutrients. Because of difficulties associated with delivering energy and nutrients remotely, a key feature of this Expert System is its ability to minimize this effort and to achieve optimum growth while taking into account the diverse range of environmental considerations that exist in an enclosed environment. The plant-growth environment for the Expert System could be made from a variety of structures, including a greenhouse, an underground cavern, or another enclosed chamber. Imaging equipment positioned within or around the chamber provides spatially distributed crop/plant-growth information. Sensors mounted in the chamber provide data and information pertaining to environmental conditions that could affect plant development. Lamps in the growth environment structure supply illumination, and other additional equipment in the chamber supplies essential nutrients and chemicals.

  8. Advanced Neutron Source: Plant Design Requirements. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source will be a new world-class facility for research using hot, thermal, cold, and ultra-cold neutrons. The heart of the facility will be a 330-MW (fission), heavy-water cooled and heavy-water moderated reactor. The reactor will be housed in a central reactor building, with supporting equipment located in an adjoining reactor support building. An array of cold neutron guides will fan out into a large guide hall, housing about 30 neutron research stations. Appropriate office, laboratory, and shop facilities will be included to provide a complete facility for users. The ANS is scheduled to begin operation at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory early in the next decade. This PDR document defines the plant-level requirements for the design, construction, and operation of ANS. It also defines and provides input to the individual System Design Description (SDD) documents. Together, this PDR document and the set of SDD documents will define and control the baseline configuration of ANS.

  9. Teaching the design of thermal systems using equation solvers

    SciTech Connect

    Garimella, S.

    1999-07-01

    Teaching the design of thermal systems requires an integrated approach that treats subjects such as thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer as parts of one interconnected area, in which appropriate solutions to real-life design and analysis problems can be obtained only when all these aspects are considered simultaneously. This approach must be implemented through open-ended homework problems and design project-oriented teaching. Topics related to HVAC and other thermal systems that must be addressed include fluid flow networks, heat exchanger design, design and selection of pumps, fans and compressors, heat recovery systems, psychrometrics, air-conditioning systems, electronic cooling systems, fuels and combustion, solar thermal systems, and power plant design. A course that teaches the design of such systems and the wide array of thermal science applications is described in this paper.

  10. Baseline designs of moored and grazing 40-MW OTEC pilot plants. Volume A. Detailed report

    SciTech Connect

    George, J.F.; Richards, D.

    1980-06-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) of the Johns Hopkins University has engineered baseline designs of two types of floating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) pilot plants. Both designs feature floating concrete hull structures that house up to 40 MW/sub e/(net) of OTEC power systems. One plant is designed for moored operation at an island site, and uses underwater cables to transmit electric power to a shore-based utility company. The other plant is self-propelled and cruises slowly through tropical waters, using the OTEC electric power to produce an energy-intensive product onboard, where it is stored for later transshipment to market. The work is documented in two volumes. This volume is the Detailed Report, which develops the design rationale, summarizes important calculations, outlines areas for future work, and presents a study of system costs.

  11. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C.; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N.; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants.This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance. PMID:26230701

  12. Structured Light-Based 3D Reconstruction System for Plants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thuy Tuong; Slaughter, David C; Max, Nelson; Maloof, Julin N; Sinha, Neelima

    2015-01-01

    Camera-based 3D reconstruction of physical objects is one of the most popular computer vision trends in recent years. Many systems have been built to model different real-world subjects, but there is lack of a completely robust system for plants. This paper presents a full 3D reconstruction system that incorporates both hardware structures (including the proposed structured light system to enhance textures on object surfaces) and software algorithms (including the proposed 3D point cloud registration and plant feature measurement). This paper demonstrates the ability to produce 3D models of whole plants created from multiple pairs of stereo images taken at different viewing angles, without the need to destructively cut away any parts of a plant. The ability to accurately predict phenotyping features, such as the number of leaves, plant height, leaf size and internode distances, is also demonstrated. Experimental results show that, for plants having a range of leaf sizes and a distance between leaves appropriate for the hardware design, the algorithms successfully predict phenotyping features in the target crops, with a recall of 0.97 and a precision of 0.89 for leaf detection and less than a 13-mm error for plant size, leaf size and internode distance. PMID:26230701

  13. Interface problems between material recycling systems and plants.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K; Oguchi, M; Otsubo, K

    1992-01-01

    A most important problem to creating a CELSS system to be used in space, for example, for a Lunar Base or Manned Mars mission, seems to be how to design and operate the various material recycling systems to be used on the missions. Recent studies of a Lunar Base habitat have identified examples of CELSS configurations to be used for the Plant Cultivation Module. Material recycling subsystems to be installed in the Plant Cultivation Modules are proposed to consist of various sub-systems, such as dehumidifiers, oxygen separation systems, catalytic wet oxidation systems, nitrogen adjusting systems, including tanks, and so on. The required performances of such various material recycling subsystems are determined based on precise metabolic data of derived from the various species of plants to be selected and investigated. The plant metabolic data, except that for wheat and potato, has not been fully collected at the present time. Therefore, much additional plant cultivation data is required to determine the performances of each material recycling subsystem introduced in Plant Cultivation Modules. PMID:11537056

  14. Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, C. -F.; Hurley, Francis X.; Huang, Jie; Hadaegh, F. Y.

    1996-01-01

    %T Integrated Aeropropulsion Control System Design%A C-F. Lin%A Francis X. Hurley%A Jie Huang%A F. Y. Hadaegh%J International Conference on Control and Information(psi)995%C Hong Kong%D June 1995%K aeropropulsion, control, system%U http://jpltrs.jpl.nasa.gov/1995/95-0658.pdfAn integrated intelligent control approach is proposed to design a high performance control system for aeropropulsion systems based on advanced sensor processing, nonlinear control and neural fuzzy control integration. Our approach features the following innovations:??e complexity and uncertainty issues are addressed via the distributed parallel processing, learning, and online reoptimization properties of neural networks.??e nonlinear dynamics and the severe coupling can be naturally incorporated into the design framework.??e knowledge base and decision making logic furnished by fuzzy systems leads to a human intelligence enhanced control scheme.In addition, fault tolerance, health monitoring and reconfigurable control strategies will be accommodated by this approach to ensure stability, graceful degradation and reoptimization in the case of failures, malfunctions and damage.!.

  15. The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, S.; Abraham, W.; Aleksandrov, A.; Allen, C.; Alonso, J.; Anderson, D.; Arenius, D.; Arthur, T.; Assadi, S.; Ayers, J.; Bach, P.; Badea, V.; Battle, R.; Beebe-Wang, J.; Bergmann, B.; Bernardin, J.; Bhatia, T.; Billen, J.; Birke, T.; Bjorklund, E.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Blind, B.; Blokland, W.; Bookwalter, V.; Borovina, D.; Bowling, S.; Bradley, J.; Brantley, C.; Brennan, J.; Brodowski, J.; Brown, S.; Brown, R.; Bruce, D.; Bultman, N.; Cameron, P.; Campisi, I.; Casagrande, F.; Catalan-Lasheras, N.; Champion, M.; Champion, M.; Chen, Z.; Cheng, D.; Cho, Y.; Christensen, K.; Chu, C.; Cleaves, J.; Connolly, R.; Cote, T.; Cousineau, S.; Crandall, K.; Creel, J.; Crofford, M.; Cull, P.; Cutler, R.; Dabney, R.; Dalesio, L.; Daly, E.; Damm, R.; Danilov, V.; Davino, D.; Davis, K.; Dawson, C.; Day, L.; Deibele, C.; Delayen, J.; DeLong, J.; Demello, A.; DeVan, W.; Digennaro, R.; Dixon, K.; Dodson, G.; Doleans, M.; Doolittle, L.; Doss, J.; Drury, M.; Elliot, T.; Ellis, S.; Error, J.; Fazekas, J.; Fedotov, A.; Feng, P.; Fischer, J.; Fox, W.; Fuja, R.; Funk, W.; Galambos, J.; Ganni, V.; Garnett, R.; Geng, X.; Gentzlinger, R.; Giannella, M.; Gibson, P.; Gillis, R.; Gioia, J.; Gordon, J.; Gough, R.; Greer, J.; Gregory, W.; Gribble, R.; Grice, W.; Gurd, D.; Gurd, P.; Guthrie, A.; Hahn, H.; Hardek, T.; Hardekopf, R.; Harrison, J.; Hatfield, D.; He, P.; Hechler, M.; Heistermann, F.; Helus, S.; Hiatt, T.; Hicks, S.; Hill, J.; Hill, J.; Hoff, L.; Hoff, M.; Hogan, J.; Holding, M.; Holik, P.; Holmes, J.; Holtkamp, N.; Hovater, C.; Howell, M.; Hseuh, H.; Huhn, A.; Hunter, T.; Ilg, T.; Jackson, J.; Jain, A.; Jason, A.; Jeon, D.; Johnson, G.; Jones, A.; Joseph, S.; Justice, A.; Kang, Y.; Kasemir, K.; Keller, R.; Kersevan, R.; Kerstiens, D.; Kesselman, M.; Kim, S.; Kneisel, P.; Kravchuk, L.; Kuneli, T.; Kurennoy, S.; Kustom, R.; Kwon, S.; Ladd, P.; Lambiase, R.; Lee, Y. Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Lewis, S.; Liaw, C.; Lionberger, C.; Lo, C. C.; Long, C.; Ludewig, H.; Ludvig, J.; Luft, P.; Lynch, M.; Ma, H.; MacGill, R.; Macha, K.; Madre, B.; Mahler, G.; Mahoney, K.; Maines, J.; Mammosser, J.; Mann, T.; Marneris, I.; Marroquin, P.; Martineau, R.; Matsumoto, K.; McCarthy, M.; McChesney, C.; McGahern, W.; McGehee, P.; Meng, W.; Merz, B.; Meyer, R.; Meyer, R.; Miller, B.; Mitchell, R.; Mize, J.; Monroy, M.; Munro, J.; Murdoch, G.; Musson, J.; Nath, S.; Nelson, R.; Nelson, R.; O`Hara, J.; Olsen, D.; Oren, W.; Oshatz, D.; Owens, T.; Pai, C.; Papaphilippou, I.; Patterson, N.; Patterson, J.; Pearson, C.; Pelaia, T.; Pieck, M.; Piller, C.; Plawski, T.; Plum, M.; Pogge, J.; Power, J.; Powers, T.; Preble, J.; Prokop, M.; Pruyn, J.; Purcell, D.; Rank, J.; Raparia, D.; Ratti, A.; Reass, W.; Reece, K.; Rees, D.; Regan, A.; Regis, M.; Reijonen, J.; Rej, D.; Richards, D.; Richied, D.; Rode, C.; Rodriguez, W.; Rodriguez, M.; Rohlev, A.; Rose, C.; Roseberry, T.; Rowton, L.; Roybal, W.; Rust, K.; Salazer, G.; Sandberg, J.; Saunders, J.; Schenkel, T.; Schneider, W.; Schrage, D.; Schubert, J.; Severino, F.; Shafer, R.; Shea, T.; Shishlo, A.; Shoaee, H.; Sibley, C.; Sims, J.; Smee, S.; Smith, J.; Smith, K.; Spitz, R.; Staples, J.; Stein, P.; Stettler, M.; Stirbet, M.; Stockli, M.; Stone, W.; Stout, D.; Stovall, J.; Strelo, W.; Strong, H.; Sundelin, R.; Syversrud, D.; Szajbler, M.; Takeda, H.; Tallerico, P.; Tang, J.; Tanke, E.; Tepikian, S.; Thomae, R.; Thompson, D.; Thomson, D.; Thuot, M.; Treml, C.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.; Tuzel, W.; Vassioutchenko, A.; Virostek, S.; Wallig, J.; Wanderer, P.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J. G.; Wangler, T.; Warren, D.; Wei, J.; Weiss, D.; Welton, R.; Weng, J.; Weng, W.-T.; Wezensky, M.; White, M.; Whitlatch, T.; Williams, D.; Williams, E.; Wilson, K.; Wiseman, M.; Wood, R.; Wright, P.; Wu, A.; Ybarrolaza, N.; Young, K.; Young, L.; Yourd, R.; Zachoszcz, A.; Zaltsman, A.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhukov, A.

    2014-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) was designed and constructed by a collaboration of six U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories. The SNS accelerator system consists of a 1 GeV linear accelerator and an accumulator ring providing 1.4 MW of proton beam power in microsecond-long beam pulses to a liquid mercury target for neutron production. The accelerator complex consists of a front-end negative hydrogen-ion injector system, an 87 MeV drift tube linear accelerator, a 186 MeV side-coupled linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, a 248-m circumference accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines. The accelerator complex is supported by ~100 high-power RF power systems, a 2 K cryogenic plant, ~400 DC and pulsed power supply systems, ~400 beam diagnostic devices and a distributed control system handling ~100,000 I/O signals. The beam dynamics design of the SNS accelerator is presented, as is the engineering design of the major accelerator subsystems.

  16. Automating software design system DESTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovitsky, Vladimir A.; Pearce, Patricia D.

    1992-01-01

    'DESTA' is the acronym for the Dialogue Evolutionary Synthesizer of Turnkey Algorithms by means of a natural language (Russian or English) functional specification of algorithms or software being developed. DESTA represents the computer-aided and/or automatic artificial intelligence 'forgiving' system which provides users with software tools support for algorithm and/or structured program development. The DESTA system is intended to provide support for the higher levels and earlier stages of engineering design of software in contrast to conventional Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems which provide low level tools for use at a stage when the major planning and structuring decisions have already been taken. DESTA is a knowledge-intensive system. The main features of the knowledge are procedures, functions, modules, operating system commands, batch files, their natural language specifications, and their interlinks. The specific domain for the DESTA system is a high level programming language like Turbo Pascal 6.0. The DESTA system is operational and runs on an IBM PC computer.

  17. Transient expression systems for plant-derived biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Komarova, Tatiana V; Baschieri, Selene; Donini, Marcello; Marusic, Carla; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Dorokhov, Yuri L

    2010-08-01

    In the molecular farming area, transient expression approaches for pharmaceutical proteins production, mainly recombinant monoclonal antibodies and vaccines, were developed almost two decades ago and, to date, these systems basically depend on Agrobacterium-mediated delivery and virus expression machinery. We survey here the current state-of-the-art of this research field. Several vectors have been designed on the basis of DNA- and RNA-based plant virus genomes and viral vectors are used both as single- and multicomponent expression systems in different combinations depending on the protein of interest. The obvious advantages of these systems are ease of manipulation, speed, low cost and high yield of proteins. In addition, Agrobacterium-mediated expression also allows the production in plants of complex proteins assembled from subunits. Currently, the transient expression methods are preferential over any other transgenic system for the exploitation of large and unrestricted numbers of plants in a contained environment. By designing optimal constructs and related means of delivery into plant cells, the overall technology plan considers scenarios that envisage high yield of bioproducts and ease in monitoring the whole spectrum of upstream production, before entering good manufacturing practice facilities. In this way, plant-derived bioproducts show promise of high competitiveness towards classical eukaryotic cell factory systems. PMID:20673010

  18. Design Option of Heat Exchanger for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Eung Soo Kim; Chang Oh

    2008-09-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a very High temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTGRS) concept, will provide the first demonstration of a closed-loop Brayton cycle at a commercial scale of a few hundred megawatts electric and hydrogen production. The power conversion system (PCS) for the NGNP will take advantage of the significantly higher reactor outlet temperatures of the VHTGRS to provide higher efficiencies than can be achieved in the current generation of light water reactors. Besides demonstrating a system design that can be used directly for subsequent commercial deployment, the NGNP will demonstrate key technology elements that can be used in subsequent advanced power conversion systems for other Generation IV reactors. In anticipation of the design, development and procurement of an advanced power conversion system for the NGNP, the system integration of the NGNP and hydrogen plant was initiated to identify the important design and technology options that must be considered in evaluating the performance of the proposed NGNP. As part of the system integration of the VHTGRS and hydrogen production plant, the intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the process heat from VHTGRS to hydrogen plant. Therefore, the design and configuration of the intermediate heat exchanger are very important. This paper will include analysis of one stage versus two stage heat exchanger design configurations and thermal stress analyses of a printed circuit heat exchanger, helical coil heat exchanger, and shell/tube heat exchanger.

  19. Role of Design Standards in Wind Plant Optimization (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Veers, P.; Churchfield, M.; Lee, S.; Moon, J.; Larsen, G.

    2013-10-01

    When a turbine is optimized, it is done within the design constraints established by the objective criteria in the international design standards used to certify a design. Since these criteria are multifaceted, it is a challenging task to conduct the optimization, but it can be done. The optimization is facilitated by the fact that a standard turbine model is subjected to standard inflow conditions that are well characterized in the standard. Examples of applying these conditions to rotor optimization are examined. In other cases, an innovation may provide substantial improvement in one area, but be challenged to impact all of the myriad design load cases. When a turbine is placed in a wind plant, the challenge is magnified. Typical design practice optimizes the turbine for stand-alone operation, and then runs a check on the actual site conditions, including wakes from all nearby turbines. Thus, each turbine in a plant has unique inflow conditions. The possibility of creating objective and consistent inflow conditions for turbines within a plant, for used in optimization of the turbine and the plant, are examined with examples taken from LES simulation.

  20. Design and acquisition process for the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.; Bowman, A.L.

    1986-01-01

    In August 1984, the USAF entered into a joint agreement with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to consider with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to consider nuclear energy as an alternative to meet secure power requirements. With USAF approval, the DOE began development of the Multimegawatt Terrestrial Power Plant (MTPP), a nuclear reactor power plant capable of providing safe, sustained, secure, reliable, and economic power to key mission facilities. The MTPP would provide base-load electricity and/or thermal energy as well as energy to key mission facilities. The plant would operate for extended time periods (months or years) without refueling and be independent of off-site support. The MTPP is to be designed to the most modern standards and is to meet USAF and DOE design requirements. Except for a few unique features that assure the plant is capable of supporting military missions, the design would meet licensing criteria. A few of the major design criteria are described. Procurement, and design efforts are also discussed.

  1. Assessment of next generation nuclear plant intermediate heat exchanger design.

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, S.; Moisseytsev, A.; Natesan, K.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2008-10-17

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), which is an advanced high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concept with emphasis on production of both electricity and hydrogen, involves helium as the coolant and a closed-cycle gas turbine for power generation with a core outlet/gas turbine inlet temperature of 900-1000 C. In the indirect cycle system, an intermediate heat exchanger is used to transfer the heat from primary helium from the core to the secondary fluid, which can be helium, nitrogen/helium mixture, or a molten salt. The system concept for the vary high temperature reactor (VHTR) can be a reactor based on the prismatic block of the GT-MHR developed by a consortium led by General Atomics in the U.S. or based on the PBMR design developed by ESKOM of South Africa and British Nuclear Fuels of U.K. This report has made an assessment on the issues pertaining to the intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP. A detailed thermal hydraulic analysis, using models developed at ANL, was performed to calculate heat transfer, temperature distribution, and pressure drop. Two IHX designs namely, shell and straight tube and compact heat exchangers were considered in an earlier assessment. Helical coil heat exchangers were analyzed in the current report and the results were compared with the performance features of designs from industry. In addition, a comparative analysis is presented between the shell and straight tube, helical, and printed circuit heat exchangers from the standpoint of heat exchanger volume, primary and secondary sides pressure drop, and number of tubes. The IHX being a high temperature component, probably needs to be designed using ASME Code Section III, Subsection NH, assuming that the IHX will be classified as a class 1 component. With input from thermal hydraulic calculations performed at ANL, thermal conduction and stress analyses were performed for the helical heat exchanger design and the results were compared with earlier-developed results on

  2. Telecommunications Systems Design Techniques Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) increasingly supports deep space missions sponsored and managed by organizations without long experience in DSN design and operation. The document is intended as a textbook for those DSN users inexperienced in the design and specification of a DSN-compatible spacecraft telecommunications system. For experienced DSN users, the document provides a reference source of telecommunication information which summarizes knowledge previously available only in a multitude of sources. Extensive references are quoted for those who wish to explore specific areas more deeply.

  3. A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Richard J.

    2015-08-17

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with {sup 130}Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  4. Large-scale micropropagation system of plant cells.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Plant micropropagation is an efficient method of propagating disease-free, genetically uniform and massive amounts of plants in vitro. The scale-up of the whole process for plant micropropagation should be established by an economically feasible technology for large-scale production of them in appropriate bioreactors. It is necessary to design suitable bioreactor configuration which can provide adequate mixing and mass transfer while minimizing the intensity of shear stress and hydrodynamic pressure. Automatic selection of embryogenic calli and regenerated plantlets using image analysis system should be associated with the system. The aim of this chapter is to identify the problems related to large-scale plant micropropagation via somatic embryogenesis, and to summarize the micropropagation technology and computer-aided image analysis. Viscous additive supplemented culture, which is including the successful results obtained by us for callus regeneration, is also introduced. PMID:15453194

  5. A scintillator purification plant and fluid handling system for SNO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    A large capacity purification plant and fluid handling system has been constructed for the SNO+ neutrino and double-beta decay experiment, located 6800 feet underground at SNOLAB, Canada. SNO+ is a refurbishment of the SNO detector to fill the acrylic vessel with liquid scintillator based on Linear Alkylbenzene (LAB) and 2 g/L PPO, and also has a phase to load natural tellurium into the scintillator for a double-beta decay experiment with 130Te. The plant includes processes multi-stage dual-stream distillation, column water extraction, steam stripping, and functionalized silica gel adsorption columns. The plant also includes systems for preparing the scintillator with PPO and metal-loading the scintillator for double-beta decay exposure. We review the basis of design, the purification principles, specifications for the plant, and the construction and installations. The construction and commissioning status is updated.

  6. ARGOS laser system mechanical design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deysenroth, M.; Honsberg, M.; Gemperlein, H.; Ziegleder, J.; Raab, W.; Rabien, S.; Barl, L.; Gässler, W.; Borelli, J. L.

    2014-07-01

    ARGOS, a multi-star adaptive optics system is designed for the wide-field imager and multi-object spectrograph LUCI on the LBT (Large Binocular Telescope). Based on Rayleigh scattering the laser constellation images 3 artificial stars (at 532 nm) per each of the 2 eyes of the LBT, focused at a height of 12 km (Ground Layer Adaptive Optics). The stars are nominally positioned on a circle 2' in radius, but each star can be moved by up to 0.5' in any direction. For all of these needs are following main subsystems necessary: 1. A laser system with its 3 Lasers (Nd:YAG ~18W each) for delivering strong collimated light as for LGS indispensable. 2. The Launch system to project 3 beams per main mirror as a 40 cm telescope to the sky. 3. The Wave Front Sensor with a dichroic mirror. 4. The dichroic mirror unit to grab and interpret the data. 5. A Calibration Unit to adjust the system independently also during day time. 6. Racks + platforms for the WFS units. 7. Platforms and ladders for a secure access. This paper should mainly demonstrate how the ARGOS Laser System is configured and designed to support all other systems.

  7. FGD systems -- Physical deterioration of the chemical plant facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dille, E.R.; Ridge, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The Clean Air Act of 1970 established the initial requirements for the control of flue gas emissions from fossil-fuel-fired power plants in the US. Until then, only mechanical collectors and electrostatic precipitators regulated smoke and fly ash emissions from these plants. Now, a new technique for controlling the chemical emissions from a fossil-fuel-fired power plant had to be installed. Since there was practically no time for a research and development program, the power industry had to move quickly to select a compliance system. They chose to modify existing technology from the chemical industry for their specific need. Thus, wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems were born into the power industry and a chemical plant was added between the electrostatic precipitator and the chimney. This paper provides insight on how a program can be implemented to reconcile the materials and corrosion protection techniques available today to the specific areas of an FGD system. This paper focuses on a typical wet limestone FGD process. This type of process constitutes the vast majority of the FGD systems by total megawatt generation in the US. The power industry must learn from its chemical plant experience if it intends to extend the service life of FGD systems to match the design life of the remaining plant power block.

  8. Engineering Design Information System (EDIS) user' manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.S.; Short, R.D.

    1991-11-01

    This manual is a guide to the use of the Engineering Design Information System (EDIS). The system runs on the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., IBM 3084 unclassified computer. EDIS is in the second phase of implementation, which provides an index, storage, and retrieval system for engineering documents produced at various plants and laboratories operated by Energy Systems for the Department of Energy (DOE). The second phase also provides additional hard copy request functionality. Section 2.0 of this manual presents an overview of EDIS, describing the system's purpose; the functions it performs; hardware, software, and security requirements; and help and error functions. Section 3.0 describes how to access EDIS and how to operate system functions using Database 2 (DB2), Time Sharing Option (TSO), Interactive System Productivity Facility (ISPF), Soft Master viewing, and FT/Express file transfer features employed by this system. Appendix A lists the special hardware and software requirements that must be met to run the View function. Appendix B contains a description of the Soft Master viewing capabilities provided through the EDIS View function. Appendix C contains a list of special hardware and software requirements for the Store and Download functions of EDIS. Appendix D provides examples of the system error screens and help screens for valid codes used for screen entry. Appendix E contains a dictionary of data elements and descriptions.

  9. The plant as a biomechatronic system.

    PubMed

    Mazzolai, Barbara; Laschi, Cecilia; Dario, Paolo; Mugnai, Sergio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2010-02-01

    Our vision of plants is changing dramatically: from insensitive and static objects to complex living beings able to sense the environment and to use the information collected to adapt their behaviour. At all times humans imitate ideas and concepts from nature to resolve technological problems. Solutions coming from plants have the potential to face challenges and difficulties of modern engineering design. Characteristic concepts of the plant world such as reiteration, modularity and swarm behaviour could be of great help resolving technological problems. On the other hand a biorobotic approach would facilitate the resolution of many biological problems. In this paper, the concept of a plant-inspired robot is proposed for the investigation of both biological and technological issues. PMID:20023403

  10. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  11. SIRTF Science Operations System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, William

    1999-01-01

    SIRTF Science Operations System Design William B. Green Manager, SIRTF Science Center California Institute of Technology M/S 310-6 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena CA 91125 (626) 395 8572 Fax (626) 568 0673 bgreen@ipac.caltech.edu. The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will be launched in December 2001, and perform an extended series of science observations at wavelengths ranging from 20 to 160 microns for five years or more. The California Institute of Technology has been selected as the home for the SIRTF Science Center (SSC). The SSC will be responsible for evaluating and selecting observation proposals, providing technical support to the science community, performing mission planning and science observation scheduling activities, instrument calibration during operations and instrument health monitoring, production of archival quality data products, and management of science research grants. The science payload consists of three instruments delivered by instrument Principal Investigators located at University of Arizona, Cornell, and Harvard Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The SSC is responsible for design, development, and operation of the Science Operations System (SOS) which will support the functions assigned to the SSC by NASA. The SIRTF spacecraft, mission profile, and science instrument design have undergone almost ten years of refinement. SIRTF development and operations activities are highly cost constrained. The cost constraints have impacted the design of the SOS in several ways. The Science Operations System has been designed to incorporate a set of efficient, easy to use tools which will make it possible for scientists to propose observation sequences in a rapid and automated manner. The use of highly automated tools for requesting observations will simplify the long range observatory scheduling process, and the short term scheduling of science observations. Pipeline data processing will be highly automated and data

  12. De-Novo Design of Antimicrobial Peptides for Plant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Benjamin; Herrera Diaz, Areli; Dangel, Alexandra; Thellmann, Martha; Meyer, Helge; Sattler, Michael; Lindermayr, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This work describes the de-novo design of peptides that inhibit a broad range of plant pathogens. Four structurally different groups of peptides were developed that differ in size and position of their charged and hydrophobic clusters and were assayed for their ability to inhibit bacterial growth and fungal spore germination. Several peptides are highly active at concentrations between 0,1 and 1 µg/ml against plant pathogenic bacteria, such as Pseudomonas syringae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, and Xanthomonas vesicatoria. Importantly, no hemolytic activity could be detected for these peptides at concentrations up to 200 µg/ml. Moreover, the peptides are also active after spraying on the plant surface demonstrating a possible way of application. In sum, our designed peptides represent new antimicrobial agents and with the increasing demand for antimicrobial compounds for production of “healthy” food, these peptides might serve as templates for novel antibacterial and antifungal agents. PMID:23951222

  13. TPX Neutral Beam Injection System design

    SciTech Connect

    von Halle, A.; Bowen, O.N.; Edwards, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    The existing Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor Neutral Beam system is proposed to be modified for long pulse operation on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Day one of TPX will call for one TFTR beamline modified for 1000 second pulse lengths oriented co-directional to the plasma current. The system design will be capable of accommodating an additional co-directional and a single counter directional beamline. For the TPX conceptual design, every attempt was made to use existing Neutral Beam hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary systems, service infrastructure, and control systems. This paper describes the moderate modifications required to the power systems, the ion sources, and the beam impinged surfaces of the ion dumps, the calorimeters, the various beam scrapers, and the neutralizers. Also described are the minimal modifications required to the vacuum, cryogenic, and gas systems and the major modification of replacing the beamline-torus duct in its entirety. Operational considerations for Neutral Beam subsystems over 1000 second pulse lengths will be explored including proposed operating scenarios for full steady state operation.

  14. Plants and the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  15. PILOT PLANT DESIGN FOR CHEMICAL DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a program for design and operational planning of facilities for testing the Meyers Process for chemical removal of pyritic sulfur from coal. Two options were evaluated: a complete pilot plant test of the process at a 0.5-ton per hour scale; and scale-u...

  16. Designer crops: optimal root system architecture for nutrient acquisition.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Zhang, Maolin; De Smet, Ive; Ding, Zhaojun

    2014-12-01

    Plant root systems are highly plastic in response to environmental stimuli. Improved nutrient acquisition can increase fertilizer use efficiency and is critical for crop production. Recent analyses of field-grown crops highlighted the importance of root system architecture (RSA) in nutrient acquisition. This indicated that it is feasible in practice to exploit genotypes or mutations giving rise to optimal RSA for crop design in the future, especially with respect to plant breeding for infertile soils. PMID:25450041

  17. Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    2000-08-01

    OAK B188 Risk-informed assessment of regulatory and design requirements for future nuclear power plants. Annual report. The overall goal of this research project is to support innovation in new nuclear power plant designs. This project is examining the implications, for future reactors and future safety regulation, of utilizing a new risk-informed regulatory system as a replacement for the current system. This innovation will be made possible through development of a scientific, highly risk-formed approach for the design and regulation of nuclear power plants. This approach will include the development and/or confirmation of corresponding regulatory requirements and industry standards. The major impediment to long term competitiveness of new nuclear plants in the U.S. is the capital cost component--which may need to be reduced on the order of 35% to 40% for Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRS) such as System 80+ and Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). The required cost reduction for an ALWR such as AP600 or AP1000 would be expected to be less. Such reductions in capital cost will require a fundamental reevaluation of the industry standards and regulatory bases under which nuclear plants are designed and licensed. Fortunately, there is now an increasing awareness that many of the existing regulatory requirements and industry standards are not significantly contributing to safety and reliability and, therefore, are unnecessarily adding to nuclear plant costs. Not only does this degrade the economic competitiveness of nuclear energy, it results in unnecessary costs to the American electricity consumer. While addressing these concerns, this research project will be coordinated with current efforts of industry and NRC to develop risk-informed, performance-based regulations that affect the operation of the existing nuclear plants; however, this project will go further by focusing on the design of new plants.

  18. Preliminary design of the Carrisa Plains solar central receiver power plant. Volume III, Book 1. Design description

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-31

    The design of the 30 MWe central receiver solar power plant to be located at Carrisa Plains, San Luis Obispo County, California, is summarized. The plant uses a vertical flat-panel (billboard solar receiver located at the top of a tower to collect solar energy redirected by approximately 1900 heliostats located to the north of the tower. The solar energy is used to heat liquid sodium pumped from ground level from 610 to 1050/sup 0/F. The power conversion system is a non-reheat system, cost-effective at this size level, and designed for high-efficiency performance in an application requiring daily startup. Successful completion of this project will lead to power generation starting in 1986. This report discusses in detail the design of the collector system, heat transport system, thermal storage subsystem, heat transport loop, steam generation subsystem, electrical, instrumentation, and control systems, power conversion system, master control system, and balance of plant. The performance, facility cost estimate and economic analysis, and development plan are also discussed.

  19. Nuclear instrumentation system design in FFTF and CRBRP

    SciTech Connect

    Warrick, R.P.

    1980-02-01

    The Nuclear Instrumentation System installed in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) is described. The Nuclear Instrumentation System includes equipment for monitoring neutron flux levels from shutdown to full power. Detector location and mounting provisions are described. The design basis for equipment design is provided. Detailed discussion of startup testing in FFTF follows a brief discussion of pre-delivery development work and testing. Finally, a description of the Nuclear Instrumentation System planned for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant is provided.

  20. Examining Dehydration and Hypoxic Stress in Wheat Plants Using a Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System Developed for Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Hall, C. R.; Foster, T. E.; Salganic, M.; Warren, L.; Corbett, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) was designed for NASA to grow plants in microgravity of space. The system utilizes a controlled fluid loop to supply nutrients and water to plant roots growing on a ceramic surface moistened by capiflary action. A PTPNDS test bed was developed and utilizing remote sensing systems, spectral analyses procedures, gas-exchange, and fluorescence measurements, we examined differences in plant water status for wheat plants (Triticum aestivum, cv. Perigee) grown in a modified growth chamber during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Some differences in plant performance were detectable in the gas-exchange and fluorescence measurements. For instance, in both years the plants grown with the most available water had the lowest rates of photosynthesis and exhibited higher proportions of non-photochemical quenching particularly under low light levels. In addition, small differences in mean leaf water content between treatments were detected using spectral reflectance analyses.

  1. Dissipative rendering and neural network control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    1995-01-01

    Model-based control system designs are limited by the accuracy of the models of the plant, plant uncertainty, and exogenous signals. Although better models can be obtained with system identification, the models and control designs still have limitations. One approach to reduce the dependency on particular models is to design a set of compensators that will guarantee robust stability to a set of plants. Optimization over the compensator parameters can then be used to get the desired performance. Conservativeness of this approach can be reduced by integrating fundamental properties of the plant models. This is the approach of dissipative control design. Dissipative control designs are based on several variations of the Passivity Theorem, which have been proven for nonlinear/linear and continuous-time/discrete-time systems. These theorems depend not on a specific model of a plant, but on its general dissipative properties. Dissipative control design has found wide applicability in flexible space structures and robotic systems that can be configured to be dissipative. Currently, there is ongoing research to improve the performance of dissipative control designs. For aircraft systems that are not dissipative active control may be used to make them dissipative and then a dissipative control design technique can be used. It is also possible that rendering a system dissipative and dissipative control design may be combined into one step. Furthermore, the transformation of a non-dissipative system to dissipative can be done robustly. One sequential design procedure for finite dimensional linear time-invariant systems has been developed. For nonlinear plants that cannot be controlled adequately with a single linear controller, model-based techniques have additional problems. Nonlinear system identification is still a research topic. Lacking analytical models for model-based design, artificial neural network algorithms have recently received considerable attention. Using

  2. Understanding seismic design criteria for Japanese Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.; Hofmayer, C.H.; Costello, J.F.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes the results of recent survey studies on the seismic design practice for nuclear power plants in Japan. The seismic design codes and standards for both nuclear as well as non-nuclear structures have been reviewed and summarized. Some key documents for understanding Japanese seismic design criteria are also listed with brief descriptions. The paper highlights the design criteria to determine the seismic demand and component capacity in comparison with U.S. criteria, the background studies which have led to the current Japanese design criteria, and a survey of current research activities. More detailed technical descriptions are presented on the development of Japanese shear wall equations, design requirements for containment structures, and ductility requirements.

  3. Design and off-design operation of a dual-boiling binary geothermal power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bliem, C.J. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a 5 MW(e) geothermal plant using a binary fluid process is described. The second fluid is isobutane. This plant is presently under construction at Raft River, Idaho. A mathematical simulation of the plant is discussed. The heat exchangers were modeled by dividing them into segments in the direction of flow to permit local adjustments in heat transfer coefficients and fluid properties. Sensitivity of plant performance to geofluid temperature and flow rate, heat exchanger fouling and cooling water temperatures were investigated. Conventional correlations were used for the heat transfer coefficients except for the condensing coefficient, which was obtained from a recent study at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.

  4. Helium circulator design considerations for modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor plant

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, C.F.; Nichols, M.K.

    1986-12-01

    Efforts are in progress to develop a standard modular high temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) plant that is amenable to design certification and serial production. The MHTGR reference design, based on a steam cycle power conversion system, utilizes a 350 MW(t) annular reactor core with prismatic fuel elements. Flexibility in power rating is afforded by utilizing a multiplicity of the standard module. The circulator, which is an electric motor-driven helium compressor, is a key component in the primary system of the nuclear plant, since it facilitates thermal energy transfer from the reactor core to the steam generator; and, hence, to the external turbo-generator set. This paper highlights the helium circulator design considerations for the reference MHTGR plant and includes a discussion on the major features of the turbomachine concept, operational characteristics, and the technology base that exists in the US.

  5. Investigation of expert system design approaches for electronic design environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poppens, Susan A.

    1987-12-01

    Various schemes were investigated that are available for the design effort of electronic systems. The information is to be incorporated into a knowledge base to determine approaches for a particular design. Various design methodologies are to be investigated for their appropriateness and application in the aforesaid design environment. The second phase is to focus on the knowledge base gathered in the design effort for electronic design. This knowledge base is to be incorporated into a rule based expert system which can be utilized by the design engineer in the design/development of functional specifications.

  6. Anthropometric data base for power plant design. Special report

    SciTech Connect

    Parris, H.L.

    1981-07-01

    The primary study objective is to develop anthropometric data based upon the men and women who operate and maintain nuclear power plants. Age, stature, and weight information were obtained by a questionnaire survey of current operator and maintenance personnel, and the data extracted from the questionnaires were analyzed to derive body-size information for a number of anthropometric variables of interest to designers. Body-size information was developed separately for both men and women. Results achieved for the male population can be utilized by designers with a high level of confidence for the design of general workplaces. While the number of women respondents in the sample proved to be too small to derive results to which a similarly high level of reliability could be attached, the data can nevertheless be used as reasonable indicators of the probable body-size variability to be found among female power plant employees.

  7. Final focus shielding designs for modern heavy-ion fusion power plant designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latkowski, J. F.; Meier, W. R.

    2001-05-01

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet. Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or to an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-II IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  8. Final Focus Shielding Designs for Modern Heavy-Ion Fusion Power Plant Designs

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R

    2000-07-05

    Recent work in heavy-ion fusion accelerators and final focusing systems shows a trend towards less current per beam, and thus, a greater number of beams. Final focusing magnets are susceptible to nuclear heating, radiation damage, and neutron activation. The trend towards more beams, however, means that there can be less shielding for each magnet, Excessive levels of nuclear heating may lead to magnet quench or an intolerable recirculating power for magnet cooling. High levels of radiation damage may result in short magnet lifetimes and low reliability. Finally, neutron activation of the magnet components may lead to difficulties in maintenance, recycling, and waste disposal. The present work expands upon previous, three-dimensional magnet shielding calculations for a modified version of the HYLIFE-I1 IFE power plant design. We present key magnet results as a function of the number of beams.

  9. Nanowire systems: technology and design.

    PubMed

    Gaillardon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Amarù, Luca Gaetano; Bobba, Shashikanth; De Marchi, Michele; Sacchetto, Davide; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-03-28

    Nanosystems are large-scale integrated systems exploiting nanoelectronic devices. In this study, we consider double independent gate, vertically stacked nanowire field effect transistors (FETs) with gate-all-around structures and typical diameter of 20 nm. These devices, which we have successfully fabricated and evaluated, control the ambipolar behaviour of the nanostructure by selectively enabling one type of carriers. These transistors work as switches with electrically programmable polarity and thus realize an exclusive or operation. The intrinsic higher expressive power of these FETs, when compared with standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology, enables us to realize more efficient logic gates, which we organize as tiles to realize nanowire systems by regular arrays. This article surveys both the technology for double independent gate FETs as well as physical and logic design tools to realize digital systems with this fabrication technology. PMID:24567471

  10. The role of plants on isolation barrier systems

    SciTech Connect

    Link, S.O.; Downs, J.L.; Waugh, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    Surface barriers are used to isolate buried wastes from the environment. Most have been built for short-term isolation. The need to isolate radioactive wastes from the environment requires that the functional integrity of a barrier be maintained for thousands of years. Barrier function strongly depends on vegetation. Plants reduce wind and water erosion and minimize drainage, but may transport contaminants if roots extend into buried wastes. Our review of the function of plants on surface barriers focuses on the role of plants across mesic to arid environments and gives special consideration to studies done at Hanford. The Hanford Barrier Development Program was created to design and test an earthen cover system to inhibit water infiltration, plant and animal intrusion, and wind and water erosion, while isolating buried wastes for at least 1000 years. Studies at the Hanford have shown that plants will significantly interact with the barrier. Plants transpire soil water back into the atmosphere. Deep-rooted perennials best recycle water; soil water may drain through the root zone of shallow-rooted annuals. Lysimeter studies indicate that a surface layer of fine soil with deep-rooted plants precludes drainage even with three times normal precipitation. The presence of vegetation greatly reduces water and wind erosion, but deep-rooted plants pose a threat of biointrusion and contaminant transport. The Hanford barrier includes a buried rock layer and asphalt layer to prevent biointrusion.

  11. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, P.R.; McLennan, G.A.

    1984-08-30

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  12. Fast reactor power plant design having heat pipe heat exchanger

    DOEpatents

    Huebotter, Paul R.; McLennan, George A.

    1985-01-01

    The invention relates to a pool-type fission reactor power plant design having a reactor vessel containing a primary coolant (such as liquid sodium), and a steam expansion device powered by a pressurized water/steam coolant system. Heat pipe means are disposed between the primary and water coolants to complete the heat transfer therebetween. The heat pipes are vertically oriented, penetrating the reactor deck and being directly submerged in the primary coolant. A U-tube or line passes through each heat pipe, extended over most of the length of the heat pipe and having its walls spaced from but closely proximate to and generally facing the surrounding walls of the heat pipe. The water/steam coolant loop includes each U-tube and the steam expansion device. A heat transfer medium (such as mercury) fills each of the heat pipes. The thermal energy from the primary coolant is transferred to the water coolant by isothermal evaporation-condensation of the heat transfer medium between the heat pipe and U-tube walls, the heat transfer medium moving within the heat pipe primarily transversely between these walls.

  13. Consideration of plant behaviour in optimal servo-compensator design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moase, W. H.; Manzie, C.

    2016-07-01

    Where the most prevalent optimal servo-compensator formulations penalise the behaviour of an error system, this paper considers the problem of additionally penalising the actual states and inputs of the plant. Doing so has the advantage of enabling the penalty function to better resemble an economic cost. This is especially true of problems where control effort needs to be sensibly allocated across weakly redundant inputs or where one wishes to use penalties to soft-constrain certain states or inputs. It is shown that, although the resulting cost function grows unbounded as its horizon approaches infinity, it is possible to formulate an equivalent optimisation problem with a bounded cost. The resulting optimisation problem is similar to those in earlier studies but has an additional 'correction term' in the cost function, and a set of equality constraints that arise when there are redundant inputs. A numerical approach to solve the resulting optimisation problem is presented, followed by simulations on a micro-macro positioner that illustrate the benefits of the proposed servo-compensator design approach.

  14. Content of system design descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A System Design Description (SDD) describes the requirements and features of a system. This standard provides guidance on the expected technical content of SDDs. The need for such a standard was recognized during efforts to develop SDDs for safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Existing guidance related to the corresponding documents in other industries is generally not suitable to meet the needs of DOE nuclear facilities. Across the DOE complex, different contractors have guidance documents, but they vary widely from site to site. While such guidance documents are valuable, no single guidance document has all the attributes that DOE considers important, including a reasonable degree of consistency or standardization. This standard is a consolidation of the best of the existing guidance. This standard has been developed with a technical content and level of detail intended to be most applicable to safety systems at DOE Hazard Category 2 nonreactor nuclear facilities. Notwithstanding that primary intent, this standard is recommended for other systems at such facilities, especially those that are important to achieving the programmatic mission of the facility. In addition, application of this standard should be considered for systems at other facilities, including non-nuclear facilities, on the basis that SDDs may be beneficial and cost-effective.

  15. Diffuse-Illumination Systems for Growing Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, George; Ryan, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture in both terrestrial and space-controlled environments relies heavily on artificial illumination for efficient photosynthesis. Plant-growth illumination systems require high photon flux in the spectral range corresponding with plant photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) (400 700 nm), high spatial uniformity to promote uniform growth, and high energy efficiency to minimize electricity usage. The proposed plant-growth system takes advantage of the highly diffuse reflective surfaces on the interior of a sphere, hemisphere, or other nearly enclosed structure that is coated with highly reflective materials. This type of surface and structure uniformly mixes discrete light sources to produce highly uniform illumination. Multiple reflections from within the domelike structures are exploited to obtain diffuse illumination, which promotes the efficient reuse of photons that have not yet been absorbed by plants. The highly reflective surfaces encourage only the plant tissue (placed inside the sphere or enclosure) to absorb the light. Discrete light sources, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), are typically used because of their high efficiency, wavelength selection, and electronically dimmable properties. The light sources are arranged to minimize shadowing and to improve uniformity. Different wavelengths of LEDs (typically blue, green, and red) are used for photosynthesis. Wavelengths outside the PAR range can be added for plant diagnostics or for growth regulation

  16. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  17. Robust control design verification using the modular modeling system

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.M.; Ben-Abdennour, A.; Lee, K.Y.

    1991-01-01

    The Modular Modeling System (B W MMS) is being used as a design tool to verify robust controller designs for improving power plant performance while also providing fault-accommodating capabilities. These controllers are designed based on optimal control theory and are thus model based controllers which are targeted for implementation in a computer based digital control environment. The MMS is being successfully used to verify that the controllers are tolerant of uncertainties between the plant model employed in the controller and the actual plant; i.e., that they are robust. The two areas in which the MMS is being used for this purpose is in the design of (1) a reactor power controller with improved reactor temperature response, and (2) the design of a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) robust fault-accommodating controller for a deaerator level and pressure control problem.

  18. Computerized Adaptive Testing System Design: Preliminary Design Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul R.

    A functional design model for a computerized adaptive testing (CAT) system was developed and presented through a series of hierarchy plus input-process-output (HIPO) diagrams. System functions were translated into system structure: specifically, into 34 software components. Implementation of the design in a physical system was addressed through…

  19. Multi-purpose hydrogen isotopes separation plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Boniface, H.A.; Gnanapragasam, N.V.; Ryland, D.K.; Suppiah, S.; Castillo, I.

    2015-03-15

    There is a potential interest at AECL's Chalk River Laboratories to remove tritium from moderately tritiated light water and to reclaim tritiated, downgraded heavy water. With only a few limitations, a single CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process configuration can be designed to remove tritium from heavy water or light water and upgrade heavy water. Such a design would have some restrictions on the nature of the feed-stock and tritium product, but could produce essentially tritium-free light or heavy water that is chemically pure. The extracted tritium is produced as a small quantity of tritiated heavy water. The overall plant capacity is fixed by the total amount of electrolysis and volume of catalyst. In this proposal, with 60 kA of electrolysis a throughput of 15 kg*h{sup -1} light water for detritiation, about 4 kg*h{sup -1} of heavy water for detritiation and about 27 kg*h{sup -1} of 98% heavy water for upgrading can be processed. Such a plant requires about 1,000 liters of AECL isotope exchange catalyst. The general design features and details of this multi-purpose CECE process are described in this paper, based on some practical choices of design criteria. In addition, we outline the small differences that must be accommodated and some compromises that must be made to make the plant capable of such flexible operation. (authors)

  20. RNA trafficking in parasitic plant systems.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Megan; Kim, Gunjune; Westwood, James H

    2012-01-01

    RNA trafficking in plants contributes to local and long-distance coordination of plant development and response to the environment. However, investigations of mobile RNA identity and function are hindered by the inherent difficulty of tracing a given molecule of RNA from its cell of origin to its destination. Several methods have been used to address this problem, but all are limited to some extent by constraints associated with accurately sampling phloem sap or detecting trafficked RNA. Certain parasitic plant species form symplastic connections to their hosts and thereby provide an additional system for studying RNA trafficking. The haustorial connections of Cuscuta and Phelipanche species are similar to graft junctions in that they are able to transmit mRNAs, viral RNAs, siRNAs, and proteins from the host plants to the parasite. In contrast to other graft systems, these parasites form connections with host species that span a wide phylogenetic range, such that a high degree of nucleotide sequence divergence may exist between host and parasites and allow confident identification of most host RNAs in the parasite system. The ability to identify host RNAs in parasites, and vice versa, will facilitate genomics approaches to understanding RNA trafficking. This review discusses the nature of host-parasite connections and the potential significance of host RNAs for the parasite. Additional research on host-parasite interactions is needed to interpret results of RNA trafficking studies, but parasitic plants may provide a fascinating new perspective on RNA trafficking. PMID:22936942

  1. A structured approach to occupational hygiene in the design and operation of fine chemical plant.

    PubMed

    Money, C D

    1992-12-01

    In order to ensure appropriate occupational hygiene controls can be incorporated in the design and operation of fine chemical plant, a structured scheme has been developed based upon the intrinsic hazard of the materials in use. The scheme provides guidelines for managing the inherent risks to health presented by the operation of such plant, including basic recommendations on the selection and operation of selected plant equipment. Although the scheme has focused on a carcinogenic ranking system for aromatic amines and nitro compounds, with suitable modifications its underlying philosophy and principles should be capable of application to any toxicological scheme for ranking the relative hazard of chemical substances. PMID:1471813

  2. Introducing WISDEM:An Integrated System Modeling for Wind Turbines and Plant (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Guo, Y.; Parsons, T.; Damiani, R.; Felker, F.; Veers, P.

    2015-01-01

    The National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better National Wind Technology Center wind energy systems engineering initiative has developed an analysis platform to leverage its research capabilities toward integrating wind energy engineering and cost models across wind plants. This Wind-Plant Integrated System Design & Engineering Model (WISDEM) platform captures the important interactions between various subsystems to achieve a better understanding of how to improve system-level performance and achieve system-level cost reductions. This work illustrates a few case studies with WISDEM that focus on the design and analysis of wind turbines and plants at different system levels.

  3. DDL:Digital systems design language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shival, S. G.

    1980-01-01

    Hardware description languages are valuable tools in such applications as hardware design, system documentation, and logic design training. DDL is convenient medium for inputting design details into hardware-design automation system. It is suitable for describing digital systems at gate, register transfer, and major combinational block level.

  4. AGING SYSTEM DESIGN DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY

    SciTech Connect

    J. Beesley

    2005-02-07

    This plan provides an overview, work to date, and the path forward for the design development strategy of the Aging cask for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) at the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) repository site. Waste for subsurface emplacement at the repository includes US Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (HLW), DOE SNF, commercial fuel in dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), uncanistered bare fuel, naval fuel, and other waste types. Table 1-1 lists the types of radioactive materials that may be aged at YMP, and those materials that will not be placed in an aging cask or module. This plan presents the strategy for design development of the Aging system. The Aging system will not handle naval fuel, DOE HLW, MCOs, or DOE SNF since those materials will be delivered to the repository in a state and sequence that allows them to be placed into waste packages for emplacement. Some CSNF from nuclear reactors, especially CSNF that is thermally too hot for emplacement underground, will need to be aged at the repository.

  5. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  6. Design Features and Technology Uncertainties for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ryskamp; Phil Hildebrandt; Osamu Baba; Ron Ballinger; Robert Brodsky; Hans-Wolfgang Chi; Dennis Crutchfield; Herb Estrada; Jeane-Claude Garnier; Gerald Gordon; Richard Hobbins; Dan Keuter; Marilyn Kray; Philippe Martin; Steve Melancon; Christian Simon; Henry Stone; Robert Varrin; Werner von Lensa

    2004-06-01

    This report presents the conclusions, observations, and recommendations of the Independent Technology Review Group (ITRG) regarding design features and important technology uncertainties associated with very-high-temperature nuclear system concepts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The ITRG performed its reviews during the period November 2003 through April 2004.

  7. Application of the SCADA system in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Dieu, B

    2001-01-01

    The implementation of the SCADA system has a positive impact on the operations, maintenance, process improvement and savings for the City of Houston's Wastewater Operations branch. This paper will discuss the system's evolvement, the external/internal architecture, and the human-machine-interface graphical design. Finally, it will demonstrate the system's successes in monitoring the City's sewage and sludge collection/distribution systems, wet-weather facilities and wastewater treatment plants, complying with the USEPA requirements on the discharge, and effectively reducing the operations and maintenance costs. PMID:11515944

  8. Advanced Turbine Systems Program: Conceptual design and product development

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Objective is to provide the conceptual design and product development plant for an ultra high efficiency, environmentally superior, and cost competitive industrial gas turbine system to be commercialized by the year 2000 (secondary objective is to begin early development of technologies critical to the success of ATS). This report addresses the remaining 7 of the 9 subtasks in Task 8, Design and Test of Critical Components: catalytic combustion, recuperator, high- temperature turbine disc, advanced control system, and ceramic materials.

  9. Design and operation of a selective sweetening plant using MDEA

    SciTech Connect

    MacKenzie, D.H.; Chiraka-Parambil, F.; Daniels, C.A.; Bullin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    The Signalta Resources Forestburg Gas Plant was constructed during the winter of 1983 and placed on stream in April of 1984. A design outlet gas specification of 1/4 grain H/sub 2/S/100 scf was requested to ensure meeting the contract commitment of 1 grain/100 scf. The design gas flowrate was 30 MMSCFD containing 0.5% H/sub 2/S and 3% CO/sub 2/ at 415 psia and 70/sup 0/F. The overall plant is configured as shown in Figure 1. Inlet separation facilities are followed by a feed gas heater. The gas stream then flows through a filter separator followed by the amine contactor. Another filter separator is used as a sweet gas scrubber. After sweetening, the gas is routed to a dew point control refrigeration unit. Finally, a single stage of compression is required to boost the gas to 1200 psig maximum pipeline pressure. The sweetening chemical selected for the Forestburg Plant was methyldiethanolamine (MDEA). This was chosen due to its capability to remove H/sub 2/S and leave a portion of the CO/sub 2/ in the residue gas. At the time of plant commissioning it was one of the first operating MDEA facilities in Western Canada.

  10. Advanced conceptual design report: T Plant secondary containment and leak detection upgrades. Project W-259

    SciTech Connect

    Hookfin, J.D.

    1995-05-12

    The T Plant facilities in the 200-West Area of the Hanford site were constructed in the early 1940s to produce nuclear materials in support of national defense activities. T Plant includes the 271-T facility, the 221-T facility, and several support facilities (eg, 2706-T), utilities, and tanks/piping systems. T Plant has been recommended as the primary interim decontamination facility for the Hanford site. Project W-259 will provide capital upgrades to the T Plant facilities to comply with Federal and State of Washington environmental regulations for secondary containment and leak detection. This document provides an advanced conceptual design concept that complies with functional requirements for the T Plant Secondary Containment and Leak Detection upgrades.

  11. ADVANCED TURBINE SYSTEM CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht H. Mayer

    2000-07-15

    Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) has completed its technology based program. The results developed under Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) 8, concentrated on technology development and demonstration have been partially implemented in newer turbine designs. A significant improvement in heat rate and power output has been demonstrated. ABB will use the knowledge gained to further improve the efficiency of its Advanced Cycle System, which has been developed and introduced into the marked out side ABB's Advanced Turbine System (ATS) activities. The technology will lead to a power plant design that meets the ATS performance goals of over 60% plant efficiency, decreased electricity costs to consumers and lowest emissions.

  12. The role of plant disease in the development of controlled ecological life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, B.

    1986-01-01

    Plant diseases could be important factors affecting growth of higher plants in Closed Ecological Life Support Systems (CELSS). Disease control, therefore, will be needed to maintain healthy plants. The most important controls should be aimed at preventing the introduction, reproduction and spread of pathogens and preventing plant infection. An integrared ease control program will maximize that approach. In the design and operation of CELSS, plant disease should be considered an important aspect of plant growth. The effects of plant diseases are reviewed and several disease control measures are discussed.

  13. Effects of abiotic stress on plants: a systems biology perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The natural environment for plants is composed of a complex set of abiotic stresses and biotic stresses. Plant responses to these stresses are equally complex. Systems biology approaches facilitate a multi-targeted approach by allowing one to identify regulatory hubs in complex networks. Systems biology takes the molecular parts (transcripts, proteins and metabolites) of an organism and attempts to fit them into functional networks or models designed to describe and predict the dynamic activities of that organism in different environments. In this review, research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses is summarized from the physiological level to the molecular level. New insights obtained from the integration of omics datasets are highlighted. Gaps in our knowledge are identified, providing additional focus areas for crop improvement research in the future. PMID:22094046

  14. New Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, Preliminary Point Design

    SciTech Connect

    F. H. Southworth; P. E. MacDonald; A. M. Baxter; P. D. Bayless; J. M. Bolin; H. D. Gougar; R. L. Moore; A. M. Ougouag; M. B. Richards; R. L. Sant; J. W. Sterbentz; W. K. Terry

    2004-03-01

    This paper provides a preliminary assessment of two possible versions of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP), a prismatic fuel type helium gas-cooled reactor and a pebblebed fuel helium gas reactor. Both designs will meet the three basic requirements that have been set for the NGNP: a coolant outlet temperature of 1000 C, passive safety, and a total power output consistent with that expected for commercial high-temperature gas-cooled reactors.

  15. Optimal design of axial hydro turbine for micro hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derakhshan, S.; Kasaeian, N.

    2012-11-01

    In our country we have enormous low head potation flows in agricultures and aquacultures with almost fix flow rates that can be used as micro hydro power plants for producing energy. But the main problem is the high capital price per kW. Therefore there is needed to design a simple machine with a good runner for covering the various potential flows. In this paper an axial hydro turbine has designed for some low heads micro potential flow with flow rates ranged from 50 lit/sec to 150 lit/sec and heads ranged from 1 m to 5 m. The initial runner designed using classical methods and then the runner geometry has been optimized by evolutionary optimization algorithms. The final design has been simulated by a commercial flow solver in a various blade positions. The results showed a wide range characteristic curve with a wide range high efficiency.

  16. ERIS adaptive optics system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Enrico; Le Louarn, Miska; Soenke, Christian; Fedrigo, Enrico; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Hubin, Norbert

    2012-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation instrument planned for the Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Adaptive Optics facility (AOF). It is an AO assisted instrument that will make use of the Deformable Secondary Mirror and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF), and it is planned for the Cassegrain focus of the telescope UT4. The project is currently in its Phase A awaiting for approval to continue to the next phases. The Adaptive Optics system of ERIS will include two wavefront sensors (WFS) to maximize the coverage of the proposed sciences cases. The first is a high order 40x40 Pyramid WFS (PWFS) for on axis Natural Guide Star (NGS) observations. The second is a high order 40x40 Shack-Hartmann WFS for single Laser Guide Stars (LGS) observations. The PWFS, with appropriate sub-aperture binning, will serve also as low order NGS WFS in support to the LGS mode with a field of view patrolling capability of 2 arcmin diameter. Both WFSs will be equipped with the very low read-out noise CCD220 based camera developed for the AOF. The real-time reconstruction and control is provided by a SPARTA real-time platform adapted to support both WFS modes. In this paper we will present the ERIS AO system in all its main aspects: opto-mechanical design, real-time computer design, control and calibrations strategy. Particular emphasis will be given to the system performance obtained via dedicated numerical simulations.

  17. Design of biomass management systems and components for closed loop life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The design of a biomass management system (BMS) for use in a closed loop support system is presented by University of Florida students as the culmination of two design courses. The report is divided into two appendixes, each presenting the results of one of the design courses. The first appendix discusses the preliminary design of the biomass management system and is subdivided into five subsystems: (1) planting and harvesting, (2) food management, (3) resource recovery, (4) refurbishing, and (5) transport. Each subsystem is investigated for possible solutions to problems, and recommendations and conclusions for an integrated BMS are discussed. The second appendix discusses the specific design of components for the BMS and is divided into three sections: (1) a sectored plant growth unit with support systems, (2) a container and receiving mechanism, and (3) an air curtain system for fugitive particle control. In this section components are designed, fabricated, and tested.

  18. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  19. Semiautomated switched capacitor filter design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thelen, D.

    1990-01-01

    A software system is described which reduces the time required to design monolithic switched capacitor filters. The system combines several software tools into an integrated flow. Switched capacitor technology and alternative technologies are discussed. Design time using the software system is compared to typical design time without the system.

  20. Design and Data Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messer, Elizabeth; Messer, Brad; Carter, Judy; Singletary, Todd; Albasini, Colby; Smith, Tammy

    2007-01-01

    The Design and Data Management System (DDMS) was developed to automate the NASA Engineering Order (EO) and Engineering Change Request (ECR) processes at the Propulsion Test Facilities at Stennis Space Center for efficient and effective Configuration Management (CM). Prior to the development of DDMS, the CM system was a manual, paper-based system that required an EO or ECR submitter to walk the changes through the acceptance process to obtain necessary approval signatures. This approval process could take up to two weeks, and was subject to a variety of human errors. The process also requires that the CM office make copies and distribute them to the Configuration Control Board members for review prior to meetings. At any point, there was a potential for an error or loss of the change records, meaning the configuration of record was not accurate. The new Web-based DDMS eliminates unnecessary copies, reduces the time needed to distribute the paperwork, reduces time to gain the necessary signatures, and prevents the variety of errors inherent in the previous manual system. After implementation of the DDMS, all EOs and ECRs can be automatically checked prior to submittal to ensure that the documentation is complete and accurate. Much of the configuration information can be documented in the DDMS through pull-down forms to ensure consistent entries by the engineers and technicians in the field. The software also can electronically route the documents through the signature process to obtain the necessary approvals needed for work authorization. The workflow of the system allows for backups and timestamps that determine the correct routing and completion of all required authorizations in a more timely manner, as well as assuring the quality and accuracy of the configuration documents.

  1. Human-centered HMI design to support cognitive process of operators in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S. J.; Seong, P. H.

    2006-07-01

    In this study, an operation advisory system to aid cognitive process of operators is proposed for advanced main control rooms (MCRs) in future nuclear power plants (NPPs). As MCRs are fully digitalized and designed based on computer technologies, MCRs have much evolved by improving human-machine interface (HMI) design and by adapting automation or support systems for helping operator's convenient operation and maintenance. Various kinds of support systems for operators are developed or developing for advanced MCRs. The proposed system is suggesting a design basis about 'What kinds of support systems are most efficient and necessary for MCR operators ' and 'how to use them together.' In this paper, the operator's operation processes are analyzed based on a human cognitive process model and appropriate support systems that support each activity of the human cognitive process are suggested. Also, the proposed support system is evaluated using Bayesian belief network model and human error probabilities in order to estimate its effect. (authors)

  2. Computer program design for land treatment systems

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.K. ); Jantrania, A.

    1989-10-01

    Municipal Sludge Land Application expert System (MuSLAXS)is as expert system developed for site assessment and design analysis of municipal sludge application on agricultural land. The system has knowledge on the technical and regulatory aspects of sludge land application and understanding of soil-plant systems for South Carolina. It can be effectively used outside South Carolina with modifications to incorporate specific regulations on land treatment and soil and crop database. A database supports this expert system and provides appropriate default values for sludge and soil characteristics, and fertilizer recommendations for crops commonly grown in South Carolina. Information on the sludge characteristics is gathered from the user, if it is available, or it is retrieved from the sludge database. Based on the recommendations by the EPA and the expert, a list of 22 constituents, for which the sludge should be analyzed is developed. This list includes: total solids, volatile solids, total nitrogen (TNK), ammonia-nitrogen, organic-nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc, PCBs, calcium, magnesium, chromium, boron, arsenic, aluminum, cobalt, and molybdenum.

  3. ITER Disruption Mitigation System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, David; Lyttle, M. S.; Baylor, L. R.; Carmichael, J. R.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Combs, S. K.; Ericson, N. M.; Bull-Ezell, N. D.; Fehling, D. T.; Fisher, P. W.; Foust, C. R.; Ha, T.; Meitner, S. J.; Nycz, A.; Shoulders, J. M.; Smith, S. F.; Warmack, R. J.; Coburn, J. D.; Gebhart, T. E.; Fisher, J. T.; Reed, J. R.; Younkin, T. R.

    2015-11-01

    The disruption mitigation system for ITER is under design and will require injection of up to 10 kPa-m3 of deuterium, helium, neon, or argon material for thermal mitigation and up to 100 kPa-m3 of material for suppression of runaway electrons. A hybrid unit compatible with the ITER nuclear, thermal and magnetic field environment is being developed. The unit incorporates a fast gas valve for massive gas injection (MGI) and a shattered pellet injector (SPI) to inject a massive spray of small particles, and can be operated as an SPI with a frozen pellet or an MGI without a pellet. Three ITER upper port locations will have three SPI/MGI units with a common delivery tube. One equatorial port location has space for sixteen similar SPI/MGI units. Supported by US DOE under DE-AC05-00OR22725.

  4. Implementation of Sensor and Control Designs for Bioregenerative Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Pedro R. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Spring 1990 EGM 4001 Design class was to design, fabricate, and test sensors and control systems for a closed loop life support system (CLLSS). The designs investigated were to contribute to the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Designs included a seed moisture content sensor, a porous medium wetness sensor, a plant health sensor, and a neural network control system. The seed group focused on the design and implementation of a sensor that could detect the moisture content of a seed batch. The porous medium wetness group concentrated on the development of a sensor to monitor the amount of nutrient solution within a porous plate incorporating either infrared reflectance or thermal conductance properties. The plant health group examined the possibility of remotely monitoring the health of the plants within the Biomass Production Chamber (BPC) using infrared reflectance properties. Finally, the neural network group concentrated on the ability to use parallel processing in order to control a robot arm and analyze the data from the health sensor to detect regions of a plant.

  5. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    PubMed

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review. PMID:27179600

  6. Development of PhytoPET: A plant imaging PET system

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, H; Lee, S J; McKisson, J; Xi, W; Zorn, C; Howell, C R; Crowell, A S; Cumberbatch, L; Reid, C D; Smith, M F; Stolin, A

    2012-02-01

    The development and initial evaluation of a high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET) system to image the biodistribution of positron emitting tracers in live plants is underway. The positron emitting {sup 11}CO{sub 2} tracer is used in plant biology research investigating carbon sequestration in biomass, optimization of plant productivity and biofuel development. This PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single 5 cm x 5 cm Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Each H8500 is coupled to a LYSO:Ce scintillator array composed of 48 x 48 elements that are 10 mm thick arranged with a 1.0 mm pitch. An Ethernet based 12-bit flash analog to digital data acquisition system with onboard coincident matrix definition is under development to digitize the signals. The detector modules of the PhytoPET system can be arranged and stacked to accommodate various sized plants and plant structures.

  7. Paradigm for expert display systems in nuclear plant and elsewhere

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, J.R.

    1986-02-01

    Display of relevant data concerning plant operation has been a concern of the nuclear industry from its beginnings. Since the incident at Three Mile Island, this matter has had much careful scrutiny. L. Beltracchi, in particular, has originated a sequence of important steps to improve the operator's ability to recognize plant states and their changes. In the early 1980's, Beltracchi (1983, 1984) proposed a display based on the Rankine cycle for light water reactors. More recently, in an unpublished work (1986b), he described an extension that includes a small, rule-based system in the display program, drawing inferences about plant operation from sensor readings, and displaying those inferences on the Rankine display. Our paper examines Beltracchi's rule-based display from the perspective of knowledge bases. Earlier (Gabriel, 1983) we noted that analytical models of system behavior are just as much a knowledge base as are the rules of a conventional expert system. The problem of finding useful displays for a complex plant is discussed from this perspective. We then present a paradigm for developing designs with properties similar to those in Beltracchi's Rankine cycle display. Finally, to clarify the issue, we give a small example from an imaginary plant.

  8. Decomposing Systems Into Subsystems For Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, James L., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Interactions among systems displayed in concise format. DeMAID (Design Manager's Aide for Intelligent Decomposition) is knowledge based software system for automating sequencing of subprocesses in design process and identifying possible multilevel structure for synthesis problem. Reorders and groups modules of equipment being designed on basis of links among modules, helping design manager make design decisions early in design cycle. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  9. On the design of reversible QDCA systems.

    SciTech Connect

    DeBenedictis, Erik P.; Frank, Michael P. (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL); Ottavi, Marco; Frost-Murphy, Sarah E.

    2006-10-01

    This work is the first to describe how to go about designing a reversible QDCA system. The design space is substantial, and there are many questions that a designer needs to answer before beginning to design. This document begins to explicate the tradeoffs and assumptions that need to be made and offers a range of approaches as starting points and examples. This design guide is an effective tool for aiding designers in creating the best quality QDCA implementation for a system.

  10. Uncertainty management in intelligent design aiding systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald E.; Gabbert, Paula S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel approach to uncertainty management which is particularly effective in intelligent design aiding systems for large-scale systems is presented. The use of this approach in the materials handling system design domain is discussed. It is noted that, during any point in the design process, a point value can be obtained for the evaluation of feasible designs; however, the techniques described provide unique solutions for these point values using only the current information about the design environment.

  11. Molten carbonate fuel cell power plant systems studies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.H.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of the DOE and IFC Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Program is to develop a MCFC technology base capable of providing clean electrical energy at competitive cost when integrated with coal gasification systems. To be successful, a coal-fueled MCFC system must provide cost of electricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long range electric generating systems. The strategy for the study was to initially evaluate the status of non-fuel cell systems to establish the basis for a competitive CG/MCFC power plant and the corresponding MCFC subsystem goals. Secondly, an iterative and comparative analysis of potential CG/MCFC systems was conducted. This analysis included a detailed examination of MCFC integration with gasifier technology in which the technical basis for MCFC compatibility with a broad range of gasifiers was established. Lastly, a detailed conceptual design was prepared for the most desirable CG/MCFC system. The design established the potential of the CG/MCFC power plant to meet the goals and provide a competitive cost of electricity at very high efficiency and significantly reduced emissions. The design also provided focus for the technical issues still outstanding and required for commercialization of the CG/MCFC technology. 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Fiber Optic Network Design Expert System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Timothy J.; Wnek, Roy M.

    1987-05-01

    The Fiber Optic Network Design Expert System (FONDES) is an engineering tool for the specification, design, and evaluation of fiber optic transmission systems. FONDES encompasses a design rule base and a data base of specifications of system components. This package applies to fiber optic design work in two ways, as a design-to-specification tool and a system performance prediction model. The FONDES rule base embodies the logic of design engineering. It can be used to produce a system design given a requirement specification or it can be used to predict system performance given a system design. The periodically updated FONDES data base contains performance specifications, price, and availability data for current fiber optic system components. FONDES is implemented in an artificial intelligence language, TURBO-PROLOG, and runs on an IBM-PC.

  13. Practical Loop-Shaping Design of Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    An improved methodology for designing feedback control systems has been developed based on systematically shaping the loop gain of the system to meet performance requirements such as stability margins, disturbance attenuation, and transient response, while taking into account the actuation system limitations such as actuation rates and range. Loop-shaping for controls design is not new, but past techniques do not directly address how to systematically design the controller to maximize its performance. As a result, classical feedback control systems are designed predominantly using ad hoc control design approaches such as proportional integral derivative (PID), normally satisfied when a workable solution is achieved, without a good understanding of how to maximize the effectiveness of the control design in terms of competing performance requirements, in relation to the limitations of the plant design. The conception of this improved methodology was motivated by challenges in designing control systems of the types needed for supersonic propulsion. But the methodology is generally applicable to any classical control-system design where the transfer function of the plant is known or can be evaluated. In the case of a supersonic aerospace vehicle, a major challenge is to design the system to attenuate anticipated external and internal disturbances, using such actuators as fuel injectors and valves, bypass doors, and ramps, all of which are subject to limitations in actuator response, rates, and ranges. Also, for supersonic vehicles, with long slim type of structures, coupling between the engine and the structural dynamics can produce undesirable effects that could adversely affect vehicle stability and ride quality. In order to design distributed controls that can suppress these potential adverse effects, within the full capabilities of the actuation system, it is important to employ a systematic control design methodology such as this that can maximize the

  14. A dynamic simulation model for power plants with atmospheric and pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion -- Interactions of plant components and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Glasmacher-Remberg, C.; Fett, F.N.

    1999-07-01

    Power plants with atmospheric or pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion are complex technical systems. The operation characteristics of these power plants depend on the behavior of the single components and their interactions. The theoretical understanding of power plant processes of this kind as well as the design, the reliability and the practical operation can be enhanced by the application of mathematical models for the complete process. A dynamic simulation model for power plants with atmospheric circulating fluidized bed combustion (ACFBC) and pressurized circulating fluidized bed combustion (PCFBC) consisting of comprehensive submodels for the subsystems gas turbine, circulating fluidized bed combustor and water/steam cycle is presented. Apart from the investigation of the complete power plant, the simulation program enables the analysis of the three mentioned subsystems separately. Each subsystem is described by a set of unsteady-state differential and algebraic equations solved by an implicit Euler-method using a modified Newton-Raphson method. With the aid of the dynamic simulation program for a selected power plant, the effect of changes in plant operation will be examined for full and part load as well as the transient response of the system due to the carried out operation. Emphasis is laid on the characterization of the interactions between the subsystems. The dynamic simulation program can be used for design studies and it is investigated how changes of the plant design influence the operation characteristics of the example plant.

  15. Seismic design of a uranium conversion plant building

    SciTech Connect

    Peixoto, O.J.M.; Botelho, C.L.A. ); Braganca, A. Jr.; C. Santos, S.H. de

    1992-01-01

    The design of facilities with small radioactive inventory has been traditionally performed following the usual criteria for industrial buildings. In the last few years, more stringent criteria have been adopted in new nuclear facilities in order to achieve higher standards for environmental protection. In uranium conversion plants, the UF[sub 6] (uranium hexafluoride) production step is the part of the process with the highest potential for radioactivity release to the environment because of the operations performed in the UF[sub 6] desublimers and cylinder filling areas as well as UF[sub 6] distillation facilities, when they are also required in the process. This paper presents the design guidelines and some details of the seismic resistance design of a UF[sub 6] production building to be constructed in Brazil.

  16. An integrated database with system optimization and design features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arabyan, A.; Nikravesh, P. E.; Vincent, T. L.

    1992-01-01

    A customized, mission-specific relational database package was developed to allow researchers working on the Mars oxygen manufacturing plant to enter physical description, engineering, and connectivity data through a uniform, graphical interface and to store the data in formats compatible with other software also developed as part of the project. These latter components include an optimization program to maximize or minimize various criteria as the system evolves into its final design; programs to simulate the behavior of various parts of the plant in Martian conditions; an animation program which, in different modes, provides visual feedback to designers and researchers about the location of and temperature distribution among components as well as heat, mass, and data flow through the plant as it operates in different scenarios; and a control program to investigate the stability and response of the system under different disturbance conditions. All components of the system are interconnected so that changes entered through one component are reflected in the others.

  17. Accelerator-based conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium: Plant layout study and related design issues

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fontana, M.H.; Krakowski, R.A.; Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Davidson, J.W.; Sailor, W.C.; Williamson, M.A.

    1995-04-01

    In preparation for and in support of a detailed R and D Plan for the Accelerator-Based Conversion (ABC) of weapons plutonium, an ABC Plant Layout Study was conducted at the level of a pre-conceptual engineering design. The plant layout is based on an adaptation of the Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) detailed conceptual design that was completed in the early 1070s. Although the ABC Plant Layout Study included the Accelerator Equipment as an essential element, the engineering assessment focused primarily on the Target; Primary System (blanket and all systems containing plutonium-bearing fuel salt); the Heat-Removal System (secondary-coolant-salt and supercritical-steam systems); Chemical Processing; Operation and Maintenance; Containment and Safety; and Instrumentation and Control systems. Although constrained primarily to a reflection of an accelerator-driven (subcritical) variant of MSBR system, unique features and added flexibilities of the ABC suggest improved or alternative approaches to each of the above-listed subsystems; these, along with the key technical issues in need of resolution through a detailed R&D plan for ABC are described on the bases of the ``strawman`` or ``point-of-departure`` plant layout that resulted from this study.

  18. Ammonia plant designers talk of big energy savings

    SciTech Connect

    Axelrod, L.C.

    1980-08-27

    The ammonia plant that Pullman Kellogg has designed for Sherritt-Gordon Mines Ltd. in Alberta will require < 27 million Btu/ton of ammonia, and save $8.10/ton in energy costs because of improvements involving increased pressure in the primary reformer; more efficient use of the heat from the secondary reformer; carbon dioxide recovery by Allied Chemical Corp.'s Selexol process; the reduction of power requirements in the synthesis recycle loop; and the use of a horizontal reactor. C. F. Braun and Co. claims that its Purifier process will require < 25 million Btu/ton, due to the use of excess air in the secondary reformer. C-E Lummus offers a 1500 ton/day plant which, incorporating cryogenic recovery of hydrogen from purge gas and operation at a lower steam-to-carbon ratio, would require only 26 million Btu/ton; Haldor Topsoe Inc. offers a design rated at 26.3 million Btu/ton. According to L. C. Axelrod of Pullman Kellogg, ammonia plant construction will shift to gas-rich areas outside the U.S. and Europe. The 3% of the U.S. natural gas used by the fertilizer industry accounts for > 95% of ammonia feedstock.

  19. Tailoring plant lipid composition: designer oilseeds come of age.

    PubMed

    Napier, Johnathan A; Graham, Ian A

    2010-06-01

    Plant neutral lipids such as seed oil triacylglycerols play a key role in many aspects of human life, ranging from providing essential nutrition to acting as biolubricants. There is also growing interest in using plant oils as a replacement for petrochemicals, either for fuel or as a chemical feedstock. Considerable effort has been focused on modifying the fatty acid composition of seed oils and/or increasing the levels of storage triacylglycerol. Certainly, it is now possible to successfully modify the profile of plant oils via transgenic metabolic engineering to generate something approaching a 'designer oil'. This is specifically true for the accumulation of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that now stand at levels equivalent to those found in native marine organisms. However, it is equally clear that a holistic understanding of plant lipid metabolism is still lacking, mainly owing to the continually emerging complexity and interplay between pathways, recently exemplified by the identification of the ROD1 phosphatidylcholine:diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase involved in the channelling of unsaturated fatty acids into storage oil. The new approaches and outcomes described here will inform new paradigms and hasten the arrival of truly predictive biology in this vital field. PMID:20185359

  20. Systems biology in vaccine design

    PubMed Central

    Six, Adrien; Bellier, Bertrand; Thomas‐Vaslin, Véronique; Klatzmann, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Vaccines are the most effective tools to prevent infectious diseases and to minimize their impact on humans or animals. Despite the successful development of vaccines that are able to elicit potent and protective immune responses, the majority of vaccines have been so far developed empirically and mechanistic events leading to protective immune responses are often poorly understood. This hampers the development of new prophylactic as well as therapeutic vaccines for infectious diseases and cancer. Biological correlates of immune‐mediated protection are currently based on standard readout such as antibody titres and ELISPOT assays. The development of successful vaccines for difficult settings, such as infectious agents leading to chronic infection (HIV, HCV. . .) or cancer, calls for novel ‘readout systems’ or ‘correlates’ of immune‐mediated protection that would reliably predict immune responses to novel vaccines in vivo. Systems biology offers a new approach to vaccine design that is based upon understanding the molecular network mobilized by vaccination. Systems vaccinology approaches investigate more global correlates of successful vaccination, beyond the specific immune response to the antigens administered, providing new methods for measuring early vaccine efficacy and ultimately generating hypotheses for understanding the mechanisms that underlie successful immunogenicity. Using functional genomics, specific molecular signatures of individual vaccine can be identified and used as predictors of vaccination efficiency. The immune response to vaccination involves the coordinated induction of master transcription factors that leads to the development of a broad, polyfunctional and persistent immune response integrating all effector cells of the immune systems. PMID:22189033

  1. Artwork Interactive Design System (AIDS) program description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. T.; Taylor, J. F.

    1976-01-01

    An artwork interactive design system is described which provides the microelectronic circuit designer/engineer a tool to perform circuit design, automatic layout modification, standard cell design, and artwork verification at a graphics computer terminal using a graphics tablet at the designer/computer interface.

  2. A model for plant lighting system selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciolkosz, D. E.; Albright, L. D.; Sager, J. C.; Langhans, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    A decision model is presented that compares lighting systems for a plant growth scenario and chooses the most appropriate system from a given set of possible choices. The model utilizes a Multiple Attribute Utility Theory approach, and incorporates expert input and performance simulations to calculate a utility value for each lighting system being considered. The system with the highest utility is deemed the most appropriate system. The model was applied to a greenhouse scenario, and analyses were conducted to test the model's output for validity. Parameter variation indicates that the model performed as expected. Analysis of model output indicates that differences in utility among the candidate lighting systems were sufficiently large to give confidence that the model's order of selection was valid.

  3. Computer Aided Control System Design (CACSD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, Frank T.

    1993-01-01

    The design of modern aerospace systems relies on the efficient utilization of computational resources and the availability of computational tools to provide accurate system modeling. This research focuses on the development of a computer aided control system design application which provides a full range of stability analysis and control design capabilities for aerospace vehicles.

  4. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    Design and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) power plants are presented for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) the steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  5. Preliminary assessment of alternative PFBC power plant systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wysocki, J.; Rogali, R.

    1980-07-01

    This report presents the design and and economic comparisons of the following nominal 1000 MWe PFBC power plants for both eastern and western coal: Curtiss-Wright PFBC power plants with an air-cooled design; General Electric RFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design; and AEP/Stal-Laval PFBC power plants with a steam-cooled design. In addition, reference pulverized coal-fired (PCF) power plants are included for comparison purposes. The results of the analysis indicate: (1) The steam-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 10% and 11% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost; (2) the air-cooled PFBC designs show potential savings of 1% and 2% over PCF plants for eastern and western coal, respectively, in terms of busbar power cost.

  6. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  7. Results from conceptual design study of potential early commercial MHD/steam power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, F.; Kessler, R.; Swallom, D.; Westra, L.; Zar, J.; Morgan, W.; Bozzuto, C.

    1981-06-01

    This paper presents conceptual design information for a potential early MHD power plant developed in the second phase of a joint study of such plants. Conceptual designs of plant components and equipment with performance, operational characteristics and costs are reported on. Plant economics and overall performance including full and part load operation are reviewed. Environmental aspects and the methods incorporated in plant design for emission control of sulfur and nitrogen oxides are reviewed. Results from reliability/availability analysis conducted are also included.

  8. Chemical energy storage system for SEGS solar thermal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, D. R.; Lamarche, J. L.; Spanner, G. E.

    1991-09-01

    In October 1988, a symposium was held in Helendale, California, to discuss thermal energy storage (TES) concepts applicable to medium temperature (200 to 400 C) solar thermal electric power plants, in general, and the solar electric generating system (SEGS) plants developed by Luz International, in particular. Chemical reaction energy storage based on the reversible reaction between metal oxides and metal hydroxides was identified as a leading candidate for meeting Luz International's cost and performance requirements. The principal objectives of this study were to identify the design conditions, requirements, and potential feasibility for a chemical energy storage system applied to a SEGS solar thermal power plant. The remaining sections of this report begin by providing an overview of the chemical reaction energy storage concept and a SEGS solar thermal power plant. Subsequent sections describe the initial screening of alternative evaporation energy sources and the more detailed evaluation of design alternatives considered for the preferred evaporation energy source. The final sections summarize the results, conclusions, and recommendations.

  9. ENEL overall PWR plant models and neutronic integrated computing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pedroni, G.; Pollachini, L.; Vimercati, G.; Cori, R.; Pretolani, F.; Spelta, S.

    1987-01-01

    To support the design activity of the Italian nuclear energy program for the construction of pressurized water reactors, the Italian Electricity Board (ENEL) needs to verify the design as a whole (that is, the nuclear steam supply system and balance of plant) both in steady-state operation and in transient. The ENEL has therefore developed two computer models to analyze both operational and incidental transients. The models, named STRIP and SFINCS, perform the analysis of the nuclear as well as the conventional part of the plant (the control system being properly taken into account). The STRIP model has been developed by means of the French (Electricite de France) modular code SICLE, while SFINCS is based on the Italian (ENEL) modular code LEGO. STRIP validation was performed with respect to Fessenheim French power plant experimental data. Two significant transients were chosen: load step and total load rejection. SFINCS validation was performed with respect to Saint-Laurent French power plant experimental data and also by comparing the SFINCS-STRIP responses.

  10. Design of virtual SCADA simulation system for pressurized water reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijaksono, Umar; Abdullah, Ade Gafar; Hakim, Dadang Lukman

    2016-02-01

    The Virtual SCADA system is a software-based Human-Machine Interface that can visualize the process of a plant. This paper described the results of the virtual SCADA system design that aims to recognize the principle of the Nuclear Power Plant type Pressurized Water Reactor. This simulation uses technical data of the Nuclear Power Plant Unit Olkiluoto 3 in Finland. This device was developed using Wonderware Intouch, which is equipped with manual books for each component, animation links, alarm systems, real time and historical trending, and security system. The results showed that in general this device can demonstrate clearly the principles of energy flow and energy conversion processes in Pressurized Water Reactors. This virtual SCADA simulation system can be used as instructional media to recognize the principle of Pressurized Water Reactor.

  11. Designing a SCADA system simulator for fast breeder reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraha, E.; Abdullah, A. G.; Hakim, D. L.

    2016-04-01

    SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) system simulator is a Human Machine Interface-based software that is able to visualize the process of a plant. This study describes the results of the process of designing a SCADA system simulator that aims to facilitate the operator in monitoring, controlling, handling the alarm, accessing historical data and historical trend in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) type Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR). This research used simulation to simulate NPP type FBR Kalpakkam in India. This simulator was developed using Wonderware Intouch software 10 and is equipped with main menu, plant overview, area graphics, control display, set point display, alarm system, real-time trending, historical trending and security system. This simulator can properly simulate the principle of energy flow and energy conversion process on NPP type FBR. This SCADA system simulator can be used as training media for NPP type FBR prospective operators.

  12. The Aerospace Vehicle Interactive Design system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilhite, A. W.

    1981-01-01

    The aerospace vehicle interactive design (AVID) is a computer aided design that was developed for the conceptual and preliminary design of aerospace vehicles. The AVID system evolved from the application of several design approaches in an advanced concepts environment in which both mission requirements and vehicle configurations are continually changing. The basic AVID software facilitates the integration of independent analysis programs into a design system where the programs can be executed individually for analysis or executed in groups for design iterations and parametric studies. Programs integrated into an AVID system for launch vehicle design include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, flight performance, mass properties, and economics.

  13. Arizona Public Service - Alternative Fuel (Hydrogen) Pilot Plant Design Report

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Francfort

    2003-12-01

    Hydrogen has promise to be the fuel of the future. Its use as a chemical reagent and as a rocket propellant has grown to over eight million metric tons per year in the United States. Although use of hydrogen is abundant, it has not been used extensively as a transportation fuel. To assess the viability of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the viability of producing hydrogen using off-peak electric energy, Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (PNW) and its electric utility subsidiary, Arizona Public Service (APS) designed, constructed, and operates a hydrogen and compressed natural gas fueling station—the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant. This report summarizes the design of the APS Alternative Fuel Pilot Plant and presents lessons learned from its design and construction. Electric Transportation Applications prepared this report under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory manages these activities for the Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  14. PhytoPET: Design and initial results of modular PET for plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Seung Joon; Kross, Brian J.; McKisson, John E.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Xi, Wenze; Zorn, Carl J.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Smith, M. P.

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging in Phytotron at Duke University. Initial evaluation of a PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in live plants is presented. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant parts such as stems, leaves, and roots. Prototyping such a system requires a completely new PET system design strategy different from preclinical and clinical applications. This PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single 5 cm × 5 cm Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Each H8500 is coupled to a L YSO:Ce scintillator array composed of 48 × 48 elements that are 10 mm thick with a 1 mm pitch. Initial results provide planar PET images from two different arrangements (1 × 4 or 2 × 2) for flexible imaging capability.

  15. A novel laboratory system for determining fate of volatile organic compounds in planted systems

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, B.J.; Doucette, W.J.; Chard, J.K; Bugbee, B.

    2000-04-01

    Contradictory observations regarding the uptake and translocation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants have been reported, most notably for trichloroethylene (TCE). Experimental artifacts resulting from the use of semistatic or low-flow laboratory systems may account for part of the discrepancy. Innovative plant growth chambers are required to rigorously quantify the movement of VOCs through higher plants while maintaining a natural plant environment. The plant must be sealed in a chamber that allows rapid exchange of air to remove the water vapor lost in transpiration, to resupply the CO{sub 2} consumed in photosynthesis, and to resupply the O{sub 2} consumed in root-zone respiration. Inadequate airflow through the foliar region results in high humidity, which dramatically reduces transpiration and may reduce contaminant flux. Oxygen depletion in static root zones induces root stress, which can increase root membrane permeability. The root zone must be separated from the shoots to differentiate between plant uptake and foliar deposition. Here the authors describe the design, construction, and testing of a dual-vacuum, continuous high-flow chamber systems for accurately determining the fate of VOCs plants. The system provides a natural plant environment, complete root/shoot separation, the ability to quantify phytovolatilization and mineralization in both root and shoot compartments, continuous root-zone aeration, and high mass recovery.

  16. Conceptual design study of the moderate size superconducting spherical tokamak power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gi, Keii; Ono, Yasushi; Nakamura, Makoto; Someya, Youji; Utoh, Hiroyasu; Tobita, Kenji; Ono, Masayuki

    2015-06-01

    A new conceptual design of the superconducting spherical tokamak (ST) power plant was proposed as an attractive choice for tokamak fusion reactors. We reassessed a possibility of the ST as a power plant using the conservative reactor engineering constraints often used for the conventional tokamak reactor design. An extensive parameters scan which covers all ranges of feasible superconducting ST reactors was completed, and five constraints which include already achieved plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and confinement parameters in ST experiments were established for the purpose of choosing the optimum operation point. Based on comparison with the estimated future energy costs of electricity (COEs) in Japan, cost-effective ST reactors can be designed if their COEs are smaller than 120 mills kW-1 h-1 (2013). We selected the optimized design point: A = 2.0 and Rp = 5.4 m after considering the maintenance scheme and TF ripple. A self-consistent free-boundary MHD equilibrium and poloidal field coil configuration of the ST reactor were designed by modifying the neutral beam injection system and plasma profiles. The MHD stability of the equilibrium was analysed and a ramp-up scenario was considered for ensuring the new ST design. The optimized moderate-size ST power plant conceptual design realizes realistic plasma and fusion engineering parameters keeping its economic competitiveness against existing energy sources in Japan.

  17. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 °C to 950 °C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents

  18. GALACSI system design and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ströbele, S.; La Penna, P.; Arsenault, R.; Conzelmann, R. D.; Delabre, B.; Duchateau, M.; Dorn, R.; Fedrigo, E.; Hubin, N.; Quentin, J.; Jolley, P.; Kiekebusch, M.; Kirchbauer, J. P.; Klein, B.; Kolb, J.; Kuntschner, H.; Le Louarn, M.; Lizon, J. L.; Madec, P.-Y.; Pettazzi, L.; Soenke, C.; Tordo, S.; Vernet, J.; Muradore, R.

    2012-07-01

    GALACSI is one of the Adaptive Optics (AO) systems part of the ESO Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It will use the VLT 4-Laser Guide Stars system, high speed and low noise WaveFront Sensor cameras (<1e-, 1000Hz) the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the SPARTA Real Time Computer to sharpen images and enhance faint object detectability of the MUSE Instrument. MUSE is an Integral Field Spectrograph working at wavelengths from 465nm to 930nm. GALACSI implements 2 different AO modes; in Wide Field Mode (WFM) it will perform Ground Layer AO correction and enhance the collected energy in a 0.2" by 0.2" pixel by a factor 2 at 750nm over a Field of View (FoV) of 1' by 1'. The 4 LGSs and one tip tilt reference star (R-mag <17.5) are located outside the MUSE FoV. Key requirements are to provide this performance and a very good image stability for a 1hour long integration time. In Narrow Field Mode (NFM) Laser Tomography AO will be used to reconstruct and correct the turbulence for the center field using the 4 LGSs at 15" off axis and the Near Infra Red (NIR) light of one reference star on axis for tip tilt and focus sensing. In NFM GALACSI will provide a moderate Strehl Ratio of 5% (goal 10%) at 650nm. The NFM hosts several challenges and many subsystems will be pushed to their limits. The opto mechanical design and error budgets of GALACSI is described here.

  19. Design of biomass management systems and components for closed loop life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The goal of the EGM 4000/1 Design class was to investigate a Biomass Management System (BMS) and design, fabricate, and test components for biomass management in a closed-loop life support system (CLLSS). The designs explored were to contribute to the development of NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) at Kennedy Space Center. Designs included a sectored plant growth unit, a container and transfer mechanism, and an air curtain system for fugitive particle control. The work performed by the class members is summarized.

  20. The uranium cylinder assay system for enrichment plant safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Karen A; Swinhoe, Martyn T; Marlow, Johnna B; Menlove, Howard O; Rael, Carlos D; Iwamoto, Tomonori; Tamura, Takayuki; Aiuchi, Syun

    2010-01-01

    Safeguarding sensitive fuel cycle technology such as uranium enrichment is a critical component in preventing the spread of nuclear weapons. A useful tool for the nuclear materials accountancy of such a plant would be an instrument that measured the uranium content of UF{sub 6} cylinders. The Uranium Cylinder Assay System (UCAS) was designed for Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited (JNFL) for use in the Rokkasho Enrichment Plant in Japan for this purpose. It uses total neutron counting to determine uranium mass in UF{sub 6} cylinders given a known enrichment. This paper describes the design of UCAS, which includes features to allow for unattended operation. It can be used on 30B and 48Y cylinders to measure depleted, natural, and enriched uranium. It can also be used to assess the amount of uranium in decommissioned equipment and waste containers. Experimental measurements have been carried out in the laboratory and these are in good agreement with the Monte Carlo modeling results.

  1. Controlled ecological life support systems: Development of a plant growth module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averner, Mel M.; Macelroy, Robert D.; Smernoff, David T.

    1987-01-01

    An effort was made to begin defining the scientific and technical requirements for the design and construction of a ground-based plant growth facility. In particular, science design criteria for the Plant Growth Module (PGM) of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) were determined in the following areas: (1) irradiation parameters and associated equipment affecting plant growth; (2) air flow; (3) planting, culture, and harvest techniques; (4) carbon dioxide; (5) temperature and relative humidity; (6) oxygen; (7) construction materials and access; (8) volatile compounds; (9) bacteria, sterilization, and filtration; (10) nutrient application systems; (11) nutrient monitoring; and (12) nutrient pH and conductivity.

  2. Electrical system for a large cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Arvay, G.J. ); Smith, R.T. )

    1992-01-01

    The electrical system, interface, commissioning, and operations requirements of a major multiunit cogeneration plant interconnected with a large utility system through a 230-kV sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) gas-insulated substation (GIS) are complex and demanding. This paper describes the electrical requirements, including utility interfaces, engineering, and on-site testing, as applied to the execution of a large, multiunit turnkey cogeneration project in California. The benefits of careful engineering efforts are shown to result in timely and cost effective completion of engineering, manufacturing, installation, testing, and commercial operation.

  3. [Principle demonstration of nutrient delivery system in a space vegetable planting prototype facility].

    PubMed

    Guo, S S; Xu, B; Ai, W D; Wang, K; Liu, X Y; Wang, P X

    2001-06-01

    Objective. To develop a nutrient delivery system for space vegetable planting prototype facility to be used in future space station, and to preliminarily testify its feasibility through ground-based demonstration experiments. Method. A nutrient delivery system in a space vegetable planting prototype facility was designed and fabricated, and ground based demonstration experiments of plant cultivation were conducted. Result. Nutrient could be steadily delivered to plant cultivation matrixes through capillary action, water content of planting matrixes could be controlled automatically and maintained constant, and the planted material lettuce showed basically normal morphology and color. Conclusion. The nutrient delivery system in a space vegetable planting prototype facility could basically meet the requirements for plant nutrient delivery under space microgravity environmental condition. PMID:11892737

  4. Simulation-based disassembly systems design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlendorf, Martin; Herrmann, Christoph; Hesselbach, Juergen

    2004-02-01

    Recycling of Waste of Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is a matter of actual concern, driven by economic, ecological and legislative reasons. Here, disassembly as the first step of the treatment process plays a key role. To achieve sustainable progress in WEEE disassembly, the key is not to limit analysis and planning to merely disassembly processes in a narrow sense, but to consider entire disassembly plants including additional aspects such as internal logistics, storage, sorting etc. as well. In this regard, the paper presents ways of designing, dimensioning, structuring and modeling different disassembly systems. Goal is to achieve efficient and economic disassembly systems that allow recycling processes complying with legal requirements. Moreover, advantages of applying simulation software tools that are widespread and successfully utilized in conventional industry sectors are addressed. They support systematic disassembly planning by means of simulation experiments including consecutive efficiency evaluation. Consequently, anticipatory recycling planning considering various scenarios is enabled and decisions about which types of disassembly systems evidence appropriateness for specific circumstances such as product spectrum, throughput, disassembly depth etc. is supported. Furthermore, integration of simulation based disassembly planning in a holistic concept with configuration of interfaces and data utilization including cost aspects is described.

  5. Computer-aided dispatching system design specification

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, M.G.

    1997-12-16

    This document defines the performance requirements for a graphic display dispatching system to support Hanford Patrol Operations Center. This document reflects the as-built requirements for the system that was delivered by GTE Northwest, Inc. This system provided a commercial off-the-shelf computer-aided dispatching system and alarm monitoring system currently in operations at the Hanford Patrol Operations Center, Building 2721E. This system also provides alarm back-up capability for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP).

  6. SYSTEM DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF OXYGEN-BASED PC BOILER

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen Fan; Andrew Seltzer

    2003-11-01

    The objective of the system design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the PC boiler plant by maximizing system efficiency. Simulations of the oxygen-fired plant with CO{sub 2} sequestration were conducted using Aspen Plus and were compared to a reference air-fired 460 Mw plant. Flue gas recycle is used in the O{sub 2}-fired PC to control the flame temperature. Parametric runs were made to determine the effect of flame temperature on system efficiency and required waterwall material and thickness. The degree of improvement on system efficiency of various modifications including hot gas recycle, purge gas recycle, flue gas feedwater recuperation, and recycle purge gas expansion were investigated. The selected O{sub 2}-fired design case has a system efficiency of 30.1% compared to the air-fired system efficiency of 36.7%. The design O{sub 2}-fired case requires T91 waterwall material and has a waterwall surface area of only 44% of the air-fired reference case. Compared to other CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies, the O{sub 2}-fired PC is substantially better than both natural gas combined cycles and post CO{sub 2} removal PCs and is slightly better than integrated gasification combined cycles.

  7. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Student Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stottler, Stag and Associates, San Antonio, TX.

    This manual was designed to furnish information for upgrading the design of wastewater treatment plant facilities and to serve as a resource for establishing criteria for upgrading these plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to compensate for current organic and hydraulic overloads and/or to meet more stringent…

  8. Simulation, Design Abstraction, and SystemC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harcourt, Ed

    2007-01-01

    SystemC is a system-level design and simulation language based on C++. We've been using SystemC for computer organization and design projects for the past several years. Because SystemC is embedded in C++ it contains the powerful abstraction mechanisms of C++ not found in traditional hardware description languages, such as support for…

  9. Design Improvements in Underground Watering System for Small Local Farming Industries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariff, T. F.; Tukiman, N. H. A.; Bahar, R.

    2016-02-01

    The implementation of underground watering system is basically to supply crops with enough quantities of water. In Malaysia, most farming industries use sprinkler irrigation system. The water is only distributed over the surface whilst the roots actually need water the most. Thus, this research is conducted to design the improvements of watering system for small local farming industries by using underground watering system. Design improvements of the watering system had been done using CATIA software. The design had been fabricated using rapid prototyping/3D printer, tested and evaluated by conducting experiments. Four different plants were prepared and labelled as Plant A, Plant B, Plant C, and Plant D. Plant A and Plant C were not be equipped with the underground watering device while Plant B and Plant D were equipped with the device. The growth of every plant is measured in terms of height, number of newly grown leaves, number of flowers and number of fruits for the duration of 60 days. The plant equipped with the device has the quickest growth measurement (59.68%), continued to produce new leaves rapidly (89.20%), and produced the most number of flowers (19 flowers) and fruits (15 fruits) when compared with the plants without the underground watering device. The difference in growth development is very significant. Therefore, the underground watering system does have a positive impact in nourishing the plant from the root efficiently and can be used productively in small local farming industries.

  10. System identification of the Arabidopsis plant circadian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foo, Mathias; Somers, David E.; Kim, Pan-Jun

    2015-02-01

    The circadian system generates an endogenous oscillatory rhythm that governs the daily activities of organisms in nature. It offers adaptive advantages to organisms through a coordination of their biological functions with the optimal time of day. In this paper, a model of the circadian system in the plant Arabidopsis (species thaliana) is built by using system identification techniques. Prior knowledge about the physical interactions of the genes and the proteins in the plant circadian system is incorporated in the model building exercise. The model is built by using primarily experimentally-verified direct interactions between the genes and the proteins with the available data on mRNA and protein abundances from the circadian system. Our analysis reveals a great performance of the model in predicting the dynamics of the plant circadian system through the effect of diverse internal and external perturbations (gene knockouts and day-length changes). Furthermore, we found that the circadian oscillatory rhythm is robust and does not vary much with the biochemical parameters except those of a light-sensitive protein P and a transcription factor TOC1. In other words, the circadian rhythmic profile is largely a consequence of the network's architecture rather than its particular parameters. Our work suggests that the current experimental knowledge of the gene-to-protein interactions in the plant Arabidopsis, without considering any additional hypothetical interactions, seems to suffice for system-level modeling of the circadian system of this plant and to present an exemplary platform for the control of network dynamics in complex living organisms.

  11. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments.

    PubMed

    Wright, B D; Bausch, W C; Knott, W M

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed. PMID:11539001

  12. A hydroponic system for microgravity plant experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, B. D.; Bausch, W. C.; Knott, W. M.

    1988-01-01

    The construction of a permanently manned space station will provide the opportunity to grow plants for weeks or months in orbit for experiments or food production. With this opportunity comes the need for a method to provide plants with a continuous supply of water and nutrients in microgravity. The Capillary Effect Root Environment System (CERES) uses capillary forces to maintain control of circulating plant nutrient solution in the weightless environment of an orbiting spacecraft. The nutrient solution is maintained at a pressure slightly less than the ambient air pressure while it flows on one side of a porous membrane. The root, on the other side of the membrane, is surrounded by a thin film of nutrient solution where it contacts the moist surface of the membrane. The root is provided with water, nutrients and air simultaneously. Air bubbles in the nutrient solution are removed using a hydrophobic/hydrophilic membrane system. A model scaled to the size necessary for flight hardware to test CERES in the space shuttle was constructed.

  13. Design of power-plant installations pressure-loss characteristics of duct components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, John R

    1944-01-01

    A correlation of what are believed to be the most reliable data available on duct components of aircraft power-plant installations is presented. The information is given in a convenient form and is offered as an aid in designing duct systems and, subject to certain qualifications, as a guide in estimating their performance. The design and performance data include those for straight ducts; simple bends of square, circular, and elliptical cross sections; compound bends; diverging and converging bends; vaned bends; diffusers; branch ducts; internal inlets; and an angular placement of heat exchangers. Examples are included to illustrate methods of applying these data in analyzing duct systems. (author)

  14. Chiller plant design rules...Have they changed?

    SciTech Connect

    Eppelheimer, D.

    1995-09-01

    Chilled water plants are often viewed as energy consumers, actually they are only energy movers. In just the simple process of chilling water, there are four discrete energy moving functions. The chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps, and cooling tower fans are all forms of transport energy. The chiller is a heat pump where energy is consumed to raise the temperature of the heat stream. Insight into improved chiller plant performance can be obtained by tracking the power consumption of these four functions. The performance of centrifugal chillers has improved dramatically in the past 25 years. Certainly some of this improvement is due to technology improvements in heat transfer and compressor efficiency. However, the lion`s share of gain in chiller efficiency is a result of chiller owners budgeting more funds to energy conservation and purchasing more efficient chillers. Since 1970, the efficiency of electric water chillers has improved by nearly 4 percent! The intent of this presentation is to review the energy cost associated with central chilled water plants and identify opportunities in design that may reduce energy costs.

  15. 9 CFR 302.2 - Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... designated States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. 302.2 Section 302.2... States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. Special provisions with... endanger public health, and the operators thereof, in any State or Territory appear in part 331 of...

  16. 9 CFR 302.2 - Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... designated States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. 302.2 Section 302.2... States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. Special provisions with... endanger public health, and the operators thereof, in any State or Territory appear in part 331 of...

  17. 9 CFR 302.2 - Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... designated States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. 302.2 Section 302.2... States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. Special provisions with... endanger public health, and the operators thereof, in any State or Territory appear in part 331 of...

  18. 9 CFR 302.2 - Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... designated States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. 302.2 Section 302.2... States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. Special provisions with... endanger public health, and the operators thereof, in any State or Territory appear in part 331 of...

  19. 9 CFR 302.2 - Application of requirements in designated States or Territories; and to designated plants...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... designated States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. 302.2 Section 302.2... States or Territories; and to designated plants endangering public health. Special provisions with... endanger public health, and the operators thereof, in any State or Territory appear in part 331 of...

  20. A high containment polymodal pilot-plant fermenter--design concepts.

    PubMed

    Hambleton, P; Griffiths, J B; Cameron, D R; Melling, J

    1991-01-01

    A 225 dm3 pilot-plant bioreactor system has been designed and constructed that is suitable for biohazardous fermentations. The design enables operation at containment levels above the requirements of good industrial large-scale practice (GILSP) without secondary containment of the whole plant. The main biosafety features of the systems include the use of steam barriers on O-ring seals, supply lines and stirrer seals, multiple O-ring seals, piping of condensate lines and pressure relief systems to a 'kill tank', double filtration of inlet and off gases and a mobile isolation unit that allows localised containment of sample valve and probe entry ports. The fermenter can, with minor modifications, be operated as a bottom-or top-stirred reactor for the culture of microbial or animal cells, or as an airlift reactor. The design offers considerable flexibility that could prove cost-effective for process development and production. The relevance of the various design features to enable bioreactor operations at pilot-plant scale to be carried out in compliance with current guidelines for large-scale culture of recombinant microorganisms and microbial pathogens is discussed. PMID:1367227

  1. Meteorological radar facility. Part 1: System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassaw, L. L., Jr.; Hamren, S. D.; Mullins, W. H.; Schweitzer, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of information regarding systems design of space shuttles used in meteorological radar probes is presented. Necessary radar equipment is delineated, while space system elements, calibration techniques, antenna systems and other subsystems are reviewed.

  2. Human Factors Considerations in System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, C. M. (Editor); Vanbalen, P. M. (Editor); Moe, K. L. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Human factors considerations in systems design was examined. Human factors in automated command and control, in the efficiency of the human computer interface and system effectiveness are outlined. The following topics are discussed: human factors aspects of control room design; design of interactive systems; human computer dialogue, interaction tasks and techniques; guidelines on ergonomic aspects of control rooms and highly automated environments; system engineering for control by humans; conceptual models of information processing; information display and interaction in real time environments.

  3. Expert system to design communications circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Tolendino, L.F.; Vahle, M.O.

    1986-07-01

    An expert system has been created to aid the design of fiber optic based communications circuits. The design system is based on an Apollo workstation, LISP and CPSL, an in-house developed expert system language. The optical circuit is taken from design specification through hardware selection and circuit routing to the production of detailed schematics and routing guides. A database containing the entire fiber optic trunk system is also maintained.

  4. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  5. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  6. A chamber design for closed ecological systems research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartzkopf, H.; Stofan, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    A single-plant growth chamber is described which is closed with respect to nutrient and gas flows, in order to serve as a tool in the investigation of control over biological systems. Such control procedures are essential for the use of biological components in the development of a closed ecological life support system (CELSS). The chamber's design consists of two concentric clear plastic cylinders equipped with aeroponic feed tubing, a supporting platform for the plant and a set of sensors that includes an anemometer, thermistors, pressure and strain gauges, and humidity sensors.

  7. Conceptual Design of a 100 MWe Modular Molten Salt Power Tower Plant

    SciTech Connect

    James E. Pacheco; Carter Moursund, Dale Rogers, David Wasyluk

    2011-09-20

    A conceptual design of a 100 MWe modular molten salt solar power tower plant has been developed which can provide capacity factors in the range of 35 to 75%. Compared to single tower plants, the modular design provides a higher degree of flexibility in achieving the desired customer's capacity factor and is obtained simply by adjusting the number of standard modules. Each module consists of a standard size heliostat field and receiver system, hence reengineering and associated unacceptable performance uncertainties due to scaling are eliminated. The modular approach with multiple towers also improves plant availability. Heliostat field components, receivers and towers are shop assembled allowing for high quality and minimal field assembly. A centralized thermal-storage system stores hot salt from the receivers, allowing nearly continuous power production, independent of solar energy collection, and improved parity with the grid. A molten salt steam generator converts the stored thermal energy into steam, which powers a steam turbine generator to produce electricity. This paper describes the conceptual design of the plant, the advantages of modularity, expected performance, pathways to cost reductions, and environmental impact.

  8. Design of easily testable systems

    SciTech Connect

    Rawat, S.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents structured testability techniques that can be applied to systolic arrays. Systolic arrays for signal processing have produced processing rates far in excess of general-purpose architecture. Fast testing is considered as one of the design criteria. The main goal is to derive test vectors for one- and two-dimensional systolic arrays. The author seeks to keep the number of test vectors independent of the size of the array under a generic fault model. The testable design is based on pseudo-exhaustive testing. Conventional testing uses Level Sensitive Scan Detection (LSSD) techniques which are very time consuming for an array of systolic processors. By making the testability analysis early the logic designer will be able to make early (and repeated) design trade-offs that make design for testability a simple extension of the design process. The author shows how one-dimensional sequential systolic arrays can be designed so that the faults can be easily detected and isolated. He also considers unilateral two-dimensional sequential arrays and suggests modifications to make them easily testable. Finally, he shows how a modified carry look ahead adder of arbitrary size can be tested with just 136 test vectors. Comparisons are made against the standard LSSD technique.

  9. Design and tuning of robust PID controller for HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasahara, Masato; Matsuba, Tadahiko; Kuzuu, Yoshiaki; Yamazaki, Takanori; Hashimoto, Yukihiro; Kamimura, Kazuyuki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    1999-07-01

    This paper concerns the development of a new design and tuning method for use with robust proportional-plus-integral-plus-derivative (PID) controllers that are commonly used in the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) fields. The robust PID controller is designed for temperature control of a single-zone environmental space. Although the dynamics of environmental space are described by higher-order transfer functions, most HVAC plants are approximated by first-order lag plus deadtime systems. Its control performance is examined for this commonly approximated controlled plant. Since most HVAC plants are complex with nonlinearity, distributed parameters, and multivariables, a single set of PID gains does not necessarily yield a satisfactory control performance. For this reason, the PID controller must be designed as a robust control system considering model uncertainty caused by changes in characteristics of the plant. The PID gains obtained by solving a two-disk type of mixed sensitivity problem can be modified by contrast to those tuned by the traditional Ziegler-Nichols rule. The results, which are surprisingly simple, are given as linear functions of ratio of deadtime to time constant for robustness. The numerical simulation and the experiments on a commercial-size test plant for air conditioning suggest that the robust PID controller proposed in this paper is effective enough for practical applications.

  10. Design data brochure: Solar hot water system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A design calculation is detailed for a single-family residence housing a family of four in a nonspecific geographical area. The solar water heater system is designed to provide 80 gallons of 140 F hot water per day.

  11. Thermal design of a Mars oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Iyer, Venkatesh A.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal design of the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen for spacecraft propulsion and/or life support is discussed. The gases are pressurized, heated and passed through an electrochemical cell. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide and oxygen due to thermal dissociation and electrocatalysis. The oxygen thus formed is separated from the gas mixture by the electrochemical cell. The objective of the design is to optimize both the overall mass and the power consumption of the system. The analysis shows that at electrochemical cell efficiencies of about 50 percent and lower, the optimal system would require unspent carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases to be separated and recycled. Various methods of efficiently compressing the intake gases to system pressures of 0.1 MPa are investigated. The total power requirement for oxygen production rates of 1, 5, and 10 kg/day at various cell efficiencies are presented.

  12. The photovoltaic-powered water desalination plant 'SORO' design, start up, operating experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhaeusser, G.; Mohn, J.; Petersen, G.

    Design features, operational parameters, and test results of a year of operation of the SORO prototype photovoltaic (PV) reverse osmosis salt water desalinization plant are described. Chemicals are added to the salt water to control the pH, prevent formation of compounds which could plug the flow system, and kill bacteria and slime which might grow in the solution. The water is pressurized and forced into contact with membranes which separate the fresh water from the brackish or sea water. The flow rate in the project was 180 l/h, with the main electrical energy load being the high pressure pump and the well pump. Batteries are charged before current is switched to power the desalinization system. The plant yielded 1.50 cu of fresh water/day and is concluded to be a viable design for scale-up to larger production figures, besides being economically competitive with solar desalinization installations where the salt content is 2000 ppm.

  13. Human factors design, verification, and validation for two types of control room upgrades at a nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Boring, Laurids Ronald

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the NUREG-0711 based human factors engineering (HFE) phases and associated elements required to support design, verification and validation (V&V), and implementation of a new plant process computer (PPC) and turbine control system (TCS) at a representative nuclear power plant. This paper reviews ways to take a human-system interface (HSI) specification and use it when migrating legacy PPC displays or designing displays with new functionality. These displays undergo iterative usability testing during the design phase and then undergo an integrated system validation (ISV) in a full scope control room training simulator. Following the successful demonstration of operator performance with the systems during the ISV, the new system is implemented at the plant, first in the training simulator and then in the main control room.

  14. Conceptual spacecraft systems design and synthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, R. L.; Deryder, D. D.; Ferebee, M. J., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    An interactive systems design and synthesis is performed on future spacecraft concepts using the Interactive Design and Evaluation of Advanced Systems (IDEAS) computer-aided design and analysis system. The capabilities and advantages of the systems-oriented interactive computer-aided design and analysis system are described. The synthesis of both large antenna and space station concepts, and space station evolutionary growth designs is demonstrated. The IDEAS program provides the user with both an interactive graphics and an interactive computing capability which consists of over 40 multidisciplinary synthesis and analysis modules. Thus, the user can create, analyze, and conduct parametric studies and modify earth-orbiting spacecraft designs (space stations, large antennas or platforms, and technologically advanced spacecraft) at an interactive terminal with relative ease. The IDEAS approach is useful during the conceptual design phase of advanced space missions when a multiplicity of parameters and concepts must be analyzed and evaluated in a cost-effective and timely manner.

  15. Residential solar-heating system - design brochure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Design brochure for commercially-available solar-heating system is valuable to architects, engineers, and designers. It contains information on system configuration, system sizing, and mechanical layout. Drawings and specifications of all components and typical installation details are included in appendix.

  16. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poche, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

  17. Solar total energy project at Shenandoah, Georgia system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poche, A. J.

    1980-05-01

    The solar total energy system (STES) was to provide 50% of the total electrical and thermal energy requirements of the 25,000 sq ft Bleyle of America knitwear plant located at the Shenandoah Site. The system will provide 400 kilowatts electrical and 3 megawatts of thermal energy. The STES has a classical, cascaded total energy system configuration. It utilizes one hundred twenty (120), parabolic dish collectors, high temperature (750 F) trickle oil thermal energy storage and a steam turbine generator. The electrical load shaving system was designed for interconnected operation with the Georgia Power system and for operation in a stand alone mode.

  18. Considerations for designing chemical screening strategies in plant biology

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Mario; Kombrink, Erich; Meesters, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, biologists regularly used classical genetic approaches to characterize and dissect plant processes. However, this strategy is often impaired by redundancy, lethality or pleiotropy of gene functions, which prevent the isolation of viable mutants. The chemical genetic approach has been recognized as an alternative experimental strategy, which has the potential to circumvent these problems. It relies on the capacity of small molecules to modify biological processes by specific binding to protein target(s), thereby conditionally modifying protein function(s), which phenotypically resemble mutation(s) of the encoding gene(s). A successful chemical screening campaign comprises three equally important elements: (1) a reliable, robust, and quantitative bioassay, which allows to distinguish between potent and less potent compounds, (2) a rigorous validation process for candidate compounds to establish their selectivity, and (3) an experimental strategy for elucidating a compound's mode of action and molecular target. In this review we will discuss details of this general strategy and additional aspects that deserve consideration in order to take full advantage of the power provided by the chemical approach to plant biology. In addition, we will highlight some success stories of recent chemical screenings in plant systems, which may serve as teaching examples for the implementation of future chemical biology projects. PMID:25904921

  19. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Engineering Test Facility (ETF) 200 MWe power plant. Conceptual Design Engineering Report (CDER). Volume 4: Supplementary engineering data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The reference conceptual design of the Magnetohydrodynamic Engineering Test Facility (ETF), a prototype 200 MWe coal-fired electric generating plant designed to demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open cycle MHD is summarized. Main elements of the design are identified and explained, and the rationale behind them is reviewed. Major systems and plant facilities are listed and discussed. Construction cost and schedule estimates, and identification of engineering issues that should be reexamined are also given. The latest (1980-1981) information from the MHD technology program are integrated with the elements of a conventional steam power electric generating plant. Supplementary Engineering Data (Issues, Background, Performance Assurance Plan, Design Details, System Design Descriptions and Related Drawings) is presented.

  20. Anatomy of a control system; a system designer`s view

    SciTech Connect

    Magyary, S.

    1993-05-01

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) control system is quite unconventional in its design and implementation. This paper discusses the system design considerations, the actual implementation, hardware and software costs, and the measured performance across all layers of the system.

  1. Plant-wide distributed control is the key to an efficient waste wood fuel system at Augusta Newsprint

    SciTech Connect

    King, B.; Rennie, C.

    1986-03-01

    Augusta Newsprint has successfully implemented a total plant system almost eliminating the use of fossil fuels in their industrial steam generator whose design, control system and wood waste handling system is described here.

  2. The advanced PFB process: Pilot plant results and design studies

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, A.; Domeracki, W.; Horazak, D.; Rehmat, A.

    1993-11-01

    The plant being developed is a hybrid of two technologies; it incorporates the partial gasification of coal in a vessel called the carbonizer and the combustion of the resultant char residue in a circulating pressurized fluidized bed combustor (CPFBC). In this plant, coal is fed to a pressurized carbonizer that produces a low-Btu fuel gas and char. After passing through a cyclone and a ceramic barrier filter to remove gas-entrained particulates, the fuel gas is burned in a topping combustor to produce the energy required to drive a gas turbine. The gas turbine drives a generator and a compressor that feeds air to the carbonizer, a CPFBC, and a fluidized bed heat exchanger (FBHE). The carbonizer char is burned in the CPFBC with high excess air. The vitiated air from the CPFBC supports combustion of the fuel gas in the gas turbine topping combustor. Steam generated in a heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG) downstream of the gas turbine and in the FBHE associated with the CPFBC drives the steam turbine generator that furnishes the balance of electric power delivered by the plant. The low-Btu gas is produced in the carbonizer by pyrolysis/mild devolatilization of coal in a fluidized bed reactor. Because this unit operates at temperatures much lower than gasifiers currently under development, it also produces a char residue. Left untreated, the fuel gas will contain hydrogen sulfide and sulfur-containing tar/light oil vapors; therefore, lime-based sorbents are injected into the carbonizer to catalytically enhance tar cracking and to capture sulfur as calcium sulfide. Sulfur is captured in situ, and the raw fuel gas is fired hot. Thus the expensive, complex, fuel gas heat exchangers and the chemical or sulfur-capturing bed cleanup systems that are part of the coal gasification combined-cycle plants now being developed are eliminated.

  3. Evaluation of alternative steam generator designs for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion plants: Final report. [AFBC

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlop, W.

    1987-07-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized Bed Combustion development program at the 20 MW pilot plant at TVA's Shawnee Station is addressing several design issues related to the scale-up requirements for utility application. These include use of overbed vs. underbed feed systems for coal, limestone, and recycled solids, load following and control design for reliable operation, and economies of scale. After initial screening of several alternate configurations, conceptual designs of AFBC mechanical overbed and underbed feed power plants in 1 x 200 MW and 2 x 500 MW sizes were prepared. These designs were assessed for efficiency, performance, resource requirements, capital cost and levelized busbar costs and compared to conventional pulverized coal units of similar size. The findings are that relative to the AFBC underbed feed plants, the AFBC overbed feed plant is about $70/kW less expensive at the 200 MW size, and $20/kW more expensive at the 2 x 500 MW size. Also, the capital costs of AFBC units range from $20/kW to $130/kW less than conventional PCF units and the potential exists for further reductions in AFBC capital costs as AFBC technology improves. Levelized busbar costs are essentially the same for both types and sizes of the AFBC units and for the conventional PCF units. Only one coal, Illinois number6 - a high sulfur bituminous coal - was initially evaluated. Subsequently, five additional coals - bituminous, subbituminous and lignite - and plant locations were evaluated. Current testing of less expensive coals is expected to confirm the fuel flexibility of the AFBC units which may result in corresponding reductions in levelized busbar costs. Utility industry confidence in AFBC has recently been expressed by the planned design and construction of fluidized bed units in 100 MW to 160 MW sizes for Colorado Ute Electric Association, Northern States Power Co. and TVA. 5 refs., 38 figs., 54 tabs.

  4. Assembly design system based on engineering connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wensheng

    2016-05-01

    An assembly design system is an important part of computer-aided design systems, which are important tools for realizing product concept design. The traditional assembly design system does not record the connection information of production on the engineering layer; consequently, the upstream design idea cannot be fully used in the downstream design. An assembly design model based on the relationship of engineering connection is presented. In this model, all nodes are divided into two categories: The component and the connection. Moreover, the product is constructed on the basis of the connection relationship of the components. The model is an And/Or graph and has the ability to record all assembly schemes. This model records only the connection information that has engineering application value in the product design. In addition, this model can significantly reduce the number of combinations, and is very favorable for the assembly sequence planning in the downstream. The system contains a connection knowledge system that can be mapped to the connection node, and the connection knowledge obtained in practice can be returned to the knowledge system. Finally, VC++ 6.0 is used to develop a prototype system called Connect-based Assembly Planning (CAP). The relationship between the CAP system and the commercial assembly design system is also established.

  5. Oral Rabies Vaccine Design for Expression in Plants.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ankit; Saxena, Gauri; Verma, Praveen C

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is the sensitization process of the immune system against any pathogen. Generally, recombinant subunit vaccines are considered safer than attenuated vaccines. As whole pathogenic organisms are used in the immunization process, the attenuated vaccines are considered more risky than subunit vaccines. Rabies is the oldest known zoonosis which spreads through a neurotropic Lyssavirus primarily mediated through infected canine bites. Rabies causes worldwide loss of more than 60,000 human lives every year. Animal vaccination is equally important to check the transmission of rabies into humans. Rabies oral vaccination can be a good alternative where multiple booster and priming regimens are required while the painful vaccination process can continue for long durations. Introduction of oral vaccines was made to ease the discomfort associated with the mode of introduction of conventional vaccines into the body. Although the rabies oral vaccine can substantially reduce the cost of vaccination in the developing countries, mass immunization programs need larger quantities of vaccines which should be delivered at nominal cost. Expression of recombinant antigen proteins in E. coli is often not viable because of lack of post-translational modifications and folding requirements. Though yeast and insect cell line expression systems have post-translational processing and modifications, significantly different immunological response against their post-translational modification pattern limits their deployment as an expression system. As an alternative, plants are emerging as a promising system to express and deliver wide range of functionally active biopharmaceutical product at lower cost for mass immunization programs. As generation of vaccine antigenic proteins in plant systems are cheaper, the strategy will benefit developing countries where this disease causes thousands of deaths every year. In this chapter, we will discuss about our efforts toward development of oral

  6. Planning and Design of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Marine Outfalls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maalouf, S.; Yeh, W. W.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing demands for water in urban areas and agricultural zones in arid and semi-arid regions have urged planners and regulators to look for alternative renewable water sources. Worldwide, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination plants have become an essential supply source for the production of fresh water in such regions. Disposal of their wastes, however, has not been fully and properly addressed. This study presents a strategy for the analysis and design of optimal disposal systems of hypersaline wastes that are generated by SWRO desalination plants. The study evaluates current disposal methods and recommends ways to effectively employ multiport marine outfalls for this purpose. Such outfalls emerged as reliable means for conveying wastes from process plants, to include wastewater treatment and power plants, into the coastal waters. Their proper use, however, in conjunction with SWRO desalination plants is still in its beginning stage, and much work needs to be done to employ them effectively. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to provide design engineers with effective procedures that meet environmental permitting requirements and restrictions, while ascertaining adequate hydrodynamic performance. The study is tested by employing a simulation model and examining its reliability under many parameter perturbation scenarios. This is further extended by providing a solution to the same problem using a heuristic approach.

  7. Effect of Ambient Design Temperature on Air-Cooled Binary Plant Output

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Wendt; Greg Mines

    2011-10-01

    Air-cooled binary plants are designed to provide a specified level of power production at a particular air temperature. Nominally this air temperature is the annual mean or average air temperature for the plant location. This study investigates the effect that changing the design air temperature has on power generation for an air-cooled binary plant producing power from a resource with a declining production fluid temperature and fluctuating ambient temperatures. This analysis was performed for plants operating both with and without a geothermal fluid outlet temperature limit. Aspen Plus process simulation software was used to develop optimal air-cooled binary plant designs for specific ambient temperatures as well as to rate the performance of the plant designs at off-design operating conditions. Results include calculation of annual and plant lifetime power generation as well as evaluation of plant operating characteristics, such as improved power generation capabilities during summer months when electric power prices are at peak levels.

  8. Control system design for flexible structures using data models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Irwin, R. Dennis; Frazier, W. Garth; Mitchell, Jerrel R.; Medina, Enrique A.; Bukley, Angelia P.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics and control of flexible aerospace structures exercises many of the engineering disciplines. In recent years there has been considerable research in the developing and tailoring of control system design techniques for these structures. This problem involves designing a control system for a multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) system that satisfies various performance criteria, such as vibration suppression, disturbance and noise rejection, attitude control and slewing control. Considerable progress has been made and demonstrated in control system design techniques for these structures. The key to designing control systems for these structures that meet stringent performance requirements is an accurate model. It has become apparent that theoretically and finite-element generated models do not provide the needed accuracy; almost all successful demonstrations of control system design techniques have involved using test results for fine-tuning a model or for extracting a model using system ID techniques. This paper describes past and ongoing efforts at Ohio University and NASA MSFC to design controllers using 'data models.' The basic philosophy of this approach is to start with a stabilizing controller and frequency response data that describes the plant; then, iteratively vary the free parameters of the controller so that performance measures become closer to satisfying design specifications. The frequency response data can be either experimentally derived or analytically derived. One 'design-with-data' algorithm presented in this paper is called the Compensator Improvement Program (CIP). The current CIP designs controllers for MIMO systems so that classical gain, phase, and attenuation margins are achieved. The center-piece of the CIP algorithm is the constraint improvement technique which is used to calculate a parameter change vector that guarantees an improvement in all unsatisfied, feasible performance metrics from iteration to iteration. The paper also

  9. The design of laser scanning galvanometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoling; Zhou, Bin; Xie, Weihao; Zhang, Yuangeng

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we designed the laser scanning galvanometer system according to our requirements. Based on scanning range of our laser scanning galvanometer system, the design parameters of this system were optimized. During this work, we focused on the design of the f-θ field lens. An optical system of patent lens in the optical manual book, which had three glasses structure, was used in our designs. Combining the aberration theory, the aberration corrections and image quality evaluations were finished using Code V optical design software. An optimum f-θ field lens was designed, which had focal length of 434 mm, pupil diameter of 30 mm, scanning range of 160 mm × 160 mm, and half field angle of 18°×18°. At the last, we studied the influences of temperature changes on our system.

  10. Safety provisions for UF{sub 6} handling in the design of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bannister, S.P.

    1991-12-31

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) Fuel Division is currently undertaking the final design and construction of a new UF{sub 6} conversion plant at its production site at Springfields near Preston in the north of England. The Company has gained much experience in the handling of UF{sub 6} during operation of plants on site since 1961. The major hazard occurs during the liquefication cycle and the basis of the maximum credible incident scenario adopted for safety assessment and design purposes is discussed. This paper considers the design features which have been incorporated in the new plant to counter the hazards presented by the presence of UF{sub 6} in gaseous and liquid form and explains current thinking on operational procedures in areas of potential risk such as cylinder filling. The plant emergency response philosophy and systems are described and specific design provisions which have been included to satisfy the UK regulatory bodies are outlined in some detail.

  11. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  12. Multidisciplinary optimization for the design and control of uncertain dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridharan, Srikanth

    This dissertation considers an integrated approach to system design and controller design based on analyzing limits of system performance. Historically, plant design methodologies have not incorporated control relevant considerations. Such an approach could result in a system that might not meet its specifications (or one that requires a complex control architecture to do so). System and controller designers often go through several iterations in order to converge to an acceptable plant and controller design. The focus of this dissertation is on the design and control an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle using such an integrated system-control design framework. The goal is to reduce the number of system-control design iterations (by explicitly incorporate control considerations in the system design process), as well as to influence the guidance/trajectory specifications for the system. Due to the high computational costs associated with obtaining a dynamic model for each plant configuration considered, approximations to the system dynamics are used in the control design process. By formulating the control design problem using bilinear and polynomial matrix inequalities, several common control and system design constraints can be simultaneously incorporated into a vehicle design optimization. Several design problems are examined to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach (and to compare the computational burden of this methodology against more traditional approaches).

  13. Robust holographic storage system design.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Watanabe, Minoru

    2011-11-21

    Demand is increasing daily for large data storage systems that are useful for applications in spacecraft, space satellites, and space robots, which are all exposed to radiation-rich space environment. As candidates for use in space embedded systems, holographic storage systems are promising because they can easily provided the demanded large-storage capability. Particularly, holographic storage systems, which have no rotation mechanism, are demanded because they are virtually maintenance-free. Although a holographic memory itself is an extremely robust device even in a space radiation environment, its associated lasers and drive circuit devices are vulnerable. Such vulnerabilities sometimes engendered severe problems that prevent reading of all contents of the holographic memory, which is a turn-off failure mode of a laser array. This paper therefore presents a proposal for a recovery method for the turn-off failure mode of a laser array on a holographic storage system, and describes results of an experimental demonstration. PMID:22109441

  14. Water-Conserving Plant-Growth System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.; Brown, Christopher S.

    1993-01-01

    Report presents further information about plant-growth apparatus described in "Tubular Membrane Plant-Growth Unit" (KSC-11375). Apparatus provides nutrient solution to roots of seedlings without flooding. Conserves water by helping to prevent evaporation from plant bed. Solution supplied only as utilized by seedlings. Device developed for supporting plant growth in space, also has applications for growing plants with minimum of water, such as in arid environments.

  15. A Course on Operational Considerations in Wastewater Treatment Plant Design. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, John W.; And Others

    This manual contains 17 instructional units (sequenced to correspond to parallel chapters in a student's manual) focusing on upgrading the design of wastewater plant facilities and serving as a reference source for establishing criteria for upgrading wastewater treatment plants. The manual also furnishes information for modifying plant design to…

  16. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  17. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  18. 45 CFR 670.25 - Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... native mammals, birds, and plants. 670.25 Section 670.25 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... Protected Species of Mammals, Birds, and Plants § 670.25 Designation of specially protected species of native mammals, birds, and plants. The following species has been designated as Specially...

  19. 76 FR 63541 - Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-13

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Parts 50 and 52 Design-Basis Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants... Hurricane and Hurricane Missiles for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides licensees and...- basis hurricane and design-basis hurricane-generated missiles that a nuclear power plant should...

  20. Using the Computer in Systems Engineering Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W.

    1970-01-01

    With the aid of the programmed computer, the systems designer can analyze systems for which certain components have not yet been manufactured or even invented, and the power of solution-technique is greatly increased. (IR)

  1. 21 CFR 111.20 - What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... your physical plant? 111.20 Section 111.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... MANUFACTURING, PACKAGING, LABELING, OR HOLDING OPERATIONS FOR DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS Physical Plant and Grounds § 111.20 What design and construction requirements apply to your physical plant? Any physical plant...

  2. Optmization design of zoom lens systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofeng

    2002-09-01

    A zoom lens system is usually composed of several components. Some of the components can be moved to change the focal length or magnification. Zoom lens system design is more complicated than fixed-focus lens design due to the moving of some components. In this paper, an optimization method that is used to design zoom lens systems is presented. Using this method, the Gaussian parameters of zoom lens systems are optimized at first, and then the initial structure parameters in each component are generated and optimized. At last the aberration balance is made using multi-configuration. In this paper the flowchart of optimization design for such complex optical systems is showed and the algorithms are described. As a conclusion, the relationship between power distribution, initial structure and the aberrations is considered at the beginning, the evaluation criteria are reliable and efficiency for designing zoom lens systems.

  3. The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System Architecture and System Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Windhorst, Robert; Meyn, Larry; Manikonda, Vikram; Carlos, Patrick; Capozzi, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The Airspace Concepts Evaluation System is a simulation of the National Airspace System. It includes models of flights, airports, airspaces, air traffic controls, traffic flow managements, and airline operation centers operating throughout the United States. It is used to predict system delays in response to future capacity and demand scenarios and perform benefits assessments of current and future airspace technologies and operational concepts. Facilitation of these studies requires that the simulation architecture supports plug and play of different air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models and multi-fidelity modeling of flights, airports, and airspaces. The simulation is divided into two parts that are named, borrowing from classical control theory terminology, control and plant. The control consists of air traffic control, traffic flow management, and airline operation center models, and the plant consists of flight, airport, and airspace models. The plant can run open loop, in the absence of the control. However, undesired affects, such as conflicts and over congestions in the airspaces and airports, can occur. Different controls are applied, "plug and played", to the plant. A particular control is evaluated by analyzing how well it managed conflicts and congestions. Furthermore, the terminal area plants consist of models of airports and terminal airspaces. Each model consists of a set of nodes and links which are connected by the user to form a network. Nodes model runways, fixes, taxi intersections, gates, and/or other points of interest, and links model taxiways, departure paths, and arrival paths. Metering, flow distribution, and sequencing functions can be applied at nodes. Different fidelity model of how a flight transits are can be used by links. The fidelity of the model can be adjusted by the user by either changing the complexity of the node/link network-or the way that the link models how the flights transit

  4. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Osman, Mohammed; Godso, David; King, Brent; Ricciardi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    In this technical document, we describe the design developed for the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Executive Assistant (EA) Proof of Concept (POC). We describe the genesis and role of the ASAC system, discuss the objectives of the ASAC system and provide an overview of components and models within the ASAC system, and describe the design process and the results of the ASAC EA POC system design. We also describe the evaluation process and results for applicable COTS software. The document has six chapters, a bibliography, three appendices and one attachment.

  5. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  6. Knowledge-based optical system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouri, Taoufik

    1992-03-01

    This work is a new approach for the design of start optical systems and represents a new contribution of artificial intelligence techniques in the optical design field. A knowledge-based optical-systems design (KBOSD), based on artificial intelligence algorithms, first order logic, knowledge representation, rules, and heuristics on lens design, is realized. This KBOSD is equipped with optical knowledge in the domain of centered dioptrical optical systems used at low aperture and small field angles. It generates centered dioptrical, on-axis and low-aperture optical systems, which are used as start systems for the subsequent optimization by existing lens design programs. This KBOSD produces monochromatic or polychromatic optical systems, such as singlet lens, doublet lens, triplet lens, reversed singlet lens, reversed doublet lens, reversed triplet lens, and telescopes. In the design of optical systems, the KBOSD takes into account many user constraints such as cost, resistance of the optical material (glass) to chemical, thermal, and mechanical effects, as well as the optical quality such as minimal aberrations and chromatic aberrations corrections. This KBOSD is developed in the programming language Prolog and has knowledge on optical design principles and optical properties. It is composed of more than 3000 clauses. Inference engine and interconnections in the cognitive world of optical systems are described. The system uses neither a lens library nor a lens data base; it is completely based on optical design knowledge.

  7. 100 MWe Baseload Molten Salt Plant Phase 1 & 2 Summary Report: Summary of Conceptual Design, Preliminary Design, Commercialization and Risk Reduction Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, Craig; Kraft, Dave; Moursund, Carter; Santelmann, Ken; Greaney, Andy; Zillmer, Andrew; Heap, Andy; Sakadjian, Bartev; Hannemann, Chris; Rogers, Dale; Gross, David; Wasyluk, David; Fondriest, Ed; Soni, Gaurav; Bindra, Hitesh; Marshall, Jason; Risner, Jeremy; Pacheco, Jim; Martin, Joe; Montesano, Kevin; Foder, Matt; Zavodny, Maximillian; Slack, Mike; Donnellan, Nathan; Sage, William

    2012-11-27

    This document describes steps taken to develop our conceptual and preliminary designs of a modular concept for deploying a 75% capacity factor, 100-MWe solar power plant. The modular approach consists of 14 solar power towers interconnected by hot and cold salt piping leading back to a central power block where the salt storage tanks and power generation systems are located. The plant is described in several sections. First, the overall plant is described, including the general arrangement, process and heat flow diagrams, system interface definitions, and electrical description. Next, each system is described in detail following the flow of energy from incident sunlight, through the plant, to the grid. These systems include the solar collector system (SCS), solar receiver system (SRS), thermal storage system (TSS), steam generator system (SGS), and power generation system (PGS). Then, the plant control system (PCS) and balance of plant (BOP) are discussed as supporting entities. Each system of the plant is described in sufficient detail to allow for the following to be developed: material cost, erection cost, project schedule, EPC bids, detailed performance modeling, and operations and maintenance cost. Cost, schedule, and performance estimates are not described in this document. Two approaches to demonstration of the technology are presented: a single tower integrated into an existing power block and a four tower stand alone 50 MWe power plant. Various demonstration partners have expressed interested in both approaches. The process by which a detailed plant performance model was developed is described to support the development of accurate LCOE data. Information on material and instrument testing is also provided for critical materials and instruments required for molten salt service.

  8. On stochastic control system design methods for weakly coupled large scale linear systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwong, R.; Chong, C.-Y.; Athans, M.

    1972-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of decentralized control of two weakly coupled linear stochastic systems, using quadratic performance indices. The basic idea is to have each controller control independently his own system, based upon noisy measurements of his own output. To compensate for the effects of weak coupling upon the resultant performance, fake white plant noise is introduced to each system. The appropriate intensity of the fake plant noise is obtained through the solution of an off-line deterministic matrix optimal control problem. The effects of this design method upon the overall coupled system performance are analyzed as a function of the degree of intersystem coupling.

  9. Application of EPRI risk-based inservice inspection procedure to combustion engineering design of nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lubin, B.T.; Fourgerousse, R.

    1996-12-01

    The EPRI developed risk-based inservice inspection procedure is used to select the elements for inservice inspection on a section of the high pressure safety injection system of the Entergy Operations ANO2 nuclear plant. This plant is the pilot plant in a six utility-eleven plant EPRI tailored collaboration program to apply the general EPRI procedures to Combustion Engineering NSSS designs. The procedure results in a reduction of candidate inspection locations from 14, based on current ASME Section XI rules for B-J welds to 3, based on the risk-based selection criteria.

  10. SOYCHMBR.I - A model designed for the study of plant growth in a closed chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinhold, C.

    1982-01-01

    The analytical model SOYCHMBER.I, an update and alteration of the SOYMOD/OARDC model, for describing the total processes experienced by a plant in a controlled mass environment is outlined. The model is intended for use with growth chambers for examining plant growth in a completely controlled environment, leading toward a data base for the design of spacecraft food supply systems. SOYCHMBER.I accounts for the assimilation, respiration, and partitioning of photosynthate and nitrogen compounds among leaves, stems, roots, and potentially, flowers of the soybean plant. The derivation of the governing equations is traced, and the results of the prediction of CO2 dynamics for a seven day experiment with rice in a closed chamber are reported, together with data from three model runs for soybean. It is concluded that the model needs expansion to account for factors such as relative humidity.

  11. Designing To Learn about Complex Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hmelo, Cindy E.; Holton, Douglas L.; Kolodner, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Indicates the presence of complex structural, behavioral, and functional relations to understanding. Reports on a design experiment in which 6th grade children learned about the human respiratory system by designing artificial lungs and building partial working models. Makes suggestions for successful learning from design activities. (Contains 44…

  12. Pepper banker plant systems and predatory mitespepper banker plant systems and predatory mites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While developing the ornamental pepper banker plant system for greenhouse grown vegetables and ornamental crops we discovered that the predatory mites we were using could survive and reproduce on ornamental pepper without their prey especially if they were provided supplemental pollen or if the bank...

  13. Plant MetGenMAP: an integrative analysis system for plant systems biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed a web-based system, Plant MetGenMAP, which can identify significantly altered biochemical pathways and highly affected biological processes, predict functional roles of pathway genes, and potential pathway-related regulatory motifs from transcript and metabolite profile datasets. P...

  14. ITER Construction--Plant System Integration

    SciTech Connect

    Tada, E.; Matsuda, S.

    2009-02-19

    This brief paper introduces how the ITER will be built in the international collaboration. The ITER Organization plays a central role in constructing ITER and leading it into operation. Since most of the ITER components are to be provided in-kind from the member countries, integral project management should be scoped in advance of real work. Those include design, procurement, system assembly, testing, licensing and commissioning of ITER.

  15. Control system structure design for object positioning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgankin, V.; Zamyatin, V.; Zamyatin, S.

    2016-04-01

    Object positioning system is intended for load transposition. Its main feature is the control method which is based on operator muscle force. One of the most important object position system development problems is a control system design. The article presents the first step of this problem solution that consists of control system structure design.

  16. SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer System software design description

    SciTech Connect

    Femec, D.A.; Killian, E.W.

    1994-08-01

    To assist in the characterization of the radiological contents of contract-handled waste containers at the Stored Waste Examination Pilot Plant (SWEPP), the SWEPP Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (SGRS) System has been developed by the Radiation Measurements and Development Unit of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The SGRS system software controls turntable and detector system activities. In addition to determining the concentrations of gamma-ray-emitting radionuclides, this software also calculates attenuation-corrected isotopic mass ratios of-specific interest. This document describes the software design for the data acquisition and analysis software associated with the SGRS system.

  17. Accelerating Science Driven System Design With RAMP

    SciTech Connect

    Wawrzynek, John

    2015-05-01

    Researchers from UC Berkeley, in collaboration with the Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, are engaged in developing an Infrastructure for Synthesis with Integrated Simulation (ISIS). The ISIS Project was a cooperative effort for “application-driven hardware design” that engages application scientists in the early parts of the hardware design process for future generation supercomputing systems. This project served to foster development of computing systems that are better tuned to the application requirements of demanding scientific applications and result in more cost-effective and efficient HPC system designs. In order to overcome long conventional design-cycle times, we leveraged reconfigurable devices to aid in the design of high-efficiency systems, including conventional multi- and many-core systems. The resulting system emulation/prototyping environment, in conjunction with the appropriate intermediate abstractions, provided both a convenient user programming experience and retained flexibility, and thus efficiency, of a reconfigurable platform. We initially targeted the Berkeley RAMP system (Research Accelerator for Multiple Processors) as that hardware emulation environment to facilitate and ultimately accelerate the iterative process of science-driven system design. Our goal was to develop and demonstrate a design methodology for domain-optimized computer system architectures. The tangible outcome is a methodology and tools for rapid prototyping and design-space exploration, leading to highly optimized and efficient HPC systems.

  18. Layered Plant-Growth Media for Optimizing Gaseous, Liquid and Nutrient Requirements: Modeling, Design and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinse, R.; Jones, S. B.; Bingham, G.; Bugbee, B.

    2006-12-01

    Rigorous management of restricted root zones utilizing coarse-textured porous media greatly benefits from optimizing the gas-water balance within plant-growth media. Geophysical techniques can help to quantify root- zone parameters like water content, air-filled porosity, temperature and nutrient concentration to better address the root systems performance. The efficiency of plant growth amid high root densities and limited volumes is critically linked to maintaining a favorable water content/air-filled porosity balance while considering adequate fluxes to replenish water at decreasing hydraulic conductivities during uptake. Volumes adjacent to roots also need to be optimized to provide adequate nutrients throughout the plant's life cycle while avoiding excessive salt concentrations. Our objectives were to (1) design and model an optimized root zone system using optimized porous media layers, (2) verify our design by monitoring the water content distribution and tracking nutrient release and transport, and (3) mimic water and nutrient uptake using plants or wicks to draw water from the root system. We developed a unique root-zone system using layered Ottawa sands promoting vertically uniform water contents and air-filled porosities. Watering was achieved by maintaining a shallow saturated layer at the bottom of the column and allowing capillarity to draw water upward, where coarser particle sizes formed the bottom layers with finer particles sizes forming the layers above. The depth of each layer was designed to optimize water content based on measurements and modeling of the wetting water retention curves. Layer boundaries were chosen to retain saturation between 50 and 85 percent. The saturation distribution was verified by dual-probe heat-pulse water-content sensors. The nutrient experiment involved embedding slow release fertilizer in the porous media in order to detect variations in electrical resistivity versus time during the release, diffusion and uptake of

  19. Risk analysis of computer system designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallone, A.

    1981-01-01

    Adverse events during implementation can affect final capabilities, schedule and cost of a computer system even though the system was accurately designed and evaluated. Risk analysis enables the manager to forecast the impact of those events and to timely ask for design revisions or contingency plans before making any decision. This paper presents a structured procedure for an effective risk analysis. The procedure identifies the required activities, separates subjective assessments from objective evaluations, and defines a risk measure to determine the analysis results. The procedure is consistent with the system design evaluation and enables a meaningful comparison among alternative designs.

  20. A prototype expert system for fishway design.

    PubMed

    Bender, M J; Katopodis, C; Simonovic, S P

    1992-12-01

    The design of structures for fish passage in rivers and streams provides an opportunity to apply expert system concepts to a design problem. Fishways contribute to the sustainable development of water resources projects by providing a path that allows fish migrations to be maintained. A prototype expert system (FDES) has been developed to recommend the most suitable fishway type for given design conditions. A recommendation is provided on the basis of fishway hydraulics, fish passage performance, and cost requirements. Fishway design demands expertise in various scientific disciplines such as hydrology, hydraulics, and fish biology. Expert system technology may be used to reduce design time requirements and to serve as a teaching aid to inexperienced engineers by organizing and accessing the cumulative knowledge of the most experienced designers. The rule-based expert system development tool, VP-Expert, supplies the backward chaining control structure for accessing the knowledge within the prototype. PMID:24227094