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1

Transpiration rates of rice plants treated with Trichoderma spp.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trichoderma spp. are considered as successful plant growth promoting fungi and have positive role in habitat engineering. In this study, the potential for Trichoderma spp. to regulate transpiration process in rice plant was assessed experimentally under greenhouse condition using a completely randomized design. The study revealed that Trichoderma spp. have potential to enhance growth of rice plant through transpirational processes. The results of the study add to the advancement of the understanding as to the role of Trichoderma spp. in improving rice physiological process.

Doni, Febri; Anizan, I.; Che Radziah C. M., Z.; Yusoff, Wan Mohtar Wan

2014-09-01

2

Plant Cycles: Photosynthesis & Transpiration  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

What do plants need? Students examine the effects of light and air on green plants, learning the processes of photosynthesis and transpiration. Student teams plant seeds, placing some in sunlight and others in darkness. They make predictions about the outcomes and record ongoing observations of the condition of the stems, leaves and roots. Then, several healthy plants are placed in glass jars with lids overnight. Condensation forms, illustrating the process of transpiration, or the release of moisture to the atmosphere by plants.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

3

Just Breathe Green: Measuring Transpiration Rates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Through multi-trial experiments, students are able to see and measure something that is otherwise invisible to them—seeing plants breathe. Student groups are given two small plants of native species and materials to enclose them after watering with colored water. After being enclosed for 5, 10 and 15 minutes, teams collect and measure the condensed water from the plants' "breathing," and then calculate the rates at which the plants breathe. A plant's breath is known as transpiration, which is the flow of water from the ground where it is taken up by roots (plant uptake) and then lost through the leaves. Students plot volume/time data for three different native plant species, determine and compare their transpiration rates to see which had the highest reaction rate and consider how a plant's unique characteristics (leaf surface area, transpiration rate) might figure into engineers' designs for neighborhood stormwater management plans.

2014-09-18

4

Development of synchronized, autonomous, and self-regulated oscillations in transpiration rate of a whole tomato plant under water stress  

PubMed Central

Plants respond to many environmental changes by rapidly adjusting their hydraulic conductivity and transpiration rate, thereby optimizing water-use efficiency and preventing damage due to low water potential. A multiple-load-cell apparatus, time-series analysis of the measured data, and residual low-pass filtering methods were used to monitor continuously and analyse transpiration of potted tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Ailsa Craig) grown in a temperature-controlled greenhouse during well-irrigated and drought periods. A time derivative of the filtered residual time series yielded oscillatory behaviour of the whole plant's transpiration (WPT) rate. A subsequent cross-correlation analysis between the WPT oscillatory pattern and wet-wick evaporation rates (vertical cotton fabric, 0.14 m2 partly submerged in water in a container placed on an adjacent load cell) revealed that autonomous oscillations in WPT rate develop under a continuous increase in water stress, whereas these oscillations correspond with the fluctuations in evaporation rate when water is fully available. The relative amplitude of these autonomous oscillations increased with water stress as transpiration rate decreased. These results support the recent finding that an increase in xylem tension triggers hydraulic signals that spread instantaneously via the plant vascular system and control leaf conductance. The regulatory role of synchronized oscillations in WPT rate in eliminating critical xylem tension points and preventing embolism is discussed. PMID:20558570

Wallach, Rony; Da-Costa, Noam; Raviv, Michael; Moshelion, Menachem

2010-01-01

5

Effect of transpiration rate on internal plant resistance to water flow  

E-print Network

Transport in the Soil-Plant Atmosphere System Mathematical models have been developed by Philip (1957 ). Gardner (1960)i and Cowan ( 1965 ) for water trans- port in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. Gardner (1960) quantitatively evaluated...- ciently dense that the transpiration demands can be met without excess soil water potential gradients ~ Cowan (1945 ) presented an approximate solution to the differential equation describing water movement in un- saturated soils toward plants...

Hailey, James Lester

1971-01-01

6

Transpiration: Water Movement Through Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn the basics of transpiration -- the transportation of water through plants from soil to leaves to atmosphere -- with this playful animation created by weed physiologist Tracy Sterling and animator Matt Byrnes. Interactive features allow you to explore the process including how changing environmental conditions can impact how fast water moves.

Tracy Sterling (New Mexico State University; )

2005-09-23

7

Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.  

PubMed

To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions. PMID:19426314

Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

2009-04-01

8

Transpiration - Water Movement through Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson and its animation follows the journey of water through a plant from its uptake by roots to its evaporation from the leaf surface. How this journey is altered by plant characteristics such as stomata and cuticles as well as by changes in the environment will be described.

9

Responses of gas exchange to reversible changes in whole-plant transpiration rate in two conifer species.  

PubMed

This study examined the autonomy of branches with respect to the control of transpiration (E) in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn) seedlings. Experiments were conducted on whole seedlings in a gas exchange system with a dual-cuvette that permitted independent manipulation and measurement of E in the upper and lower cuvettes. The value of E in one cuvette was manipulated by varying vapor pressure deficit (D) between 2.2 and 0.2 kPa, whereas D in the other cuvette was held at 2.2 kPa. Reducing D, while increasing stomatal conductance (gs), resulted in an overall decrease in E. In western red cedar, this decrease was almost threefold, and in Douglas-fir, approximately fourfold. In well-watered western red cedar, a reduction of whole-plant E by 46% (brought about by reducing D in the upper cuvette) resulted in a 12% increase in gs, a 12% increase in E and a 7% increase in net assimilation (A) of untreated foliage in the lower cuvette. Responses of gs, E and A of untreated foliage were similar irrespective of whether foliage was at the top or bottom of the seedling. When D in the treatment cuvette was restored to 2.2 kPa, gs, E and A of foliage in the untreated cuvette returned to pretreatment values. In contrast, in well-watered Douglas-fir, there was almost no change in gs, E or A of untreated foliage in one cuvette when D in the other cuvette was reduced, causing a 52% reduction in whole-plant E. However, similar manipulations on drought-stressed Douglas-fir led to 7-19% increases in gs, E and A of untreated foliage. In well-watered western red cedar, daytime leaf water potential (Psil) was maintained near -0.9 MPa over a wide range of D, whereas Psil of Douglas-fir decreased from -1.2 to -1.5 MPa as D increased. The tighter (isohydric) regulation of Psil in western red cedar may partly explain its greater stomatal response to D and variation in whole-plant E compared with Douglas-fir. In response to a reduction in E, measured increases in Psil and gs of unmanipulated foliage were less than predicted by a model assuming complete hydraulic connectivity of foliage. Our results suggest the foliage of both species is partially autonomous with respect to water. PMID:12865245

Warren, C R; Livingston, N J; Turpin, D H

2003-08-01

10

Characterizing photosynthesis and transpiration of plant communities in controlled environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

CO2 and water vapor fluxes of hydroponically grown wheat and soybean canopies were measured continuously in several environments with an open gas exchange system. Canopy CO2 fluxes reflect the photosynthetic efficiency of a plant community, and provide a record of plant growth and health. There were significant diurnal fluctuations in root and shoot CO2 fluxes, and in shoot water vapor fluxes. Canopy stomatal conductance (Gc) to water vapor was calculated from simultaneous measurements of canopy temperature (Tcan) and transpiration rates (Tr). Tr in the dark was substantial, and there were large diurnal fluctuations in both Gc and Tr. Canopy net Photosynthesis (Pnet), Tr, and Gc increased with increasing net radiation. Gc increased with Tr, suggesting that the stomata of plants in controlled environments (CEs) behave differently from field-grown plants. A transpiration model based on measurements of Gc was developed for CEs. The model accurately predicted Tr from a soybean canopy.

Monje, O.; Bugbee, B.

1996-01-01

11

How-to-Do-It: Using Computers in Measuring Transpiration Rate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is an activity in which a computer is used to acquire temperature and humidity data useful in investigating transpiration in plants. Materials and procedures are discussed and examples of results are presented. Factors which influence the rate of transpiration are discussed. (CW)

Seligmann, Peter F.; Thompson, Steven R.

1989-01-01

12

Measuring Transpiration to Regulate Winter Irrigation Rates  

SciTech Connect

Periodic transpiration (monthly sums) in a young loblolly pine plantation between ages 3 and 6 was measured using thermal dissipation probes. Fertilization and fertilization with irrigation were better than irrigation alone in increasing transpiration of young loblolly pines during winter months, apparently because of increased leaf area in fertilized trees. Irrigation alone did not significantly increase transpiration compared with the non-fertilized and non-irrigated control plots.

Samuelson, Lisa [Auburn University] [Auburn University

2006-11-08

13

Modeling of transpiration of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L.) plants based on radiation and leaf area index in soilless culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modeling of crop transpiration is important to manage the irrigation strategy in soilless culture. In this study, the transpiration\\u000a of paprika plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in rockwool was analyzed considering the relationship between incident radiation (RAD) and leaf area index (LAI).\\u000a Coefficients of the simplified Penman-Monteith formula were calibrated in order to calculate the transpiration rate of the\\u000a crop

Jong Hwa Shin; Tae In Ahn; Jung Eek Son

2011-01-01

14

Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalizing shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the role of root-synthesized ABA in regulating growth and stomatal behaviour under well-watered conditions, isogenic wild-type (WT) and ABA-deficient flacca (flc) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reciprocally and self-grafted just below the cotyledonary node. Since flc scions had lower leaf water potentials due to higher transpiration rates, a subset of all graft combinations was grown under a shoot misting treatment to minimize differences in shoot water status. Misting did not alter the relative effects of the different graft combinations on leaf area. WT scions had the greatest leaf area and lowest whole plant transpiration rate irrespective of the rootstock, implying that shoot ABA biosynthesis was sufficient to account for a WT shoot phenotype. In WT scions, the rootstock had no effect on detached leaf ethylene evolution or xylem concentrations of ABA or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In flc scions, although the WT rootstock suppressed stomatal conductance of individual leaves, there was no detectable effect on whole plant transpiration rate. However, leaf area of flc/WT (scion/rootstock) plants increased 1.6-fold compared to flc self-grafts. WT rootstocks increased xylem ABA concentration in flc scions (relative to flc self-grafts) up to 3-fold, and resulted in xylem ACC concentrations and detached leaf ethylene evolution similar to WT scions. Since the WT rootstock normalized shoot ethylene relations but only partially restored the leaf area of flc scions (relative to that of WT scions), shoot ABA biosynthesis can directly promote leaf area via an unknown, ethylene-independent, mechanism. PMID:19648172

Dodd, Ian C.; Theobald, Julian C.; Richer, Sarah K.; Davies, William J.

2009-01-01

15

Sapwood Area as a Scaling Factor for Transpiration Rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of transpiration in forested areas is a function of the spatial and temporal variations in vegetation structural attributes. Therefore, it is possible to scale up the transpiration of a single tree to multi-tree scales using vegetation structural patterns. The main goal of this research is to generate, apply and verify a procedure for scaling up the process of transpiration in forested areas over a range of three spatial scales {tree, plot, and catchment} and within daily/monthly/seasonal scale. In order to accomplish this goal, it is necessary to identify vegetation characteristics that are appropriate scaling factors. Sapwood is the active part of the xylem for water and nutrients transport towards the leaves. Thus, sapwood area is an effective scaling factor for transpiration rates from a single point in a tree to the whole tree. Also, sapwood area establishes the limit on the quantity of foliage for a tree, and thus its vigour. The study area for this research is in the Montane eco-region of southern Alberta which includes species of Jack Pine, Lodgepole Pine, Black Spruce and Trembling Aspen. Sapwood area is estimated as the cross-sectional area of the outer vascular tissue responsible for transporting water in the acropetal way. As sapwood depth does not form a perfect ring around the tree trunk, it was measured in the four cardinal compass points and then an average value for the estimation of sapwood area was obtained. Two methods were used to estimate sapwood depth: dye infusion and microscopic identification of sapwood tissue. While the former method is widely used, it was deemed unsuccessful in our study area due to damage that vessels/tracheids suffered during the coring/extraction process. The latter is a laborious method, due to the detailed scale at which the analysis is performed. However, it assures accuracies of roughly 98%\\ for determining sapwood depth. A more detailed comparison of both methods is presented. Results demonstrate a high correlation between the depth of sapwood area and the aspect, where the deepest sapwood at the breast height was found in the North and East faces of the sampled boreal trees. Other results of interest for scaling transpiration are presented, such as correlations between sapwood depth and diameter at breast height, sapwood depth and basal area, sapwood depth and species type.

Quinonez-Pinon, R.; Valeo, C.

2004-05-01

16

Predicting the effects of gas diffusivity on photosynthesis and transpiration of plants grown under hypobaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As part of a Bio-regenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for long-term space missions, plants will likely be grown at reduced pressure. This low pressure will minimize structural requirements for growth chambers on missions to the Moon or Mars. However, at reduced pressures the diffusivity of gases increases. This will affect the rates at which CO2 is assimilated and water is transpired through stomata. To understand quantitatively the possible effects of reduced pressure on plant growth, CO2 and H2O transport were calculated for atmospheres of various total pressures (101, 66, 33, 22, 11 kPa) and CO2 concentrations (0.04, 0.1 and 0.18 kPa). The diffusivity of a gas is inversely proportional to total pressure and shows dramatic increases at pressures below 33 kPa (1/3 atm). A mathematical relationship based on the principle of thermodynamics was applied to low pressure conditions and can be used for calculating the transpiration and photosynthesis of plants grown in hypobaria. At 33 kPa total pressure, the stomatal conductance increases by a factor of three with the boundary layer conductance increasing by a factor of ˜1.7, since the leaf conductance is a function of both stomatal and the boundary layer conductance, the overall conductance will increase resulting in significantly higher levels of transpiration as the pressure drops. The conductance of gases is also regulated by stomatal aperture in an inverse relationship. The higher CO2 concentration inside the leaf air space during low pressure treatments may result in higher CO2 assimilation and partial stomata closure, resulting in a decrease in transpiration rate. The results of this analysis offer guidelines for experiments in pressure and high CO2 environments to establish ideal conditions for minimizing transpiration and maximizing the plant biomass yield in BLSS.

Gohil, Hemant L.; Correll, Melanie J.; Sinclair, Thomas

2011-01-01

17

Photosynthesis, transpiration and water use efficiency of four plant species with grazing intensities in Hunshandak Sandland, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to explore the response patterns of gas exchange to the increased grazing intensity and to test whether or not plants have compensatory growth under animal grazing disturbance, we have conducted this experiment in Hunshandak Sandland of Northern China. Changes in net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (E), and water use efficiency (WUE) of four plant species (Cleistogenes squarrosa,

Y. Peng; G. M. Jiang; X. H. Liu; S. L. Niu; M. Z. Liu; D. K. Biswas

2007-01-01

18

A Transpiration Experiment Requiring Critical Thinking Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details laboratory procedures that enable students to understand the concept of how differences in water potential drive the movement of water within a plant in response to transpiration. Students compare transpiration rates for upper and lower surfaces of leaves. (DDR)

Ford, Rosemary H.

1998-01-01

19

Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety-efficiency trade-off.  

PubMed

Soil and plant hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon uptake by leaves. While more negative xylem water potentials provide a larger driving force for water transport, they also cause cavitation that limits hydraulic conductivity. An optimum balance between driving force and cavitation occurs at intermediate water potentials, thus defining the maximum transpiration rate the xylem can sustain (denoted as E(max)). The presence of this maximum raises the question as to whether plants regulate transpiration through stomata to function near E(max). To address this question, we calculated E(max) across plant functional types and climates using a hydraulic model and a global database of plant hydraulic traits. The predicted E(max) compared well with measured peak transpiration across plant sizes and growth conditions (R = 0.86, P < 0.001) and was relatively conserved among plant types (for a given plant size), while increasing across climates following the atmospheric evaporative demand. The fact that E(max) was roughly conserved across plant types and scales with the product of xylem saturated conductivity and water potential at 50% cavitation was used here to explain the safety-efficiency trade-off in plant xylem. Stomatal conductance allows maximum transpiration rates despite partial cavitation in the xylem thereby suggesting coordination between stomatal regulation and xylem hydraulic characteristics. PMID:23356378

Manzoni, Stefano; Vico, Giulia; Katul, Gabriel; Palmroth, Sari; Jackson, Robert B; Porporato, Amilcare

2013-04-01

20

Partial phenotypic reversion of ABA-deficient flacca tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) scions by a wild-type rootstock: normalizing shoot ethylene relations promotes leaf area but does not diminish whole plant transpiration rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the role of root-synthesized ABA in regulating growth and stomatal behaviour under well-watered conditions, isogenic wild-type (WT) and ABA-deficient flacca (flc) tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) were reciprocally and self-grafted just below the cotyledonary node. Since flc scions had lower leaf water potentials due to higher transpiration rates, a subset of all graft combinations was grown under a shoot misting

Ian C. Dodd; Julian C. Theobald; Sarah K. Richer; William J. Davies

2009-01-01

21

Photosynthesis, Transpiration, Leaf Temperature, and Stomatal Activity of Cotton Plants under Varying Water Potentials  

PubMed Central

Cotton plants, Gossypium hirsutum L. were grown in a growth room under incident radiation levels of 65, 35, and 17 Langleys per hour to determine the effects of vapor pressure deficits (VPD's) of 2, 9, and 17 mm Hg at high soil water potential, and the effects of decreasing soil water potential and reirrigation on transpiration, leaf temperature, stomatal activity, photosynthesis, and respiration at a VPD of 9 mm Hg. Transpiration was positively correlated with radiation level, air VPD and soil water potential. Reirrigation following stress led to slow recovery, which may be related to root damage occurring during stress. Leaf water potential decreased with, but not as fast as, soil water potential. Leaf temperature was usually positively correlated with light intensity and negatively correlated with transpiration, air VPD, and soil water. At high soil water, leaf temperatures ranged from a fraction of 1 to a few degrees above ambient, except at medium and low light and a VPD of 19 mm Hg when they were slightly below ambient, probably because of increased transpirational cooling. During low soil water leaf temperatures as high as 3.4° above ambient were recorded. Reirrigation reduced leaf temperature before appreciably increasing transpiration. The upper leaf surface tended to be warmer than the lower at the beginning of the day and when soil water was adequate; otherwise there was little difference or the lower surface was warmer. This pattern seemed to reflect transpiration cooling and leaf position effects. Although stomata were more numerous in the lower than the upper epidermis, most of the time a greater percentage of the upper were open. With sufficient soil water present, stomata opened with light and closed with darkness. Fewer stomata opened under low than high light intensity and under even moderate, as compared with high soil water. It required several days following reirrigation for stomata to regain original activity levels. Apparent photosynthesis of cotton leaves occasionally oscillated with variable amplitude and frequency. When soil water was adequate, photosynthesis was nearly proportional to light intensity, with some indication of higher rates at higher VPD's. As soil water decreased, photosynthesis first increased and then markedly decreased. Following reirrigation, photosynthesis rapidly recovered. Respiration was slowed moderately by decreasing soil water but increased before watering. Respiration slowed with increasing leaf age only on leaves that were previously under high light intensity. PMID:16656488

Pallas, J. E.; Michel, B. E.; Harris, D. G.

1967-01-01

22

Determining the transpiration rate of peach trees under two trickle irrigation regimes  

E-print Network

DETERMINING THE TRANSPIRATION RATE OF PEACH TREES UNDER TWO TRICKLE IRRIGATION REGIMES A Thesis by PAUL BRYAN RODRIGUE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering DETERMINING THE TRANSPIRATION RATE OF PEACH TREES UNDER TWO TRICKLE IRRIGATION REGIMES A Thesis by PAUL BRYAN RODRIGUE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Rodrigue, Paul Bryan

2012-06-07

23

A Microfluidic Pump/Valve Inspired by Xylem Embolism and Transpiration in Plants  

PubMed Central

In plants, transpiration draws the water upward from the roots to the leaves. However, this flow can be blocked by air bubbles in the xylem conduits, which is called xylem embolism. In this research, we present the design of a biomimetic microfluidic pump/valve based on water transpiration and xylem embolism. This micropump/valve is mainly composed of three parts: the first is a silicon sheet with an array of slit-like micropores to mimic the stomata in a plant leaf; the second is a piece of agarose gel to mimic the mesophyll cells in the sub-cavities of a stoma; the third is a micro-heater which is used to mimic the xylem embolism and its self-repairing. The solution in the microchannels of a microfluidic chip can be driven by the biomimetic “leaf” composed of the silicon sheet and the agarose gel. The halting and flowing of the solution is controlled by the micro-heater. Results have shown that a steady flow rate of 1.12 µl/min can be obtained by using this micropump/valve. The time interval between the turning on/off of the micro-heater and the halt (or flow) of the fluid is only 2?3 s. This micropump/valve can be used as a “plug and play” fluid-driven unit. It has the potential to be used in many application fields. PMID:23209709

Jingmin, Li; Chong, Liu; Zheng, Xu; Kaiping, Zhang; Xue, Ke; Liding, Wang

2012-01-01

24

Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safetyefficiency trade-off  

E-print Network

Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety­efficiency trade.12126 Key words: hydraulic limitation, safety­ efficiency trade-off, soil­plant­atmosphere model, trait hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon

Jackson, Robert B.

25

Sensitivity and Variability of Maximum Trunk Shrinkage, Midday Stem Water Potential, and Transpiration Rate in Response to Withholding Irrigation from Field-grown Apple Trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sensitivity of water stress indicators to changing moisture availability, and their variability, determine the number of measurements that should be taken in order to represent properly plant water status in a certain orchard. In the present study we examined the sensitivity and variability of maximum daily trunk shrinkage, midday stem water potential, and daily transpiration rate in their responses

S. Cohen

26

Effect of transpiration on plant accumulation and translocation of PPCP/EDCs.  

PubMed

The reuse of treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation in arid and hot climates where plant transpiration is high may affect plant accumulation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). In this study, carrot, lettuce, and tomato plants were grown in solution containing 16 PPCP/EDCs in either a cool-humid or a warm-dry environment. Leaf bioconcentration factors (BCF) were positively correlated with transpiration for chemical groups of different ionized states (p < 0.05). However, root BCFs were correlated with transpiration only for neutral PPCP/EDCs (p < 0.05). Neutral and cationic PPCP/EDCs showed similar accumulation, while anionic PPCP/EDCs had significantly higher accumulation in roots and significantly lower accumulation in leaves (p < 0.05). Results show that plant transpiration may play a significant role in the uptake and translocation of PPCP/EDCs, which may have a pronounced effect in arid and hot climates where irrigation with treated wastewater is common. PMID:25594843

Dodgen, Laurel K; Ueda, Aiko; Wu, Xiaoqin; Parker, David R; Gan, Jay

2015-03-01

27

Use of Geostatistics and Plant Hydraulics to Explain Spatial Patterns of Transpiration Across Environmental Gradients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As direct measurements of tree transpiration via sap flux have become routine, the sample size of sap flux studies has dramatically increased. These large sample sizes now provide sufficient data for geostatistical analyses when measurement points are spatially explicit. In this study we tested whether 1) center-of-stand approaches to sap flux measurements and scaling are sufficient for characterizing stand level transpiration and 2) geostatistical techniques provide the information necessary for quantifying important stand and landscape level gradients. To maximize the inferences from our tests, we compared two contrasting forests: one dominated by lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) in Wyoming and another dominated by trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in Wisconsin. The forest in Wyoming is characterized by low precipitation regimes dominated by snowfall while the forest in Wisconsin is characterized by moderate precipitation throughout the growing season. Analyses of the relationship between sample size and variance indicated an inflection point of 30 point pairs but the variance continued a shallow decline even at 100 point pairs. There was also evidence of species impacts on variance of transpiration that changed with environmental conditions. We used variogram analyses to quantify the spatial range of transpiration and found a variable spatial range across days with mean of approximately 30 m. The variability in spatial range could be partially explained by tree species' responses to soil moisture, vapor pressure deficit, and light based on current plant hydraulic knowledge. Our results confirm the utility of geostatistical techniques for quantifying and explaining transpiration in time and space.

Ewers, B. E.; Adelman, J. D.; Mackay, D. S.; Loranty, M.; Traver, E.; Kruger, E. L.

2005-12-01

28

On the interrelations between topography, soil depth, soil moisture, transpiration rates and species distribution at the hillslope scale  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relations between the spatial patterns of soil moisture, soil depth, and transpiration and their influence on the hillslope water balance are not well understood. When determining a water balance for a hillslope, small scale variations in soil depth are often ignored. In this study we found that these variations in soil depth can lead to distinct patterns in transpiration rates

H. J. Tromp-van Meerveld; J. J. McDonnell

2006-01-01

29

The effectiveness of a foliar spray of kaolinite clay in reducing transpiration of cotton plants  

E-print Network

, resulting in a marked decline in the rate of photosynthesis. Many times the decrease in transpiration rate achieved is not suffic- ient to compensate for the loss in the photosynthetic rate. The application of many of these compounds also tends..., whereas other wavelengths of ancident energy tend to produce the reverse effects. It has also been shown that the rate of photosynthesis is greatly enhanced by certain wavelengths of light and retarded by others. Likewise, leaf temperatures...

McMichael, Bobbie Lee

2012-06-07

30

Transpirational Supply and Demand: Plant, Soil, and Atmospheric Effects Evaluated by Simulation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The assumption that transpiration is the lesser of an atmospheric demand function and a water supply function was tested by simulation with Federer's (1979) soil-plant-atmosphere model. The best estimate of atmospheric demand is called unstressed transpiration, defined as the transpiration that would occur in ambient conditions if stomata were unaffected by plant-water potential. For practical purposes the Penman equation provides a good estimate of unstressed transpiration for short vegetation but not for forests. Even when atmospheric variables and the Penman estimate are held constant among forest canopies, unstressed transpiration can vary by a factor of two because of variation both in the maximum value of leaf conductance and in the ratio of canopy conductance to leaf conductance. The best water supply function incorporates depth variation of soil water potential and of root and soil properties. A more practical supply function uses the ratio of available water in the root zone, W, to maximum available water WM. The maximum available water is soil water held at potentials less than that at which the hydraulic conductivity is 2 mm/d and greater than the critical leaf water potential at which stomata are completely closed. Using a mature hardwood forest as a standard, various parameters were varied to examine their effects on a water supply function defined as a supply constant times W/WM. The supply constant was found to be independent of soil texture and physical properties. Root density and the internal resistance of the plant to water flow were the most important determinants of the supply constant. Reasonable variation of root density and internal resistance produced variation in the constant from 1.9 mm/h, which implies that supply is less than demand only when soil is very dry, to 0.5 mm/hr, which implies that supply cannot meet the demand even when the soil is wet.

Federer, C. Anthony

1982-04-01

31

Soil Evaporation, Plant Transpiration and Water Budget of Nitraria Dunes in the Arid Northwest China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitraria, a widely growing shrub plant in the dry desert area of China, can fix moving sand along its canopy and form a large number of sand dunes. The Nitraria dune is one of the most effective ways to fix moving sand and protect oasis in Northwest China. However, after dune formation, Nitraria plants gradually die and then release the fixed sand which causes damage to the oasis again. A decrease in the ratio of transpiration (T) to evapotranspiration (ET) was assumed to be the main reason for Nitraria dune degradation, however, this assumption has remained untested because of the difficulty in measuring the Nitraria dune transpiration rate. To overcome this challenge, an intensive field experiment was carried out in 2008-2012 in the Minqin, a typical desert-oasis region in Northwest China. Four measurement sites (early growth stage, rapid growth stage, peak growth stage, and senescence stage) represent the different evaluation stages of a Nitraria dune. Meteorological parameters were measured by Bowen ratio system, vegetation features and soil physical properties measured by conventional methods, soil evaporation and transpiration by three-temperature model (3T model), soil moisture by gravimetric and neutron probe method, and evapotranspiration (ET) by Bowen ratio and water balance method. Results show that in a wet year (2008), annual ET was 121, 108, 114, and 126 mm, for the four stages, respectively. The ratio of ET to precipitation (P) was 103, 92, 97, and 107%, respectively. In a dry year (2010), ET was 75, 89, 79, and 79 mm, respectively, while the ET/P was 106, 126, 112, and 112%, respectively. ET accounted for 92-107% of the precipitation in the wet years and 106-126% in the dry years. ET was nearly equal to precipitation in the wet years and greater than precipitation in the dry years, indicating almost all water from precipitation evaporated in all sites. Our results also show that vegetation coverage in the four stages was 0.15, 0.35, 0.74, and 0.23, respectively. Instantaneous value of T was 0.021, 0.014, 0.033, and 0.003 mm h-1, respectively for the four stages. Soil evaporation (E) was 0.054, 0.013, 0.004, and 0.009 mm h-1, respectively. The corresponding ET was 0.075, 0.027, 0.037, and 0.012 mm h-1. The ratio of T/ET was 0.28, 0.52, 0.89, and 0.25, respectively for the four stages. It is concluded that the Nitraria plant not only consumes all the rainfall in the growing season, but also some of the water stored in the soil, which gradually consumes all the soil water storage and finally causes the Nitraria plant death. It is also concluded that increasing T, decreasing E and keeping a high T/ET ratio is crucial for desert plants to survive. These results show that the above hypothesis is true and will be useful for vegetation rehabilitation in the desert area.

Qiu, G.; Li, C.

2013-12-01

32

Deuterium excess as a proxy for continental moisture recycling and plant transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the evaporation process and its link to the atmospheric circulation is central for a better understanding of the feedbacks between the surface water components and the atmosphere. In this study, we use 5 months of deuterium excess (d) measurements at the hourly to daily timescale from a cavity ring-down laser spectrometer to characterise the evaporation source of low-level continental water vapour at the long-term hydrometeorological monitoring site Rietholzbach in northeastern Switzerland. To reconstruct the phase change history of the air masses in which we measure the d signature and to diagnose its area of surface evaporation we apply a Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic. With the help of a correlation analysis we investigate the strength of the relation between d measurements and the moisture source conditions. Temporal episodes with a duration of a few days of strong anticorrelation between d and relative humidity as well as temperature are identified. The role of plant transpiration, the large-scale advection of remotely evaporated moisture, the local boundary layer dynamics at the measurement site and recent precipitation at the site of evaporation are discussed as reasons for the existence of these modes of strong anticorrelation between d and moisture source conditions. We show that the importance of continental moisture recycling and the contribution of plant transpiration to the continental evaporation flux may be deduced from the d-relative humidity relation at the seasonal timescale as well as for individual events. The methodology and uncertainties associated with these estimates of the transpiration fraction of evapotranspiration are presented and the proposed novel framework is applied to individual events from our data set. Over the whole analysis period (August to December 2011) a transpiration fraction of the evapotranspiration flux over the continental part of the moisture source region of 62% is found albeit with a large event-to-event variability (0% to 89%) for continental Europe. During days of strong local moisture recycling a higher overall transpiration fraction of 76% (varying between 65% and 86%) is found. These estimates are affected by uncertainties in the assumptions involved in our method as well as by parameter uncertainties. An average uncertainty of 11% results from the strong dependency of the transpiration estimates on the choice of the non-equilibrium fractionation factor. Other uncertainty sources like the influence of boundary layer dynamics are probably large but more difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, such Lagrangian estimates of the transpiration part of continental evaporation could potentially be useful for the verification of model estimates of this important land-atmosphere coupling parameter.

Aemisegger, F.; Pfahl, S.; Sodemann, H.; Lehner, I.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wernli, H.

2014-04-01

33

Influence of environmental and plant factors on canopy photosynthesis and transpiration of apple trees.  

PubMed

We estimated carbon and water flows, canopy conductance and the assimilation/transpiration ratio of fruiting and non-fruiting apple trees grown in the field, from daily gas exchange measurements taken during the summer with a whole-canopy enclosure device. The relationships between photosynthetic and transpirational responses and environmental conditions were also investigated, as well as the role of canopy conductance in controlling carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange. Light-saturated net photosynthetic rates, which were higher for the fruiting canopy than for the non-fruiting canopy, showed a general decrease in the afternoon, particularly for the non-fruiting canopy, compared with rates in the morning. When light was not limiting, the afternoon decrease in net photosynthesis appeared to be regulated more by non-stomatal factors than by changes in canopy conductance. Canopy conductance, which was higher for the fruiting canopy than for the non-fruiting canopy, may actively regulate photosynthetic activity and may also be modulated by feedback control in response to assimilation capacity. We conclude that adjustments in canopy conductance, which were partially dependent on the vegetative-reproductive status of the tree, control the equilibrium between photosynthesis and transpiration. We also demonstrated that whole-canopy chambers can be used to estimate photosynthetic and transpirational responses thereby overcoming the difficulty of scaling these physiological responses from the leaf to the whole-canopy level. PMID:14759903

Giuliani, R; Nerozzi, F; Magnanini, E; Corelli-Grappadelli, L

1997-10-01

34

Physiological action of smog on plants. I. Initial growth and transpiration studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of synthetic smog (1-n-hexene plus ozone) on growth and transpiration of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and on elongation of etiolated pea sections (Pisum sativum) has been studied. Use has been made of hidden damage (growth decrease in the absence of visible injury) to measure the effect of light, sucrose spray, ..beta..-naphthoxyacetic acid, and water supply on smog injury.

H. G. Koritz; F. W. Went

1953-01-01

35

Deuterium excess as a proxy for continental moisture recycling and plant transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studying the evaporation process and its link to the atmospheric circulation is central for a better understanding of the feedbacks between the surface water components and the atmosphere. Stable water isotopes are ideal tools to investigate surface evaporation as they are naturally available tracers of water phase changes in the atmosphere. The strength of isotope fractionation processes depends on environmental conditions such as relative humidity and temperature. In this study, we use five months of deuterium excess (d) measurements at the hourly to daily timescale from a cavity ring-down laser spectrometer to characterise the evaporation source of low-level continental water vapour at the long-term hydrometeorological monitoring site Rietholzbach in northeastern Switzerland. To reconstruct the phase change history of the air masses in which we measure the d signature and to diagnose its area of surface evaporation we apply an established Lagrangian moisture source diagnostic. With the help of a correlation analysis we investigate the strength of the relation between d measurements and the moisture source conditions. Temporal episodes with a duration of a few days of strong anticorrelation between d and relative humidity as well as temperature are identified. The role of plant transpiration, the large-scale advection of remotely evaporated moisture, the local boundary layer dynamics at the measurement site and recent precipitation at the site of evaporation are discussed as reasons for the existence of these modes of strong anticorrelation between d and moisture source conditions. The relation between d in atmospheric water vapour at the measurement site and the relative humidity conditions at the location of evaporation exhibits distinct characteristics for land surface evaporation and ocean evaporation. We show that the importance of continental moisture recycling and the contribution of plant transpiration to the continental evaporation flux can be deduced from the d-relative humidity relation at the seasonal timescale as well as for individual events. The slope of the relation between d and the diagnosed moisture source relative humidity provides a novel framework to estimate the transpiration fraction of land evapotranspiration at the local to continental scale. Over the whole analysis period (August to December 2011) a transpiration fraction of the evapotranspiration flux over the continental part of the moisture source region of 63% is found albeit with a large event-to-event variability (0% to 99%) for continental Europe. During days of strong local moisture recycling a higher overall transpiration fraction of 82% (varying between 65% and 94%) is found. Such Lagrangian estimates of the transpiration part of continental evaporation could potentially be useful for the verification of model estimates of this important land-atmosphere coupling parameter.

Aemisegger, F.; Pfahl, S.; Sodemann, H.; Lehner, I.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Wernli, H.

2013-11-01

36

Measuring diurnal cycles of plant transpiration fluxes in the Arctic with an automated clear chamber  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evapotranspiration is an important greenhouse gas and a major component of the hydrological cycle, but methodological challenges still limit our knowledge of this flux. Measuring evapotranspiration is even more difficult when aiming to partition plant transpiration and soil evaporation. Information on this process for arctic systems is very limited. In order to decrease this gap, our objective was to directly measure plant transpiration in Barrow, Alaska (71.3°N 156.7°W). A commercial system allows measuring carbon soil respiration fluxes with an automated clear chamber connected to an infrared gas-analyzer (Licor 8100), and while it simultaneously measures water concentrations, it is not calibrated to measure vapor fluxes. We calibrated the clear chamber against a previously established method based on a Licor 6400 soil chamber, and we developed a code to calculate fluxes. We performed laboratory comparisons in New Mexico and field comparisons in the Arctic, suggesting that this is a valid tool for a large range of climates. In the field we found a strong correlation between the two instruments with R2 of 0.79. Even with 24 hours of daylight in the Arctic, the system captures a clear diurnal transpiration flux, peaking at 0.9 mmol m-2 s-1 and showing no flux at the lowest points. This new method should be a powerful approach for long term measurements of specific vegetation types or surface features. Such Data can also be used to help understand controls on larger scale eddy covariance tower measurements of evapotranspiration.

Cohen, L. R.; Raz Yaseef, N.; Curtis, J. B.; Rahn, T. A.; Young, J. M.; Newman, B. D.

2013-12-01

37

From evaporating pans to transpiring plants (John Dalton Medal Lecture)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The name of the original inventor of irrigated agriculture is lost to antiquity. Nevertheless, one can perhaps imagine an inquisitive desert inhabitant noting the greener vegetation along a watercourse and putting two and two together. Once water was being supplied and food was being produced it would be natural to ask a further question: how much water can we put on? No doubt much experience was gained down through the ages, but again, one can readily imagine someone inverting a rain gauge, filling it with water and measuring how fast the water evaporated. The inverted rain gauge measures the demand for water by the atmosphere. We call it the evaporative demand. I do not know if this is what actually happened but it sure makes an interesting start to a talk. Evaporation pans are basically inverted rain gauges. The rain gauge and evaporation pan measure the supply and demand respectively and these instruments are the workhorses of agricultural meteorology. Rain gauges are well known. Evaporation pans are lesser known but are in widespread use and are a key part of several national standardized meteorological networks. Many more pans are used for things like scheduling irrigation on farms or estimating evaporation from lakes. Analysis of the long records now available from standardized networks has revealed an interesting phenomenon, i.e., pan evaporation has increased in some places and decreased in other but when averaged over large numbers of pans there has been a steady decline. These independent reports from, for example, the US, Russia, China, India, Thailand, are replicated in the southern hemisphere in, for example, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. One often hears the statement that because the earth is expected to warm with increasing greenhouse gas emissions then it follows that water will evaporate faster. The pan evaporation observations show that this widely held expectation is wrong. When expectations disagree with observations, it is the observations that win. That is the basis of science. In this Dalton Medal lecture we first examine pan evaporation observations and show why pan evaporation has declined. Armed with that knowledge we then investigate the consequences for plant water use and how this is directly coupled to the catchment water balance.

Roderick, Michael

2013-04-01

38

Assimilation and transpiration capabilities of rhyniophytic plants from the Lower Devonian and their implications for paleoatmospheric CO 2 concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristic basic construction of early land plants with an upright posture is represented by a simple leaf- and rootless axis system with a central conducting bundle (‘rhyniophytic habit’). Variations of this simple architectural principle in different early land plant taxa probably reflect different ecophysiological requirements. In this contribution, the assimilation and transpiration of three different Rhynie Chert taxa (Pragian,

Anita Roth-Nebelsick; Wilfried Konrad

2003-01-01

39

Overexpression of Rice NAC Gene SNAC1 Improves Drought and Salt Tolerance by Enhancing Root Development and Reducing Transpiration Rate in Transgenic Cotton  

PubMed Central

The SNAC1 gene belongs to the stress-related NAC superfamily of transcription factors. It was identified from rice and overexpressed in cotton cultivar YZ1 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants showed more vigorous growth, especially in terms of root development, than the wild-type plants in the presence of 250 mM NaCl under hydroponic growth conditions. The content of proline was enhanced but the MDA content was decreased in the transgenic cotton seedlings under drought and salt treatments compared to the wild-type. Furthermore, SNAC1-overexpressing cotton plants also displayed significantly improved tolerance to both drought and salt stresses in the greenhouse. The performances of the SNAC1-overexpressing lines under drought and salt stress were significantly better than those of the wild-type in terms of the boll number. During the drought and salt treatments, the transpiration rate of transgenic plants significantly decreased in comparison to the wild-type, but the photosynthesis rate maintained the same at the flowering stage in the transgenic plants. These results suggested that overexpression of SNAC1 improve more tolerance to drought and salt in cotton through enhanced root development and reduced transpiration rates. PMID:24489802

Liu, Guanze; Li, Xuelin; Jin, Shuangxia; Liu, Xuyan; Zhu, Longfu; Nie, Yichun; Zhang, Xianlong

2014-01-01

40

Assimilation of xylem-transported CO2 is dependent on transpiration rate but is small relative to atmospheric fixation.  

PubMed

The effect of transpiration rate on internal assimilation of CO2 released from respiring cells has not previously been quantified. In this study, detached branches of Populus deltoides were allowed to take up (13)CO2-labelled solution at either high (high label, HL) or low (low label, LL) (13)CO2 concentrations. The uptake of the (13)CO2 label served as a proxy for the internal transport of respired CO2, whilst the transpiration rate was manipulated at the leaf level by altering the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) of the air. Simultaneously, leaf gas exchange was measured, allowing comparison of internal CO2 assimilation with that assimilated from the atmosphere. Subsequent (13)C analysis of branch and leaf tissues revealed that woody tissues assimilated more label under high VPD, corresponding to higher transpiration, than under low VPD. More (13)C was assimilated in leaf tissue than in woody tissue under the HL treatment, whereas more (13)C was assimilated in woody tissue than in leaf tissue under the LL treatment. The ratio of (13)CO2 assimilated from the internal source to CO2 assimilated from the atmosphere was highest for the branches under the HL and high VPD treatment, but was relatively small regardless of VPD×label treatment combination (up to 1.9%). These results showed that assimilation of internal CO2 is highly dependent on the rate of transpiration and xylem sap [CO2]. Therefore, it can be expected that the relative contribution of internal CO2 recycling to tree carbon gain is strongly dependent on factors controlling transpiration, respiration, and photosynthesis. PMID:23580747

Bloemen, Jasper; McGuire, Mary Anne; Aubrey, Doug P; Teskey, Robert O; Steppe, Kathy

2013-05-01

41

Transpiration cooling of hypersonic blunt bodies with finite rate surface reactions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The convective heat flux blockage to blunt body and hypersonic vehicles by transpiration cooling are presented. The general problem of mass addition to laminar boundary layers is reviewed. Results of similarity analysis of the boundary layer problem are provided for surface heat flux with transpiration cooling. Detailed non-similar results are presented from the numerical program, BLIMPK. Comparisons are made with the similarity theory. The effects of surface catalysis are investigated.

Henline, William D.

1989-01-01

42

TRANSPIRATION EFFECT ON THE UPTAKE AND DISTRIBUTION OF BROMACIL, NITROBENZENE, AND PHENOL IN SOYBEAN PLANTS (JOURNAL VERSION)  

EPA Science Inventory

The influence of transpiration rate on the uptake and translocation of two industrial waste compounds, phenol and nitrobenzene, and one pesticide, 5-bromo-3-sec-butyl-6-methyluracil (bromacil), was examined. Carbon-14 moieties of each compound were provided separately in hydropon...

43

The control of transpiration by absorbed radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transpiration plays a key role in the hydrological cycle and models of transpiration have been used in many applications. However, our understanding of mechanisms which control the rate of transpiration is still limited being a domain of two different disciplines. Meteorologists apply the top-down approach driven by physical descriptions and water vapour transport, stomatal conductance is regarded as a boundary condition. Plant physiologists focus on the bottom-up approach and emphasize the physiological control of transpiration by stomatal conductance. It is generally accepted that transpiration is strongly influenced by the boundary layer outside the leaf and that feedback mechanisms within this layer decrease the sensitivity of transpiration to changes in stomatal conductance. This feedback mechanism is thought to increase with increasing scale from single stoma to canopy and ecosystem. In contrast, we propose a mechanism that would place much of the control inside the leaf. Most of the solar radiation reaching the leaf penetrates the epidermis with little interaction and the largest part of the energy is absorbed by chloroplasts in mesophyll cells. Thus, evaporation occurs into the intercellular air spaces of a leaf at cell walls adjacent to the chloroplasts of the leaf mesophyll and it is directly coupled to absorbed solar radiation. We present data showing that variation in the rate of transpiration and stomatal conductance at constant humidity and CO2 is closely proportional to changes in fluxes of energy (W m-2) absorbed by the leaf. Computer simulations of energy exchange between the leaf mesophyll and the atmosphere with different regimes of heat and water exchange operating on the inner and outer sides of the epidermis realistically simulate transpiration, stomatal response to a range of environmental conditions and provide a basis to calculate carbon fluxes. This approach has the potential for an up-scaling of water and carbon fluxes in canopies and ecosystems.

Pieruschka, Roland; Berry, Joseph A.

2010-05-01

44

Comparison of transpiration rate measured by heat pulse method and water uptake rate in single trees of Chamaecyparis obtusa and Pinus densiflora  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract To estimate the rate of transpiration from,single trees by a heat pulse method, the rate of water uptake from the cutting stem and heat,pulse velocity were ,simultaneously ,measured ,on trees ,of Chamaecyparis obtusa (height 14.08 m, ground diameter 15.2 cm) and Pinus densiflora (height 18.38 m, ground diameter 25.0 cm) in the Kiryu Experimental Watershed. We corrected heat pulse

Y. Kominami; M. Suzuki

1993-01-01

45

Simulating canopy transpiration and photosynthesis of corn plants under contrasting water regimes using a coupled model  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A process-based corn simulation model (MaizeSim) was coupled with a two-dimensional soil simulator (2DSOIL) to simulate the transpiration and photosynthesis of corn under drought stress. To simulate stomatal reaction to drought stress, two stomatal controlling algorithms (control by hydraulic signal...

46

Measuring forest evaporation and transpiration rates with fibre optic temperature sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Evaporation is one of the most important fluxes of the water balance as it accounts for 55-80% of the precipitation. However, measuring evaporation remains difficult and requires sophisticated and expensive equipment. In this paper we propose a new measuring technique based on the existing Bowen ratio method. With a fibre optic cable a temperature and a vapour pressure profile can be measured by the principle of a psychrometer and combined with the net radiation (and ground heat flux) the latent heat can be calculated. Compared to the conventional Bowen ratio method the advantages of this method is that the profiles are measured with a single sensor (resulting in a smaller error), and contain more measuring points in the vertical and therefore give more insight into the developed profiles. The method also allows to measure through a forest canopy. Applying the Bowen ratio above and below the canopy an estimation of the transpiration flux can be obtained. As a first test, we compared in a pine forest in The Netherlands (Loobos) the transpiration estimates of the fibre optic cable with sapflow measurements, and eddy covariance measurements above and below the canopy. The experiment was carried out on three days in September 2013 and the preliminary results show reasonable correlation with the eddy covariance estimates, but not with the sapflow observations. To explain the differences further investigation is needed and a longer measuring period is required.

Coenders-Gerrits, Miriam; Luxemburg, Wim; Hessels, Tim; de Kloe, Arjan; Elbers, Jan

2014-05-01

47

Thermophoretically enhanced mass transport rates to solid and transpiration-cooled walls across turbulent (law-of-the-wall) boundary layers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convective-diffusion mass transfer rate predictions are made for both solid wall and transpiration-cooled 'law-of-the-wall' nonisothermal turbulent boundary layers (TBLs), including the mechanism of thermophoresis, i.e., small particle mass transport 'down a temperature gradient'. The present calculations are confined to low mass-loading situations but span the entire particle size range from vapor molecules to particles near the onset of inertial ('eddy') impaction. It is shown that, when Sc is much greater than 1, thermophoresis greatly increases particle deposition rates to internally cooled solid walls, but only partially offsets the appreciable reduction in deposition rates associated with dust-free gas-transpiration-cooled surfaces. Thus, efficient particle sampling from hot dusty gases can be carried out using transpiration 'shielded' probe surfaces.

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.; Rosner, Daniel E.

1985-01-01

48

Sap flow measurements to determine the transpiration of facade greenings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Facade greening is expected to make a major contribution to the mitigation of the urban heat-island effect through transpiration cooling, thermal insulation and shading of vertical built structures. However, no studies are available on water demand and the transpiration of urban vertical green. Such knowledge is needed as the plants must be sufficiently watered, otherwise the posited positive effects of vertical green can turn into disadvantages when compared to a white wall. Within the framework of the German Research Group DFG FOR 1736 "Urban Climate and Heat Stress" this study aims to test the practicability of the sap flow technique for transpiration measurements of climbing plants and to obtain potential transpiration rates for the most commonly used species. Using sap flow measurements we determined the transpiration of Fallopia baldschuanica, Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix in pot experiments (about 1 m high) during the hot summer period from August 17th to August 30th 2012 under indoor conditions. Sap flow measurements corresponded well to simultaneous weight measurement on a daily base (factor 1.19). Fallopia baldschuanica has the highest daily transpiration rate based on leaf area (1.6 mm d-1) and per base area (5.0 mm d-1). Parthenocissus tricuspidata and Hedera helix show transpiration rates of 3.5 and 0.4 mm d-1 (per base area). Through water shortage, transpiration strongly decreased and leaf temperature measured by infrared thermography increased by 1 K compared to a well watered plant. We transferred the technique to outdoor conditions and will present first results for facade greenings in the inner-city of Berlin for the hottest period in summer 2013.

Hölscher, Marie-Therese; Nehls, Thomas; Wessolek, Gerd

2014-05-01

49

Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought.  

PubMed

In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (?M). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ?M, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ?M from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ?M, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ?M under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ?M maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ?M under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

2014-11-01

50

Genetic variation in a grapevine progeny (Vitis vinifera L. cvs Grenache×Syrah) reveals inconsistencies between maintenance of daytime leaf water potential and response of transpiration rate under drought  

PubMed Central

In the face of water stress, plants evolved with different abilities to limit the decrease in leaf water potential, notably in the daytime (?M). So-called isohydric species efficiently maintain high ?M, whereas anisohydric species cannot prevent ?M from dropping as soil water deficit develops. The genetic and physiological origins of these differences in (an)isohydric behaviours remain to be clarified. This is of particular interest within species such as Vitis vinifera L. where continuous variation in the level of isohydry has been observed among cultivars. With this objective, a 2 year experiment was conducted on the pseudo-F1 progeny from a cross between the two widespread cultivars Syrah and Grenache using a phenotyping platform coupled to a controlled-environment chamber. Potted plants of all the progeny were analysed for ?M, transpiration rate, and soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance, under both well-watered and water deficit conditions. A high genetic variability was found for all the above traits. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for ?M under water deficit conditions, and 28 other QTLs were detected for the different traits in either condition. Genetic variation in ?M maintenance under water deficit weakly correlated with drought-induced reduction in transpiration rate in the progeny, and QTLs for both traits did not completely co-localize. This indicates that genetic variation in the control of ?M under water deficit was not due simply to variation in transpiration sensitivity to soil drying. Possible origins of the diversity in (an)isohydric behaviours in grapevine are discussed on the basis of concurrent variations in soil-to-leaf hydraulic conductance and stomatal control of transpiration. PMID:25381432

Coupel-Ledru, Aude; Lebon, Éric; Christophe, Angélique; Doligez, Agnès; Cabrera-Bosquet, Llorenç; Péchier, Philippe; Hamard, Philippe; This, Patrice; Simonneau, Thierry

2014-01-01

51

Climate change at northern latitudes: rising atmospheric humidity decreases transpiration, N-uptake and growth rate of hybrid aspen.  

PubMed

At northern latitudes a rise in atmospheric humidity and precipitation is predicted as a consequence of global climate change. We studied several growth and functional traits of hybrid aspen (Populus tremula L.×P. tremuloides Michx.) in response to elevated atmospheric humidity (on average 7% over the ambient level) in a free air experimental facility during three growing seasons (2008-2010) in Estonia, which represents northern temperate climate (boreo-nemoral zone). Data were collected from three humidified (H) and three control (C) plots, and analysed using nested linear models. Elevated air humidity significantly reduced height, stem diameter and stem volume increments and transpiration of the trees whereas these effects remained highly significant also after considering the side effects from soil-related confounders within the 2.7 ha study area. Tree leaves were smaller, lighter and had lower leaf mass per area (LMA) in H plots. The magnitude and significance of the humidity treatment effect--inhibition of above-ground growth rate--was more pronounced in larger trees. The lower growth rate in the humidified plots can be partly explained by a decrease in transpiration-driven mass flow of NO(3) (-) in soil, resulting in a significant reduction in the measured uptake of N to foliage in the H plots. The results suggest that the potential growth improvement of fast-growing trees like aspens, due to increasing temperature and atmospheric CO(2) concentration, might be smaller than expected at high latitudes if a rise in atmospheric humidity simultaneously takes place. PMID:22880067

Tullus, Arvo; Kupper, Priit; Sellin, Arne; Parts, Leopold; Sõber, Jaak; Tullus, Tea; Lõhmus, Krista; Sõber, Anu; Tullus, Hardi

2012-01-01

52

Estimation of plant transpiration from meteorological data under conditions of sufficient soil moisture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transpiration of forest growth during the growing season when sufficient soil moisture is available is estimated on the basis of the requirement of water for cooling trees. Tree growth is regarded as a cooler with water as a coolant (evaporative latent heat). Trees are simultaneously warmed up by incident solar radiation and cooled down by the ambient air and by the evaporation of water from the leaf. These parallel, mutually competing processes are described in their simplest form and provide the algorithm for the calculation of the cooling-water requirement. The calculation uses hourly values of air temperature and of global-radiation totals. Properties of the forest growth are expressed in terms of two phenomenological constants — effective absorptivity and effective thickness of leaves. Both are obtained by calibration. The applicability of the proposed calculation was subjected to experimental verification during the course of the growing seasons for 1985-1989 in the mountain watershed LIZ, situated in the National Park S?umava in the southern part of the Czech Republic. The error in determining evapotranspiration/transpiration is about 5% of the precipitation over the growing season.

Pražák, J.; Šír, M.; Tesar?, M.

1994-11-01

53

Continuous measurement of macronutrient ions in the transpiration stream of intact plants using the meadow spittlebug coupled with ion chromatography.  

PubMed

A method is described for continuous, nondestructive analysis of xylem-borne mineral nutrients in intact transpiring plants. The method uses the xylem-feeding insect the meadow spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius L. [Homoptera: Cercopidae]). This insect will feed from a wide range of plant species and organs. Insect excreta can be collected at all times of the day and night, and its mineral ion content can be analyzed rapidly, and without purification, by ion chromatography. The excreta will have a mineral content virtually identical to that of xylem sap. Cages suitable for containing the insects and collecting excreta from any desired location on plants in both laboratory and greenhouse are described. Even in the greenhouse, evaporation had only a minor effect on the sample ion content. Example results are presented which illustrate dynamics, over several days, in the xylem concentrations of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), NH(4)(+), magnesium (Mg(2+)), calcium (Ca(2+)), chloride (Cl(-)), NO(3)(-), PO(4)(3-), and SO(4)(2-). These data were collected from young plants growing in pots of compost in the laboratory and from fully mature pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cv Bellboy) plants growing in hydroponics (rockwool) in the greenhouse. This method should facilitate studies of macronutrient uptake and transport in a range of plants and environments. PMID:12428008

Malone, Michael; Herron, Michelle; Morales, M-Angeles

2002-11-01

54

Water- and nitrogen-dependent alterations in the inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency in winter wheat at the leaf and whole-plant level.  

PubMed

The effects of contrasting water and nitrogen (N) supply on the observed inheritance mode of transpiration efficiency (TE) at the flag-leaf and whole-season levels were examined in winter wheat. Major components of the photosynthetic capacity of leaves and the season-integrated efficiency of water use in vegetative and grain mass formation were evaluated in parental lines of various origins and their diallel F(2)-hybrids grown in a factorial experiment under different moisture and N status of the soil. A broad genetic variation was mainly found for the season-long TE measures. The variation range in the leaf photosynthetic indices was usually narrow, but tended to slightly enhance under water and N shortage. Genotype-treatment interaction effects were significant for most characters. No consistency between the leaf- and season-long TE measures was observed. Preponderance of additivity-dependent variance was mainly identified for the season-integrated TE and leaf CO(2) assimilation rate. Soil treatments exhibited considerable influence on the phenotypic expression of gene action for the residual leaf measures. The contribution of non-additive gene effects and degree of dominance tended to increase in water- and N-limited plants, especially for the leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance. The results indicate that promise exists to improve the season-integrated TE. However, selection for TE components should be prolonged for later hybrid generations to eliminate the masking of non-additive causes. Such evaluation among families grown under sub-optimal water and nitrogen supply seems to be the most promising strategy in winter wheat. PMID:22878956

Ratajczak, Dominika; Górny, Andrzej G

2012-11-01

55

Diffusive Resistances at, and Transpiration Rates from Leaves in Situ Within the Vegetative Canopy of a Corn Crop 1  

PubMed Central

At several heights and times of day within a crop of Zea mays, internal leaf diffusion resistance (ri) and external boundary layer diffusion resistance (ra) were evaluated by measuring the temperature of a transpiring and a non-transpiring leaf (simulated by covering both sides of a normal leaf with strips of poly-ethylene tape), and by measuring the immediate air temperature, humidity and windspeed. Both ra and ri increased with depth into the crop. However, ra generally was less than 10% of ri. Profiles of latent-heat flux density and source intensity of transpiration showed that transpiration corresponded roughly to foliage distribution (with an upward shift) and were not similar to the profile of radiation absorption. The data were compared with heat budget data. The 2 approaches yielded quite similar height distributions of transpiration per unit leaf area and total transpiration resistance. The total crop resistance to transpiration was computed as 0.027 min cm?1. This compares to Monteith's values of 0.017 to 0.040 min cm?1 for beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and Linacre's values of 0.015 to 0.020 min cm?1 for turf. PMID:16656491

Impens, I. I.; Stewart, D. W.; Allen, L. H.; Lemon, E. R.

1967-01-01

56

Determining the Transpiration Rate of Peach Trees Under Two Trickle Irrigation Regimes  

E-print Network

Central Texas. Initial data relating trickle irrigation amounts to total production, peach size, and plant growth have indicated that trickle irrigation may provide benefits that would offset costs of the irrigation system and water. Previous work however...

Howell, T. A.; McFarland, M. J.; Reddell, D. L.; Brown, K. W.; Newton, R. J.; Rodriguez, P. B.; Van Bavel, C. H. M.; Reeder, E. L.

57

The effects of CO2 on growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus) in hypobaria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plants grown on long-term space missions will likely be grown in low pressure environments (i.e., hypobaria). However, in hypobaria the transpiration rates of plants can increase and may result in wilting if the water is not readily replaced. It is possible to reduce transpiration by increasing the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), but the effects of pCO2 at high levels (>120 Pa) on the growth and transpiration of plants in hypobaria are not known. Therefore, the effects of pCO2 on the growth and transpiration of radish (Raphanus sativus var. Cherry Bomb II) in hypobaria were studied. The fresh weight (FW), leaf area, dry weight (DW), CO2 assimilation rates (CA), dark respiration rates (DR), and transpiration rates from 26 day-old radish plants that were grown for an additional seven days at different total pressures (33, 66 or 101 kPa) and pCO2 (40 Pa, 100 Pa and 180 Pa) were measured. In general, the dry weight of plants increased with CO2 enrichment and with lower total pressure. In limiting pCO2 (40 Pa) conditions, the transpiration for plants grown at 33 kPa was approximately twice that of controls (101 kPa total pressure with 40 Pa pCO2). Increasing the pCO2 from 40 Pa to 180 Pa reduced the transpiration rates for plants grown in hypobaria and in standard atmospheric pressures. However, for plants grown in hypobaria and high pCO2 (180 Pa) leaf damage was evident. Radish growth can be enhanced and transpiration reduced in hypobaria by enriching the gas phase with CO2 although at high levels leaf damage may occur.

Gohil, H. L.; Bucklin, R. A.; Correll, M. J.

2010-04-01

58

Compensating method for measuring carbon dioxide exchange, transpiration, and diffusive resistances of plants under controlled environmental conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-closed compensating system is described for measuring COâ exchange and transpiration simultaneously under controlled environmental conditions. The compensating feature permits conditions in the assimilation chamber to be kept uniform and within narrow limits. Temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, wind speed, and light intensity may be varied within the system. Since transpiration and photosynthesis can be measured simultaneously, diffusive

F. A. Bazzaz; J. S. Boyer

2009-01-01

59

The isotopic signature of transpiration in mixed conifer forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic measurements of water vapor in forest air provide insights into ecosystem level responses to variability in surface hydrology. Studies of isotopic water balance of ecosystems should account for variation in the isotopic signature of transpired vapor in the non-steady state as well as isotopic differences in source water among dominant forest plants. Generally low rates of leaf gas exchange in some tree species, especially conifers, are associated with low leaf-water turnover rates, which greatly extends the time required to achieve transpiration at isotopic steady state as environmental conditions change over diurnal periods. Leaf longevity is also quite high (ca. 6-10 yrs.) in many evergreen coniferous species and stomatal conductance and rates of leaf gas exchange tend to decline as leaves age in conifer stands. We measured hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water in leaves of different ages and from different canopy positions in sub-alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) and Engelmann spruce (Picea englemannii) over two separate diurnal periods during the growing season of 2008 in high elevation, mixed coniferous forest in the Snowy Range of southeastern Wyoming, USA. We collected needles every 3-4 h over 24-h periods to investigate the dynamics leaf water isotopic enrichment. Concurrent measurements of leaf gas exchange and leaf water content allowed us to model the leaf water turnover rate and the isotope ratio of transpiration in the non-steady state. Daily patterns of transpiration determined from sapflux measurements agreed with patterns of leaf conductance and transpiration determined from leaf-level by gas exchange measurements. Afternoon stomatal closure reduced leaf and tree level transpiration and leaf water turnover rates. Atmospheric water vapor was collected also every 3-4 h for isotopic analysis at multiple heights within and above the canopy. The isotopic composition of water vapor in the forest canopy became enriched in the heavy isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen during midday periods relative to that during early morning and nighttime periods reflecting an increased contribution of transpired water vapor to canopy air at midday. Keeling plot analyses suggested that the isotopic composition of the evapotranspiration flux was not constant during daytime periods, potentially reflecting changes in the isotope ratio of forest transpiration associated with transpiration at isotopic non-steady state. We conclude that modeling the isotope composition of forest transpiration should take into account the variation in leaf water turnover rates associated with leaf age and canopy position.

Williams, D. G.; Ewers, B.; Angstmann, J. L.; Guemouria, N.; Chehbouni, A.

2008-12-01

60

Genotype differences in 13C discrimination between atmosphere and leaf matter match differences in transpiration efficiency at leaf and whole-plant levels in hybrid Populus deltoides x nigra.  

PubMed

(13) C discrimination between atmosphere and bulk leaf matter (?(13) C(lb) ) is frequently used as a proxy for transpiration efficiency (TE). Nevertheless, its relevance is challenged due to: (1) potential deviations from the theoretical discrimination model, and (2) complex time integration and upscaling from leaf to whole plant. Six hybrid genotypes of Populus deltoides×nigra genotypes were grown in climate chambers and tested for whole-plant TE (i.e. accumulated biomass/water transpired). Net CO(2) assimilation rates (A) and stomatal conductance (g(s) ) were recorded in parallel to: (1) (13) C in leaf bulk material (?(13) C(lb) ) and in soluble sugars (?(13) C(ss) ) and (2) (18) O in leaf water and bulk leaf material. Genotypic means of ?(13) C(lb) and ?(13) C(ss) were tightly correlated. Discrimination between atmosphere and soluble sugars was correlated with daily intrinsic TE at leaf level (daily mean A/g(s) ), and with whole-plant TE. Finally, g(s) was positively correlated to (18) O enrichment of bulk matter or water of leaves at individual level, but not at genotype level. We conclude that ?(13) C(lb) captures efficiently the genetic variability of whole-plant TE in poplar. Nevertheless, scaling from leaf level to whole-plant TE requires to take into account water losses and respiration independent of photosynthesis, which remain poorly documented. PMID:22687135

Rasheed, Fahad; Dreyer, Erwin; Richard, Béatrice; Brignolas, Franck; Montpied, Pierre; Le Thiec, Didier

2013-01-01

61

Alteration of transpiration rate, by changing air vapour pressure deficit, influences leaf extension rate transiently in Miscanthus  

Microsoft Academic Search

temperatures. In the field, crops experience both diurnal and seasonal changes in temperature and humidity and A controlled environment chamber for whole plants is leaf growth has been demonstrated to be very sensitive described in which vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and to both these environmental variables (Gallagher and temperature can be controlled independently. Plant Biscoe, 1979; Parsons and Robson, 1980;

J. C. Clifton-Brown; M. B. Jones

1999-01-01

62

Transpiration of urban forests in the Los Angeles metropolitan area.  

PubMed

Despite its importance for urban planning, landscape management, and water management, there are very few in situ estimates of urban-forest transpiration. Because urban forests contain an unusual and diverse mix of species from many regions worldwide, we hypothesized that species composition would be a more important driver of spatial variability in urban-forest transpiration than meteorological variables in the Los Angeles (California, USA) region. We used constant-heat sap-flow sensors to monitor urban tree water use for 15 species at six locations throughout the Los Angeles metropolitan area. For many of these species no previous data on sap flux, water use, or water relations were available in the literature. To scale sap-flux measurements to whole trees we conducted a literature survey of radial trends in sap flux across multiple species and found consistent relationships for angiosperms vs. gymnosperms. We applied this relationship to our measurements and estimated whole-tree and plot-level transpiration at our sites. The results supported very large species differences in transpiration, with estimates ranging from 3.2 +/- 2.3 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in unirrigated Pinus canariensis (Canary Island pine) to 176.9 +/- 75.2 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1) in Platanus hybrida (London planetree) in the month of August. Other species with high daily transpiration rates included Ficus microcarpa (laurel fig), Gleditsia triacanthos (honeylocust), and Platanus racemosa (California sycamore). Despite irrigation and relatively large tree size, Brachychiton populneas (kurrajong), B. discolor (lacebark), Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), and Eucalyptus grandis (grand Eucalyptus) showed relatively low rates of transpiration, with values < 45 kg x tree(-1) x d(-1). When scaled to the plot level, transpiration rates were as high as 2 mm/d for sites that contained both species with high transpiration rates and high densities of planted trees. Because plot-level transpiration is highly dependent on tree density, we modeled transpiration as a function of both species and density to evaluate a likely range of values in irrigated urban forests. The results show that urban forests in irrigated, semi-arid regions can constitute a significant use of water, but water use can be mitigated by appropriate selection of site, management method, and species. PMID:21639035

Pataki, Diane E; McCarthy, Heather R; Litvak, Elizaveta; Pincetl, Stephanie

2011-04-01

63

Nutrient availability moderates transpiration in Ehrharta calycina.  

PubMed

Transpiration-driven 'mass-flow' of soil-water can increase nutrient flow to the root surface. Here it was investigated whether transpiration could be partially regulated by nutrient status. Seeds of Ehrharta calycina from nine sites across a rainfall gradient were supplied with slow-release fertilizer dibbled into the sand surrounding the roots and directly available through interception, mass-flow and diffusion (dubbed 'interception'), or sequestered behind a 40-microm mesh and not directly accessible by the roots, but from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (dubbed 'mass-flow'). Although mass-flow plants were significantly smaller than interception plants as a consequence of nutrient limitation, they transpired 60% faster, had 90% higher photosynthesis relative to transpiration (A/E), and 40% higher tissue P, Ca and Na concentrations than plants allowed to intercept nutrients directly. Tissue N and K concentrations were similar for interception and mass-flow plants. Transpiration was thus higher in the nutrient-constrained 'mass-flow' plants, increasing the transport of nutrients to the roots by mass-flow. Transpiration may have been regulated by N availability, resulting in similar tissue concentration between treatments. It is concluded that, although transpiration is a necessary consequence of photosynthetic CO(2) uptake in C(3) plants, plants can respond to nutrient limitation by varying transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients. PMID:18537891

Cramer, Michael D; Hoffmann, Vera; Verboom, G Anthony

2008-01-01

64

Control of transpiration by radiation  

PubMed Central

The terrestrial hydrological cycle is strongly influenced by transpiration—water loss through the stomatal pores of leaves. In this report we present studies showing that the energy content of radiation absorbed by the leaf influences stomatal control of transpiration. This observation is at odds with current concepts of how stomata sense and control transpiration, and we suggest an alternative model. Specifically, we argue that the steady-state water potential of the epidermis in the intact leaf is controlled by the difference between the radiation-controlled rate of water vapor production in the leaf interior and the rate of transpiration. Any difference between these two potentially large fluxes is made up by evaporation from (or condensation on) the epidermis, causing its water potential to pivot around this balance point. Previous work established that stomata in isolated epidermal strips respond by opening with increasing (and closing with decreasing) water potential. Thus, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate should increase when there is condensation on (and decrease when there is evaporation from) the epidermis, thus tending to maintain homeostasis of epidermal water potential. We use a model to show that such a mechanism would have control properties similar to those observed with leaves. This hypothesis provides a plausible explanation for the regulation of leaf and canopy transpiration by the radiation load and provides a unique framework for studies of the regulation of stomatal conductance by CO2 and other factors. PMID:20624981

Pieruschka, Roland; Huber, Gregor; Berry, Joseph A.

2010-01-01

65

Comparison of transpiration rates among saltcedar, cottonwood and willow trees by sap flow and canopy temperature methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpiration (Et), measured by stem sap flow gauges, and canopy and air temperature differential (Tc?Ta) of Populus fremontii (cottonwood), Salix gooddingii (willow) and Tamarix ramosissima (saltcedar) were compared to determine if remotely sensed canopy temperatures could be used to estimate Et or water stress in these trees in desert riparian zones of the United States and Mexico. Controlled experiments were

Pamela L Nagler; Edward P Glenn; T Lewis Thompson

2003-01-01

66

Maize transpiration in response to meteorological conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Differences in transpiration of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in four soil moisture regimes were quantified in a pot experiment. The transpiration was measured by the "Stem Heat Balance" method. The dependence of transpiration on air temperature, air humidity, global solar radiation, soil moisture, wind speed and leaf surface temperature were quantified. Significant relationships among transpiration, global radiation and air temperature (in the first vegetation period in the drought non-stressed variant, r = 0.881**, r = 0.934**) were found. Conclusive dependence of transpiration on leaf temperature (r = 0.820**) and wind speed (r = 0.710**) was found. Transpiration was significantly influenced by soil moisture (r = 0.395**, r = 0.528**) under moderate and severe drought stress. The dependence of transpiration on meteorological factors decreased with increasing deficiency of water. Correlation between transpiration and plant dry matter weight (r = 0.997**), plant height (r = 0.973**) and weight of corn cob (r = 0.987**) was found. The results of instrumental measuring of field crops transpiration under diverse moisture conditions at a concurrent monitoring of the meteorological elements spectra are rather unique. These results will be utilized in the effort to make calculations of the evapotranspiration in computing models more accurate.

Klimešová, Jana; St?edová, Hana; St?eda, Tomáš

2013-09-01

67

Transpiration cooled throat for hydrocarbon rocket engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective for the Transpiration Cooled Throat for Hydrocarbon Rocket Engines Program was to characterize the use of hydrocarbon fuels as transpiration coolants for rocket nozzle throats. The hydrocarbon fuels investigated in this program were RP-1 and methane. To adequately characterize the above transpiration coolants, a program was planned which would (1) predict engine system performance and life enhancements due to transpiration cooling of the throat region using analytical models, anchored with available data; (2) a versatile transpiration cooled subscale rocket thrust chamber was designed and fabricated; (3) the subscale thrust chamber was tested over a limited range of conditions, e.g., coolant type, chamber pressure, transpiration cooled length, and coolant flow rate; and (4) detailed data analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between the key performance and life enhancement variables.

May, Lee R.; Burkhardt, Wendel M.

1991-01-01

68

Transpiration from sorghum and soybean growing under ambient and elevated CO 2 concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere ([CO2]) has several direct effects on plants and these effects may be different for C3 and C4 plants. Our objective was to measure hourly and daily whole-plant transpiration rates from the C4 plant grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and the C3 plant soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) grown under ambient

W. A. Dugas; S. A. Prior; H. H. Rogers

1997-01-01

69

Rootstock control of scion transpiration and its acclimation to water deficit are controlled by different genes.  

PubMed

The stomatal control of transpiration is one of the major strategies by which plants cope with water stress. Here, we investigated the genetic architecture of the rootstock control of scion transpiration-related traits over a period of 3 yr. The rootstocks studied were full sibs from a controlled interspecific cross (Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet Sauvignon × Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier), onto which we grafted a single scion genotype. After 10 d without stress, the water supply was progressively limited over a period of 10 d, and a stable water deficit was then applied for 15 d. Transpiration rate was estimated daily and a mathematical curve was fitted to its response to water deficit intensity. We also determined ?(13) C values in leaves, transpiration efficiency and water extraction capacity. These traits were then analysed in a multienvironment (year and water status) quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Quantitative trait loci, independent of year and water status, were detected for each trait. One genomic region was specifically implicated in the acclimation of scion transpiration induced by the rootstock. The QTLs identified colocalized with genes involved in water deficit responses, such as those relating to ABA and hydraulic regulation. Scion transpiration rate and its acclimation to water deficit are thus controlled genetically by the rootstock, through different genetic architectures. PMID:22335501

Marguerit, Elisa; Brendel, Oliver; Lebon, Eric; Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Ollat, Nathalie

2012-04-01

70

Modelling the impact of the light regime on single tree transpiration based on 3D representations of plant architecture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply a functional-structural model of tree water flow to single old-growth trees in a temperate broad-leaved forest stand. Roots, stems and branches are represented by connected porous cylinder elements further divided into the inner heartwood cylinders surrounded by xylem and phloem. Xylem water flow is simulated by applying a non-linear Darcy flow in porous media driven by the water potential gradient according to the cohesion-tension theory. The flow model is based on physiological input parameters such as the hydraulic conductivity, stomatal response to leaf water potential and root water uptake capability and, thus, can reflect the different properties of tree species. The actual root water uptake is calculated using also a non-linear Darcy law based on the gradient between root xylem water potential and rhizosphere soil water potential and by the simulation of soil water flow applying Richards equation. A leaf stomatal conductance model is combined with the hydrological tree and soil water flow model and a spatially explicit three-dimensional canopy light model. The structure of the canopy and the tree architectures are derived by applying an automatic tree skeleton extraction algorithm from point clouds obtained by use of a terrestrial laser scanner allowing an explicit representation of the water flow path in the stem and branches. The high spatial resolution of the root and branch geometry and their connectivity makes the detailed modelling of the water use of single trees possible and allows for the analysis of the interaction between single trees and the influence of the canopy light regime (including different fractions of direct sunlight and diffuse skylight) on the simulated sap flow and transpiration. The model can be applied at various sites and to different tree species, enabling the up-scaling of the water usage of single trees to the total transpiration of mixed stands. Examples are given to reveal differences between diffuse- and ring-porous tree species and to simulate the diurnal dynamics of transpiration, stem sap flux, and root water uptake observed during the vegetation period in the year 2009.

Bittner, S.; Priesack, E.

2012-04-01

71

Seasonal, synoptic and diurnal variation of atmospheric water-isotopologues in the boundary layer of Southwestern Germany caused by plant transpiration, cold-front passages and dewfall.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric water is an enormously crucial trace gas. It is responsible for ~70 % of the natural greenhouse effect (Schmidt et al., JGR, 2010) and carries huge amounts of latent heat. The isotopic composition of water vapor is an elegant tracer for a better understanding and quantification of the extremely complex and variable hydrological cycle in Earth's atmosphere (evaporation, cloud condensation, rainout, re-evaporation, snow), which in turn is a prerequisite to improve climate modeling and predictions. As H216O, H218O and HDO differ in vapor pressure and mass, isotope fractionation occurs due to condensation, evaporation and diffusion processes. In contrast to that, plants are able to transpire water with almost no isotope fractionation. For that reason the ratio of isotopologue concentrations in the boundary layer (BL) provides, compared to humidity measurements alone, independent and additional constraints for quantifying the strength of evaporation and transpiration. Furthermore the isotope ratios contain information about transport history of an air mass and microphysical processes, that is not accessible by humidity measurements. Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) a commercial Picarro Analyzer L2120-i is operated at Karlsruhe in Southwestern Germany, which is continuously measuring the isotopologues H216O, HDO and H218O of atmospheric water vapor since January 2012. A one year record of H216O, HDO and H218O shows clear seasonal, synoptic and diurnal characteristics and reveals the main driving processes affecting the isotopic composition of water vapor in the Middle European BL. Changes in continental plant transpiration and evaporation throughout the year lead to a slow seasonal HDO/H216O-variation, that cannot be explained by pure Rayleigh condensation. Furthermore, cold-front passages from NW lead to fast and pronounced depletion of the HDO/H216O-ratio within minutes. Superimposed to these variations are local diurnal processes like dewfall, which cause a diurnal pattern captured by the deuterium excess.

Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; Kohler, Martin; Zahn, Andreas; Gonzales, Yenny; Schneider, Matthias

2013-04-01

72

Numerical Analysis of Convection/Transpiration Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An innovative concept utilizing the natural porosity of refractory-composite materials and hydrogen coolant to provide CONvective and TRANspiration (CONTRAN) cooling and oxidation protection has been numerically studied for surfaces exposed to a high heat flux, high temperature environment such as hypersonic vehicle engine combustor walls. A boundary layer code and a porous media finite difference code were utilized to analyze the effect of convection and transpiration cooling on surface heat flux and temperature. The boundary, layer code determined that transpiration flow is able to provide blocking of the surface heat flux only if it is above a minimum level due to heat addition from combustion of the hydrogen transpirant. The porous media analysis indicated that cooling of the surface is attained with coolant flow rates that are in the same range as those required for blocking, indicating that a coupled analysis would be beneficial.

Glass, David E.; Dilley, Arthur D.; Kelly, H. Neale

1999-01-01

73

Transpiration and CO/sub 2/ fixation of selected desert shrubs as related to soil-water potential  

SciTech Connect

In desert plants, transpiration rates decreased before photosynthetic rates when plants were entering a period of water stress. This may have adaptive consequences. A difference of -5 bars in the soil-moisture potential had considerable importance in reducing the rate of transpiration. In Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower) the photosynthetic rate decreased before the transpiration rate in contrast to Great Basin-Mojave Desert plants, and the changes occurred with a -1 bar difference in soil-moisture potential. Morphological changes in three desert plant species (Artemisia tridentata Nutt., Ambrosia dumosa (Gray) Payne, Larrea tridentata (Ses. Moc. ex DC) Cov.) as the soil-moisture potential decreased are given. With a mesic species, H. annuus, 20% reduction in photosynthesis and transpiration was reached at higher soil-moisture potentials than with the desert plants. Loss of net photosynthesis occurred in A. dumosa (a summer deciduous shrub) as PSI soil reached -48 bars in the field, whereas L. tridentata (an evergreen shrub) at the same time was able to maintain a water potential difference between soil and plant of -10 to -15 bars and continue net CO/sub 2/ gain well into the summer months.

Clark, S.B.; Letey, J. Jr.; Lunt, O.R.; Wallace, A.; Kleinkopf, G.E.; Romney, E.M.

1980-01-01

74

Tritium Concentrations in Environmental Samples and Transpiration Rates from the Vicinity of Mary's Branch Creek and Background Areas, Barnwell, South Carolina, 2007-2009  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Tritium in groundwater from a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Barnwell, South Carolina, is discharging to Mary's Branch Creek. The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an investigation from 2007 to 2009 to examine the tritium concentration in trees and air samples near the creek and in background areas, in groundwater near the creek, and in surface water from the creek. Tritium was found in trees near the creek, but not in trees from background areas or from sites unlikely to be in direct root contact with tritium-contaminated groundwater. Tritium was found in groundwater near the creek and in the surface water of the creek. Analysis of tree material has the potential to be a useful tool in locating shallow tritium-contaminated groundwater. A tritium concentration of 1.4 million picocuries per liter was measured in shallow groundwater collected near a tulip poplar located in an area of tritium-contaminated groundwater discharge. Evapotranspiration rates from the tree and tritium concentrations in water extracted from tree cores indicate that during the summer, this tulip poplar may remove more than 17.1 million picocuries of tritium per day from the groundwater that otherwise would discharge to Mary's Branch Creek. Analysis of air samples near the tree showed no evidence that the transpirative release of tritium to the air created a vapor hazard in the forest.

Vroblesky, Don A.; Canova, Judy L.; Bradley, Paul M.; Landmeyer, James E.

2009-01-01

75

Fruit transpiration in kiwifruit: environmental drivers and predictive model  

PubMed Central

Background and aims In most fruit crops, storage quality varies greatly between regions and seasons, causing significant commercial loss. Understanding the sources of this variability will contribute to the knowledge of fruit developmental physiology and may also benefit commercial fruit production via altered managements that reduce it or forecasts that predict it. A causal-chain relationship is proposed to help elucidate the sources of variability in fruit storage quality: the weather ?(i)? fruit transpiration ?(ii)? fruit calcium ?(iii)? fruit storage quality. This paper explores the first link of this hypothesis, ?(i)?, for Hayward kiwifruit using field measurements of fruit transpiration rate and concurrent meteorological recordings. The aims are to identify the key environmental variables driving fruit transpiration and develop a predictive fruit transpiration model. Methodology Fruit transpiration was determined hourly over several 24-h periods by recording weight loss of detached fruit, on Days 23, 35, 49, 65, 94 and 140 after full bloom. Meteorological records were made every 15 min throughout the season at an adjacent regional weather station. A model of fruit transpiration was developed in which the usual meteorological variables (radiation, temperature, windspeed and relative humidity) were incorporated in a Fick's Law transpiration flux equation. Principal results Fruit transpiration rate (i.e. the molar flux density, mmol cm?2 h?1) varied diurnally and decreased during the season. The dominant fruit variable governing transpiration rate was skin conductance and the dominant environmental variables were relative humidity and temperature. Radiation and windspeed were not significantly influential. Conclusions The model provides a good fit to the fruit transpiration rate measurements regardless of the time of day/night or the stage of fruit development. The model allows reasonably accurate and continuous predictions of fruit transpiration rate throughout fruit development based on standard meteorological recordings. It also allows estimates of cumulative fruit transpiration throughout the season. PMID:23136639

Montanaro, Giuseppe; Dichio, Bartolomeo; Xiloyannis, Cristos; Lang, Alexander

2012-01-01

76

Do hydraulic redistribution and nocturnal transpiration facilitate nutrient acquisition in Aspalathus linearis?  

PubMed

The significance of soil water redistribution by roots and nocturnal transpiration for nutrient acquisition were assessed for deep-rooted 3-year-old leguminous Aspalathus linearis shrubs of the Cape Floristic Region (South Africa). We hypothesised that hydraulic redistribution and nocturnal transpiration facilitate nutrient acquisition by releasing moisture in shallow soil to enable acquisition of shallow-soil nutrients during the summer drought periods and by driving water fluxes from deep to shallow soil powering mass-flow nutrient acquisition, respectively. A. linearis was supplied with sub-surface (1-m-deep) irrigation rates of 0, 2 or 4 L day(-1 )plant(-1). Some plants were unfertilized, whilst others were surface- or deep-fertilized (1 m depth) with Na(15)NO3 and CaP/FePO4. We also supplied deuterium oxide ((2)H2O) at 1 m depth at dusk and measured its predawn redistribution to shallow soil and plant stems. Hydraulic redistribution of deep water was substantial across all treatments, accounting for 34-72 % of surface-soil predawn moisture. Fourteen days after fertilization, the surface-fertilized plants exhibited increased hydraulic redistribution and increased (15)N and P acquisition with higher rates of deep-irrigation. Deep-fertilization also increased hydraulic redistribution to surface soils, although these plants additionally accumulated (2)H2O in their stem tissue overnight, probably due to nocturnal transpiration. Plants engaged in nocturnal transpiration also increased (15)N and P acquisition from deep fertilizer sources. Thus, both nocturnal transpiration and hydraulic redistribution increased acquisition of shallow soil N and P, possibly through a combination of increased nutrient availability and mobility. PMID:24972698

Matimati, Ignatious; Verboom, G Anthony; Cramer, Michael D

2014-08-01

77

Evaporative demand, transpiration, and photosynthesis: How are they changing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carbon dioxide concentration is increasing. This affects photosynthesis via increases in substrate availability (Farquhar et al. 1980). It reduces the amount of water transpired by plants to fix a given amount of carbon into an organic form; i.e it increases transpiration efficiency (Wong et al. 1979). It also warms the earth's surface. It is commonly supposed that this warming causes

G. D. Farquhar; M. L. Roderick

2009-01-01

78

Correlation of thermophoretically-modified small particle diffusional deposition rates in forced convection systems with variable properties, transpiration cooling and/or viscous dissipation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cooled object (heat exchanger tube or turbine blade) is considered to be immersed in a hot fluid stream containing trace amounts of suspended vapors and/or small particles. Numerical prediction calculations were done for self-similar laminar boundary layers and law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers. Correlations are presented for the effect of thermophoresis in the absence of transpiration cooling and viscous dissipation; the effect of real suction and blowing in the absence of thermophoresis; the effect of viscous dissipation on thermophoresis in the absence of transpiration cooling; and the combined effect of viscous dissipation and transpiration cooling on thermophoresis. The final correlation, St/St-sub-zero, is insensitive to particle properties, Euler number, and local mainstream temperature.

Gokoglu, S. A.; Rosner, D. E.

1984-01-01

79

Geographic isolates of Glomus increase root growth and whole-plant transpiration of Citrus seedlings grown with high phosphorus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four Glomus species\\/isolates from arid, semi-arid and mesic areas were evaluated for their effects on growth and water use characteristics\\u000a of young Citrus volkameriana (?Volkamer? lemon) under well-watered conditions, followed by three soil-drying episodes of increasing severity (soil moisture\\u000a tensions of –0.02, –0.06, and –0.08 MPa) and recovery conditions. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) plants were also compared to\\u000a non-AM plants given

Matthew W. Fidelibus; Chris A. Martin; Jean C. Stutz

2001-01-01

80

Plant Populations and Seeding Rates for Soybeans  

E-print Network

Plant Populations and Seeding Rates for Soybeans Andrew P. Robinson Department of Agronomy www input costs for soybean growers, so it's important for growers to plant the right amount of seed to minimize input costs and increase profitability. Seeding rate, plant population, and row spacing are tied

Holland, Jeffrey

81

Measurement of transpiration in Pinus taeda L. and Liquidambar styraciflua L. in an environmental chamber using tritiated water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transpiration rates of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) were measured at two different atmospheric water vapor pressure deficits (V.P.D.) in a controlled environment growth chamber using tritiated water as a tracer. The trees were maintained in a sealed plant bed containing a hydroponic nutrient solution into which labeled water (spike) was introduced. Samples of leaves, chamber air, spiked nutrient solution and control water were assayed for ratio-activity using liquid scintillation techniques to determine transpiration rates. The transpiration rate of sweetgum in ml./hr./gm. (4.95) was found to be 5 times greater than that of loblolly pine (1.03) at 1.84 V.P.D. and 8 times greater at 6.74 V.P.D. (15.99 for sweetgum vs. 2.19 for pine). Transpiration (based on measurements of leaf radioactivity) in both species rose with increasing deficit; however sweetgum increased its output by 3 times while pine only doubled its rate. Cyclical changes in transpiration rates were noted in both species; the sweetgum cycle required a 6 hour interval whereas the pine cycle required a 9 hour interval.

Levy, G. F.; Sonenshine, D. E.; Czoch, J. K.

1976-01-01

82

Effect of electrical conductivity and transpiration on production of greenhouse tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated the hypothesis that manipulating water out-flow of a plant through the shoot environment (potential transpiration, ET0) in a glasshouse could modulate the effect of salinity\\/osmotic potential in the root environment upon yield of tomatoes. Contrasting root-zone salinity treatments were combined with two climate treatments — a reference (high transpiration, HET0) and a “depressed” transpiration (low transpiration, LET0). The

Ya Ling Li; Cecilia Stanghellini; Hugo Challa

2001-01-01

83

Isotopic evidence for the role of plant development on transpiration in deciduous forests of southern United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated D\\/H ratios of soil- and plant-extracted water during the 1997 growing season to assess the influence of temperature, humidity, and rainfall on water distribution in deciduous forests. Three state parks (Chicot in Arkansas; Natchez in Mississippi, and St. Bernard in Louisiana) were identified along a 13.5-cm precipitation gradient established during the studied growing season within the Mississippi River

Germán Mora; A. Hope Jahren

2003-01-01

84

Determining the Amount of Transpiration from a Schoolyard Tree  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sttudents determine transpiration rate of five leaves, then estimate the number of leaves on the tree and total leaf surface area. Pounds of water transpired by the tree in a 24 hour period can then be estimated. Additional calculations are suggested.

BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Laurence Pomeroy N:Pomeroy; Laurence ORG:Santiago High School REV:2005-04-12 END:VCARD

1994-07-30

85

Correlation of thermophoretically-modified small particle diffusional deposition rates in forced convection systems with variable properties, transpiration cooling and\\/or viscous dissipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cooled object (heat exchanger tube or turbine blade) is considered to be immersed in a hot fluid stream containing trace amounts of suspended vapors and\\/or small particles. Numerical prediction calculations were done for self-similar laminar boundary layers and law-of-the-wall turbulent boundary layers. Correlations are presented for the effect of thermophoresis in the absence of transpiration cooling and viscous dissipation;

S. A. Gokoglu; D. E. Rosner

1984-01-01

86

Transpiration purged optical probe  

DOEpatents

An optical apparatus for clearly viewing the interior of a containment vessel by applying a transpiration fluid to a volume directly in front of the external surface of the optical element of the optical apparatus. The fluid is provided by an external source and transported by means of an annular tube to a capped end region where the inner tube is perforated. The perforation allows the fluid to stream axially towards the center of the inner tube and then axially away from an optical element which is positioned in the inner tube just prior to the porous sleeve. This arrangement draws any contaminants away from the optical element keeping it free of contaminants. In one of several embodiments, the optical element can be a lens, a viewing port or a laser, and the external source can provide a transpiration fluid having either steady properties or time varying properties.

2004-01-06

87

Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots  

E-print Network

Original article Tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three Scots pine stands with different-eastern Germany, we measured tree canopy and herb layer transpiration in three stands. Parameters of tree rate per needle area and tree canopy transpiration were least at the site dominated by the tall grass

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

88

Predicting the effects of soil water content and soil water potential on transpiration of maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

An improved steady-state soil–vegetation–atmosphere transfer model was applied to three types of soils (loess, loamy soil, and sandy soil) and three typical daily meteorological conditions (a sunny day, a cloudy day, and an overcast day) to calculate the relationships between maize transpiration rates and an average soil water content or soil water potential. The model proposed can simulate the soil–plant–atmosphere

V. Novák; T. Hurtalová; F. Matejka

2005-01-01

89

Growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) seedlings in response to soil water content.  

PubMed

To investigate the effects of soil water content on growth and transpiration of Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don) and Hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold et Zucc.) Endl.), potted seedlings were grown in well-watered soil (wet treatment) or in drying soil (dry treatment) for 12 weeks. Seedlings in the wet treatment were watered once every 2 or 3 days, whereas seedlings in the dry treatment were watered when soil water content (Theta; m3 m(-3)) reached 0.30, equivalent to a soil matric potential of -0.06 MPa. From Weeks 7 to 12 after the onset of the treatments, seedling transpiration was measured by weighing the potted seedlings. After the last watering, changes in transpiration rate during soil drying were monitored intensely. The dry treatment restricted aboveground growth but increased biomass allocation to the roots in both species, resulting in no significant treatment difference in whole-plant biomass production. The species showed similar responses in relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR) and shoot mass ratio (SMR) to the dry treatment. Although NAR did not change significantly in either C. japonica or C. obtusa as the soil dried, the two species responded differently to the dry treatment in terms of mean transpiration rate (E) and water-use efficiency (WUE), which are parameters that relate to NAR. In the dry treatment, both E and WUE of C. japonica were stable, whereas in C. obtusa, E decreased and WUE increased (E and WUE counterbalanced to maintain a constant NAR). Transpiration rates were lower in C. obtusa seedlings than in C. japonica seedlings, even in well-watered conditions. During soil drying, the transpiration rate decreased after Theta reached about 0.38 (-0.003 MPa) in C. obtusa and 0.32 (-0.028 MPa) in C. japonica. We conclude that C. obtusa has more water-saving characteristics than C. japonica, particularly when water supply is limited. PMID:15339729

Nagakura, Junko; Shigenaga, Hidetoshi; Akama, Akio; Takahashi, Masamichi

2004-11-01

90

Native Trees and Salt Cedar: Quantifying Transpiration at Intermittent and Perennial Streamflows on the San Pedro River  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Native cottonwood-willow forests that historically dominated south-western riparian areas are being replaced by salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima) on the majority of regulated western rivers. Some studies of salt cedar have indicated its water use is considerably greater than native trees and depletes alluvial aquifers of groundwater; however, other studies have shown low to moderate water use by salt cedar. Results have varied on temporal and spatial scales making it difficult to draw firm conclusions. We compared whole plant transpiration by native riparian cottonwood (Populus fremontii) trees and salt cedar in co-occurring communities at the upper and lower San Pedro River in Arizona during 2006 and 2007, respectively. Water use by both species was monitored and quantified using the heat balance sap flow technique at intermittent and perennial reaches during the pre- monsoon season, a period of high atmospheric water demand. Our 2006 measurements in a riparian transition zone at an intermittent reach of the San Pedro River appeared to differ with earlier studies that salt cedar has higher transpiration rates, as cottonwoods and salt cedar demonstrated similar, low transpiration rates. However transpiration results from a 2007 study on these same species at a perennial reach of the San Pedro River indicate significantly higher transpiration by salt cedar and moderate increases for cottonwoods compared to the intermittent site.

McGuire, R. R.; Glenn, E. P.; Scott, R. L.; Moran, M. S.

2007-12-01

91

UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report The Effect of Environmental Changes on the Photosynthesis and Transpiration of  

E-print Network

of Environmental Changes on the Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Rates of Evergreen and Deciduous Trees during of Environmental Changes on the Photosynthesis and Transpiration of Rates of Evergreen and Deciduous Trees during in the photosynthesis (CO2 uptake and fixation) and transpiration (water loss) rates of evergreen and deciduous trees

92

Estimating transpiration in an intercropping system: measuring sap flow inside the oasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quantity of water transpired by a plant is an important factor in investigating irrigation control, biomass production, and, in studies of plant–water relations. Measuring sap flow in plant stems provides a method for estimating transpiration. Sap flow within the xylem of date palm and apricot, inside an oasis in the south of Tunisia, was monitored continuously using the Granier’s

Mohamed Habib Sellami; Mohamed Salah Sifaoui

2003-01-01

93

Elevated CO2 decreases both transpiration flow and concentrations of Ca and Mg in the xylem sap of wheat.  

PubMed

The impact of elevated atmospheric [CO2] (e[CO2]) on plants often includes a decrease in their nutrient status, including Ca and Mg, but the reasons for this decline have not been clearly identified. One of the proposed hypotheses is a decrease in transpiration-driven mass flow of nutrients due to decreased stomatal conductance. We used glasshouse and Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments with wheat to show that, in addition to decrease in transpiration rate, e[CO2] decreased the concentrations of Ca and Mg in the xylem sap. This result suggests that uptake of nutrients is not only decreased by reduced transpiration-driven mass flow, but also by as yet unidentified mechanisms that lead to reduced concentrations in the xylem sap. PMID:25462978

Houshmandfar, Alireza; Fitzgerald, Glenn J; Tausz, Michael

2015-02-01

94

Environmental and biological controls of urban tree transpiration in the Upper Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban trees provide a variety of ecosystem services to urban and suburban areas, including carbon uptake, climate amelioration, energy reduction, and stormwater management. Tree transpiration, in particular, modifies urban water budgets by providing an alternative pathway for water after rain events. The relative importance of environmental and biological controls on transpiration are poorly understood in urban areas, yet these controls are important for quantifying and scaling up the ecosystem services that urban trees provide at landscape and regional scales and predicting how urban ecosystems will respond to climate changes. The objectives of our study were to quantify the annual cycle of tree transpiration in an urban ecosystem and to determine how different urban tree species and plant functional types respond to environmental drivers. We continuously measured whole-tree transpiration using thermal dissipation sap flow at four urban forest stands that were broadly representative of the species composition and tree sizes found in a suburban residential neighborhood of Minneapolis-Saint Paul, Minnesota. A total of 40 trees, representing different species, plant functional types, successional stages, and xylem anatomy, were sampled throughout the 2007 and 2008 growing seasons (April-November). At each site we monitored soil moisture, air temperature, and relative humidity continuously, and we measured leaf area index weekly. Urban tree transpiration was strongly correlated with diurnal changes in vapor pressure deficit and photosynthetically active radiation and with seasonal changes in leaf area index. We found that plant functional type better explained species differences in transpiration per canopy area than either successional stage or xylem anatomy, largely due to differences in canopy structure between conifer and broad-leaf deciduous trees. We also observed inter-annual differences in transpiration rates due to a mid-season drought and longer growing season in 2007, compared with the cooler, wetter conditions in 2008. These results were scaled to estimate the relative contribution of each tree type at the scale of a suburban landscape. The findings of this study have implications for understanding the role of trees in managing urban water budgets and predicting the impacts of climate change on urban ecosystem services.

Peters, E. B.; McFadden, J.; Montgomery, R.

2009-12-01

95

Vessel Contents During Transpiration-Embolisms and Refilling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A test was made of the previous unexpected observation that embolized vessels were refilled during active transpiration. The contents of individual vessels in petioles of sunflower plants were examined, after snap-freezing at 2-h intervals during a day's transpiration, in the cryo-scanning electron microscope, and assessed for the presence of liquid or gas (embolism) contents. Concurrent measurements were made of irradiance,

Martin J. Canny

1997-01-01

96

Trends and rates of microevolution in plants.  

PubMed

Evidence for rapid evolutionary change in plants in response to changing environmental conditions is widespread in the literature. However, evolutionary change in plant populations has not been quantified using a rate metric that allows for comparisons between and within studies. One objective of this paper is to estimate rates of evolution using data from previously published studies to begin a foundation for comparison and to examine trends and rates of microevolution in plants. We use data gathered from studies of plant adaptations in response to heavy metals, herbicide, pathogens, changes in pH, global change, and novel environments. Rates of evolution are estimated in the form of two metrics, darwins and haldanes. A second objective is to demonstrate how estimated rates could be used to address specific microevolutionary questions. For example, we examine how evolutionary rate changes with time, life history correlates of evolutionary rates, and whether some types of traits evolve faster than others. We also approach the question of how rates can be used to predict patterns of evolution under novel selection pressures using two contemporary examples: introductions of non-native species to alien environments and global PMID:11838764

Bone, E; Farres, A

2001-01-01

97

Water, heat, and airborne pollutants effects on transpiration of urban trees.  

PubMed

Transpiration rates of six urban tree species in Beijing evaluated by thermal dissipation method for one year were correlated to environmental variables in heat, water, and pollutant groups. To sort out colinearity of the explanatory variables, their individual and joint contributions to variance of tree transpiration were determined by the variation and hierarchical partitioning methods. Majority of the variance in transpiration rates was associated with joint effects of variables in heat and water groups and variance due to individual effects of explanatory group were in comparison small. Atmospheric pollutants exerted only minor effects on tree transpiration. Daily transpiration rate was most affected by air temperature, soil temperature, total radiation, vapor pressure deficit, and ozone. Relative humidity would replace soil temperature when factors influencing hourly transpiration rate was considered. PMID:21411197

Wang, Hua; Ouyang, Zhiyun; Chen, Weiping; Wang, Xiaoke; Zheng, Hua; Ren, Yufen

2011-01-01

98

Transpiration coefficients for three Great Basin shrubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpiration by desert phreatophytes is poorly understood, and the few existing data are difficult to extrapolate spatially. This study developed transpiration coefficients (Kc) for Atriplex lentiformis ssp.torreyi , Chrysothamnus nauseosus and Sarcobatus vermiculatus to estimate transpiration using vegetation cover measurements. The Kc were developed from stomatal conductance, reference evapotranspiration (ETr), and modeled leaf area index (LAI). Transpiration estimates using the

Aaron L. Steinwand; Robert F. Harrington; David P. Groeneveld

2001-01-01

99

Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database  

SciTech Connect

This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

1995-08-01

100

Carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration in species of Echinocereus (Cactaceae), as related to their distribution within the pinaleno mountains, Arizona  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Three species of Echinocereus are distributed over an altitudinal gradient within a southeastern Arizona mountain range; Echinocereus Fendleri (1120–1365 m), E. ledingii (1515–1970 m), and E. triglochidiatus (2180–2880 m). No overlap of species exists, suggesting that physiological mechanisms may be involved in establishing species altitudinal limits.2.Simultaneous analysis of CO2 exchange and transpiration rates of representative plants showed species differences in

Blaine E. Dinger; Duncan T. Patten

1974-01-01

101

Coordination of Leaf Photosynthesis, Transpiration, and Structural Traits in Rice and Wild Relatives (Genus Oryza)1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

The genus Oryza, which includes rice (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) and wild relatives, is a useful genus to study leaf properties in order to identify structural features that control CO2 access to chloroplasts, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, and drought tolerance. Traits, 26 structural and 17 functional, associated with photosynthesis and transpiration were quantified on 24 accessions (representatives of 17 species and eight genomes). Hypotheses of associations within, and between, structure, photosynthesis, and transpiration were tested. Two main clusters of positively interrelated leaf traits were identified: in the first cluster were structural features, leaf thickness (Thickleaf), mesophyll (M) cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space per unit of leaf surface area (Smes), and M cell size; a second group included functional traits, net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, M conductance to CO2 diffusion (gm), stomatal conductance to gas diffusion (gs), and the gm/gs ratio. While net photosynthetic rate was positively correlated with gm, neither was significantly linked with any individual structural traits. The results suggest that changes in gm depend on covariations of multiple leaf (Smes) and M cell (including cell wall thickness) structural traits. There was an inverse relationship between Thickleaf and transpiration rate and a significant positive association between Thickleaf and leaf transpiration efficiency. Interestingly, high gm together with high gm/gs and a low Smes/gm ratio (M resistance to CO2 diffusion per unit of cell surface area exposed to intercellular air space) appear to be ideal for supporting leaf photosynthesis while preserving water; in addition, thick M cell walls may be beneficial for plant drought tolerance. PMID:23669746

Giuliani, Rita; Koteyeva, Nuria; Voznesenskaya, Elena; Evans, Marc A.; Cousins, Asaph B.; Edwards, Gerald E.

2013-01-01

102

CCMR: Modeling Transpiration with Porous Silicon Membranes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of the project was to better understand the characteristics of porous silicon membranes and assess their possible applications, especially in the area of heat transfer. Porous silicon can be used in the modeling of transpiration in plants, where water is transported under negative pressure. If porous silicon is found to be able to hold high enough levels of tension (negative pressure), then it has great potential in cooling systems; it could act as a âself-driving pumpâ that would not need large amounts of external energy like most current systems.

Jilo, Allen

2010-08-15

103

Simulation of diurnal transpiration and photosynthesis of a water stressed soybean crop  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diurnal course of photosynthesis and transpiration of different plants can exhibit a dissymmetric behaviour between the morning and the afternoon, a photosynthetic midday depression and a transpiration ‘plateau’. A field experiment conducted in a meditenanean climate allows us to identify these features for a soybean crop undergoing water stress. The experimental data also show that, before and after the

Albert Olioso; Toby N. Carlson; Nadine Brisson

1996-01-01

104

Nitrogen regulation of transpiration controls mass-flow acquisition of nutrients  

PubMed Central

Transpiration may enhance mass-flow of nutrients to roots, especially in low-nutrient soils or where the root system is not extensively developed. Previous work suggested that nitrogen (N) may regulate mass-flow of nutrients. Experiments were conducted to determine whether N regulates water fluxes, and whether this regulation has a functional role in controlling the mass-flow of nutrients to roots. Phaseolus vulgaris were grown in troughs designed to create an N availability gradient by restricting roots from intercepting a slow-release N source, which was placed at one of six distances behind a 25 ?m mesh from which nutrients could move by diffusion or mass-flow (termed ‘mass-flow’ treatment). Control plants had the N source supplied directly to their root zone so that N was available through interception, mass-flow, and diffusion (termed ‘interception’ treatment). ‘Mass-flow’ plants closest to the N source exhibited 2.9-fold higher transpiration (E), 2.6-fold higher stomatal conductance (g s), 1.2-fold higher intercellular [CO2] (C i), and 3.4-fold lower water use efficiency than ‘interception’ plants, despite comparable values of photosynthetic rate (A). E, g s, and C i first increased and then decreased with increasing distance from the N source to values even lower than those of ‘interception’ plants. ‘Mass-flow’ plants accumulated phosphorus and potassium, and had maximum concentrations at 10mm from the N source. Overall, N availability regulated transpiration-driven mass-flow of nutrients from substrate zones that were inaccessible to roots. Thus when water is available, mass-flow may partially substitute for root density in providing access to nutrients without incurring the costs of root extension, although the efficacy of mass-flow also depends on soil nutrient retention and hydraulic properties. PMID:24231035

Matimati, Ignatious

2014-01-01

105

Thermodynamic balance of photosynthesis and transpiration at increasing CO2 concentrations and rapid light fluctuations.  

PubMed

Experimental and theoretical flux models have been developed to reveal the influence of sun flecks and increasing CO2 concentrations on the energy and entropy balances of the leaf. The rapid and wide range of fluctuations in light intensity under field conditions were simulated in a climatic gas exchange chamber and we determined the energy and entropy balance of the leaf based on radiation and gas exchange measurements. It was estimated that the energy of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) accounts for half of transpiration, which is the main factor responsible for the exportation of the entropy generated in photosynthesis (Sg) out of the leaf in order to maintain functional the photosynthetic machinery. Although the response of net photosynthetic production to increasing concentrations of CO2 under fluctuating light is similar to that under continuous light, rates of transpiration respond slowly to changes of light intensity and are barely affected by the concentration of CO2 in the range of 260-495 ppm, in which net photosynthesis increases by more than 100%. The analysis of the results confirms that future increases of CO2 will improve the efficiency of the conversion of radiant energy into biomass, but will not reduce the contribution of plant transpiration to the leaf thermal balance. PMID:24345393

Marín, Dolores; Martín, Mercedes; Serrot, Patricia H; Sabater, Bartolomé

2014-02-01

106

Metabolism of Transpired Ethanol by Eastern Cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol has previously been shown to be present in the xylem sap of flooded and nonflooded trees. Because of the constitutive presence of alcohol dehydrogenase in the mature leaves of woody plants, we hypothesized that the leaves and shoots of trees had the ability to metabolize ethanol supplied by the transpiration stream. 1-(\\

Robert C. MacDonald; Thomas W. Kimmerer

107

Thermodynamics of cuticular transpiration Allen G. Gibbs *  

E-print Network

Review Thermodynamics of cuticular transpiration§ Allen G. Gibbs * School of Life Sciences, 4505 S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1067 4. Thermodynamics of transport processes Accepted 6 May 2011 Keywords: Cuticle Humidity Thermodynamics Transpiration Water vapor A B S T R A C

Ahmad, Sajjad

108

Crown structure, radiation absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration   

E-print Network

. Among the four different structural properties studied, crown shape is least important for PAR absorption, photosynthesis and transpiration. For the Sitka spruce stand studied, transpiration was most sensitive to the total area of leaves within the tree...

Wang, Yingping

109

Plant, Cell and Environment (2006) 29, 22052215 doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3040.2006.01594.x 2006 The Authors  

E-print Network

) and by the National Geographic Society (grant no. 7475-03). Declining hydraulic efficiency as transpiring leaves (Yleaf). Manipulating the transpiration rate in excised leaves enabled us to vary Yleaf in the range -0% of the hydraulic resistance of the whole plant (Salleo, Nardini & Lo Gullo 1997; Nardini, Tyree & Salleo 2001; Sack

Holbrook, N. Michele

110

[Comparison of ecophysiological characteristics of seven plant species in semiarid loess hilly-gully region].  

PubMed

The diurnal course of photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and leaf water potential (psi L) of five plant species in North Shaanxi loess hilly-gully region were measured in dry seasons. Based on the daily maximum photosynthetic and transpiration rates, daily total assimilation and transpiration, and diurnal change characteristics of psi L, the test plants were classified into different eco-adaptation types. Panicum virgatum L. had high photosynthetic rate, low transpiration rate and high water use efficiency (WUE), and its drought adaptation strategy was to delay dehydration by developing high psi L. Medicago sativa had high photosynthetic and transpiration rates but low WUE, while Lespedeza dahurica had low photosynthetic and transpiration rates and low WUE. Their drought adaptation strategies were the same, namely, by increasing psi L delay dehydration. Bothriochloa ischaemum had high photosynthetic rate, relative high transpiration rate and medium WUE, and its drought-resistant strategy was to decrease psi L to endure dehydration. Astragalus adsurgens had similar characteristics in diurnal courses of photosynthesis with B. ischaemum, and its drought adaption strategy was to delay dehydration by developing low psi psi L. PMID:17650846

Xu, Bing-cheng; Shan, Lun; Li, Feng-min

2007-05-01

111

Numerical Simulation of Transpiration Cooling  

E-print Network

, RWTH Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen. E­mail: mueller@igpm.rwth-aachen.de Contract University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen SUMMARY Transpiration cooling using ceramic matrix composite (CMC Aachen University, Templergraben 55, 52056 Aachen. E-mail: mueller@igpm.rwth-aachen.de Contract

112

Environmental controls on saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) transpiration and stomatal conductance and implications for determining evapotranspiration by remote sensing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Saltcedar is an introduced, salt-tolerant shrub that now dominates many flow-regulated western U.S. rivers. Saltcedar control programs have been implemented to salvage water and to allow the return of native vegetation to infested rivers. However, there is much debate about how much water saltcedar actually uses and the range of ecohydrological niches it occupies. Ground methods for measuring riparian zone ET have improved and there is considerable interest in developing remote sensing methods for saltcedar to conduct wide-area monitoring of water use. Both thermal band and vegetation index methods have been used to estimate riparian ET. However, several problems present themselves in applying existing remote sensing methods to riparian corridors. First, many riparian corridors are narrow and are surrounded by arid uplands, hence they cannot be treated as energetically closed systems, an assumption of thermal band methods that calculate ET as a residual in the surface energy balance. Second, contrary to the assumption that riparian phreatophytes typically grow under unstressed conditions since they are rooted into groundwater, we find that saltcedar stands are under substantial degrees of apparent moisture stress, exhibiting midday depression of transpiration and stomatal conductance, and decreases in stomatal conductance over the growing season as depth to groundwater increases. Furthermore, the degree of stress is site-specific, depending on local soil texture, salinity of the groundwater and distance from the river. This violates a key assumption of vegetation index methods for estimating ET. The implications of these findings for arid-zone riparian ecohydrology and for remote sensing methods that assume either a constant daily evaporative fraction or rate of stomatal conductance will be discussed using saltcedar stands measured in the Cibola NWR on the lower Colorado River as a case study. Daily rates of saltcedar transpiration ranged from 1.6-3.0 mm/m2 leaf/day, while LAI varied over a narrower range, from 2.0 - 2.9. Differences in leaf-level transpiration were due to differences in stomatal conductance among sites. Sites close to the river had higher transpiration rates than sites further away, and sites with more saline water had lower leaf-level transpiration rates. Leaf-level transpiration rates were higher in June and July, when aquifers were closer to the surface, than in August and September, when water levels had dropped. High transpiration rates were associated with finer textured soil compared to plants growing in sandy soils. Low transpiration rates were manifested by moderate to severe midday depression of stomatal conductance and transpiration. These limitations constrained the rate of saltcedar ET to about 40% of ETo, and also reduced the accuracy of remote sensing estimates of ET, which assume a constant rate of stomatal conductance during midday.

Nagler, P. L.; Glenn, E. P.; morino, K.

2012-12-01

113

Growth and transpiration of maize and winter wheat in response to water deficits in pots and plots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pots used for experiments conducted on plants grown in them create rooting environments that are affected by limited soil volume, which can affect various physiological processes, including transpiration, and plant growth. However, the applicability of results from pot experiments to the field has received limited attention. The objective of this study was to compare the growth and transpiration of maize

Yuanzhi Wu; Mingbin Huang; David N. Warrington

2011-01-01

114

Transpiring Cooling of a Scram-Jet Engine Combustion Chamber  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The peak cold-wall heating rate generated in a combustion chamber of a scram-jet engine can exceed 2000 Btu/sq ft sec (approx. 2344 W/sq cm). Therefore, a very effective heat dissipation mechanism is required to sustain such a high heating load. This research focused on the transpiration cooling mechanism that appears to be a promising approach to remove a large amount of heat from the engine wall. The transpiration cooling mechanism has two aspects. First, initial computations suggest that there is a reduction, as much as 75%, in the heat flux incident on the combustion chamber wall due to the transpirant modifying the combustor boundary layer. Secondly, the heat reaching the combustor wall is removed from the structure in a very effective manner by the transpirant. It is the second of these two mechanisms that is investigated experimentally in the subject paper. A transpiration cooling experiment using a radiant heating method, that provided a heat flux as high as 200 Btu/sq ft sec ( approx. 234 W/sq cm) on the surface of a specimen, was performed. The experiment utilized an arc-lamp facility (60-kW radiant power output) to provide a uniform heat flux to a test specimen. For safety reasons, helium gas was used as the transpirant in the experiments. The specimens were 1.9-cm diameter sintered, powdered-stainless-steel tubes of various porosities and a 2.54cm square tube with perforated multi-layered walls. A 15-cm portion of each specimen was heated. The cooling effectivenes and efficiencies by transpiration for each specimen were obtained using the experimental results. During the testing, various test specimens displayed a choking phenomenon in which the transpirant flow was limited as the heat flux was increased. The paper includes a preliminary analysis of the transpiration cooling mechanism and a scaling conversion study that translates the results from helium tests into the case when a hydrogen medium is used.

Choi, Sang H.; Scotti, Stephen J.; Song, Kyo D.; Ries,Heidi

1997-01-01

115

Does hydraulic lift or nighttime transpiration facilitate nitrogen acquisition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water movement from roots to soil at night in the process of hydraulic lift (redistribution) rehydrates the rhizosphere and\\u000a has been proposed to improve plant nutrient acquisition. Another process that has now been found in many plant species is\\u000a nighttime transpiration and this could also affect nutrient relations by influencing supply of mobile nutrients to roots at\\u000a night. The effects

Keirith A. Snyder; Jeremy J. James; James H. Richards; Lisa A. Donovan

2008-01-01

116

Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.)

Thomas D. Sharkey

1984-01-01

117

Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 107 (2001) 167175 Reduction of transpiration through foliar application of chitosan  

E-print Network

was applied foliarly to pepper plants and water use was monitored. Peppers were grown in pots in growth to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), which plays a key role in the regulation of water use by plants of chitosan, a natural beta-1-4-linked glucosamine polymer, to reduce plant transpiration. Chitosan

Flury, Markus

118

Spatial Variability of Tree Transpiration Along a Soil Drainage Gradient of Boreal Black Spruce Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests are an integral component in obtaining a predictive understanding of global climate change because they comprise 33% of the world's forests and store large amounts of carbon. Much of this carbon storage is a result of peat formation in cold, poorly-drained soils. Transpiration plays a crucial role in the interaction between carbon and water cycles due to stomatal control of these fluxes. The primary focus of this study is to quantify the spatial variability and drivers of tree transpiration in boreal forest stands across a well- to poorly-drained soil drainage gradient. Species composition of this region of boreal forest changes during succession in well-drained soils from being primarily dominated by Picea mariana with co-dominant Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides in younger stands to being dominated solely by Picea marianain older stands. Poorly-drained soils are dominated by Picea mariana and change little with succession. Previous work in well-drained stands showed that 1) tree transpiration changed substantially with stand age due to sapwood-to-leaf area ratio dynamics and 2) minimum leaf water potential (?) was kept constant to prevent excessive cavitation. We hypothesized that 1) minimum ? would be constant, 2) transpiration would be proportional to the sapwood-to-leaf area ratio across a soil drainage gradient, and 3) spatial relationships between trees would vary depending on stomatal responses to vapor pressure deficit (D). We tested these hypotheses by measuring ? of 33 trees and sap flux from 204 trees utilizing cyclic sampling constructed to study spatial relationships. Measurements were conducted at a 42-year-old stand representing maximum tree diversity during succession. There were no significant differences between growing season averaged ? in well- (-0.35 and -1.37 for pre-dawn and mid-day respectively) and poorly- drained soil conditions (-0.38 and -1.41 for pre-dawn and mid-day respectively) for Picea mariana. Water use results of Picea mariana differed between drainage conditions when expressed per unit xylem area with trees in poorly-drained soils experiencing higher rates than trees in well-drained areas (101.79 and 83.02 g cm-2 day-1 respectively). In contrast, when expressed as transpiration per tree, trees on well-drained soils had higher rates than those in poorly-drained locations (366.96 and 216.82 g tree-1 day-1 respectively). This indicates that tree size, reflected in sapwood area per ground area, which is constrained by anaerobic conditions across well- to poorly-drained areas, is driving differences in tree transpiration. Initial spatial analyses show that spatial autocorrelation decreases from 51.3 to 24.6 meters as D increases from 0.9 to 2.1 kPa. This phenomenon is explained by tree hydraulics and more patchy stomatal response as trees regulate water loss. Thus, regional scale bottom-up process models of boreal forest transpiration can be simplified with respect to soil drainage while retaining mechanistic rigor with respect to plant hydraulics.

Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

2008-12-01

119

Decreased transpiration in poplar trees exposed to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene  

SciTech Connect

The improper handling of the toxic compound 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has led to the contamination of soil and groundwater, and the uptake of TNT by a variety of plants has been established. This article discusses the effects of various concentrations of the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on the transpiration of hybrid poplar trees growing in hydroponic media. Transpiration was measured daily by gravimetric means. The rapid removal of TNT from hydroponic solutions was a result of plant uptake and required a daily dosage of TNT to ensure a relatively constant exposure over time. Transpiration decreased with increasing TNT concentrations {ge}5 mg/L. Decreases in transpiration were accompanied by leaf chlorosis and abscission. A comparison between a laboratory study and a pilot-scale experiment showed good scale-up potential.

Thompson, P.L. [Seattle Univ., WA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Ramer, L.A.; Guffey, A.P.; Schnoor, J.L. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1998-01-01

120

Effect of temperature on cuticular transpiration of isolated cuticular membranes and leaf discs.  

PubMed

Cuticular transpiration was measured in the temperature range between 10 degrees C and 55 degrees C using tritiated water and five species (Vinca major L., Prunus laurocerasus L., Forsythia intermedia L., Citrus aurantium L., and Hedera helix L.). Cuticular water permeabilities measured with isolated cuticular membranes were not different from cuticular water permeabilities measured with leaf discs. Depending on the species cuticular water permeabilities increased by factors between 12 (V. major) to 264 (H. helix) when temperature was increased from 10 degrees C to 55 degrees C. Arrhenius plots (lnP versus 1/T) of all investigated species were characterized by phase transitions occurring in the temperature range of 30-39 degrees C. Activation energies for water permeability across plant cuticles below and above the midpoint of phase transition were calculated from Arrhenius plots. Depending on the species they varied between 26 (F. intermedia) to 61 kJ mol(-1) (H. helix) below the phase transition and from 67 (V. major) to 122 kJ mol(-1) (F. intermedia) above the phase transition. Since the occurrence of phase transitions always lead to significantly increased rates of cuticular transpiration it is argued that temperatures higher than 35 degrees C caused structural defects to the transport-limiting barrier of the plant cuticles of all species investigated. PMID:11520878

Schreiber, L

2001-09-01

121

Impact of the hydraulic capacity of plants on water and carbon fluxes in tropical South America  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Angiosperms (flowering plants) have higher transpirational capacities than any other plants. Here we use climate model simulation to test the hypothesis that the high transpirational capacity of angiosperms plays a unique role in the maintenance of tropical rainforest. Their elevated transpiration rates are shown to increase recycling of precipitation up to ˜300 mm/yr (˜20% of total precipitation) averaged over the whole of tropical South America and to increase the wet season duration over the Amazon basin. Transpiration triggers convection by increasing moisture in the boundary layer and thereby decreasing atmospheric stability. If the moisture content of the boundary layer is sufficient, a double Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is generated in October around 60°W-50°W, as observed in present-day climate, and the eastern part of the Amazon basin becomes wet (˜200 mm/month of precipitation). This double ITCZ is lost, however, and the region becomes dry (<50 mm/month of precipitation) in the absence of full angiosperm transpiration. Although higher water use efficiency is usually associated with plants with lower transpiration rates, water use efficiency actually increases with higher hydraulic capacity in our simulations as a result of the higher humidity and, thus, lower vapor pressure gradient between the intercellular air space within the leaf and the external atmosphere. We speculate that the high transpirational capacity of angiosperms played a significant role in the expansion of tropical rain forest.

Lee, Jung-Eun; Boyce, Kevin

2010-12-01

122

Reduced atmospheric pressure in Radish: Alteration of NCER and transpiration at decreased oxygen partial pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental to the future of space exploration is the development of advanced life support systems capable of maintaining crews for significant periods without re-supply from Earth. Significant research is focused on the development of bioregenerative life support systems to be used in conjunction with the current physico-chemical methods. These bioregenerative life support systems harness natural ecosystem processes and employ plant photosynthesis and transpiration to produce food, oxygen and regenerate water while consuming carbon dioxide. The forthcoming exploration of the Moon and Mars has prompted interest into the effects of hypobaria on plant development. Reduced atmospheric pressures will lessen the pressure gradient between the structure and the local environment thereby decreasing gas leakage and possibly the structural mass of the plant growth facility. In order to establish the optimal specifications for reduced pressure plant growth structures it is essential to determine the atmospheric pressure limits required for conventional plant development and growth. Due to its physiological importance, oxygen will compose a significant portion of these minimal environments. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that reduced atmospheric pressure and decreased oxygen partial pressures had no effect on radish productivity. Radishes (Raphanus sativa L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) were grown from seed in the University of Guelph's Hypobaric Plant Growth Chambers for a period of 21 days. Treatments included total pressures of 10, 33, 66 and 96 kPa and oxygen partial pressures of 2, 7, 14 and 20 kPa. Experiments demonstrated that reduced partial pressures of oxygen had a greater effect on radish growth than hypobaria. Results showed a reduction in net carbon exchange rate and transpiration with decreasing oxygen partial pressures leading to diminished productivity. Keywords: hypobaric, radish, oxygen partial pressure, variable pressure chamber, bioregenerative life support

Wehkamp, Cara Ann; Stasiak, Michael; Wheeler, Raymond; Dixon, Mike

123

Modeling the uptake and transpiration of TCE using phreatophytic trees. Master`s Thesis  

SciTech Connect

Phytoremediation is a recent addition to the numerous methods used today to remediate ground water contaminants. It is proving more effective and efficient compared to existing remediation techniques. The use of phreatophytes, or water seeking trees, has great potential for phytoremediation. These trees are fast growing, long lived, grow their roots down to the ground water table, transpire large amounts of water, and are proven to actively remove contaminants from the soil horizon. The purpose of this research is to develop quantitative concepts for understanding the dynamics of TCE uptake and transpiration by phreatophytic trees over a short rotation woody crop time frame. This will he done by constructing a system dynamics model of this process and running it over a wide range of conditions. This research will offer managers a tool to simulate long-term uptake and transpiration of TCE at potential sites. The results of this study indicate that TCE is actively removed from the soil horizon by phreatophytic trees and a significant proportion of this TCE is then transpired. Changes in soil horizon parameters, xylem flow rates, and variables in the uptake equation greatly influence TCE uptake rates as well as transpiration. Also, parameters used in equations representing flows in and out of the leaf greatly influence transpiration. Better understanding of these processes is essential for managers to accurately predict the amount of TCE removed and transpired during potential phytoremediation projects.

Wise, D.P.

1997-12-01

124

Rate of Contamination Removal of Two Phyto-remediation Sites at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes applications of phyto-remediation at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS), a Department of Energy (DOE) Facility that enriched uranium from the early 1950's until 2000. Phyto-remediation has been implemented to assist in the removal of TCE (trichloroethylene) in the groundwater at two locations at the PORTS facility: the X-740 area and the X-749/X-120 area. Phyto-remediation technology is based on the ability of certain plants species (in this case hybrid poplar trees) and their associated rhizo-spheric microorganisms to remove, degrade, or contain chemical contaminants located in the soil, sediment, surface water, groundwater, and possibly even the atmosphere. Phyto-remediation technology is a promising clean-up solution for a wide variety of pollutants and sites. Mature trees, such as the hybrid poplar, can consume up to 3,000 gallons of groundwater per acre per day. Organic compounds are captured in the trees' root systems. These organic compounds are degraded by ultraviolet light as they are transpired along with the water vapor through the leaves of the trees. The phyto-remediation system at the X-740 area encompasses 766 one-year old hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x nigra, Populus nigra x maximowiczii, and Populus deltoides x nigra) that were planted 10 feet apart in rows 10 feet to 20 feet apart, over an area of 2.6 acres. The system was installed to manage the VOC contaminant plume. At the X749/X-120 area, a phyto-remediation system of 2,640 hybrid poplar trees (Populus nigra x maximowiczii) was planted in seven areas/zones to manage the VOC contaminant plume. The objectives of these systems are to remove contamination from the groundwater and to prevent further migration of contaminants. The goal of these remediation procedures is to achieve completely mature and functional phyto-remediation systems within two years of the initial planting of the hybrid poplar trees at each planting location. There is a direct relationship between plant transpiration, soil moisture, and groundwater flow in a phyto-remediation system. The existing monitoring program was expanded in 2004 in order to evaluate the interactions among these processes. The purpose of this monitoring program was to determine the rate of contaminant removal and to more accurately predict the amount of time needed to remediate the contaminated groundwater. Initial planting occurred in 1999 at the X-740 area, with additional replanting in 2001 and 2002. In 2003, coring of selected trees and chemical analyses illustrated the presence of TCE; however, little impact was observed in groundwater levels, analytical monitoring, and periodic tree diameter monitoring at the X-740 area. To provide better understanding of how these phyto-remediation systems work, a portable weather station was installed at the X-740 area to provide data for estimating transpiration and two different systems for measuring sap flow and sap velocity were outfitted to numerous trees. After evaluating and refining the groundwater flow and contaminant transport models, the data gathered by these two inventive methods can be used to establish a rate of contaminant removal and to better predict the time required in order to meet remediation goals for the phyto-remediation systems located at the PORTS site. (authors)

Lewis, A.C.; Baird, D.R. [CDM Federal Services, P.O. Box 789, Piketon, OH 45661 (United States)

2006-07-01

125

Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

Gibson, Paul R.

126

SK30 total energy plant rated at 73% efficiency  

SciTech Connect

The City of Hague in Holland is building a combined cycle plant. The plant will be powered by two Rolls-Royce SK30 gas turbine generators site rated at 25,000 kW each, two unfired Stork waste heat recovery boilers, and a Delaval Stork steam turbine rated at 26,000 kW. On its own, without district heating, the combined cycle plant is rated for 77,000 kW output at around 44% efficiency. Heat output of the combined cycle plant is used to provide thermal power for district heating. In the maximum output mode, there is some drop in electric power output (around 70,000 kW) but this is accompanied by 60,000 kW thermal power output for a net plant efficiency of close to 74% overall. (MCW)

de Biasi, V. (ed.)

1980-07-01

127

Plant respirometer enables high resolution of oxygen consumption rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant respirometer permits high resolution of relatively small changes in the rate of oxygen consumed by plant organisms undergoing oxidative metabolism in a nonphotosynthetic state. The two stage supply and monitoring system operates by a differential pressure transducer and provides a calibrated output by digital or analog signals.

Foster, D. L.

1966-01-01

128

Remetabolism of transpired ethanol by Populus deltoides  

SciTech Connect

Ethanol is present in the transpiration stream of flooded and unflooded trees in concentrations up to 0.5mM. Transpired ethanol does not evaporate but is remetabolized by foliage and upper stems in Populus deltoides. {sup 14}C-ethanol was supplied in the transpiration stream to excised leaves and shoots; more than 98% was incorporated. Less than 1% was respired as CO{sub 2}. Organic and amino acids were labelled initially, with eventual accumulations in water- and chloroform-soluble fractions and into protein. Much of the label was incorporated into stem tissue, with little reaching the lamina. These experiments suggest that ethanol is not lost transpirationally through the leaves, but is efficiently recycled in a manner resembling lactate recycling in mammals.

MacDonald, R.C.; Kimmerer, T.W. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

1990-05-01

129

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor salt deposition studies  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories has teamed with Foster Wheeler Development Corp. and GenCorp, Aerojet to develop and evaluate a new supercritical water oxidation reactor design using a transpiring wall liner. In the design, pure water is injected through small pores in the liner wall to form a protective boundary layer that inhibits salt deposition and corrosion, effects that interfere with system performance. The concept was tested at Sandia on a laboratory-scale transpiring wall reactor that is a 1/4 scale model of a prototype plant being designed for the Army to destroy colored smoke and dye at Pine Bluff Arsenal in Arkansas. During the tests, a single-phase pressurized solution of sodium sulfate (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) was heated to supercritical conditions, causing the salt to precipitate out as a fine solid. On-line diagnostics and post-test observation allowed us to characterize reactor performance at different flow and temperature conditions. Tests with and without the protective boundary layer demonstrated that wall transpiration provides significant protection against salt deposition. Confirmation tests were run with one of the dyes that will be processed in the Pine Bluff facility. The experimental techniques, results, and conclusions are discussed.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Mills, B.E.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Brown, B.G. [and others

1996-09-01

130

Transpirational demand affects aquaporin expression in poplar roots  

PubMed Central

Isohydric plants tend to maintain a water potential homeostasis primarily by controlling water loss via stomatal conductance. However, there is accumulating evidence that plants can also modulate water uptake in a dynamic manner. The dynamics of water uptake are influenced by aquaporin-mediated changes in root hydraulics. Most studies in this area have been conducted on herbaceous plants, and less is known about responses of woody plants. Here a study was conducted to determine how roots of hybrid poplar plants (Populus trichocarpa×deltoides) respond to a step change in transpirational demand. The main objective was to measure the expression of selected aquaporin genes and to assess how transcriptional responses correspond to changes in root water flow (Q R) and other parameters of water relations. A subset of plants was grown in shade and was subsequently exposed to a 5-fold increase in light level. Another group of plants was grown at ~95% relative humidity (RH) and was then subjected to lower RH while the light level remained unchanged. Both plant groups experienced a transient drop in stem water potentials. At 28h after the increase in transpirational demand, water potentials recovered. This recovery was associated with changes in the expression of PIP1 and PIP2 subfamily genes and an increase in Q R. Stomata of plants growing at high RH were larger and showed incomplete closure after application of abscisic acid. Since stomatal conductance remained high and unchanged in these plants, it is suggested that the recovery in water potential in these plants was largely driven by the increase in Q R. PMID:23599275

Hacke, Uwe G.

2013-01-01

131

Effect of plants on sunspace passive solar heating  

SciTech Connect

The effect of plants on sunspace thermal performance is investigated, based on experiments done in Los Alamos using two test rooms with attached sunspaces, which were essentially identical except for the presence of plants in one. Performance is related to plant transpiration, evaporation from the soil, condensation on the glazing and the absorbtance of solar energy by the lightweight leaves. Performance effects have been quantified by measurements of auxiliary heat consumption in the test rooms and analyzed by means of energy balance calculations. A method for estimating the transpiration rate is presented.

Best, E.D.; McFarland, R.D.

1985-01-01

132

Effect of different densities of the twospotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae on CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and stomatal behaviour in rose leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of population density of Tetranychus urticae Koch on CO2 assimilation, transpiration and stomatal behaviour in rose leaves and on the diameter and length of stems and flower buds was investigated under greenhouse conditions. The investigation was performed in order to gain more insight into integrated control systems in rose crops grown under greenhouse conditions. Physiological processes, such as photosynthesis and transpiration, as well as stomatal behaviour and chlorophyll content, were studied as they form part of the plant's nutrition mechanism and therefore affect the quantity and quality of the flowers. Information related to the effect of spider mite population density on bloom quality, diameter and length of stems and flower buds was also collected. The data indicate that increased mite density coincides with a decrease in the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration and chlorophyll content. Higher mite densities on leaves cause stomata to remain open for longer periods, which allows a greater loss of water. Spider mite densities of 10 and 50 mites per leaf cause a reduction in flower stem length of 17 and 26%, respectively, as compared to plants with no mites present. PMID:15139084

Landeros, J; Guevara, L P; Badii, M H; Flores, A E; Pámanes, A

2004-01-01

133

Contributions of foliage distribution and leaf functions to light interception, transpiration and photosynthetic capacities in two apple cultivars at branch and tree scales.  

PubMed

Both the spatial distribution of leaves and leaf functions affect the light interception, transpiration and photosynthetic capacities of trees, but their relative contributions have rarely been investigated. We assessed these contributions at the branch and tree scales in two apple cultivars (Malus x domestica Borkh. 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn') with contrasting architectures, by estimating their branch and tree capacities and comparing them with outputs from a radiation absorption, transpiration and photosynthesis (RATP) functional-structural plant model (FSPM). The structures of three 8-year-old trees of each cultivar were digitized to obtain 3-D representations of foliage geometry. Within-tree foliage distribution was compared with shoot demography, number of leaves per shoot and mean individual leaf area. We estimated branch and tree light interception from silhouette to total leaf area ratios (STAR), transpiration from sap flux measurements and net photosynthetic rates by the branch bag method. Based on a set of parameters we previously established for both cultivars, the outputs of the RATP model were tested against STAR values, sap fluxes and photosynthetic measurements. The RATP model was then used to virtually switch foliage distribution or leaf functions (stomatal and photosynthetic properties), or both, between cultivars and to evaluate the effects on branch and tree light interception, transpiration and photosynthetic capacities in each cultivar. 'Fuji' trees had a higher proportion of leaf area borne on long shoots, fewer leaves per unit shoot length and a larger individual leaf area than 'Braeburn' trees. This resulted in a lower leaf area density and, consequently, a higher STAR in 'Fuji' than in 'Braeburn' at both branch and tree scales. Transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in 'Fuji' than in 'Braeburn'. Branch heterogeneity was greater in 'Braeburn' than in 'Fuji'. An analysis of the virtual switches of foliage distribution or leaf function showed that differences in leaf spatial distribution and functions had additive effects that accounted for the lower transpiration and photosynthetic rates of branches and trees of 'Braeburn' compared with 'Fuji'. Leaf distribution had a more important role at the branch scale than at the tree scale, but the leaf function effect exceeded the leaf distribution effect at both scales. Our study demonstrated the potential of FSPM to disentangle physiological differences between cultivars through in silico scenarios. PMID:18316299

Massonnet, C; Regnard, J L; Lauri, P E; Costes, E; Sinoquet, H

2008-05-01

134

Transpiration by trees under seasonal water logging and drought in monsoon central Cambodia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cambodia is situated in the center of Indochina Peninsula and experiences severe drought for 5 months of dry season and subsequent rainy season. Around the Tonlesap Lake where both natural and secondary forests exist without intensive destruction by human activity, forest hydrology is characterized by seasonal water logging in mid rainy season. Tree- and stand-scale transpiration is thought to be influenced by the changing soil water conditions and trees' site-specific adaptation to the environment, but less is measured about transpiration and leaf ecophysiological traits in this region. The objectives of this study is to reveal the ecophysiology of the two native (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and two exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and to detect the effects of soil water conditions on day to week scale transpiration in mid rainy and dry season. Seasonal leaf-level photosynthesis measurements suggested that photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax25) showed no clear seasonal change in each species without clear interspecific variation. Two native species had stomatal control in response to the environment different from previous studies and showed stomatal conductance higher than most woody species in other seasonal tropical forests, suggesting the species- and site-specific adaptation to the easy access to the ground water. Sap flow rate per leaf area was expressed in two parameters: measured transpiration rate based on the continuous sap flow measurements (Esap) and modeled transpiration rate (Emod) using a multilayer model based on the measured data of atmospheric environments, radiation and the leaf ecophysiological traits. Esap was lower in rainy season than those in dry season, with short but pronounced drop near the end of the dry season, although Emod was higher in rainy season than in dry season. In dry season, Emod well fit the diurnal and day to day trend of Esap, suggesting that soil drought did not limit transpiration. On the other hand, in rainy season, Emod overestimated Esap under high light intensities but not at low Emod conditions, suggesting that leaf water demand exceeded the water supply capacity, possibly due to the water logging effects on root activity. This study provided us new insights into the site specific transpiration patterns in this region, and the usefulness of the comparison between modeled and measured transpiration rate to detect the environmental and biological influence on transpiration for successful model prediction of forest transpiration at large time and spatial scales.

Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kajisa, T.; Ma, V.; Heng, S.; Kumagai, T.; Mizoue, N.

2012-04-01

135

Separating foliar physiology from morphology reveals the relative roles of vertically structured transpiration factors within red maple crowns and limitations of larger scale models  

PubMed Central

A spatially explicit mechanistic model, MAESTRA, was used to separate key parameters affecting transpiration to provide insights into the most influential parameters for accurate predictions of within-crown and within-canopy transpiration. Once validated among Acer rubrum L. genotypes, model responses to different parameterization scenarios were scaled up to stand transpiration (expressed per unit leaf area) to assess how transpiration might be affected by the spatial distribution of foliage properties. For example, when physiological differences were accounted for, differences in leaf width among A. rubrum L. genotypes resulted in a 25% difference in transpiration. An in silico within-canopy sensitivity analysis was conducted over the range of genotype parameter variation observed and under different climate forcing conditions. The analysis revealed that seven of 16 leaf traits had a ?5% impact on transpiration predictions. Under sparse foliage conditions, comparisons of the present findings with previous studies were in agreement that parameters such as the maximum Rubisco-limited rate of photosynthesis can explain ?20% of the variability in predicted transpiration. However, the spatial analysis shows how such parameters can decrease or change in importance below the uppermost canopy layer. Alternatively, model sensitivity to leaf width and minimum stomatal conductance was continuous along a vertical canopy depth profile. Foremost, transpiration sensitivity to an observed range of morphological and physiological parameters is examined and the spatial sensitivity of transpiration model predictions to vertical variations in microclimate and foliage density is identified to reduce the uncertainty of current transpiration predictions. PMID:21617246

Bauerle, William L.; Bowden, Joseph D.

2011-01-01

136

Experimental studies of transpiration cooling with shock interaction in hypersonic flow, part B  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the result of experimental studies conducted to examine the effects of the impingement of an oblique shock on the flowfield and surface characteristics of a transpiration-cooled wall in turbulent hypersonic flow. The principal objective of this work was to determine whether the interaction between the oblique shock and the low-momentum region of the transpiration-cooled boundary layer created a highly distorted flowfield and resulted in a significant reduction in the cooling effectiveness of the transpiration-cooled surface. As a part of this program, we also sought to determine the effectiveness of transpiration cooling with nitrogen and helium injectants for a wide range of blowing rates under constant-pressure conditions in the absence of shock interaction. This experimental program was conducted in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel at nominal Mach numbers of 6 and 8, for a Reynolds number of 7.5 x 10(exp 6). For these test conditions, we obtained fully turbulent boundary layers upstream of the interaction regions over the transpiration-cooled segment of the flat plate. The experimental program was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, we examined the effects of mass-addition level and coolant properties on the cooling effectiveness of transpiration-cooled surfaces in the absence of shock interaction. In the second phase of the program, we examined the effects of oblique shock impingement on the flowfield and surface characteristics of a transpiration-cooled surface. The studies were conducted for a range of shock strengths with nitrogen and helium coolants to examine how the distribution of heat transfer and pressure and the characteristics of the flowfield in the interaction region varied with shock strength and the level of mass addition from the transpiration-cooled section of the model. The effects of the distribution of the blowing rate along the interaction regions were also examined for a range of blowing rates through the transpiration-cooled panels. The regions of shockwave/boundary layer interaction examined in these studies were induced by oblique shocks generated with a sharp, flat plate, inclined to the freestream at angles of 5 degrees, 7.5 degrees, and 10 degrees. It was found that, in the absence of an incident shock, transpiration cooling was a very effective method for reducing both the heat transfer and the skin friction loads on the surface. The helium coolant was found to be significantly more effective than nitrogen, because of its low molecular weight and high specific heat. The studies of shock-wave/transpiration-cooled surface interaction demonstrated that the interaction region between the incident shock and the low-momentum transpiration-cooled boundary layer did not result in a significant increase in the size of attached or separated interaction regions, and did not result in significant flowfield distortions above the interaction region. The increase in heating downstream of the shock-impingement point could easily be reduced to the values without shock impingement by a relatively small increase in the transpiration cooling in this region. Surprisingly, this increase in cooling rate did not result in a significant increase in size of the region ahead of the incident shock or create a significantly enlarged interaction region with a resultant increase in the distortion level in the inviscid flow. Thus, transpiration cooling appears to be a very effective technique to cool the internal surfaces of scramjet engines, where shocks in the engine would induce large local increases in wall heating and create viscous/inviscid interactions that could significantly disturb the smooth flow through the combustor. However, if hydrogen is used as the coolant, burning upstream of shock impingement might result in localized hot spots. Clearly, further research is needed in this area.

Holden, Michael S.

1994-01-01

137

Application of crop gas exchange and transpiration data obtained with CEEF to global change problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to predict carbon sequestration of vegetation with the future rise in atmospheric CO 2 concentration, [CO 2] and temperature, long term effects of high [CO 2] and high temperature on responses of both photosynthesis and transpiration of plants as a whole community to environmental parameters need to be elucidated. Especially in the last decade, many studies on photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO 2] at gene, cell, tissue or leaf level for only vegetative growth phase ( i.e. before formation of reproductive organs) have been conducted all over the world. However, CO 2 acclimation studies at population or community level for a whole growing season are thus far very rare. Data obtained from repeatable experiments at population or community level for a whole growing season are necessary for modeling carbon sequestration of a plant community. On the other hand, in order to stabilize material circulation in the artificial ecological system of Closed Ecology Experiment Facilities (CEEF), it is necessary to predict material exchange rates in the biological systems. In particular, the material exchange rate in higher plant systems is highly variable during growth periods and there is a strong dependence on environmental conditions. For this reason, dependencies of both CO 2 exchange rate and transpiration rate of three rice populations grown from seed under differing conditions of [CO 2] and day/night air temperature (350 ?L CO 2 L -1, 24/17°C (population A); 700 ?L CO 2 L -1, 24/17°C (population B) and 700 ?L CO 2 L -1, 26/19°C (population C)) upon PPFD, leaf temperature and [CO 2] were investigated every two weeks during whole growing season. Growth of leaf lamina, leaf sheath, panicle and root was also compared. From this experiment, it was elucidated that acclimation of instantaneous photosynthetic response of rice population to [CO 2] occurs in vegetative phase through changes in ratio of leaf area to whole plant dry weight, LAR. But, in reproductive growth phase ( i.e. after initiation of panicle formation), the difference between photosynthetic response to [CO 2] of population A and that of population B decreased. Although LAR of population C was almost always less than that of population A, there was no difference between the photosynthetic response to [CO 2] of population A at 24°C and that of population C at 26°C for its whole growth period. These results are useful to make a model to predict carbon sequestration of rice community, which is an important type of vegetation especially in Asia in future global environmental change.

Tako, Y.; Arai, R.; Otsubo, K.; Nitta, K.

138

Nutrient and water addition effects on day- and night-time conductance and transpiration in a C 3 desert annual  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that many C3 plant species have significant stomatal opening and transpire water at night even in desert habitats. Day-time stomatal regulation is expected to maximize carbon gain and prevent runaway cavitation, but little is known about the effect of soil resource availability on night-time stomatal conductance (g) and transpiration (E). Water (low and high) and nutrients

Fulco Ludwig; Rebecca A. Jewitt; Lisa A Donovan

2006-01-01

139

Responses of canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach (Prunus persica) trees to alternate partial root zone drip irrigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated canopy transpiration and canopy conductance of peach trees under three irrigation patterns: fixed 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (FPRDI), alternate 1/2 partial root zone drip irrigation (APRDI) and full root zone drip irrigation (FDI). Canopy transpiration was measured using heat pulse sensors, and canopy conductance was calculated using the Jarvis model and the inversion of the Penman-Monteith equation. Results showed that the transpiration rate and canopy conductance in FPRDI and APRDI were smaller than those in FDI. More significantly, the total irrigation amount was greatly reduced, by 34.7% and 39.6%, respectively for APRDI and FPRDI in the PRDI (partial root zone drip irrigation) treatment period. The daily transpiration was linearly related to the reference evapotranspiration in the three treatments, but daily transpiration of FDI is more than that of APRDI and FPRDI under the same evaporation demand, suggesting a restriction of transpiration water loss in the APRDI and FPRDI trees. FDI needed a higher soil water content to carry the same amount of transpiration as the APRDI and FPRDI trees, suggesting the hydraulic conductance of roots of APRDI and FPRDI trees was enhanced, and the roots had a greater water uptake than in FDI when the average soil water content in the root zone was the same. By a comparison between the transpiration rates predicted by the Penman-Monteith equation and the measured canopy transpiration rates for 60 days during the experimental period, an excellent correlation along the 1:1 line was found for all the treatments (R2 > 0.80), proving the reliability of the methodology.

Gong, Daozhi; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua

2005-08-01

140

Diagnosis system to improve heat rate in fossil power plants  

SciTech Connect

Today fossil fuel power plants is showing a trend toward full automation. This increases the difficulty for human operators to follow in detail the progress of power plants, and also limit the contribution of human operators to diagnostic task. Therefore, automated and intelligent fault diagnostic systems have been intensively investigated. Despite several successful examples of diagnostic systems, often called expert systems, the development task of a diagnostic system still remains empiric and is unique for each system. This paper discusses the design of a Diagnostic System to improve Heat Rate for fossil fuel power plant. The approach is characterized as an fault tree diagnostic system. The prototype of this system has showed the benefits and the feasibility of using this system to diagnose equipment in power plants.

Arroyo-Figueroa, G.; Villavicencio R., A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

1996-05-01

141

Transpiration Driven Hydrologic Transport in vegetated shallow water environments: Implications on Diel and Seasonal Soil Biogeochemical Processes and System Management  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hydrology arguably plays the most important role in biogeochemical cycling of mercury in wetlands and other shallow aquatic systems. CFSTR, PFR and non-ideal reactor models are oftentimes currently used to hydrologically assess these systems and to account for the fate, transport and cycling of constituents of concern (COC) with systems assumed to be non-leaky and with diffusion dominating soil transport. Yet a number of results in the literature imply transpiration drives soil transport: transpiration into the root zone is in the range of 50 - 75% of ET seasonally; gaseous emissions from aquatic systems show a diel pattern that tracks diel ET patterns; in long detention time aquatic systems ET is the largest sink for applied surface waters; and non-reactive tracers when applied to surface waters can find themselves in the root zone and within plants. All these findings strongly suggest transpiration driven infiltration into the root zone, is a significant hydrologic pathway for constituents and is an important transport mechanism. This paper examines the annual water budget for four shallow aquatic land uses in the Yolo Bypass, California: rice, wild rice, fallowed fields and wetlands. Results indicate that differences in hydrology between the fields, particularly the temporal nature of transpiration, play a significant role in mercury transformations and transport. During the irrigation period, fallowed fields discharged 6 cm of surface water (15% applied water), rice fields 31 - 43 cm (27 - 31% applied water), and wild rice fields 16 - 39 cm (15 - 31% applied water). Evapotranspiration rates were in the range of 120 - 130 cm/y for all land uses (i.e. rice, wild rice, fallowed fields and seasonal wetlands) except for the permanent wetland which was about 1/3 higher at about 170 cm/y. During the summer, approximately 50% of the applied surface water was drawn into the root zone to meet transpiration demands. Based upon results from our water budget and utilizing modified Peclet No. calculations, we quantified the relative importance of upward diffusion from the sediments and downward advection from transpiration as hydrologic transport mechanisms in the root zone. Transpiration driven infiltration moves water past the diffusive zone within 1 - 2 days in this system during the summer months. With the waning seasons, evapotranspiration diminishes until by winter diffusion dominates throughout the entire root zone. This model has great implications on the analyses of soil biogeochemical process in the root zone of shallow aquatic systems. Downward advection is a major transport mechanism into the root zone of shallow flooded aquatic systems and provides an important physical mechanism that drives variability in the seasonal and diel storage; release and cycling of COCs; and the creation of both a physical and chemical barrierd to upward diffusion of soil-borne COCs into the water column. Models that do not account for root zone interactions may not be able to capture diel and seasonal differences. Moreover, these interactions may lead to unanticipated environmental consequences as a result of cultural practices.

Bachand, P.; Bachand, S. M.; Fleck, J.; Anderson, F.

2011-12-01

142

MODELING DROUGHT IMPACT ON H. BRASILIENSIS TRANSPIRATION, GROWTH AND LATEX PRODUCTION OF A  

E-print Network

1 MODELING DROUGHT IMPACT ON H. BRASILIENSIS 2 TRANSPIRATION, GROWTH AND LATEX PRODUCTION OF A HEVEA BRASILIENSIS STAND FACING DROUGHT IN4 NORTHEAST THAILAND: THE USE OF THE WANULCAS MODEL for natural rubber, Hevea brasiliensis is16 increasingly planted in drought prone areas

Boyer, Edmond

143

Ash, Carbon Isotope Discrimination, and Silicon as Estimators of Transpiration Efficiency in Crested Wheatgrass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breeding and selection for higher transpiration efficiency (W) has been hampered by tedious and costly methodology. Rapid and less costly methods are needed for screening W in plant improvement programmes. We report the relationship of ash, silicon (Si) concentration, and Si uptake to W in crested wheatgrass (Agropyron desertorum (Fischer ex Link) Schultes), an important C3 range grass in western

H. F. Mayland; D. A. Johnson; K. H. Asay; A USDA-ARS; B USDA-ARS

144

Energy conversion using thermal transpiration : optimization of a Knudsen compressor  

E-print Network

Knudsen compressors are devices without any moving parts that use the nanoscale phenomenon of thermal transpiration to pump or compress a gas. Thermal transpiration takes place when a gas is in contact with a solid boundary ...

Klein, Toby A. (Toby Anna)

2012-01-01

145

Predicting the decline in daily maximum transpiration rate of two pine stands during drought based on constant minimum leaf water potential and plant hydraulic conductance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The effect of drought on forest water use is often estimated with models, but comprehensive models require many parameters, and simple models may not be sufficiently flexible. Many tree species, Pinus species in particular, have been shown to maintain a constant minimum leaf water poten- tial above the critical threshold for xylem embolism during drought. In such cases, prediction

R. A. DUURSMA; P. KOLARI; M. PERÄMÄKI; E. NIKINMAA; P. HARI; S. DELZON; D. LOUSTAU; H. ILVESNIEMI; J. PUMPANEN; A. MÄKELÄ

146

Structural adjustments in resprouting trees drive differences in post-fire transpiration.  

PubMed

Following disturbance many woody species are capable of resprouting new foliage, resulting in a reduced leaf-to-sapwood area ratio and altered canopy structure. We hypothesized that such changes would promote adjustments in leaf physiology, resulting in higher rates of transpiration per unit leaf area, consistent with the mechanistic framework proposed by Whitehead et al. (Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692-700). We tested this in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér following a wildfire by comparing trees with unburnt canopies with trees that had been subject to 100% canopy scorch and were recovering their leaf area via resprouting. In resprouting trees, foliage was distributed along the trunk and on lateral branches, resulting in shorter hydraulic path lengths. We evaluated measurements of whole-tree transpiration and structural and physiological traits expected to drive any changes in transpiration. We used these structural and physiological measurements to parameterize the Whitehead et al. equation, and found that the expected ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area between resprouting and unburnt trees was 3.41. This is similar to the observed ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area, measured from sapflow observations, which was 2.89 (i.e., resprouting trees had 188% higher transpiration per unit leaf area). Foliage at low heights (<2 m) was found to be significantly different to foliage in the tree crown (14-18 m) in a number of traits, including higher specific leaf area, midday leaf water potential and higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. We conclude that these post-fire adjustments in resprouting trees help to drive increased stomatal conductance and hydraulic efficiency, promoting the rapid return of tree-scale transpiration towards pre-disturbance levels. These transient patterns in canopy transpiration have important implications for modelling stand-level water fluxes in forests capable of resprouting, which is frequently done on the basis of the leaf area index. PMID:24536069

Nolan, Rachael H; Mitchell, Patrick J; Bradstock, Ross A; Lane, Patrick N J

2014-02-01

147

Make Your Own Transpiring Tree  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper we present a simple set-up that illustrates the mechanism of sap ascent in plants and demonstrates that it can easily draw water up to heights of a few meters. The set-up consists of a tube with the lower end submerged in water and the upper one connected to a filter supported by a standard filter-holder. The evaporation of water…

Martinez Vilalta, Jordi; Sauret, Miquel; Duro, Alicia; Pinol, Josep

2003-01-01

148

Influence of leaf size, orientation, and arrangement on temperature and transpiration in three high-elevation, large-leafed herbs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temperature and water relations of the largleafed, high-elevation species Frasera speciosa, Balsamorhiza sagittata, and Rumex densiflorus were evaluated in the Medicine Bow Mountains of southeast Wyoming (USA) to determine the influence of leaf size, orientation, and arrangement on transpiration. These species characteristically have low minimum stomatal resistances (-1) and high maximum transpiration rates (>260 mg m-2s-1 for F. speciosa).

G. N. Geller; W. K. Smith

1982-01-01

149

Do root hydraulic properties change during the early vegetative stage of plant development in barley (Hordeum vulgare)?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims As annual crops develop, transpirational water loss increases substantially. This increase has to be matched by an increase in water uptake through the root system. The aim of this study was to assess the contributions of changes in intrinsic root hydraulic conductivity (Lp, water uptake per unit root surface area, driving force and time), driving force and root surface area to developmental increases in root water uptake. Methods Hydroponically grown barley plants were analysed during four windows of their vegetative stage of development, when they were 9–13, 14–18, 19–23 and 24–28 d old. Hydraulic conductivity was determined for individual roots (Lp) and for entire root systems (Lpr). Osmotic Lp of individual seminal and adventitious roots and osmotic Lpr of the root system were determined in exudation experiments. Hydrostatic Lp of individual roots was determined by root pressure probe analyses, and hydrostatic Lpr of the root system was derived from analyses of transpiring plants. Key Results Although osmotic and hydrostatic Lp and Lpr values increased initially during development and were correlated positively with plant transpiration rate, their overall developmental increases (about 2-fold) were small compared with increases in transpirational water loss and root surface area (about 10- to 40-fold). The water potential gradient driving water uptake in transpiring plants more than doubled during development, and potentially contributed to the increases in plant water flow. Osmotic Lpr of entire root systems and hydrostatic Lpr of transpiring plants were similar, suggesting that the main radial transport path in roots was the cell-to-cell path at all developmental stages. Conclusions Increase in the surface area of root system, and not changes in intrinsic root hydraulic properties, is the main means through which barley plants grown hydroponically sustain an increase in transpirational water loss during their vegetative development. PMID:24287810

Suku, Shimi; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

2014-01-01

150

Transpired Air Collectors - Ventilation Preheating  

SciTech Connect

Many commercial and industrial buildings have high ventilation rates. Although all that fresh air is great for indoor air quality, heating it can be very expensive. This short (2-page) fact sheet describes a technology available to use solar energy to preheat ventilation air and dramatically reduce utility bills.

Christensen, C.

2006-06-22

151

Transpiration dynamics of an Austrian Pine stand and its forest floor: identifying controlling conditions using artificial  

E-print Network

heat fluxes to global radiation, air temperature and soil water content. Most significantly, results in governing the transpiration rates of an Austrian Pine stand and its forest floor. Latent heat flux densities using the global radiation reaching the forest floor and the topsoil water content (0­50 cm

Vrugt, Jasper A.

152

Plant responses to atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment: interactions with some soil and atmospheric conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

In general, C3 plant species are more responsive to atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment than C4-plants. Increased relative growth rate at elevated CO2 primarily relates to increased Net Assimilation Rate (NAR), and enhancement of net photosynthesis and reduced photorespiration. Transpiration and stomatal conductance decrease with elevated CO2, water use efficiency and shoot water potential increase, particularly in plants grown at

J. Rozema; H. Lambers

1993-01-01

153

Stem Extension Rate in Light-Grown Plants 1  

PubMed Central

Low temperature pulses have two effects on the circadian rhythm exhibited by stem extension rate of green Chenopodium rubrum plants. First, low temperature pulses have the same effect on the phasing of the rhythm as a dark period interrupting continuous light. Second, low temperature pulses stimulate stem extension rate during the 10 hours immediately following the end of the pulse. A difference in temperature between soil and air increases this effect. In any case, it is the change in temperature which is essential and not a specific temperature. Effects of light and temperature on phasing and amplitude of the rhythm explain why the maximal stem growth is observed under normal photo-thermoperiodic conditions, i.e. a high temperature during the photoperiod and a low temperature during the dark period. PMID:16664462

Lecharny, Alain; Schwall, Michael; Wagner, Edgar

1985-01-01

154

Leaflet photosynthesis rate and carbon metabolite accumulation patterns in nitrogen-limited, vegetative soybean plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prolonged inorganic nitrogen (NO3-+NH4+) limitation of non-N2-fixing soybean plants affected leaflet photosynthesis rates, photosynthate accumulation rates and levels, and anaplerotic carbon metabolite levels. Leaflets of nitrogen-limited (N-Lim), 27–31-day-old plants displayed ˜ 15 to 23% lower photosynthesis rates than leaflets of nitrogen-sufficient (N-Suff) plants. In contrast, N-Lim plant leaflets displayed higher sucrose and starch levels and rates of accumulation, as well

J. Michael Robinson

1996-01-01

155

Urban tree transpiration over turf and asphalt surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used a two-layer canopy model to study transpiration of tree species as affected by energy-balance properties of a vegetated and paved surface. During several dawn-to-dusk studies, tree transpiration, stomatal conductance, leaf temperature (Tl), and several microclimate variables, were measured over turf and an asphalt surface. Cumulative transpiration was estimated from a leaf energy-balance equation applied to a tree crown

Roger Kjelgren; Thayne Montague

1998-01-01

156

Night-time transpiration can decrease hydraulic redistribution.  

PubMed

C(3) plants dominate many landscapes and are critically important for ecosystem water cycling. At night, plant water losses can include transpiration (E(night)) from the canopy and hydraulic redistribution (HR) from roots. We tested whether E(night) limits the magnitude of HR in a greenhouse study using Artemisia tridentata, Helianthus anomalus and Quercus laevis. Plants were grown with their roots split between two compartments. HR was initiated by briefly withholding all water, followed by watering only one rooting compartment. Under study conditions, all species showed substantial E(night) and HR (highest minus lowest soil water potential [Psi(s)] during a specified diel period). Suppressing E(night) by canopy bagging increased HR during the nightly bagging period (HR(N)) for A. tridentata and H. anomalus by 73 and 33% respectively, but did not affect HR(N) by Q. laevis. Total daily HR (HR(T)) was positively correlated with the Psi(s) gradient between the rooting compartments, which was correlated with light and/or atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPDa) the prior day. For A. tridentata, HR(T) was negatively correlated with night-time VPDa. Ecological implications of the impact of E(night) on HR may include decreased plant productivity during dry seasons, altered ecosystem water flux patterns and reduced nutrient cycling in drying soils. PMID:19422615

Howard, Ava R; van Iersel, Marc W; Richards, James H; Donovan, Lisa A

2009-08-01

157

Thermal transpiration: A molecular dynamics study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal transpiration is a phenomenon where fluid molecules move from the cold end towards the hot end of a channel under the influence of longitudinal temperature gradient alone. Although the phenomenon of thermal transpiration is observed at rarefied gas conditions in macro systems, the phenomenon can occur at atmospheric pressure if the characteristic dimensions of the channel is less than 100 nm. The flow through these nanosized channels is characterized by the free molecular flow regimes and continuum theory is inadequate to describe the flow. Thus a non-continuum method like molecular dynamics (MD) is necessary to study such phenomenon. In the present work, MD simulations were carried out to investigate the occurance of thermal transpiration in copper and platinum nanochannels at atmospheric pressure conditions. The mean pressure of argon gas confined inside the nano channels was maintained around 1 bar. The channel height is maintained at 2nm. The argon atoms interact with each other and with the wall atoms through the Lennard-Jones potential. The wall atoms are modelled using an EAM potential. Further, separate simulations were carried out where a Harmonic potential is used for the atom-atom interaction in the platinum channel. A thermally insulating wall was introduced between the low and high temperature regions and those wall atoms interact with fluid atoms through a repulsive potential. A reduced cut off radius were used to achieve this. Thermal creep is induced by applying a temperature gradient along the channel wall. It was found that flow developed in the direction of the increasing temperature gradient of the wall. An increase in the volumetric flux was observed as the length of the cold and the hot regions of the wall were increased. The effect of temperature gradient and the wall-fluid interaction strength on the flow parameters have been studied to understand the phenomenon better.

T, Joe Francis; Sathian, Sarith P.

2014-12-01

158

Heat exchanger with transpired, highly porous fins  

DOEpatents

The heat exchanger includes a fin and tube assembly with increased heat transfer surface area positioned within a hollow chamber of a housing to provide effective heat transfer between a gas flowing within the hollow chamber and a fluid flowing in the fin and tube assembly. A fan is included to force a gas, such as air, to flow through the hollow chamber and through the fin and tube assembly. The fin and tube assembly comprises fluid conduits to direct the fluid through the heat exchanger, to prevent mixing with the gas, and to provide a heat transfer surface or pathway between the fluid and the gas. A heat transfer element is provided in the fin and tube assembly to provide extended heat transfer surfaces for the fluid conduits. The heat transfer element is corrugated to form fins between alternating ridges and grooves that define flow channels for directing the gas flow. The fins are fabricated from a thin, heat conductive material containing numerous orifices or pores for transpiring the gas out of the flow channel. The grooves are closed or only partially open so that all or substantially all of the gas is transpired through the fins so that heat is exchanged on the front and back surfaces of the fins and also within the interior of the orifices, thereby significantly increasing the available the heat transfer surface of the heat exchanger. The transpired fins also increase heat transfer effectiveness of the heat exchanger by increasing the heat transfer coefficient by disrupting boundary layer development on the fins and by establishing other beneficial gas flow patterns, all at desirable pressure drops.

Kutscher, Charles F. (Golden, CO); Gawlik, Keith (Boulder, CO)

2002-01-01

159

Simultaneous viscous-inviscid coupling via transpiration  

SciTech Connect

In viscous-inviscid coupling analysis, the direct coupling technique and the inverse coupling technique are commonly adopted. However, stability and convergence of the algorithms derived are usually very unsatisfactory. Here, by using the transpiration technique to simulate the effect of the displacement thickness, a new simultaneous coupling method is derived. The integral boundary layer equations and the full potential equation are chosen to be the viscous-inviscid coupled system. After discretization, the Newton-Raphson technique is proposed to solve the coupled nonlinear system. Several numerical results are used to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method. 15 refs., 23 figs.

Yiu, K.F.C.; Giles, M.B. [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)] [Oxford Univ. Computing Lab. (United Kingdom)

1995-09-01

160

On the representativeness of plot size and location for scaling transpiration from trees to a stand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scaling transpiration from trees to larger areas is a fundamental problem in ecohydrology. For scaling stand transpiration from sap flux sensors we asked if plot representativeness depended on plot size and location, the magnitude of environmental drivers, parameter needs for ecosystem models, and whether the goal was to estimate transpiration per unit ground area (EC), per unit leaf area (EL), or canopy stomatal conductance (GS). Sap flux data were collected in 108 trees with heat dissipation probes, and biometric properties were measured for 752 trees within a 1.44 ha Populus tremuloides stand along an upland-to-wetland gradient. EC was estimated for the stand using eight different plot sizes spanning a radius of 2.0-12.0 m. Each estimate of EC was derived from 200 plots placed randomly throughout the stand. We also derived leaf area index (L), canopy closure (PCC), and the canopy average reference stomatal conductance (GSref), which are key parameters used in modeling transpiration and evapotranspiration. With increasing plot size, EC declined monotonically but EL and GSref were largely invariant. Interplot variance of EC also declined with increasing plot size, at a rate that was independent of vapor pressure deficit. Plot representativeness was dependent on location within the stand. Scaling to the stand required three plots spanning the upland to wetland, with one to at most 10 trees instrumented for sap flux. Plots that were chosen to accurately reflect the spatial covariation of L, PCC, and GSref were most representative of the stand.

Mackay, D. Scott; Ewers, Brent E.; Loranty, Michael M.; Kruger, Eric L.

2010-06-01

161

Seasonal and interannual variability of canopy transpiration of a hedgerow in southern England.  

PubMed

Transpiration from a hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna L.) dominated hedgerow in southern England was measured continuously over two growing seasons by the sap flow technique. Accompanying measurements of structural parameters, microclimate and leaf stomatal and boundary layer conductances were used to establish the driving factors of hedgerow transpiration. Observed transpiration rates, reaching peak values of around 8 mm day(-1) and a seasonal mean of about 3.5 mm day(-1), were higher than those reported for most other temperate deciduous woodlands, except short-rotation coppice and wet woodlands. The high rates were caused by the structural and physiological characteristics of hawthorn leaves, which exhibited much higher stomatal and boundary-layer conductances than those of the second-most abundant woody species in the hedgerow, field maple (Acer campestre L.). Only in the hot summer of 2003 did stomatal conductance, and thus transpiration, decrease substantially. The hedgerow canopy was always closely coupled to the atmosphere. Hedgerow transpiration equaled potential evaporation (calculated by the Priestley-Taylor formula) in 2003 and exceeded it in 2004, which meant that a substantial fraction of the energy (21% in 2003 and more than 37% in 2004) came from advection. Hedgerow canopy conductance (g(c)), as inferred from the sap flow data by inverting the Penman-Monteith equation, responded to solar radiation (R(G)) and vapor pressure deficit (D). Although the response to R(G) showed no systematic temporal variation, the response to D, described as g(c)(D) = g(cref) - mln(D), changed seasonally. The reference g(c) depended on leaf area index and the ratio of -m/g(cref) on long-term mean daytime D. A model is proposed based on these observations that predicts canopy conductance for the hawthorn hedge from standard weather data. PMID:17241974

Herbst, Mathias; Roberts, John M; Rosier, Paul T W; Gowing, David J

2007-03-01

162

Planting Thoughts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students gain an understanding of the parts of a plant, plant types and how they produce their own food from sunlight through photosynthesis. They also learn about transpiration, the process by which plants release moisture to the atmosphere. With this understanding, students test the effects of photosynthesis and transpiration by growing a plant from seed. They learn how plants play an important part in maintaining a balanced environment in which the living organisms of the Earth survive. This lesson is part of a series of six lessons in which students use their evolving understanding of various environments and the engineering design process, to design and create their own model biodome ecosystems.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

163

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation test reactor design report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sandia National Laboratories is working with GenCorp, Aerojet and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation to develop a transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor. The transpiring wall reactor promises to mitigate problems of salt deposition and corrosion by forming a protective boundary layer of pure supercritical water. A laboratory scale test reactor has been assembled to demonstrate the concept. A 1\\/4 scale

B. L. Haroldsen; D. Y. Ariizumi; B. E. Mills; B. G. Brown; D. C. Rousar

1996-01-01

164

Permeate Recovery Rate Optimization at the Alicante Spain SWRO Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeate recovery rate in a reverse osmosis (RO) process is generally defined as the permeate flow rate divided by the membrane feed flow rate. An alternative definition is the permeate flow rate divided by the process feed flow rate. Historically, the process and membrane feed flow rates have been equal. A high recovery rate means a high process yield.

Richard Stover; Antonio Ordonez Fernandez; Joan Galtes

2009-01-01

165

EFFECTS OF ELEVATED ATMOSPHERIC CO{sub 2} ON CANOPY TRANSPIRATION IN SENESCENT SPRING WHEAT  

SciTech Connect

The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s} the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to 20% and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by 10%. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about 5%.

GROSSMAN,S.; KIMBALL,B.A.; HUNSAKER,D.J.; LONG,S.P.; GARCIA,R.L.; KARTSCHALL,TH.; WALL,G.W.; PINTER,P.J,JR.; WECHSUNG,F.; LAMORTE,R.L.

1998-12-31

166

ESTIMATES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENE EMISSION RATES IN PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

A range of plant species, including crops, shrubs, herbs, and trees, was surveyed to determine the magnitude of isoprene emissions. In studies to determine if plants emitted isoprene, greenhouse-grown plants were encapsulated in impermeable plastic bags and kept in a growth chamb...

167

Transpiration and Root Development of Urban Trees in Structural Soil Stormwater Reservoirs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stormwater management that relies on ecosystem processes, such as tree canopy interception and rhizosphere biology, can be difficult to achieve in built environments because urban land is costly and urban soil inhospitable to vegetation. Yet such systems offer a potentially valuable tool for achieving both sustainable urban forests and stormwater management. We evaluated tree water uptake and root distribution in a novel stormwater mitigation facility that integrates trees directly into detention reservoirs under pavement. The system relies on structural soils: highly porous engineered mixes designed to support tree root growth and pavement. To evaluate tree performance under the peculiar conditions of such a stormwater detention reservoir (i.e., periodically inundated), we grew green ash ( Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and swamp white oak ( Quercus bicolor Willd.) in either CUSoil or a Carolina Stalite-based mix subjected to three simulated below-system infiltration rates for two growing seasons. Infiltration rate affected both transpiration and rooting depth. In a factorial experiment with ash, rooting depth always increased with infiltration rate for Stalite, but this relation was less consistent for CUSoil. Slow-drainage rates reduced transpiration and restricted rooting depth for both species and soils, and trunk growth was restricted for oak, which grew the most in moderate infiltration. Transpiration rates under slow infiltration were 55% (oak) and 70% (ash) of the most rapidly transpiring treatment (moderate for oak and rapid for ash). We conclude this system is feasible and provides another tool to address runoff that integrates the function of urban green spaces with other urban needs.

Bartens, Julia; Day, Susan D.; Harris, J. Roger; Wynn, Theresa M.; Dove, Joseph E.

2009-10-01

168

Transpiration and root development of urban trees in structural soil stormwater reservoirs.  

PubMed

Stormwater management that relies on ecosystem processes, such as tree canopy interception and rhizosphere biology, can be difficult to achieve in built environments because urban land is costly and urban soil inhospitable to vegetation. Yet such systems offer a potentially valuable tool for achieving both sustainable urban forests and stormwater management. We evaluated tree water uptake and root distribution in a novel stormwater mitigation facility that integrates trees directly into detention reservoirs under pavement. The system relies on structural soils: highly porous engineered mixes designed to support tree root growth and pavement. To evaluate tree performance under the peculiar conditions of such a stormwater detention reservoir (i.e., periodically inundated), we grew green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh.) and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor Willd.) in either CUSoil or a Carolina Stalite-based mix subjected to three simulated below-system infiltration rates for two growing seasons. Infiltration rate affected both transpiration and rooting depth. In a factorial experiment with ash, rooting depth always increased with infiltration rate for Stalite, but this relation was less consistent for CUSoil. Slow-drainage rates reduced transpiration and restricted rooting depth for both species and soils, and trunk growth was restricted for oak, which grew the most in moderate infiltration. Transpiration rates under slow infiltration were 55% (oak) and 70% (ash) of the most rapidly transpiring treatment (moderate for oak and rapid for ash). We conclude this system is feasible and provides another tool to address runoff that integrates the function of urban green spaces with other urban needs. PMID:19707704

Bartens, Julia; Day, Susan D; Harris, J Roger; Wynn, Theresa M; Dove, Joseph E

2009-10-01

169

Evaluating potential impacts of species conversion on transpiration in the Piedmont of North Carolina  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land management practices that include species conversion or vegetation manipulation can have consequences to surface water availability, groundwater recharge, streamflow generation, and water quality through altering the transpiration processes in forested watersheds. Our objective in this study is to compare stand water use or transpiration in a piedmont mixed hardwood stand (i.e., present stand) to five hypothetical single species stands (i.e., management scenarios), [Quercus spp. (oak), Acer Rubrum (red maple), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar), and Pinus Taeda (loblolly pine]. Since October 2007, six watersheds with a flume or v-notch weir installed at the watershed outlet have been monitored for baseline streamflow rates (mm d-1). In the summer of 2010, five trees from each of the above species were instrumented with sap flow sensors in the riparian upland of one watershed to develop linkages between stand stream runoff and transpiration. The sap flow or thermal heat dissipation method was used to calculate tree sap flux density for the mixed hardwood stand. Tree sapwood area and stand tree density were then used to compute stand transpiration rates, mm d-1, from June - August 2010. The parameters of the hypothetical single species stands were based on values determined from mixed hardwood stand conditions (e.g., the same stand sapwood area and stand tree density were applied to each option). The diameter at beast height of the monitored trees ranged from 10 cm to 38 cm with a water use range of 1.8 kg d-1 to 104 kg d-1. From our preliminary data, we found daily transpiration from the mixed hardwood stand (2.8 mm d-1 ± 0.06) was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than daily transpiration from the red maple (3.7 mm d-1 ± 0.14) and tulip poplar (3.5 mm d-1 ± 0.12) single species stand management option and significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the loblolly pine (2.3 mm d-1 ± 0.08), sweetgum (2.1 mm d-1 ± 0.08) and oak spp. (1.4 mm d-1 ± 0.04) option. Given that our data represent growing season conditions, these daily transpiration differences are likely a result of physical and physiological differences related to species canopy properties or root distribution and functions. Daily streamflow rates could be reduced by as much as 40% in the red maple scenario because of the increase in daily transpiration. This reduction in flow could have long-term implications and risk to water quality conditions and aquatic species habitat. We will continue to monitor transpiration rates in this mixed hardwood stand to quantify the seasonal variability in water use.

Boggs, J.; Treasure, E.; Simpson, G.; Domec, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.

2010-12-01

170

Comparison of test results for flat plate, transpired flat plate, corrugated, and transpired corrugated solar air heaters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results from tests to demonstrate technical improvements from transpiring and/or corrugating a selective black absorber plate solar air collector are reported. A literature review is presented, and the specific working components of transpired and nontranspired flat and corrugated absorbers are provided, including transpiration through slots, a microperforated plate, a corrugated plate, and a transpired, slotted, corrugated plate. Inlet and outlet temperatures were monitored, and inlet air was controlled, with trials covering temperatures of 38, 60, 82, and 104 C to test the effect of maintaining the fluid temperature close to the collector temperature. No differences were observed in running the collectors with corrugations vertically instead of horizontally, and the collector with transpiration through slots was found to display the lowest pressure drop.

Rhee, S. J.; Edwards, D. K.

1981-11-01

171

Transpiration affects soil CO2 production in a dry grassland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although soil CO2 efflux can be highly variable on the diel time scale, it is often measured during daytime only. However, to get a full understanding of soil CO2 efflux and its impact on carbon cycle processes, looking at diurnal processes is crucial. Therefore, our aim was to investigate how diel variation in soil CO2 efflux from a dry, sandy grassland in Hungary depends on variations in potential drivers, such as gross primary production (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). In order to reach this goal, we combined measurements of CO2 and H2O fluxes by eddy covariance, soil chambers and soil CO2 gradient system. Surface CO2 fluxes were partitioned into the three CO2 production components originating from the three soil layers to clarify the timing and the source of the CO2 within the top 50 cm of the soil. CO2 production rates during the growing season were higher during nighttime than during daytime. This diel course was not only driven by soil temperature and soil moisture, but also by ET. This was shown by changes of ET causing a hysteresis loop in the diel response of CO2 production to soil temperature. CO2 production was coupled to soil temperature at night and during midday (12-14 h), when ET remained relatively constant. However, when ET was changing over time, CO2 production was decoupled from soil temperature. In order to disentangle these effects, we carried out time-lag analyses between CO2 production and efflux residuals after having subtracted the main effects of soil temperature and soil water content from measured CO2 fluxes. The results showed a strong negative correlation between ET rates and residuals of soil CO2 production, and a less strong, but still significantly time-lagged positive correlation between GPP and residuals of soil CO2 production. Thus, we could show that there is a rapid negative response of soil CO2 production rates to transpiration (suggesting CO2 transport in the xylem stream) and a delayed positive response to GPP, indicating the importance of newly synthesized non-structural carbohydrates for soil respiration. We conclude that the instant effect of soil temperature and transpiration in combination with the time-lagged effect of GPP governed the diel changes in soil CO2 production at our site. If measurements are carried out at night or during daytime only, then this can lead to considerable misinterpretations of CO2 production rates. Hence we recommend that estimates of respiration rates at a specific site should include both nocturnal and daytime processes.

Balogh, János; Fóti, Szilvia; Pintér, Krisztina; Burri, Susanne; Eugster, Werner; Papp, Marianna; Nagy, Zoltán

2014-05-01

172

Reference Canopy Stomatal Conductance Explains Spatiotemporal Patterns of Tree Transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increased heterogeneity in patterns of whole tree transpiration (EC) with increasing atmospheric vapor pressure deficit (D) suggests a dynamic response of sap flow velocity (JS) to environmental drivers. We hypothesized that differences in reference stomatal conductance (GSref), stomatal conductance at D = 1kPa, would explain the spatiotemporal dynamics of JS. Using a coupled model of plant hydraulic and biochemical processes we tested this hypothesis with sap flux data for 106 aspen ( Populus tremuloides) and 108 sugar maple ( Acer saccharum) trees collected from plots using in 2-D cyclic sampling scheme during the summer of 2005 in northern Wisconsin. Inverse modeling is used to estimate GSref for each tree. For each species, trees from across the ranges of JS and diameter distributions are compared. GSref explained temporal variability in spatial patterns of EC We explore several possible mechanistic explanations for differences in GSref among trees. Topoedaphic factors are considered to determine if location within a stand has an effect. We also consider competition with neighboring individuals as a possible explanation. Variations in GSref in aspen were explained in part by competition for light between neighboring individuals, while competition for light was not a significant factor for sugar maple. Based on simulation analysis we identify possible biochemical feedbacks as drivers of the variability in plant hydraulics. Other factors examined included micro-topography within both sites.

Loranty, M. M.; Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Kruger, E. L.; Traver, E.

2007-12-01

173

Dynamic aspects of soil water availability for isohydric plants: Focus on root hydraulic resistances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

water availability for plant transpiration is a key concept in agronomy. The objective of this study is to revisit this concept and discuss how it may be affected by processes locally influencing root hydraulic properties. A physical limitation to soil water availability in terms of maximal flow rate available to plant leaves (Qavail) is defined. It is expressed for isohydric plants, in terms of plant-centered variables and properties (the equivalent soil water potential sensed by the plant, ?s eq; the root system equivalent conductance, Krs; and a threshold leaf water potential, ?leaf lim). The resulting limitation to plant transpiration is compared to commonly used empirical stress functions. Similarities suggest that the slope of empirical functions might correspond to the ratio of Krs to the plant potential transpiration rate. The sensitivity of Qavail to local changes of root hydraulic conductances in response to soil matric potential is investigated using model simulations. A decrease of radial conductances when the soil dries induces earlier water stress, but allows maintaining higher night plant water potentials and higher Qavail during the last week of a simulated 1 month drought. In opposition, an increase of radial conductances during soil drying provokes an increase of hydraulic redistribution and Qavail at short term. This study offers a first insight on the effect of dynamic local root hydraulic properties on soil water availability. By better understanding complex interactions between hydraulic processes involved in soil-plant hydrodynamics, better prospects on how root hydraulic traits mitigate plant water stress might be achieved.

Couvreur, V.; Vanderborght, J.; Draye, X.; Javaux, M.

2014-11-01

174

Transpiration from a Cryptomeria japonica plantation, part 1: aerodynamic control of transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To our knowledge, no one has examined the canopy conductance of a Cryptomeria japonica plantation, although such forests are very common in Japan. We plan to examine the canopy conductance of a Cryptomeria japonica plantation (canopy height 8 m) based on 1-year sap-flow data using the simplified Penman-Monteith equation. This study examines the effect of the aerodynamic control of transpiration before calculating canopy conductance using the simplified Penman-Monteith equation, because the equation assumes that the effect of aerodynamic control is negligible. To examine the effect of aerodynamic control, we examined the dependency of the relationship between the vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and transpiration on wind speed, when solar radiation, air temperature, and soil water content do not limit transpiration greatly. The relationship between VPD and the heat pulse velocity measured 11 m above the ground was dependent on wind speed only when the wind speed was <0.7 m s-1. This suggests that the effect of aerodynamic control was negligible when the wind speed was 0.7 m s-1, but that the effect was not negligible when the wind speed was <0.7 m s-1. Therefore, we should use data from when the wind speed was 0.7 m s-1 for calculating canopy conductance Gc, based on the simplified Penman-Monteith equation. Although this criterion is site specific, the methods used to develop it are applicable to other sites.

Komatsu, Hikaru; Kang, Yihuei; Kume, Tomonori; Yoshifuji, Natsuko; Hotta, Norifumi

2006-04-01

175

A dynamical system perspective on plant hydraulic failure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

is governed by leaf water status that depends on the difference between the rates of transpiration and water supply from the soil and through the plant xylem. When transpiration increases compared to water supply, the leaf water potential reaches a more negative equilibrium, leading to water stress. Both high atmospheric vapor pressure deficit and low soil moisture increase the water demand while decreasing the supply due to lowered soil-to-root conductance and xylem cavitation. Therefore, dry conditions may eventually reduce the leaf water potential to the point of collapsing the plant hydraulic system. This "hydraulic failure" is shown to correspond to a fold bifurcation where the environmental parameters (vapor pressure deficit and soil moisture) trigger the loss of a physiologically sustainable equilibrium. Using a minimal plant hydraulic model, coordination among plant hydraulic traits is shown to result in increased resilience to environmental stresses, thereby impeding hydraulic failure unless hydraulic traits deteriorate due to prolonged water shortage or other damages.

Manzoni, Stefano; Katul, Gabriel; Porporato, Amilcare

2014-06-01

176

Rootstock does not affect net photosynthesis, dark respiration, specific leaf weight, and transpiration of apple leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

There was no effect of rootstock on the net photosynthesis Pn of 1-year-old vegetative, container-grown Delicious trees in 2 experiments. Rootstock effects on specific leaf weight (SLW) were slight in one experiment, and absent in another. There was no influence of rootstock on shoot growth, leaf number, transpiration rate (Tr) or dark respiration (Rd), each of which was determined in

J. A. Barden; D. C. Ferree

1979-01-01

177

Effects of flooding and drought on stomatal activity, transpiration, photosynthesis, water potential and water channel activity in strawberry stolons and leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transpiration, xylem water potential and water channel activity were studied in developing stolons and leaves of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) subjected to drought or flooding, together with morphological studies of their stomata and other surface structures. Stolons had 0.12 stomata mm-2 and a transpiration rate of 0.6 mmol H2O m-2 s-1, while the leaves had 300 stomata mm-2 and

Michael M. Blanke; David T. Cooke

2004-01-01

178

Isotopic steady state of transpired water in wheat leaves grown under different watering regimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable oxygen isotopes have been used to answer a range of ecological, hydrological, and climate questions. One important application is to use oxygen isotopes to partition ecosystem evapotranspiration (ET), since the two components, transpiration and evaporation have distinctly different isotopic compositions (?18O). However, in order to partition ET using isotopes, accurate measurements or modeling of evaporation and transpiration, are needed. Many studies use the Craig-Gordon Model to model the isotopic composition of transpired water (?18OT), which assume plants are transpiring at isotopic steady state (ISS), such that the isotopic composition of transpired water (?18OT) is equal to the ?18O of stem water. However, many studies are questioning the assumption that plants are transpiring at ISS, especially across diurnal time scales. A significant motivation for assuming ISS is the difficulty of collecting transpired water for isotopic analysis. However, with the introduction of laser based spectroscopy methods for isotope analysis, we can now measure ?18O of water vapor at high frequency. Furthermore, these laser based instruments can also be coupled with gas exchange systems to not only measure the isotopic composition of ?18OT, but also to examine the physiological and environmental variables that influence the isotope values, and directly test process-based models. In our study, our first objective was to assess how quickly plants reached isotopic constancy (IC) under a range of environmental conditions. We used two different wheat cultivars that had different stomatal conductance (gs) and subjected them to two different watering treatments to extend the range of gs. Our second objective was to compare ?18OT at IC with ?18O of irrigation water to understand the difference between ISS and IC. We found a significant positive relationship between gs and time to IC (p<0.003, R2 = 0.78) and that the time ranged from 20 to 205 minutes. In order to further confirm that the leaves were at IC and that changes ?18OT values were not due to turnover of leaf water, we also calculated the leaf water turner time constant (?). We found that ? ranged from 12 minutes to 97 minutes and since ? values were less than IC values, we were confident our ?18OT values were at IC. Furthermore, our results found that even at IC, ?18OT never equaled the ?18O of irrigation water; in other words, ?18OT never reached ISS. This has implications for ecosystem scale studies that use oxygen isotopes to partition ET since in most of these studies, ?18OT was not directly measured, but ?18OT was assumed to equal ?18O of xylem water. Incorrect assumptions of ?18OT may lead to differences in the percentage of transpiration versus evaporation. New sensitivity analysis at the ecosystem scale is needed to quantify the potential errors.

Hu, J.; Simonin, K.; Barbour, M.

2013-12-01

179

A new look at water transport regulation in plants.  

PubMed

Plant function requires effective mechanisms to regulate water transport at a variety of scales. Here, we develop a new theoretical framework describing plant responses to drying soil, based on the relationship between midday and predawn leaf water potentials. The intercept of the relationship (?) characterizes the maximum transpiration rate per unit of hydraulic transport capacity, whereas the slope (?) measures the relative sensitivity of the transpiration rate and plant hydraulic conductance to declining water availability. This framework was applied to a newly compiled global database of leaf water potentials to estimate the values of ? and ? for 102 plant species. Our results show that our characterization of drought responses is largely consistent within species, and that the parameters ? and ? show meaningful associations with climate across species. Parameter ? was ?1 in most species, indicating a tight coordination between the gas and liquid phases of water transport, in which canopy transpiration tended to decline faster than hydraulic conductance during drought, thus reducing the pressure drop through the plant. The quantitative framework presented here offers a new way of characterizing water transport regulation in plants that can be used to assess their vulnerability to drought under current and future climatic conditions. PMID:24985503

Martínez-Vilalta, Jordi; Poyatos, Rafael; Aguadé, David; Retana, Javier; Mencuccini, Maurizio

2014-10-01

180

Community Level Offset of Rain Use- and Transpiration Efficiency for a Heavily Grazed Ecosystem in Inner Mongolia Grassland  

PubMed Central

Water use efficiency (WUE) is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE) is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP) is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE), and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79), a winter grazing site (WG) and a heavily grazed site (HG). Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP). RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP) at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP) for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP) was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and “real” WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems. PMID:24058632

Gao, Ying Z.; Giese, Marcus; Gao, Qiang; Brueck, Holger; Sheng, Lian X.; Yang, Hai J.

2013-01-01

181

Community level offset of rain use- and transpiration efficiency for a heavily grazed ecosystem in inner Mongolia grassland.  

PubMed

Water use efficiency (WUE) is a key indicator to assess ecosystem adaptation to water stress. Rain use efficiency (RUE) is usually used as a proxy for WUE due to lack of transpiration data. Furthermore, RUE based on aboveground primary productivity (RUEANPP) is used to evaluate whole plant water use because root production data is often missing as well. However, it is controversial as to whether RUE is a reliable parameter to elucidate transpiration efficiency (TE), and whether RUEANPP is a suitable proxy for RUE of the whole plant basis. The experiment was conducted at three differently managed sites in the Inner Mongolia steppe: a site fenced since 1979 (UG79), a winter grazing site (WG) and a heavily grazed site (HG). Site HG had consistent lowest RUEANPP and RUE based on total net primary productivity (RUENPP). RUEANPP is a relatively good proxy at sites UG79 and WG, but less reliable for site HG. Similarly, RUEANPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on aboveground net primary productivity (TEANPP) at sites UG79 and WG but not for site HG. However, if total net primary productivity is considered, RUENPP is good predictor of transpiration efficiency based on total net primary productivity (TENPP) for all sites. Although our measurements indicate decreased plant transpiration and consequentially decreasing RUE under heavy grazing, productivity was relatively compensated for with a higher TE. This offset between RUE and TE was even enhanced under water limited conditions and more evident when belowground net primary productivity (BNNP) was included. These findings suggest that BNPP should be considered when studies fucus on WUE of more intensively used grasslands. The consideration of the whole plant perspective and "real" WUE would partially revise our picture of system performance and therefore might affect the discussion on the C-sequestration and resilience potential of ecosystems. PMID:24058632

Gao, Ying Z; Giese, Marcus; Gao, Qiang; Brueck, Holger; Sheng, Lian X; Yang, Hai J

2013-01-01

182

Canopy Transpiration in a Chronosequence of Central Siberian Pine Forests  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tree transpiration was measured in 28, 67, 204 and 383 - year old uniform stands and in a multi-cohort stand (140 t0 430) of Pinus sylvestris ssp. sibirica Lebed. in Central Siberia during August of 1995.

Reiner, Z.; Ernst-Detler, S.; Christian, W.; Ernst-Eckart, S.; Waldemar, Z.

1998-01-01

183

Transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation test reactor design report  

SciTech Connect

Sandia National Laboratories is working with GenCorp, Aerojet and Foster Wheeler Development Corporation to develop a transpiring wall supercritical water oxidation reactor. The transpiring wall reactor promises to mitigate problems of salt deposition and corrosion by forming a protective boundary layer of pure supercritical water. A laboratory scale test reactor has been assembled to demonstrate the concept. A 1/4 scale transpiring wall reactor was designed and fabricated by Aerojet using their platelet technology. Sandia`s Engineering Evaluation Reactor serves as a test bed to supply, pressurize and heat the waste; collect, measure and analyze the effluent; and control operation of the system. This report describes the design, test capabilities, and operation of this versatile and unique test system with the transpiring wall reactor.

Haroldsen, B.L.; Ariizumi, D.Y.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Engineering for Transportation and Environment Dept.; Rousar, D.C. [GenCorp Aerojet, Sacramento, CA (United States)

1996-02-01

184

The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant canopies affect the canopy micrometeorology, and thereby alter canopy exchange processes. For the simulation of these exchange processes on a regional or global scale, large-scale vegetation models often assume homogeneous environmental conditions within the canopy. In this study, we address the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for fluxes of photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes to canopy level while applying the within-canopy distributions of these driving variables. The simulation model showed good agreement with eddy covariance-derived gross primary production (GPP) estimates on daily and annual timescales, and showed a reasonable agreement between transpiration and observed H2O fluxes, where discrepancies are largely attributable to a lack of forest floor evaporation in the model. Simulations in which vertical heterogeneity was artificially suppressed revealed that the vertical distribution of light is the driver of vertical heterogeneity. Despite large differences between above-canopy and within-canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration.

Schurgers, G.; Lagergren, F.; Mölder, M.; Lindroth, A.

2015-01-01

185

The importance of micrometeorological variations for photosynthesis and transpiration in a boreal coniferous forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant canopies affect the canopy micrometeorology, and thereby alter canopy exchange processes. For the simulation of these exchange processes on a regional or global scale, large-scale vegetation models often assume homogeneous environmental conditions within the canopy. In this study, we address the importance of vertical variations in light, temperature, CO2 concentration and humidity within the canopy for photosynthesis and transpiration of a boreal coniferous forest in central Sweden. A leaf-level photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model was used for aggregating these processes to canopy level while applying the within-canopy distributions of these driving variables. The simulation model showed good agreement with eddy covariance-derived gross primary production (GPP) estimates on daily and annual timescales, and showed a reasonable agreement between transpiration and observed H2O fluxes, where discrepancies are largely attributable to a lack of forest floor evaporation in the model. Simulations in which vertical heterogeneity was artificially suppressed revealed that the vertical distribution of light is the driver of vertical heterogeneity. Despite large differences between above-canopy and within canopy humidity, and despite large gradients in CO2 concentration during early morning hours after nights with stable conditions, neither humidity nor CO2 played an important role for vertical heterogeneity of photosynthesis and transpiration.

Schurgers, G.; Lagergren, F.; Mölder, M.; Lindroth, A.

2014-08-01

186

Implications of Advanced Crew Escape Suit Transpiration for the Orion Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Human testing was conducted to more fully characterize the integrated performance of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) with liquid cooling provide by an Individual Cooling Unit (ICU) across a broad range of environmental conditions and metabolic rates. Together with a correlation for the ACES Liquid Cooling Garment as a function of inlet temperature, metabolic rate, and crew size, a reasonably conservative correlation for core temperature was achieved for the human thermal model applied to the ACES with ICU cooling. A key observation for this correlation was accounting for transpiration of evaporated sweat through the Gortex(Registered TradeMark) liner of the ACES indicated by as much as 0.6 lbm of sweat evaporated over the course of the 1 hour test profile, most of which could not be attributed to respiration or head sweat evaporation of the crew. Historically it has been assumed that transpiration was not an important design feature of the ACES suit. The correlated human thermal model will show transpiration to be highly useful in hot survival situations for the Orion Program when adequate liquid cooling is not available.

Bue, Grant; Kuznetz, Lawrence

2009-01-01

187

From Plants to Birds: Higher Avian Predation Rates in Trees Responding to Insect Herbivory  

E-print Network

From Plants to Birds: Higher Avian Predation Rates in Trees Responding to Insect Herbivory Elina Ma: An understanding of the evolution of potential signals from plants to the predators of their herbivores may provide the attraction of predators to plants is crucial to conclusions about co-evolution. For example, insectivorous

Laaksonen, Toni

188

Relationship between Hexokinase and the Aquaporin PIP1 in the Regulation of Photosynthesis and Plant Growth  

PubMed Central

Increased expression of the aquaporin NtAQP1, which is known to function as a plasmalemma channel for CO2 and water, increases the rate of both photosynthesis and transpiration. In contrast, increased expression of Arabidopsis hexokinase1 (AtHXK1), a dual-function enzyme that mediates sugar sensing, decreases the expression of photosynthetic genes and the rate of transpiration and inhibits growth. Here, we show that AtHXK1 also decreases root and stem hydraulic conductivity and leaf mesophyll CO2 conductance (gm). Due to their opposite effects on plant development and physiology, we examined the relationship between NtAQP1 and AtHXK1 at the whole-plant level using transgenic tomato plants expressing both genes simultaneously. NtAQP1 significantly improved growth and increased the transpiration rates of AtHXK1-expressing plants. Reciprocal grafting experiments indicated that this complementation occurs when both genes are expressed simultaneously in the shoot. Yet, NtAQP1 had only a marginal effect on the hydraulic conductivity of the double-transgenic plants, suggesting that the complementary effect of NtAQP1 is unrelated to shoot water transport. Rather, NtAQP1 significantly increased leaf mesophyll CO2 conductance and enhanced the rate of photosynthesis, suggesting that NtAQP1 facilitated the growth of the double-transgenic plants by enhancing mesophyll conductance of CO2. PMID:24498392

Kelly, Gilor; Sade, Nir; Attia, Ziv; Secchi, Francesca; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Holbrook, N. Michele; Levi, Asher; Alchanatis, Victor; Moshelion, Menachem; Granot, David

2014-01-01

189

Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance in Terrestrial Plants Water Regulation on LandWater Regulation on Land --PlantsPlants WWipip= W= Wrr + W+ Waa --WWtt --WWss  

E-print Network

1 Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance in Terrestrial Plants Water Regulation on LandWater waters internal water WWrr =Roots=Roots WWaa = Air= Air WWtt = Transpiration= Transpiration WWss = Secretions= Secretions Water Regulation on Land - Plants Water Balance in Terrestrial PlantsWater Balance

Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

190

Overproduction of Abscisic Acid in Tomato Increases Transpiration Efficiency and Root Hydraulic Conductivity and Influences Leaf Expansion1[OA  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of genes that respond to drought stress is a seemingly attractive approach for improving drought resistance in crops. However, the consequences for both water-use efficiency and productivity must be considered if agronomic utility is sought. Here, we characterize two tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) lines (sp12 and sp5) that overexpress a gene encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, the enzyme that catalyzes a key rate-limiting step in abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis. Both lines contained more ABA than the wild type, with sp5 accumulating more than sp12. Both had higher transpiration efficiency because of their lower stomatal conductance, as demonstrated by increases in ?13C and ?18O, and also by gravimetric and gas-exchange methods. They also had greater root hydraulic conductivity. Under well-watered glasshouse conditions, mature sp5 plants were found to have a shoot biomass equal to the wild type despite their lower assimilation rate per unit leaf area. These plants also had longer petioles, larger leaf area, increased specific leaf area, and reduced leaf epinasty. When exposed to root-zone water deficits, line sp12 showed an increase in xylem ABA concentration and a reduction in stomatal conductance to the same final levels as the wild type, but from a different basal level. Indeed, the main difference between the high ABA plants and the wild type was their performance under well-watered conditions: the former conserved soil water by limiting maximum stomatal conductance per unit leaf area, but also, at least in the case of sp5, developed a canopy more suited to light interception, maximizing assimilation per plant, possibly due to improved turgor or suppression of epinasty. PMID:17277097

Thompson, Andrew J.; Andrews, John; Mulholland, Barry J.; McKee, John M.T.; Hilton, Howard W.; Horridge, Jon S.; Farquhar, Graham D.; Smeeton, Rachel C.; Smillie, Ian R.A.; Black, Colin R.; Taylor, Ian B.

2007-01-01

191

Glutathione and transpiration as key factors conditioning oxidative stress in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to uranium.  

PubMed

Although oxidative stress has been previously described in plants exposed to uranium (U), some uncertainty remains about the role of glutathione and tocopherol availability in the different responsiveness of plants to photo-oxidative damage. Moreover, in most cases, little consideration is given to the role of water transport in shoot heavy metal accumulation. Here, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate exposure (50 ?M) on PSII and parameters involved in water transport (leaf transpiration and aquaporin gene expression) of Arabidopsis wild type (WT) and mutant plants that are deficient in tocopherol (vte1: null ?/?-tocopherol and vte4: null ?-tocopherol) and glutathione biosynthesis (high content: cad1.3 and low content: cad2.1). We show how U exposure induced photosynthetic inhibition that entailed an electron sink/source imbalance that caused PSII photoinhibition in the mutants. The WT was the only line where U did not damage PSII. The increase in energy thermal dissipation observed in all the plants exposed to U did not avoid photo-oxidative damage of mutants. The maintenance of control of glutathione and malondialdehyde contents probed to be target points for the overcoming of photoinhibition in the WT. The relationship between leaf U content and leaf transpiration confirmed the relevance of water transport in heavy metals partitioning and accumulation in leaves, with the consequent implication of susceptibility to oxidative stress. PMID:24389672

Aranjuelo, Iker; Doustaly, Fany; Cela, Jana; Porcel, Rosa; Müller, Maren; Aroca, Ricardo; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Bourguignon, Jacques

2014-04-01

192

Thermal transpiration through single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene channels.  

PubMed

Thermal transpiration through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene channels is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The system consists of two reservoirs connected by a CNT. It is observed that a flow is developed inside the CNT from the low temperature reservoir to the high temperature reservoir when the two reservoirs are maintained at different temperatures. The influence of channel size and temperature gradient on the mean velocity is analysed by varying the CNT diameter and the temperature of one of the reservoirs. Larger flow rate is observed in the smaller diameter CNTs showing an increase in the mean velocity with increase in the temperature gradient. For the flow developed inside the CNTs, slip boundaries occur and the slip length is calculated using the velocity profile. We examine the effect of fluid-wall interaction strength (?(fw)), diffusivity (D), and viscosity of the fluid (?) on the temperature induced fluid transport through the CNTs. Similar investigations are also carried out by replacing the CNT with a graphene channel. Results show that the mean velocity of the fluid atoms in the graphene channel is lower than that through the CNTs. This can be attributed to the higher degree of confinement observed in the CNTs. PMID:24206327

Thekkethala, Joe Francis; Sathian, Sarith P

2013-11-01

193

Thermal transpiration through single walled carbon nanotubes and graphene channels  

SciTech Connect

Thermal transpiration through carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene channels is studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The system consists of two reservoirs connected by a CNT. It is observed that a flow is developed inside the CNT from the low temperature reservoir to the high temperature reservoir when the two reservoirs are maintained at different temperatures. The influence of channel size and temperature gradient on the mean velocity is analysed by varying the CNT diameter and the temperature of one of the reservoirs. Larger flow rate is observed in the smaller diameter CNTs showing an increase in the mean velocity with increase in the temperature gradient. For the flow developed inside the CNTs, slip boundaries occur and the slip length is calculated using the velocity profile. We examine the effect of fluid-wall interaction strength (?{sub fw}), diffusivity (D), and viscosity of the fluid (?) on the temperature induced fluid transport through the CNTs. Similar investigations are also carried out by replacing the CNT with a graphene channel. Results show that the mean velocity of the fluid atoms in the graphene channel is lower than that through the CNTs. This can be attributed to the higher degree of confinement observed in the CNTs.

Thekkethala, Joe Francis; Sathian, Sarith P., E-mail: sarith@nitc.ac.in [Computational Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Nano Science and Technology, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kozhikode, Kerala - 673601 (India)

2013-11-07

194

Extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of seed plants  

PubMed Central

Background It has long been known that rates of synonymous substitutions are unusually low in mitochondrial genes of flowering and other land plants. Although two dramatic exceptions to this pattern have recently been reported, it is unclear how often major increases in substitution rates occur during plant mitochondrial evolution and what the overall magnitude of substitution rate variation is across plants. Results A broad survey was undertaken to evaluate synonymous substitution rates in mitochondrial genes of angiosperms and gymnosperms. Although most taxa conform to the generality that plant mitochondrial sequences evolve slowly, additional cases of highly accelerated rates were found. We explore in detail one of these new cases, within the genus Silene. A roughly 100-fold increase in synonymous substitution rate is estimated to have taken place within the last 5 million years and involves only one of ten species of Silene sampled in this study. Examples of unusually slow sequence evolution were also identified. Comparison of the fastest and slowest lineages shows that synonymous substitution rates vary by four orders of magnitude across seed plants. In other words, some plant mitochondrial lineages accumulate more synonymous change in 10,000 years than do others in 100 million years. Several perplexing cases of gene-to-gene variation in sequence divergence within a plant were uncovered. Some of these probably reflect interesting biological phenomena, such as horizontal gene transfer, mitochondrial-to-nucleus transfer, and intragenomic variation in mitochondrial substitution rates, whereas others are likely the result of various kinds of errors. Conclusion The extremes of synonymous substitution rates measured here constitute by far the largest known range of rate variation for any group of organisms. These results highlight the utility of examining absolute substitution rates in a phylogenetic context rather than by traditional pairwise methods. Why substitution rates are generally so low in plant mitochondrial genomes yet occasionally increase dramatically remains mysterious. PMID:17688696

Mower, Jeffrey P; Touzet, Pascal; Gummow, Julie S; Delph, Lynda F; Palmer, Jeffrey D

2007-01-01

195

Time-dependent experimental analysis of a thermal transpiration rarefied gas flow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal transpiration is the macroscopic movement induced in a rarefied gas by a temperature gradient. The gas moves from the lower to the higher temperature zone. An original method is proposed here to measure the stationary mass flow rate of gas created by thermal transpiration in a micro-tube heated at its outlet. In addition, by means of a time-dependent study, parameters such as the pressure variation, the pressure variation speed, and the characteristic time of the system are analyzed. The experimental system is composed of a glass tube of circular cross section and two reservoirs positioned one at the inlet and one at the outlet of the capillary. The reservoirs are connected to two fast response time capacitance diaphragm gauges. By monitoring the pressure variation with time inside both reservoirs, it is possible to measure the macroscopic movement of the gas along the tube. Three gases, nitrogen, argon, and helium, are studied and three temperature differences ?T = 37, 53.5, and 71 K are applied to the tube. The analyzed gas rarefaction conditions vary from near free molecular to slip regime. Finally, Poiseuille counter flows consistent with the experimental zero flow conditions of the thermal transpiration process are proved to be possible.

Rojas-Cárdenas, Marcos; Graur, Irina; Perrier, Pierre; Méolans, J. Gilbert

2013-07-01

196

Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two tree species in a semiarid plantation.  

PubMed

Responses of transpiration (Ec) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid tree species in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall Ec development and recovery rate, and (2) the species responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance (Gc) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two species exhibited the same hydraulic control (-dG c/dlnVPD to Gcref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low Ec. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand Ec. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the Ec recovery. Further, the stand Ec was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. Ec enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two species had different response patterns of post-rainfall Ec recovery. Ec recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall Ec increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the species differences of Ec in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes. PMID:24510059

Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang

2014-09-01

197

Response of transpiration to rain pulses for two tree species in a semiarid plantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Responses of transpiration ( E c) to rain pulses are presented for two semiarid tree species in a stand of Pinus tabulaeformis and Robinia pseudoacacia. Our objectives are to investigate (1) the environmental control over the stand transpiration after rainfall by analyzing the effect of vapor pressure deficit (VPD), soil water condition, and rainfall on the post-rainfall E c development and recovery rate, and (2) the species responses to rain pulses and implications on vegetation coverage under a changing rainfall regime. Results showed that the sensitivity of canopy conductance ( G c) to VPD varied under different incident radiation and soil water conditions, and the two species exhibited the same hydraulic control (-d G c/dlnVPD to G cref ratio) over transpiration. Strengthened physiological control and low sapwood area of the stand contributed to low E c. VPD after rainfall significantly influenced the magnitude and time series of post-rainfall stand E c. The fluctuation of post-rainfall VPD in comparison with the pre-rainfall influenced the E c recovery. Further, the stand E c was significantly related to monthly rainfall, but the recovery was independent of the rainfall event size. E c enhanced with cumulative soil moisture change (?VWC) within each dry-wet cycle, yet still was limited in large rainfall months. The two species had different response patterns of post-rainfall E c recovery. E c recovery of P. tabulaeformis was influenced by the pre- and post-rainfall VPD differences and the duration of rainless interval. R. pseudoacacia showed a larger immediate post-rainfall E c increase than P. tabulaeformis did. We, therefore, concluded that concentrated rainfall events do not trigger significant increase of transpiration unless large events penetrate the deep soil and the species differences of E c in response to pulses of rain may shape the composition of semiarid woodlands under future rainfall regimes.

Chen, Lixin; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zeppel, Melanie; Liu, Caifeng; Guo, Junting; Zhu, Jinzhao; Zhang, Xuepei; Zhang, Jianjun; Zha, Tonggang

2014-09-01

198

HESS Opinions "A perspective on isotope versus non-isotope approaches to determine the contribution of transpiration to total evaporation"  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current techniques to disentangle the evaporative fluxes from the continental surface into a contribution evaporated from soils and canopy, or transpired by plants, are under debate. Many isotope-based studies show that transpiration contributes generally more than 70% to the total evaporation, while other isotope-independent techniques lead to considerably smaller transpiration fractions. This paper provides a perspective on isotope-based versus non-isotope-based partitioning studies. Some partitioning results from isotope-based methods, hydrometric measurements, and modeling are presented for comparison. Moreover, the methodological aspects of the partitioning analysis are considered, including their limitations, and explanations of possible discrepancies between the methods are discussed. We suggest sources of systematic error that may lead to biases in the results, e.g., instruments inaccuracy, assumptions used in analyses, and calibration parameters. A number of comparison studies using isotope-based methods and hydrometric measurements in the same plants and climatic conditions are consistent within the errors; however, models tend to produce lower transpiration fractions. The relatively low transpiration fraction in current state-of-the-art land-surface models calls for a reassessment of the skill of the underlying model parameterizations. The scarcity of global evaporation data makes calibration and validation of global isotope-independent and isotope-based results difficult. However, isotope-enabled land-surface and global climate modeling studies allow for the evaluation of the parameterization of land-surface models by comparing the computed water isotopologue signals in the atmosphere with the available remote sensing and flux-based data sets. Future studies that allow for this evaluation could provide a better understanding of the hydrological cycle in vegetated regions.

Sutanto, S. J.; van den Hurk, B.; Dirmeyer, P. A.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Röckmann, T.; Trenberth, K. E.; Blyth, E. M.; Wenninger, J.; Hoffmann, G.

2014-08-01

199

Modelled hydraulic redistribution by sunflower (Helianthus annuus?L.) matches observed data only after including night-time transpiration.  

PubMed

The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, whereas the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two ecotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus?L.) in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modelling formulation developed by Ryel et?al. matched experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H.?annuus carries out extensive night-time transpiration, and although over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that night-time transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et?al. formulation does not include the effect of night-time transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of night-time transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and night-time stomatal behaviour changed, both influencing HR. PMID:24118010

Neumann, Rebecca B; Cardon, Zoe G; Teshera-Levye, Jennifer; Rockwell, Fulton E; Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Holbrook, N Michele

2014-04-01

200

Modeled hydraulic redistribution by Helianthus annuus L. matches observed data only after model modification to include nighttime transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, while the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two eco-types of Helianthus annuus L. in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modeling formulation developed by Ryel et al. (2002) could match experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive nighttime transpiration, and though over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that nighttime transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. (2002) formulation does not include the effect of nighttime transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of nighttime transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and nighttime stomatal behavior changed, both influencing HR.

Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Rockwell, F. E.; Teshera-Levye, J.; Zwieniecki, M.; Holbrook, N. M.

2013-12-01

201

Gas Exchange, Transpiration and Yield of Sweetpotato Grown in a Controlled Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sweetpotato was grown to harvest maturity within NASA Johnson Space Center's Variable Pressure Growth Chamber (VPGC) to characterize crop performance for potential use in advanced life support systems as a contributor to food production, air revitalization and resource recovery. Stem cuttings of breeding clone "TU-82-155" were grown hydroponically at a density of 17 plants m(sup -2) using a modified pressure-plate growing system (Patent No. 4860-490, Tuskegee University). Lighting was provided by HPS lamps at a photoperiod of 12h light: 12h dark. The photosynthetic photon flux was maintained at 500, 750 and 1000 micro mol m(sup -2) s(sub -1) during days 1-15, 16-28, 29-119, respectively. Canopy temperatures were maintained at 28 C: light: 22 C:dark. During the light period, relative humidity and carbon dioxide were maintained at 70% and 1200 micro liters l(sup -1), respectively. Nutrient solution was manually adjusted 2 to 4 times per week by addition of 10X concentrated modified half-strength Hoagland nutrient salts and NaOH to return the electrical conductivity and pH to 1.2 mS cm(sup -1) and 6.0, respectively. At 17 weeks (119 days) from transplanting, a total of 56.5 kilograms fresh mass of storage roots (84.1% moisture) were harvested from the 11.2 m(sup 2) chamber, resulting in a yield 5.0 kilograms m(sup -2). Harvest index, based on fresh mass, was 38.6%. Rates of net photosynthesis, dark respiration, transpiration, and ethylene production will be reported.

Barta, Daniel J.; Henderson, Keith E.; Mortley, Desmond G.; Henninger, Donald L.

2000-01-01

202

Plant Diversity: Effects of Grazing System and Stocking Rate in Northern Mixed-Grass Prairie  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Effects of grazing system, stocking rate, and grazing system X stocking rate interactions, on plant diversity are poorly understood in rangelands. A grazing system (season-long and short-duration rotational grazing) X stocking rate (light: 16 steers•80 ha-1, moderate: 4 steers•12 ha-1 and heavy: 4 s...

203

Interactive Effects of Soil Drainage and Time Since Burn on Transpiration of Boreal Black Spruce Forests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests and their changing fire frequencies are of interest in global climate change because they comprise one-third of the world's forest coverage and store large amounts of carbon. Much of this carbon storage is due to peat formation in cold, poorly-drained boreal soils. Here, evapotranspiration plays a crucial role in the interaction between carbon and water cycles. The main objective of this study is to quantify the amount of water being released through transpiration as boreal forest stands recover from wildfires across well- to poorly-drained soil conditions. Species composition of this region of boreal forest changes during succession in well-drained soils from a mix of Picea mariana (black spruce), Pinus banksiana (jack pine), and Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen) in younger stands to being dominated solely by Picea mariana in older stands. Poorly-drained soils are dominated by Picea mariana throughout the chronosequence. Previous work in well-drained stands recovering from wildfires showed that in all but the oldest black spruce stands 1) tree transpiration changed dramatically with stand age due to sapwood-to-leaf area ratio dynamics and 2) minimum leaf water potential was kept constant to prevent excessive cavitation. Thus, we hypothesized that 1) minimum leaf water potential would be constant and 2) transpiration would be proportional to the sapwood-to- leaf area ratio across both stand age and soil drainage except for the two oldest black spruce stands. We tested these hypotheses by measuring leaf water potential (Psi) of 95 trees and sap flux from 111 trees. Mixed results were found in Picea mariana Psi between well- and poorly-drained areas of each stand age, with only the 17-year-old burn in July (average midday Psi of -0.77 and -1.08 MPa for well- and poorly drained respectively) and the 76-year-old burn in June (average predawn Psi of -0.52 and -0.42 MPa for well- and poorly drained respectively) differing significantly. Growing season averages of Psi for Picea mariana resulted in significantly different values of -0.29, -0.44, -0.42, -0.34 for pre-dawn and -1.09, -1.37, -1.20, -1.25 MPa for mid- day at the17-, 42-, 76-, and 156-year-old burns respectively. Our results show that stand age has more of an influence on black spruce water potentials and, likely, stand transpiration per unit leaf area than soil drainage. Thus, regional scale process models of boreal forest transpiration can be simplified with respect to soil drainage while retaining mechanistic rigor with respect to plant hydraulics.

Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

2006-12-01

204

Upgrading existing optical fibre plants to higher bit-rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

To upgrade existing conventional fibre lines to very high data rates, effective methods of coping with the chromatic dispersion problem are therefore needed. Several techniques for the compensation of chromatic dispersion have been suggested so far. They include the use of externally modulated chirp-free transmitters, pre-chirping techniques of the transmitter laser, dispersion supported transmission, midpoint spectral inversion, dispersion compensating fibres,

M. Artiglia; E. Ciaramella; F. Cisternino; P. Di Vita; R. Girardi; A. Pagano; B. Sordo

1996-01-01

205

Effect of aerosols on evapo-transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aerosol direct radiative forcing (ARF) at surface is estimated from instantaneous, simultaneous observations of global radiation and aerosol optical depth (AOD) during winter, pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons over a tropical Indian station at the south-eastern end of Indo Gangetic basin. A comparison of observed and model derived ARFs is made and possible reasons for mismatch are discussed. Aerosol-induced reduction in solar visible (0.4-0.7 ?m) spectrum energy (SWvis), contributing 44% to total broad band (0.3-3.0 ?m) energy (SW), and its effect on surface energy fluxes are discussed in this study. Aerosols on an average reduce SWvis at surface by ?27%. SWvis reduces by 14.5 W m-2 for a 0.1 increase in AOD when single scattering albedo (SSA) is 0.979 where as it reduces by 67.5 W m-2 when SSA is 0.867 indicating the significant effect of absorbing aerosols. Effect of ARF on net radiation, Rn, sensible heat flux, H and latent heat flux/evapo-transpiration, LE are estimated using the observed ratios of Rn/SW, H/Rn and LE/Rn, having reasonably good correlation. Observed Rn/SW varies between 0.59 and 0.75 with a correlation of 0.99 between them. LE, calculated by energy balance method, varies from 56% to 74% of Rn but with a lesser correlation, the possible reasons are discussed. For a given ARF, LE decreases by ?14% and Rn by ?15% with respect to observed LE and Rn respectively. The reduction in LE increases from 37% to 54% of ARF when LE increases from 220 W m-2 to 440 W m-2, suggesting that wet soil induces relatively larger reduction in evaporation. The results agree with earlier model sensitivity studies that Rn reduces more with increase in aerosol absorption which is compensated by proportionate reductions in H and LE depending on soil and atmospheric conditions.

Murthy, B. S.; Latha, R.; Manoj, Kumar; Mahanti, N. C.

2014-06-01

206

Unprecedented heterogeneity in the synonymous substitution rate within a plant genome.  

PubMed

The synonymous substitution rate varies widely among species, but it is generally quite stable within a genome due to the absence of strong selective pressures. In plants, plastid genes tend to evolve faster than mitochondrial genes, rate variation among species generally correlates between the mitochondrial and plastid genomes, and few examples of intragenomic rate heterogeneity exist. To study the extent of substitution rate variation between and within plant organellar genomes, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial and plastid genomes from the bugleweed, Ajuga reptans, which was previously shown to exhibit rate heterogeneity for several mitochondrial genes. Substitution rates were accelerated specifically in the mitochondrial genome, which contrasts with correlated plastid and mitochondrial rate changes in most other angiosperms. Strikingly, we uncovered a 340-fold range of synonymous substitution rate variation among Ajuga mitochondrial genes. This is by far the largest amount of synonymous rate heterogeneity ever reported for a genome, but the evolutionary forces driving this phenomenon are unclear. Selective effects on synonymous sites in plant mitochondria are generally weak and thus unlikely to generate such unprecedented intragenomic rate heterogeneity. Quickly evolving genes are not clustered in the genome, arguing against localized hypermutation, although it is possible that they were clustered ancestrally given the high rate of genomic rearrangement in plant mitochondria. Mutagenic retroprocessing, involving error-prone reverse transcription and genomic integration of mature transcripts, is hypothesized as another potential explanation. PMID:24557444

Zhu, Andan; Guo, Wenhu; Jain, Kanika; Mower, Jeffrey P

2014-05-01

207

Plant N capture from pulses: effects of pulse size, growth rate, and other soil resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

In arid ecosystems, the ability to rapidly capture nitrogen (N) from brief pulses is expected to influence plant growth, survival,\\u000a and competitive ability. Theory and data suggest that N capture from pulses should depend on plant growth rate and availability\\u000a of other limiting resources. Theory also predicts trade-offs in plant stress tolerance and ability to capture N from different\\u000a size

J. J. James; J. H. Richards

2005-01-01

208

Determination of methane emission rates on a biogas plant using data from laser absorption spectrometry.  

PubMed

The aim of the work was to establish a method for emission control of biogas plants especially the observation of fugitive methane emissions. The used method is in a developmental stage but the topic is crucial to environmental and economic issues. A remote sensing measurement method was adopted to determine methane emission rates of a biogas plant in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. An inverse dispersion model was used to deduce emission rates. This technique required one concentration measurement with an open path tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) downwind and upwind the source and basic wind information, like wind speed and direction. Different operating conditions of the biogas plant occurring on the measuring day (December 2013) could be represented roughly in the results. During undisturbed operational modes the methane emission rate averaged 2.8g/s, which corresponds to 4% of the methane gas production rate of the biogas plant. PMID:25446786

Groth, Angela; Maurer, Claudia; Reiser, Martin; Kranert, Martin

2015-02-01

209

Transpiration's inhibition of air pollution fluxes to substomatal cavities. [PRECP  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an estimate for the resistance to transport through stomatal openings, accounting for the counterflowing flux of water vapor associated with transpiration. The specific goal of this report is to estimate the influence of transpiration on the stomatal resistance, r/sub sto/; others have estimated the substomatal and mesophyll resistances r/sub ssc/ and r/sub mes/. It might be expected that any influence of the water-vapor flux on pollutant transport would be a maximum at the stomatal opening since, at the constricted area of the stoma, the water flux is a maximum. Transpiration through stomata appears to insigifnicantly inhibit the passage of relatively small molecules (e.g., SO/sub 2/, O/sub 3/, HNO/sub 3/, PAN, etc.) through the stomata, and therefore, by entering the substomatal cavity, such pollutants have greater potential for threatening plan survival, if their concentrations are excessive. 7 refs., 5 figs.

Slinn, W.G.N.

1987-05-01

210

Estimation of Trends in the Scram Rate at Nuclear Power Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

An important task of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is to examine annual operating data from the nation's population of nuclear power plants for trends over time. We are interested here in trends in the scram rate at 66 commercial nuclear power plants based on annual observed scram data from 1984–1993. For an assumed Poisson distribution on the number of

Harry F. Martz; Robert L. Parker; Dale M. Rasmuson

1999-01-01

211

Contemporary evolution of plant growth rate following experimental removal of herbivores.  

PubMed

Herbivores are credited with driving the evolutionary diversification of plant defensive strategies over macroevolutionary time. For this to be true, herbivores must also cause short-term evolution within plant populations, but few studies have experimentally tested this prediction. We addressed this gap using a long-term manipulative field experiment where exclosures protected 22 plant populations from natural rabbit herbivory for <1 to 26 years. We collected seeds of Rumex acetosa L. (Polygonaceae) from our plots and grew them in a common greenhouse environment to quantify evolved differences among populations in individual plant growth rate, tolerance to herbivory, competitive ability, and the concentration of secondary metabolites (tannins and oxalate) implicated in defense against herbivores. In 26 years without rabbit herbivory, plant growth rate decreased linearly by 30%. We argue that plant growth rate has evolved as a defense against intense rabbit herbivory. In contrast, we found no change in tolerance to herbivory or concentrations of secondary metabolites. We also found no change in competitive ability, suggesting that contemporary evolution may not feed back to alter ecological interactions within this plant community. Our results combined with those of other studies show that the evolution of gross morphological traits such as growth rate in response to herbivory may be common, which calls into question assumptions about some of the most popular theories of plant defense. PMID:23598357

Turley, Nash E; Odell, Walter C; Schaefer, Hanno; Everwand, Georg; Crawley, Michael J; Johnson, Marc T J

2013-05-01

212

Sorghum genotype differences in phosphorus uptake rate and distribution in plant parts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relatively low amounts of the phosphorus (P) added to soils is recovered by plants. Many plants show differences in their ability to take up and use P, but the mechanisms for these differences are not fully understood. The purpose of this study was to determine differences among sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] genotypes for P uptake rates and distribution in

A. M. C. Furlani; R. B. Clark; J. W. Maranville; W. M. Ross

1984-01-01

213

Oxidation mechanism and overall removal rates of endocrine disrupting chemicals by aquatic plants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate experimentally and theoretically the oxidation mechanisms and overall removal rates of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) by aquatic plants. EDCs used in this study were bisphenol-A (BPA), 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-t-OP), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Referring to reported detection levels in aquatic environments and contaminated sites, the feed concentration of each EDC was set from 1 to 100?g/L. Experimental results showed that, except for PCP, phenolic EDCs were stably and concurrently removed by different types of aquatic plants over 70 days in long-term continuous treatments. Primal enzymes responsible for oxidation of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP were peroxidases (POs). Moreover, enzymatic removal rates of BPA, 2,4-DCP, and 4-t-OP by POs were more than 2 orders of magnitude larger than those by aquatic plants. Assuming that overall removal rates of EDCs are controlled by mass transfer rates onto liquid films on the surface of aquatic plants, an electrochemical method based on the limiting current theory was developed to measure the mass transfer rates of EDCs. Because of extremely large removal rates of EDCs by POs, observed removal rates by aquatic plants were in reasonably good agreement with calculated results by a mathematical model developed based on an assumption that mass transfer limitation is a rate-limiting step. PMID:24333944

Reis, A R; Tabei, K; Sakakibara, Y

2014-01-30

214

On Assessing Decomposition Rates of Plant Debris and Standard Cellulose Samples in Tundra Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in studies on the rate of plant debris decomposition (however labor-consuming they are) is maintained owing to the desire to comprehensively describe the structural and functional characteristics of the Earth’s biogeocenotic cover and to solve the problem of monitoring and long-term prognosis. Numerous attempts to use a simplified approach to the assessment of decomposition rates (substitution of plant samples

N. I. Andreyashkina; N. V. Peshkova

2001-01-01

215

Effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on canopy transpiration in senescent spring wheat  

SciTech Connect

The seasonal course of canopy transpiration and the diurnal courses of latent heat flux of a spring wheat crop were simulated for atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations of 370 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1} and 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}. The hourly weather data, soil parameters and the irrigation and fertilizer treatments of the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment wheat experiment in Arizona (1992/93) were used to drive the model. The simulation results were tested against field measurements with special emphasis on the period between anthesis and maturity. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis and stomatal conductance was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat growth model. The simulated intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, C{sub i} was determined from the ratio of C{sub i} to the CO{sub 2} concentration at the leaf surface, C{sub s}, the leaf to air specific humidity deficit and a possibly unfulfilled transpiration demand. After anthesis, the measured assimilation rates of the flag leaves decreased more rapidly than their stomatal conductances, leading to a rise in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. In order to describe this observation, an empirical model approach was developed which took into account the leaf nitrogen content for the calculation of the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio. Simulation results obtained with the new model version were in good agreement with the measurements. If changes in the C{sub i}/C{sub s} ratio accorded to the decrease in leaf nitrogen content during leaf senescence were not considered in the model, simulations revealed an underestimation of the daily canopy transpiration of up to twenty percent and a decrease in simulated seasonal canopy transpiration by ten percent. The measured reduction in the seasonal sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation owing to CO{sub 2} enrichment, in comparison, was only about five percent.

Grossman, S.; Kimball, B.A.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Long, S.P. et al

1998-12-31

216

Predictive Uncertainty and Scalability of Transpiration in Heterogeneous Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially variable water fluxes from transpiration represent a significant and as yet largely unquantified source of uncertainty in the prediction of ungauged basins. Current models of transpiration can be traced to "center-of-stand" approaches that quantify fluxes in the field and distribute parameters derived from these observations to watershed scales using land cover classification. In this approach, fluxes are extrapolated to larger scales without regard for gradients in environmental drivers. There is evidence that transpiration fluxes change at stand edges, which would magnify the uncertainty in watershed scale fluxes as the spatial heterogeneity of land cover increases. An initial conceptual framework for spatial transpiration will be presented that builds on the fact that canopy stomatal conductance is regulated primarily by leaf water potential when water fluxes are high and of significant hydrologic import. Species plasticity in canopy stomatal conductance, which determines its spatial variability in response to environmental drivers, follows a linear relationship that is keyed off of an easily quantifiable reference conductance. Numerous recent studies have shown that vegetation regulates water fluxes according to internal set points in leaf water potential, despite large variations in environmental drivers such as soil moisture. These internal set points provide for simple, yet mechanistically sound models of transpiration. The transfer of predictive uncertainty in transpiration to basin scales is illustrated using multi-year data from the Chequamegon Ecosystem - Atmosphere Study (ChEAS), with supporting data from other sites. Suitable parameter sets for quantifying predictive uncertainty are derived using a flexible, fuzzy logic approach. A series of simulation experiments are conducted in which the fragmentation of forest cover is increased, thereby increasing edge effects that alter total water fluxes.

Mackay, D. S.; Ewers, B. E.; Samanta, S.; Burrows, S. N.

2003-12-01

217

Ethylene synthesis and sensitivity in crop plants  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Closed and semi-closed plant growth chambers have long been used in studies of plant and crop physiology. These studies include the measurement of photosynthesis and transpiration via photosynthetic gas exchange. Unfortunately, other gaseous products of plant metabolism can accumulate in these chambers and cause artifacts in the measurements. The most important of these gaseous byproducts is the plant hormone ethylene (C2H4). In spite of hundreds of manuscripts on ethylene, we still have a limited understanding of the synthesis rates throughout the plant life cycle. We also have a poor understanding of the sensitivity of intact, rapidly growing plants to ethylene. We know ethylene synthesis and sensitivity are influenced by both biotic and abiotic stresses, but such whole plant responses have not been accurately quantified. Here we present an overview of basic studies on ethylene synthesis and sensitivity.

Klassen, Stephen P.; Bugbee, Bruce

2004-01-01

218

Response of ammonium removal to growth and transpiration of Juncus effusus during the treatment of artificial sewage in laboratory-scale wetlands.  

PubMed

The correlation between nitrogen removal and the role of the plants in the rhizosphere of constructed wetlands are the subject of continuous discussion, but knowledge is still insufficient. Since the influence of plant growth and physiological activity on ammonium removal has not been well characterized in constructed wetlands so far, this aspect is investigated in more detail in model wetlands under defined laboratory conditions using Juncus effusus for treating an artificial sewage. Growth and physiological activity, such as plant transpiration, have been found to correlate with both the efficiency of ammonium removal within the rhizosphere of J. effusus and the methane formation. The uptake of ammonium by growing plant stocks is within in a range of 45.5%, but under conditions of plant growth stagnation, a further nearly complete removal of the ammonium load points to the likely existence of additional nitrogen removal processes. In this way, a linear correlation between the ammonium concentration inside the rhizosphere and the transpiration of the plant stocks implies that an influence of plant physiological activity on the efficiency of N-removal exists. Furthermore, a linear correlation between methane concentration and plant transpiration has been estimated. The findings indicate a fast response of redox processes to plant activities. Accordingly, not only the influence of plant transpiration activity on the plant-internal convective gas transport, the radial oxygen loss by the plant roots and the efficiency of nitrification within the rhizosphere, but also the nitrogen gas released by phytovolatilization are discussed. The results achieved by using an unplanted control system are different in principle and characterized by a low efficiency of ammonium removal and a high methane enrichment of up to a maximum of 72.7% saturation. PMID:23764577

Wiessner, A; Kappelmeyer, U; Kaestner, M; Schultze-Nobre, L; Kuschk, P

2013-09-01

219

Multiple major increases and decreases in mitochondrial substitution rates in the plant family Geraniaceae  

PubMed Central

Background Rates of synonymous nucleotide substitutions are, in general, exceptionally low in plant mitochondrial genomes, several times lower than in chloroplast genomes, 10–20 times lower than in plant nuclear genomes, and 50–100 times lower than in many animal mitochondrial genomes. Several cases of moderate variation in mitochondrial substitution rates have been reported in plants, but these mostly involve correlated changes in chloroplast and/or nuclear substitution rates and are therefore thought to reflect whole-organism forces rather than ones impinging directly on the mitochondrial mutation rate. Only a single case of extensive, mitochondrial-specific rate changes has been described, in the angiosperm genus Plantago. Results We explored a second potential case of highly accelerated mitochondrial sequence evolution in plants. This case was first suggested by relatively poor hybridization of mitochondrial gene probes to DNA of Pelargonium hortorum (the common geranium). We found that all eight mitochondrial genes sequenced from P. hortorum are exceptionally divergent, whereas chloroplast and nuclear divergence is unexceptional in P. hortorum. Two mitochondrial genes were sequenced from a broad range of taxa of variable relatedness to P. hortorum, and absolute rates of mitochondrial synonymous substitutions were calculated on each branch of a phylogenetic tree of these taxa. We infer one major, ~10-fold increase in the mitochondrial synonymous substitution rate at the base of the Pelargonium family Geraniaceae, and a subsequent ~10-fold rate increase early in the evolution of Pelargonium. We also infer several moderate to major rate decreases following these initial rate increases, such that the mitochondrial substitution rate has returned to normally low levels in many members of the Geraniaceae. Finally, we find unusually little RNA editing of Geraniaceae mitochondrial genes, suggesting high levels of retroprocessing in their history. Conclusion The existence of major, mitochondrial-specific changes in rates of synonymous substitutions in the Geraniaceae implies major and reversible underlying changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate in this family. Together with the recent report of a similar pattern of rate heterogeneity in Plantago, these findings indicate that the mitochondrial mutation rate is a more plastic character in plants than previously realized. Many molecular factors could be responsible for these dramatic changes in the mitochondrial mutation rate, including nuclear gene mutations affecting the fidelity and efficacy of mitochondrial DNA replication and/or repair and – consistent with the lack of RNA editing – exceptionally high levels of "mutagenic" retroprocessing. That the mitochondrial mutation rate has returned to normally low levels in many Geraniaceae raises the possibility that, akin to the ephemerality of mutator strains in bacteria, selection favors a low mutation rate in plant mitochondria. PMID:16368004

Parkinson, Christopher L; Mower, Jeffrey P; Qiu, Yin-Long; Shirk, Andrew J; Song, Keming; Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W; Palmer, Jeffrey D

2005-01-01

220

Seasonal patterns of daily net photosynthesis, transpiration and net primary productivity of Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora in a Georgia salt marsh  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies of the seasonal CO2 and water vapor exchange patterns of Juncus roemerianus and Spartina alterniflora were conducted in an undisturbed marsh community on Sapelo Island, Georgia. Daily patterns of net photosynthesis, transpiration, leaf diffusive conductance and water-use efficiency in response to ambient conditions were monitored on intact, in situ plants. Net primary productivity was calculated from the daytime CO2

J. R. Giurgevich; E. L. Dunn

1982-01-01

221

Improvement of growth rate of plants by bubble discharge in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of bubble discharge in water on the growth rate of plants was investigated experimentally for application to plant cultivation systems. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), radish (Raphanus sativus var. sativus), and strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) were used as specimens to clarify the effect of the discharge treatment on edible parts of the plants. The specimens were cultivated in pots filled with artificial soil, which included chicken manure charcoal. Distilled water was sprayed on the artificial soil and drained through a hole in the pots to a water storage tank. The water was circulated from the water storage tank to the cultivation pots after 15 or 30 min discharge treatment on alternate days. A magnetic compression-type pulsed power generator was used to produce the bubble discharge with a repetition rate of 250 pps. The plant height in the growth phase and the dry weight of the harvested plants were improved markedly by the discharge treatment in water. The soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) value of the plants also improved in the growth phase of the plants. The concentration of nitrate nitrogen, which mainly contributed to the improvement of the growth rate, in the water increased with the discharge treatment. The Brix value of edible parts of Fragaria × ananassa increased with the discharge treatment. The inactivation of bacteria in the water was also confirmed with the discharge treatment.

Takahata, Junichiro; Takaki, Koichi; Satta, Naoya; Takahashi, Katsuyuki; Fujio, Takuya; Sasaki, Yuji

2015-01-01

222

Measurement of Effective Canopy Temperature: The Missing Link to Modeling Transpiration in Controlled Environments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objectives were to apply energy balance principles to plant canopies, and to determine which parameters are essential for predicting plant canopy transpiration (E) in controlled environments. Transpiration was accurately measured in a gas-exchange system. Absorbed radiation (R(sub abs)) by the canopy was measured with a net radiometer and calculated from short and long-wave radiation components. Average canopy foliar temperature T(sub L) can be measured with an infrared radiometer, but since T(sub L) is seldom uniform, a weighed average measurement of T(sub L) must be made. The effective canopy temperature T(sub C) is that temperature that balances the energy flux between absorbed radiation and latent heat L(sub E) and sensible heat (H) fluxes. TC should exactly equal air temperature T(sub A) when L(sub E) equals R(sub abs). When unnecessary thermal radiation from the lighting system is removed by a water filter, the magnitude of L(sub E) from transpiration approaches Rabs and T(sub C) is close to T(sub A). Unlike field models, we included the energy used in photosynthesis and found that up to 10% of Rabs was used in photosynthesis. We calculated aerodynamic conductance for H from measurements of wind speed and canopy height using the wind profile equation. Canopy aerodynamic conductance ranged from.03 to.04 m/s for wind speeds from.6 to 1 m/s; thus a 0.1 C canopy to air temperature difference results in a sensible heat flux of about 4 W/sq m, which is only 1% of R(sub abs). We examined the ability of wide angle infrared transducers to accurately integrate T(sub L) from the top to the bottom of the canopy. We measured evaporation from the hydroponic media to be approximately 1 micro mol/sq m s or 10% of R(sub abs). This result indicates that separating evaporation from transpiration is more important than exact measurement of canopy temperature.

Monje, O. A.; McCormack, Ann; Bugbee, Bruce; Jones, Harry W., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

1994-01-01

223

An optimally designed stack effluent sampling system with transpiration for active transmission enhancement  

E-print Network

of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content b drew cFar d (Chair of Cominittee) Aaron Cohen (Member) N. K. Anand (Member) W. H. Marlow... I Schematical explanation of the theory of opperation of the transpiration tranmission enhancement technology. 2 DEPOSITION produced curve used to design a transport line for near optimum transmission with a flow rate of I cfm and a particle size...

Schroeder, Troy J.

2012-06-07

224

Plant traits are the predominant control on litter decomposition rates within biomes worldwide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Worldwide decomposition rates depend both on climate and the legacy of plant functional traits as litter quality. To quantify the degree to which functional differentiation among species affects their litter decomposition rates, we brought together leaf trait and litter mass loss data for 818 species from 66 decomposition experiments on six continents. We show that: (i) the magnitude of species-driven

William K. Cornwell; Johannes H. C. Cornelissen; K. Amatangalo; Ellen Dorrepaal; Valerie T. Eviner; Oscar Godoy; S. E. Hobbir; Bart Hoorens; Hiroko Kurokawa; N. Perez-Harguindeguy; Helen M. Quested; Louis S. Santiago; David A. Wardle; Ian J. Wright; Rien Aerts; Steven D. Allison; Bodegom van P. M; Victor Brovkin; Alex Chatain; Terry V. Callaghan; S. Diaz; Eric Garnier; Diego E. Gurvich; Elena Kazakou; Julia A. Klein; Jenny Read; Peter B. Reich; Nadejda A. Soudzilovskaia; M. Victoria Vaieretti; Mark Westoby

2008-01-01

225

Lower selfing rate at higher altitudes in the alpine plant Eritrichium nanum (Boraginaceae).  

PubMed

A general hypothesis on mating patterns in alpine plants states that self-fertilization should increase with increasing altitude as a result of pollinator limitation at higher altitudes. However, realized selfing rates under natural conditions, as based on genetic progeny analysis, have not yet been determined for any alpine species across altitude. We therefore assessed the realized selfing rates in about 100 open-pollinated families of the high-alpine cushion plant Eritrichium nanum, sampled along an altitudinal gradient in the Swiss Alps, by using progeny analysis based on six microsatellites. In marked contrast to the general hypothesis, realized selfing rates in E. nanum significantly decreased with increasing altitude, and only progenies from low altitudes were predominantly selfed. However, the higher selfing rates of individuals at lower altitudes could have been caused by unfavorable weather conditions during early growing season when low-elevation plants flowered. In summary, our results on selfing rates in an alpine plant across altitude as well as the results of other studies using experimental hand-pollinations and/or population genetic methods generally do not support the expectation of higher selfing rates at higher altitudes. We therefore ask for further critical examination of realized mating systems in alpine plants. PMID:21622454

Wirth, Lea Rahel; Graf, René; Gugerli, Felix; Landergott, Urs; Holderegger, Rolf

2010-05-01

226

Parasitic plants have increased rates of molecular evolution across all three genomes  

PubMed Central

Background Theoretical models and experimental evidence suggest that rates of molecular evolution could be raised in parasitic organisms compared to non-parasitic taxa. Parasitic plants provide an ideal test for these predictions, as there are at least a dozen independent origins of the parasitic lifestyle in angiosperms. Studies of a number of parasitic plant lineages have suggested faster rates of molecular evolution, but the results of some studies have been mixed. Comparative analysis of all parasitic plant lineages, including sequences from all three genomes, is needed to examine the generality of the relationship between rates of molecular evolution and parasitism in plants. Results We analysed DNA sequence data from the mitochondrial, nuclear and chloroplast genomes for 12 independent evolutionary origins of parasitism in angiosperms. We demonstrated that parasitic lineages have a faster rate of molecular evolution than their non-parasitic relatives in sequences for all three genomes, for both synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions. Conclusions Our results prove that raised rates of molecular evolution are a general feature of parasitic plants, not confined to a few taxa or specific genes. We discuss possible causes for this relationship, including increased positive selection associated with host-parasite arms races, relaxed selection, reduced population size or repeated bottlenecks, increased mutation rates, and indirect causal links with generation time and body size. We find no evidence that faster rates are due to smaller effective populations sizes or changes in selection pressure. Instead, our results suggest that parasitic plants have a higher mutation rate than their close non-parasitic relatives. This may be due to a direct connection, where some aspect of the parasitic lifestyle drives the evolution of raised mutation rates. Alternatively, this pattern may be driven by an indirect connection between rates and parasitism: for example, parasitic plants tend to be smaller than their non-parasitic relatives, which may result in more cell generations per year, thus a higher rate of mutations arising from DNA copy errors per unit time. Demonstration that adoption of a parasitic lifestyle influences the rate of genomic evolution is relevant to attempts to infer molecular phylogenies of parasitic plants and to estimate their evolutionary divergence times using sequence data. PMID:23782527

2013-01-01

227

Evaluating Uncertainties in Sap Flux Scaled Estimates of Forest Transpiration, Canopy Conductance and Photosynthesis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal dissipation probes (TDPs) are a common method for estimating forest transpiration and canopy conductance from sap flux rates in trees, but their implementation is plagued by uncertainties arising from missing data and variability in the diameter and canopy position of trees, as well as sapwood conductivity within individual trees. Uncertainties in estimates of canopy conductance also translate into uncertainties in carbon assimilation in models such as the Canopy Conductance Constrained Carbon Assimilation (4CA) model that combine physiological and environmental data to estimate photosynthetic rates. We developed a method to propagate these uncertainties in the scaling and imputation of TDP data to estimates of canopy transpiration and conductance using a state-space Jarvis-type conductance model in a hierarchical Bayesian framework. This presentation will focus on the impact of these uncertainties on estimates of water and carbon fluxes using 4CA and data from the Duke Free Air Carbon Enrichment (FACE) project, which incorporates both elevated carbon dioxide and soil nitrogen treatments. We will also address the response of canopy conductance to vapor pressure deficit, incident radiation and soil moisture, as well as the effect of treatment-related stand structure differences in scaling TDP measurements. Preliminary results indicate that in 2006, a year of normal precipitation (1127 mm), canopy transpiration increased in elevated carbon dioxide ~8% on a ground area basis. In 2007, a year with a pronounced drought (800 mm precipitation), this increase was only present in the combined carbon dioxide and fertilization treatment. The seasonal dynamics of water and carbon fluxes will be discussed in detail.

Ward, E. J.; Bell, D. M.; Clark, J. S.; Kim, H.; Oren, R.

2009-12-01

228

Transpiration-Cooled Spacecraft-Insulation-Repair Fasteners  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transpiration-cooled fasteners are proposed that operate like an open-loop heat pipe (self-tapping screws, bolts, and spikes) for use in on-orbit repair of thermal- insulation of a space shuttle or other spacecraft. By limiting the temperature rise of such a fastener and of the adjacent repair material and thermal protection system, the transpiration cooling would contribute to the ability of the repair to retain its strength and integrity in the high-heat-flux, oxidizing environment of reentry into the atmosphere of the Earth. A typical fastener according to the proposal would include a hollow refractory-metal, refractory-composite, or ceramic screw or bolt, the central cavity of which would be occupied by a porous refractory- metal or ceramic plug that would act as both a reservoir and a wick for a transpirant liquid. The plug dimensions, the plug material, and the sizes of the pores would be chosen in conjunction with the transpirant liquid so that (1) capillary pumping could be relied upon to transport the liquid to the heated surface, where the liquid would be vaporized, and (2) the amount of liquid would suffice for protecting against the anticipated heat flux and integrated heat load.

Camarda, Charles J.; Pettit, Donald R.; Glass, David; Scotti, Stephen J.; Vaughn, Wallace Lee; Rawal, Suraj

2012-01-01

229

Effects of spatial and temporal variability on simulated transpiration ratios  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sustainability studies are increasingly needed to determine management systems that protect the environment and maintain production potentials. Whether these analyses are performed by field experiments or by computer modelling, defining the appropriate spatial and temporal scales is essential. For three management types within one soil series in The Netherlands, the land quality indicator “transpiration ratio”, Eratio (ratio between actual and

P. Droogers

1997-01-01

230

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPIRATION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE BY PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) AS MEDIATED BY VAPOR PRESSURE DEFICIT  

E-print Network

was to study the possible relationship between transpiration and nitrogen uptake. Bell peppers (Capsicum annuumRELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TRANSPIRATION AND NITROGEN UPTAKE BY PEPPER (CAPSICUM ANNUUM) AS MEDIATED and growth even under low nutrient conditions. INDEX WORDS: nitrogen, pepper, transpiration, vapor pressure

Teskey, Robert O.

231

Effect, uptake and disposition of nitrobenzene in several terrestrial plants  

SciTech Connect

Eight species of plants were exposed to nitrobenzene in a hydroponic solution. Four species experienced no depression of either transpiration or photosynthetic rates, while one was rapidly killed and the other three were temporarily affected but recovered from the treatment. Uptake of nitrobenzene was passive and was shown to be proportional to the rate of water flux in each species. The transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF) was 0.72. The root concentration factor (RCF) was variable between the species and was higher than expected, presumably due to deposits of insoluble metabolic products. All of the species examined displayed a capacity to chemically alter nonpolar nitrobenzene into both polar and insoluble products. Volatilization of nitrobenzene from the leaves was a major route of chemical loss.

McFarlane, C.; Pfleeger, T.; Fletcher, J.

1990-01-01

232

Mitochondrial substitution rates are extraordinarily elevated and variable in a genus of flowering plants  

PubMed Central

Plant mitochondrial (mt) genomes have long been known to evolve slowly in sequence. Here we show remarkable departure from this pattern of conservative evolution in a genus of flowering plants. Substitution rates at synonymous sites vary substantially among lineages within Plantago. At the extreme, rates in Plantago exceed those in exceptionally slow plant lineages by ?4,000-fold. The fastest Plantago lineages set a new benchmark for rapid evolution in a DNA genome, exceeding even the fastest animal mt genome by an order of magnitude. All six mt genes examined show similarly elevated divergence in Plantago, implying that substitution rates are highly accelerated throughout the genome. In contrast, substitution rates show little or no elevation in Plantago for each of four chloroplast and three nuclear genes examined. These results, combined with relatively modest elevations in rates of nonsynonymous substitutions in Plantago mt genes, indicate that major, reversible changes in the mt mutation rate probably underlie the extensive variation in synonymous substitution rates. These rate changes could be caused by major changes in any number of factors that control the mt mutation rate, from the production and detoxification of oxygen free radicals in the mitochondrion to the efficacy of mt DNA replication and/or repair. PMID:15598738

Cho, Yangrae; Mower, Jeffrey P.; Qiu, Yin-Long; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

2004-01-01

233

Adapting FAO-56 Spreadsheet Program to estimate olive orchard transpiration fluxes under soil water stress condition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the Mediterranean environment, where the period of crops growth does not coincide with the rainy season, the crop is subject to water stress periods that may be amplified with improper irrigation management. Agro-hydrological models can be considered an economic and simple tool to optimize irrigation water use, mainly when water represents a limiting factor for crop production. In the last two decades, agro-hydrological physically based models have been developed to simulate mass and energy exchange processes in the soil-plant-atmosphere system (Feddes et al., 1978; Bastiaanssen et al., 2007). Unfortunately these models, although very reliable, as a consequence of the high number of required variables and the complex computational analysis, cannot often be used. Therefore, simplified agro-hydrological models may represent an useful and simple tool for practical irrigation scheduling. The main objective of the work is to assess, for an olive orchard, the suitability of FAO-56 spreadsheet agro-hydrological model to estimate a long time series of field transpiration, soil water content and crop water stress dynamic. A modification of the spreadsheet is suggested in order to adapt the simulations to a crop tolerant to water stress. In particular, by implementing a new crop water stress function, actual transpiration fluxes and an ecophysiological stress indicator, i. e. the relative transpiration, are computed in order to evaluate a plant-based irrigation scheduling parameter. Validation of the proposed amendment is carried out by means of measured sap fluxes, measured on different plants and up-scaled to plot level. Spatial and temporal variability of soil water contents in the plot was measured, at several depths, using the Diviner 2000 capacitance probe (Sentek Environmental Technologies, 2000) and TDR-100 (Campbell scientific, Inc.) system. The detailed measurements of soil water content, allowed to explore the high spatial variability of soil water content due to the combined effect of the punctual irrigation and the non-uniform root density distribution. A further validation of the plant-based irrigation-timing indicator will be carried out by considering another ecophysiological stress variable like the predawn leaf water potential. Accuracy of the model output was assessed using the Mean Absolute Difference, the Root Mean Square Difference and the efficiency index of Nash and Sutcliffe. Experimental data, recorded during three years of field observation, allowed, with a great level of detail, to investigate on the dynamic of water fluxes from the soil to atmosphere as well as to validate the proposed amendment of the FAO-56 spreadsheet. The modified model simulated with a satisfactory approximation the measured values of average soil water content in the root zone, with error of estimation equal to about 2.0%. These differences can be considered acceptable for practical applications taking into account the intrinsic variability of the data especially in the soil moisture point measurements. An error less than 1 mm was calculated in the daily transpiration estimation. A good performance was observed in the estimation of the cumulate transpiration fluxes.

Rallo, G.; Provenzano, G.; Manzano-Juárez, J.

2012-04-01

234

A study on the optimal hydraulic loading rate and plant ratios in recirculation aquaponic system.  

PubMed

The growths of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) and water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) were evaluated in recirculation aquaponic system (RAS). Fish production performance, plant growth and nutrient removal were measured and their dependence on hydraulic loading rate (HLR) was assessed. Fish production did not differ significantly between hydraulic loading rates. In contrast to the fish production, the water spinach yield was significantly higher in the lower hydraulic loading rate. Fish production, plant growth and percentage nutrient removal were highest at hydraulic loading rate of 1.28 m/day. The ratio of fish to plant production has been calculated to balance nutrient generation from fish with nutrient removal by plants and the optimum ratio was 15-42 gram of fish feed/m(2) of plant growing area. Each unit in RAS was evaluated in terms of oxygen demand. Using specified feeding regime, mass balance equations were applied to quantify the waste discharges from rearing tanks and treatment units. The waste discharged was found to be strongly dependent on hydraulic loading rate. PMID:19819130

Endut, Azizah; Jusoh, A; Ali, N; Wan Nik, W B; Hassan, A

2010-03-01

235

Studies of shock/shock interaction on smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical nosetips in hypersonic flow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program of experimental research and analysis was conducted to examine the heat transfer and pressure distributions in regions of shock/shock interaction over smooth and transpiration-cooled hemispherical noseshapes. The objective of this investigation was to determine whether the large heat transfer generated in regions of shock/shock interaction can be reduced by transpiration cooling. The experimental program was conducted at Mach numbers of 12 to 16 in the Calspan 48-Inch Shock Tunnel. Type 3 and type 4 interaction regions were generated for a range of freestream unit Reynolds numbers to provide shear layer Reynolds numbers from 10 exp 4 to 10 exp 6 to enable laminar and turbulent interaction regions to be studied. Shock/shock interactions were investigated on a smooth hemispherical nosetip and a similar transpiration-cooled nosetip, with the latter configuration being examined for a range of surface blowing rates up to one-third of the freestream mass flux. While the heat transfer measurements on the smooth hemisphere without shock/shock interaction were in good agreement with Fay-Riddell predictions, those on the transpiration-cooled nosetip indicated that its intrinsic roughness caused heating-enhancement factors of over 1.5. In the shock/shock interaction studies on the smooth nosetip, detailed heat transfer and pressure measurements were obtained to map the variation of the distributions with shock-impingement position for a range of type 3 and type 4 interactions. Such sets of measurements were obtained for a range of unit Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers to obtain both laminar and turbulent interactions. The measurements indicated that shear layer transition has a significant influence on the heating rates for the type 4 interaction as well as the anticipated large effects on type 3 interaction heating. In the absence of blowing, the peak heating in the type 3 and type 4 interaction regions, over the transpiration-cooled model, did not appear to be influenced by the model's rough surface characteristics. The studies of the effects of the transpiration cooling on type 3 and type 4 shock/shock interaction regions demonstrated that large surface blowing rates had significant effect on the structure of the flowfield, enlarging the shock layer and moving the region of peak-heating interaction around the body.

Holden, Michael S.; Rodriguez, Kathleen M.

1992-01-01

236

Water stress effects on leaf elongation, leaf water potential, transpiration, and nutrient uptake of rice, maize, and soybean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was conducted in the greenhouse to determine and compare the responses of rice (Oryza sativa L. var, IR 36), maize (Zea mays L. var. DMR-2), and soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. var. Clark 63) to soil water stress. Leaf elongation, dawn leaf water potential, transpiration rate, and nutrient\\u000a uptake in stressed rice declined earlier than in maize

V. C. Tanguilig; E. B. Yambao; J. C. O’toole; S. K. De Datta

1987-01-01

237

Diurnal stream flow fluctuations during low flow conditions along a stream reach - effects of transpiration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analysed diurnal fluctuations in the stream flow during low flow periods in a 64 ha. experimental catchment in Lower Austria. Detailed discharge measurements in a one minute time interval at different locations along the stream show diurnal fluctuations during low flow situations. The hypothesis is that the diurnal fluctuations are caused by the transpiration on two different scales, where the hydrograph at the catchment outlet shows short scale (diurnal) fluctuations and long scale (seasonal) fluctuations during low flow situations. The separation of the two time scales is assumed to be closely connected to separation of scales in the space domain, where there are two distinct zones causing the transpiration effects on the stream flow. The zone responsible for diurnal fluctuations is suggested to be the riparian zone connected to the groundwater, which consist of deciduous forest and is decoupled from the rest of the catchment. The seasonal fluctuations are caused by the rest of the catchment, which consist of agricultural fields. Additional data show that tributaries and drainage systems that flow through the deciduous forest also show diurnal fluctuations, where the drainage systems coming from the agricultural fields show now diurnal fluctuations. This phenomenon strengthens the hypothesis of two decoupled scales, where the diurnal fluctuations are caused by the riparian zone. In addition the effect of transpiration in low flow situations on different sections of the stream were examined. A model is proposed to estimate the lag times for both time scales and their evolution throughout the year. The model preformed an excellent fit for periods in the growing season, the model efficiency varied from 0.7 to 0.95. The lag times between the maximum of the global radiation and the minimum flow increase from 6 hours in spring to approximately 13 hours in autumn, which is related to lower soil moisture state and therefore less connectivity between the groundwater and the roots. A third model parameter estimates the efficiency of the plants on the conversion of energy into transpiration, which is connected to amplitude of the diurnal fluctuations. The model parameters as well as time of maximum discharge and mean discharge are correlated to weather variables, such as wind speed, vapour pressure deficit and temperature.

Broer, M.; Eder, A.; Exner-Kittridge, M.; Straus, P.; Blöschl, G.

2012-04-01

238

Plant functional composition influences rates of soil carbon and nitrogen accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. The mechanisms controlling soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) accumulation are crucial for explaining why soils are major terrestrial C sinks. Such mechanisms have been mainly addressed by imposing short-term, step-changes in CO 2 , temperature and N fertilization rates on either monocultures or low-diversity plant assemblages. No studies have addressed the long-term effects of plant functional diversity

D. A. Fornara; D. Tilman

2008-01-01

239

Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for microorganisms that improve soil fertility and enhance plant nutrition has continued to attract attention due\\u000a to the increasing cost of fertilizers and some of their negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this greenhouse\\u000a study with tomato were to determine (1) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer coupled with microbial inoculants will produce\\u000a plant growth, yield, and nutrient

A. O. Adesemoye; H. A. Torbert; J. W. Kloepper

2009-01-01

240

Dispersal and colonisation of plants in lowland streams: success rates and bottlenecks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant dispersal and colonisation, including rates of dispersal, retention, colonisation and survival of dispersed propagules\\u000a (shoots and seeds), were studied in a 300-m stream reach in a macrophyte-rich lowland stream during one growing season. Relationships\\u000a between colonisation processes and simple flow parameters were tested. Each fortnight during a growing season, the number\\u000a of dispersed plant propagules and the number of

Tenna Riis

2008-01-01

241

Rate variation in parasitic plants: correlated and uncorrelated patterns among plastid genes of different function  

PubMed Central

Background The analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates of DNA change can help in the choice among competing explanations for rate variation, such as differences in constraint, mutation rate, or the strength of genetic drift. Nonphotosynthetic plants of the Orobanchaceae have increased rates of DNA change. In this study 38 taxa of Orobanchaceae and relatives were used and 3 plastid genes were sequenced for each taxon. Results Phylogenetic reconstructions of relative rates of sequence evolution for three plastid genes (rbcL, matK and rps2) show significant rate heterogeneity among lineages and among genes. Many of the non-photosynthetic plants have increases in both synonymous and nonsynonymous rates, indicating that both (1) selection is relaxed, and (2) there has been a change in the rate at which mutations are entering the population in these species. However, rate increases are not always immediate upon loss of photosynthesis. Overall there is a poor correlation of synonymous and nonsynonymous rates. There is, however, a strong correlation of synonymous rates across the 3 genes studied and the lineage-speccific pattern for each gene is strikingly similar. This indicates that the causes of synonymous rate variation are affecting the whole plastid genome in a similar way. There is a weaker correlation across genes for nonsynonymous rates. Here the picture is more complex, as could be expected if there are many causes of variation, differing from taxon to taxon and gene to gene. Conclusions The distinctive pattern of rate increases in Orobanchaceae has at least two causes. It is clear that there is a relaxation of constraint in many (though not all) non-photosynthetic lineages. However, there is also some force affecting synonymous sites as well. At this point, it is not possible to tell whether it is generation time, speciation rate, mutation rate, DNA repair efficiency or some combination of these factors. PMID:15713237

Young, Nelson D; dePamphilis, Claude W

2005-01-01

242

Initiating Event Rates at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants 1988–2013  

SciTech Connect

Analyzing initiating event rates is important because it indicates performance among plants and also provides inputs to several U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) risk-informed regulatory activities. This report presents an analysis of initiating event frequencies at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants since each plant’s low-power license date. The evaluation is based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1988 through 2013 as reported in licensee event reports. Engineers with nuclear power plant experience staff reviewed each event report since the last update to this report for the presence of valid scrams or reactor trips at power. To be included in the study, an event had to meet all of the following criteria: includes an unplanned reactor trip (not a scheduled reactor trip on the daily operations schedule), sequence of events starts when reactor is critical and at or above the point of adding heat, occurs at a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant (excluding Fort St. Vrain and LaCrosse), and is reported by a licensee event report. This report displays occurrence rates (baseline frequencies) for the categories of initiating events that contribute to the NRC’s Industry Trends Program. Sixteen initiating event groupings are trended and displayed. Initiators are plotted separately for initiating events with different occurrence rates for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. p-values are given for the possible presence of a trend over the most recent 10 years.

John A. Schroeder; Gordon R. Bower

2014-02-01

243

BroadScale Analysis Contradicts the Theory That Generation Time Affects Molecular Evolutionary Rates in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

  Abstract\\u000a \\u000a Several studies of plant taxa have concluded that generation time, including annual\\/perennial life history, may explain molecular\\u000a evolutionary rate variation in selectively neutral DNA. Unlike in animals, there is little theoretical basis for why generation-time\\u000a effects would exist in plants. Furthermore, previous reports fail to establish the generality of a generation-time effect\\u000a in plants because of the small size

Carrie-Ann Whittle; Mark O. Johnston

2003-01-01

244

Cancer rates after the Three Mile Island nuclear accident and proximity of residence to the plant.  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: In the light of a possible link between stress and cancer promotion or progression, and of previously reported distress in residents near the Three Mile Island (TMI) nuclear power plant, we attempted to evaluate the impact of the March 1979 accident on community cancer rates. METHODS: Proximity of residence to the plant, which related to distress in previous studies, was taken as a possible indicator of accident stress; the postaccident pattern in cancer rates was examined in 69 "study tracts" within a 10-mile radius of TMI, in relation to residential proximity. RESULTS: A modest association was found between postaccident cancer rates and proximity (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.3, 1.6). After adjusting for a gradient in cancer risk prior to the accident, the odds ratio contrasting those closest to the plant with those living farther out was 1.2 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.4). A postaccident increase in cancer rates near the Three Mile Island plant was notable in 1982, persisted for another year, and then declined. Radiation emissions, as modeled mathematically, did not account for the observed increase. CONCLUSION: Interpretation in terms of accident stress is limited by the lack of an individual measure of stress and by uncertainty about whether stress has a biological effect on cancer in humans. An alternative mechanism for the cancer increase near the plant is through changes in care-seeking and diagnostic practice arising from postaccident concern. PMID:2029040

Hatch, M C; Wallenstein, S; Beyea, J; Nieves, J W; Susser, M

1991-01-01

245

Numerical analysis of gas separator with thermal transpiration in micro channels II  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A membrane gas separator which operates with only a small temperature difference across a membrane is designed, and its capability is numerically proved. The separator system consists of three Knudsen pumps - a motionless pump that utilizes the thermal transpiration of the rarefied gas. Each pump is composed of a porous membrane and one channel along each of the two surfaces of the membrane. Two of the pumps induce a variation of mole fraction using a combination of the thermal transpiration and pressure driven flow through the membrane, and the other one provides the former two pumps with a required pressure difference. This paper reports the first numerical calculations that demonstrate a neon-argon binary gas mixture can be separated into pure neon gas and argon gas with the proposed design. The temperature difference is no more than 90 K, and the total length of the membrane is ˜ 15 cm at standard ambient temperature and pressure. The production rate of the separator is proportional to the width of the membrane. For example, when the width is 10 cm, the flow rates of the product gases are 0.8 sccm for argon and 1.9 sccm for neon.

Nakaye, Shoeji; Sugimoto, Hiroshi

2014-12-01

246

Bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.  

PubMed

Bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (Juncus effusus, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. Bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial C mg of detritus-1 day-1. The three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per milligram of detritus, in accordance with the predicted biodegradability of the plant material based on initial nitrogen content, lignin content, and C/N ratio. Bacterial production also varied throughout the 22 weeks of in situ decomposition and was positively related to the nitrogen content and lignin content of the remaining detritus, as well as to the temperature of the lake water. Over time, production was negatively related to the C/N ratio and cellulose content of the degrading plant material. Bacterial production on degrading plant material was also calculated on the basis of plant surface area and ranged from 0.17 to 1.98 micrograms of bacterial C cm-2 day-1. Surface area-based calculations did not correlate well with either initial plant composition or changing composition of the remaining detritus during decomposition. The rate of bacterial detritus degradation, calculated from measured production of surface-attached bacteria, was much lower than the actual rate of weight loss of plant material. This discrepancy may be attributable to the importance of nonbacterial organisms in the degradation and loss of plant material from litterbags or to the microbially mediated solubilization of particulate material prior to bacterial utilization, or both. PMID:2802603

Moran, M A; Hodson, R E

1989-09-01

247

Bacterial secondary production on vascular plant detritus: relationships to detritus composition and degradation rate.  

PubMed Central

Bacterial production at the expense of vascular plant detritus was measured for three emergent plant species (Juncus effusus, Panicum hemitomon, and Typha latifolia) degrading in the littoral zone of a thermally impacted lake. Bacterial secondary production, measured as tritiated thymidine incorporation into DNA, ranged from 0.01 to 0.81 microgram of bacterial C mg of detritus-1 day-1. The three plant species differed with respect to the amount of bacterial productivity they supported per milligram of detritus, in accordance with the predicted biodegradability of the plant material based on initial nitrogen content, lignin content, and C/N ratio. Bacterial production also varied throughout the 22 weeks of in situ decomposition and was positively related to the nitrogen content and lignin content of the remaining detritus, as well as to the temperature of the lake water. Over time, production was negatively related to the C/N ratio and cellulose content of the degrading plant material. Bacterial production on degrading plant material was also calculated on the basis of plant surface area and ranged from 0.17 to 1.98 micrograms of bacterial C cm-2 day-1. Surface area-based calculations did not correlate well with either initial plant composition or changing composition of the remaining detritus during decomposition. The rate of bacterial detritus degradation, calculated from measured production of surface-attached bacteria, was much lower than the actual rate of weight loss of plant material. This discrepancy may be attributable to the importance of nonbacterial organisms in the degradation and loss of plant material from litterbags or to the microbially mediated solubilization of particulate material prior to bacterial utilization, or both. PMID:2802603

Moran, M A; Hodson, R E

1989-01-01

248

Effects of floral display size and plant density on pollinator visitation rate in a natural population of Digitalis purpurea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1. Pollinator visitation patterns in relation to variation in floral display size may be modified both quantitatively and qualitatively by local plant density. In this study four measures of pollinator response by Bombus spp. (plant visitation rate, bout length, proportion of flowers visited, flower visitation rate) were investigated under two or three different plant densities in two consecutive years

J. M. GRINDELAND; N. SLETVOLD; R. A. IMS

2005-01-01

249

HTRATE; Heat-Rate Improvement Obtained by Retubing Power-Plant Condenser Enhanced Tubes  

SciTech Connect

A utility will only retube a condenser with enhanced tubes if the incremental cost of the enhanced tubes can be offset with reduced fuel costs. The reduced fuel cost is obtained for some units because of the higher heat-transfer coefficient of enhanced tubes. They lead to improved condenser performance measured by a lower condenser pressure and therefore a more efficient power plant. However, the higher haet-transfer coefficients do not always guarantee that enhanced tubes will be more cost effective. Other issues must be considered such as the cooling-water flow reduction due to the increased pressure drop, the low-pressure turbine heat-rate variation with backpressure, and the cooling-water pump and system characteristics. These and other parameters must be considered to calculate the efficiency improvement of the power plant as commonly measured by the quantity known as the heat rate. Knowing the heat-rate improvement, the fuel cost, and the incremental increase of the enhanced tubes from the supplier, the payback time can be determined. This program calculates the heat-rate improvement that can be obtained by retubing a power plant condenser with enhanced tubes of a particular type called Korodense LPD made by Wolverine Tube, Inc. The fuel savings are easily established knowing the heat-rate improvement. All electrical utilities are potential users because a condenser is used as the heat sink for every power plant.

Rabas, T.J. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

1990-06-01

250

Simulation of Water Transport in the Soil-Plant - System.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this dissertation is to develop a mechanistic model of water transport in the soil-plant -atmosphere system that describes the plant's physical expression of water stress to study the effects of environmental factors, and plant hydraulic and physical properties on plant water transport. The model includes soil moisture uptake, soil heat and water transfer, evapotranspiration, and energy partitioning in the canopy and at the soil surface. The model inputs are: daily weather data (air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation); initial soil moisture and temperature profiles; plant characteristics; root density; and soil hydraulic properties. The model user may select from a number of outputs. Principal outputs include: leaf resistance, leaf temperature, soil moisture profile and evapotranspiration rate. The model describes a feedback mechanism by which transpiration controls leaf water potential, leaf water potential influences leaf resistance, and leaf resistance which, in turn, controls transpiration. The simulation runs represented the energy partitioning in the canopy and at the soil surface, and the diurnal variation of temperatures and vapor pressures of the leaf, the canopy air, and the soil surface. The relationships of leaf water potential to soil water potential, leaf resistance and transpiration were also presented. In addition, results show that root water extraction is related to the root length density profile and the soil moisture profile. The model mechanistically describes the water transport in the soil-plant-atmosphere system. The results of model validation indicated that the model is capable of simulating plant water transport under natural conditions with reasonable accuracy. Results show that the model simulates the basic features of the system including feedback processes. The sensitivity studies show that the model may be used to study plant water response to environmental factors and plant properties. The model is also useful for estimating evapotranspiration and the soil moisture profile and may provide information for irrigation and soil water management. (Abstract shortened with permission of author.).

Guo, Yimei

1992-01-01

251

Somatic deleterious mutation rate in a woody plant: estimation from phenotypic data  

PubMed Central

We conducted controlled crosses in populations of the long-lived clonal shrub, Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) to estimate inbreeding depression and mutation parameters associated with somatic deleterious mutation. Inbreeding depression level was high, with many plants failing to set fruit after self-pollination. We also compared fruit set from autogamous pollinations (pollen collected from within the same inflorescence) with fruit set from geitonogamous pollinations (pollen collected from the same plant but from inflorescences separated by several meters of branch growth). The difference between geitonogamous versus autogamous fitness within single plants is referred to as ‘autogamy depression' (AD). AD can be caused by somatic deleterious mutation. AD was significantly different from zero for fruit set. We developed a maximum-likelihood procedure to estimate somatic mutation parameters from AD, and applied it to geitonogamous and autogamous fruit set data from this experiment. We infer that, on average, approximately three sublethal, partially dominant somatic mutations exist within the crowns of the plants studied. We conclude that somatic mutation in this woody plant results in an overall genomic deleterious mutation rate that exceeds the rate measured to date for annual plants. Some implications of this result for evolutionary biology and agriculture are discussed. PMID:23778990

Bobiwash, K; Schultz, S T; Schoen, D J

2013-01-01

252

Somatic deleterious mutation rate in a woody plant: estimation from phenotypic data.  

PubMed

We conducted controlled crosses in populations of the long-lived clonal shrub, Vaccinium angustifolium (lowbush blueberry) to estimate inbreeding depression and mutation parameters associated with somatic deleterious mutation. Inbreeding depression level was high, with many plants failing to set fruit after self-pollination. We also compared fruit set from autogamous pollinations (pollen collected from within the same inflorescence) with fruit set from geitonogamous pollinations (pollen collected from the same plant but from inflorescences separated by several meters of branch growth). The difference between geitonogamous versus autogamous fitness within single plants is referred to as 'autogamy depression' (AD). AD can be caused by somatic deleterious mutation. AD was significantly different from zero for fruit set. We developed a maximum-likelihood procedure to estimate somatic mutation parameters from AD, and applied it to geitonogamous and autogamous fruit set data from this experiment. We infer that, on average, approximately three sublethal, partially dominant somatic mutations exist within the crowns of the plants studied. We conclude that somatic mutation in this woody plant results in an overall genomic deleterious mutation rate that exceeds the rate measured to date for annual plants. Some implications of this result for evolutionary biology and agriculture are discussed. PMID:23778990

Bobiwash, K; Schultz, S T; Schoen, D J

2013-10-01

253

Global variation in diversification rates of flowering plants: energy vs. climate change  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used the largest DNA-based phylogeny of flowering plants to date to evaluate the importance of energy vs. past climate change in predicting global patterns in diversification. Relative diversification rates increased towards the equator, suggesting that differences in per-lineage net diversification may be an important component of the latitudinal diversity gradient. The amplitude of Quaternary climate oscillations experienced by families

Roland Jansson; T. Jonathan Davies

254

Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates  

SciTech Connect

Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

2005-06-01

255

Development of saline ground water through transpiration of sea water.  

PubMed

As vegetation usually excludes salt during water uptake, transpiration will increase the salinity of the residual water. If the source water is sea water, then the residual water may become highly saline. In the unconfined coastal aquifer of the tropical Burdekin River delta, northeastern Australia, areas of highly saline ground water with chloride concentrations up to almost three times that of sea water occur up to 15 km from the present coastline, and are attributed to transpiration by mangrove vegetation during periods of high sea level. Radiogenic ((14)C) carbon isotope analyses indicate that ground water with chloride concentrations between 15,000 and 35,000 mg/L is mostly between 4000 and 6000 years old, at which time sea level was 2 to 3 m higher than present. Stable isotope analyses of oxygen-18 and deuterium show no evidence for evaporative enrichment of this water. Oxygen-18, deuterium, and stable (delta(13)C) carbon isotope analyses of ground water and soil water point to a recharge environment beneath the mangrove forests during this postglacial sea level high stand. During that period, transpiration of the mangrove forests would have led to high chloride concentrations in the residual ground water, without inducing isotopic fractionation. Due to the higher density, this hypersaline water moved downward through the aquifer by gravity and has formed lenses of highly saline ground water at the bottom of the unconfined aquifer. PMID:17973748

Fass, T; Cook, P G; Stieglitz, T; Herczeg, A L

2007-01-01

256

Porous Ceramic Coating for Transpiration Cooling of Gas Turbine Blade  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A transpiration cooling system for gas turbine applications has significant benefit for reducing the amount of cooling air and increasing cooling efficiency. In this paper, the porous ceramic coating, which can infiltrate cooling gas, is developed with plasma spraying process, and the properties of the porous coating material such as permeability of cooling gas, thermal conductivity, and adhesion strength are examined. The mixture of 8 wt.% yttria-stabilized zirconia and polyester powders was employed as the coating material, in order to deposit the porous ceramic coating onto Ni-based super alloy substrate. It was shown that the porous ceramic coating has superior permeability for cooling gas. The adhesion strength of the porous coating was low only 20% compared with the thermal barrier coating utilized in current gas turbine blades. Simulation test of hot gas flow around the gas turbine blade verified remarkable reduction of the coating surface temperature by the transpiration cooling mechanism. It was concluded that the transpiration cooling system for the gas turbine could be achieved using the porous ceramic coating developed in this study.

Arai, M.; Suidzu, T.

2013-06-01

257

The Effect of Differential Growth Rates across Plants on Spectral Predictions of Physiological Parameters  

PubMed Central

Leaves of various ages and positions in a plant's canopy can present distinct physiological, morphological and anatomical characteristics, leading to complexities in selecting a single leaf for spectral representation of an entire plant. A fortiori, as growth rates between canopies differ, spectral-based comparisons across multiple plants – often based on leaves' position but not age – becomes an even more challenging mission. This study explores the effect of differential growth rates on the reflectance variability between leaves of different canopies, and its implication on physiological predictions made by widely-used spectral indices. Two distinct irrigation treatments were applied for one month, in order to trigger the formation of different growth rates between two groups of grapevines. Throughout the experiment, the plants were physiologically and morphologically monitored, while leaves from every part of their canopies were spectrally and histologically sampled. As the control vines were constantly developing new leaves, the water deficit plants were experiencing growth inhibition, resulting in leaves of different age at similar nodal position across the treatments. This modification of the age-position correlation was characterized by a near infrared reflectance difference between younger and older leaves, which was found to be exponentially correlated (R2?=?0.98) to the age-dependent area of intercellular air spaces within the spongy parenchyma. Overall, the foliage of the control plant became more spectrally variable, creating complications for intra- and inter-treatment leaf-based comparisons. Of the derived indices, the Structure-Insensitive Pigment Index (SIPI) was found indifferent to the age-position effect, allowing the treatments to be compared at any nodal position, while a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)-based stomatal conductance prediction was substantially affected by differential growth rates. As various biotic and abiotic factors may form distinctions in growth, future precision agriculture studies should consider its spectral effect on physiological predictions. PMID:24523946

Rapaport, Tal; Hochberg, Uri; Rachmilevitch, Shimon; Karnieli, Arnon

2014-01-01

258

Transpiration, and Nitrogen Uptake and Flow in Two Maize (Zea mays L.) Inbred Lines as Affected by Nitrogen Supply  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The influence of two nitrogen (N) levels on growth, water relations, and N uptake and flow was investigated in two different inbred lines of maize (N-efficient Zi330 and N-inefficient Chen94-11) to analyse the differences in N uptake and cycling within a plant. Methods Xylem sap from different leaves of the inbred lines cultured in quartz sand was collected by application of pressure to the root system. Plant transpiration was measured on a daily basis by weighing five pots of each of the treatments. Key Results N-efficient Zi330 had a higher relative growth rate and water-use efficiency at both high (4 mm) and low (0·08 mm) N levels. At a high N level, the amount of N taken up was similar for the two inbred lines; the amount of N transported in the xylem and retranslocated in the phloem was slight greater in Chen94-11 than in Zi330. At a low N level, however, the total amount of N taken up, transported in the xylem and retranslocated in the phloem of Zi330 was 2·2, 2·7 and 2·7 times more, respectively, than that of Chen94-11. Independent of inbred line and N level, the amounts of N transported in the xylem and cycled in the phloem were far more than that taken up by roots at the same time. Low N supply shifted NO3?1 reduction towards the roots. The major nitrogenous compound in the xylem sap was NO3?1, when plants grew at the high N level, while amino acid-N was predominant when plants grew at the low N level. Conclusions The N-efficient maize inbred line Zi330 had a higher ability to take up N and cycle N within the plant than N-inefficient Chen94-11 when grown under N-deficiency. PMID:17088295

Niu, Junfang; Chen, Fanjun; Mi, Guohua; Li, Chunjian; Zhang, Fusuo

2007-01-01

259

Modeling Hydrogen Generation Rates in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant  

SciTech Connect

This presentation describes a project in which Hanford Site and Environmental Management Science Program investigators addressed issues concerning hydrogen generation rates in the Hanford waste treatment and immobilization plant. The hydrogen generation rates of radioactive wastes must be estimated to provide for safe operations. While an existing model satisfactorily predicts rates for quiescent wastes in Hanford underground storage tanks, pretreatment operations will alter the conditions and chemical composition of these wastes. Review of the treatment process flowsheet identified specific issues requiring study to ascertain whether the model would provide conservative values for waste streams in the plant. These include effects of adding hydroxide ion, alpha radiolysis, saturation with air (oxygen) from pulse-jet mixing, treatment with potassium permanganate, organic compounds from degraded ion exchange resins and addition of glass-former chemicals. The effects were systematically investigated through literature review, technical analyses and experimental work.

Camaioni, Donald M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Hallen, Richard T.; Sherwood, David J.; Stock, Leon M.

2004-03-29

260

Contrasting roles of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of land evaporation to local and remote precipitation (i.e., moisture recycling) has been extensively studied and is found to be of significant importance for water resources, agriculture and ecosystems. Our paper is the first research to present moisture recycling metrics for partitioned evaporation. We use a new land surface model (STEM) to compute land evaporation partitioned into canopy and ground interception (i.e., the fast feedbacks), and transpiration and open water evaporation (i.e., the slow feedbacks). We also use a numerical moisture tracking model (WAM-2layers, with atmospheric variables taken from ERA-Interim) to track the components of land evaporation separately, backward as well as forward in time. Moreover, we include age tracers to study the lifetime of these components. The origin and fate of the fast and slow vapor feedbacks appear to be very different. Global maps indicate that evaporated interception is more likely to return as precipitation on land than transpired water. On average, evaporation from interception is found to have an atmospheric residence time of nine days, while transpiration typically resides ten days in the atmosphere. In the figure it can be seen that interception evaporation recycling has much shorter length scales than transpiration evaporation recycling, thus interception generally precipitates closer to its evaporative source. We conclude that interception mainly works as an intensifier of the local hydrological cycle during wet spells. On the other hand, transpiration is very active during dry spells and is transported over much larger distances downwind where it can act as an important source of moisture, especially during the onset and decline of the rainy period. Land use changes (e.g., forest to cropland conversion) were already known to have an impact on the magnitude of moisture recycling, but here we show that even when total annual evaporation remains equal, a different partitioning will result in different moisture recycling patterns and hence a redistribution of water resources. As such, this research highlights that land use changes can have complex effects on the atmospheric part of the hydrological cycle.

van der Ent, R.; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Keys, P.; Savenije, H.

2013-12-01

261

Improved growth, productivity and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants through application of shikimic acid  

PubMed Central

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of seed presoaking of shikimic acid (30, 60 and 120 ppm) on growth parameters, fruit productivity and quality, transpiration rate, photosynthetic pigments and some mineral nutrition contents of tomato plants. Shikimic acid at all concentrations significantly increased fresh and dry weights, fruit number, average fresh and dry fruit yield, vitamin C, lycopene, carotenoid contents, total acidity and fruit total soluble sugars of tomato plants when compared to control plants. Seed pretreatment with shikimic acid at various doses induces a significant increase in total leaf conductivity, transpiration rate and photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, chl. b and carotenoids) of tomato plants. Furthermore, shikimic acid at various doses applied significantly increased the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in tomato leaves as compared to control non-treated tomato plants. Among all doses of shikimic acid treatment, it was found that 60 ppm treatment caused a marked increase in growth, fruit productivity and quality and most studied parameters of tomato plants when compared to other treatments. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in total photosynthetic pigments, concentrations of nitrogen and potassium in leaves of tomato plants treated with 30 ppm of shikimic acid and control plants. According to these results, it could be suggested that shikimic acid used for seed soaking could be used for increasing growth, fruit productivity and quality of tomato plants growing under field conditions. PMID:24235870

Al-Amri, Salem M.

2013-01-01

262

Improved growth, productivity and quality of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants through application of shikimic acid.  

PubMed

A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of seed presoaking of shikimic acid (30, 60 and 120 ppm) on growth parameters, fruit productivity and quality, transpiration rate, photosynthetic pigments and some mineral nutrition contents of tomato plants. Shikimic acid at all concentrations significantly increased fresh and dry weights, fruit number, average fresh and dry fruit yield, vitamin C, lycopene, carotenoid contents, total acidity and fruit total soluble sugars of tomato plants when compared to control plants. Seed pretreatment with shikimic acid at various doses induces a significant increase in total leaf conductivity, transpiration rate and photosynthetic pigments (Chl. a, chl. b and carotenoids) of tomato plants. Furthermore, shikimic acid at various doses applied significantly increased the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in tomato leaves as compared to control non-treated tomato plants. Among all doses of shikimic acid treatment, it was found that 60 ppm treatment caused a marked increase in growth, fruit productivity and quality and most studied parameters of tomato plants when compared to other treatments. On the other hand, no significant differences were observed in total photosynthetic pigments, concentrations of nitrogen and potassium in leaves of tomato plants treated with 30 ppm of shikimic acid and control plants. According to these results, it could be suggested that shikimic acid used for seed soaking could be used for increasing growth, fruit productivity and quality of tomato plants growing under field conditions. PMID:24235870

Al-Amri, Salem M

2013-10-01

263

Arabidopsis mutants of AtABCG22, an ABC transporter gene, increase water transpiration and drought susceptibility.  

PubMed

In plants, water vapour is released into the atmosphere through stomata in a process called transpiration. Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key phytohormone that facilitates stomatal closure through its action on guard cells. Recently, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes, AtABCG25 and AtABCG40, were shown to be involved in ABA transport and responses. However, the functions of many other AtABCG family genes are still unknown. Here, we identified another ABCG gene (AtABCG22) that is required for stomatal regulation in Arabidopsis. The atabcg22 mutant plants had lower leaf temperatures and increased water loss, implying elevated transpiration through an influence on stomatal regulation. We also found that atabcg22 plants were more suspectible to drought stress than wild-type plants. AtABCG22 was expressed in aerial organs, mainly guard cells, in which the gene expression pattern was consistent with the mutant phenotypes. Using double mutants, we investigated the genetic relationships between the mutations. The atabcg22 mutation further increased the water loss of srk2e/ost1 mutants, which were defective in ABA signalling in guard cells. Also, the atabcg22 mutation enhanced the phenotype of nced3 mutants, which were defective in ABA biosynthesis. Accordingly, the additive roles of AtABCG22 functions in ABA signalling and ABA biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:21575091

Kuromori, Takashi; Sugimoto, Eriko; Shinozaki, Kazuo

2011-09-01

264

Transpiration and water use efficiency in native chilean and exotic species, a usefull tool for catchment management?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Land-use and forest cover change play important roles in socio-economic processes and have been linked with water supply and other ecosystem services in various regions of the world. Water yield from watersheds is a major ecosystem service for human activities but has been altered by landscape management superimposed on climatic variability and change. Sustaining ecosystem services important to humans, while providing a dependable water supply for agriculture and urban needs is a major challenge faced by managers of human-dominated or increased antropical effect over watersheds. Since water is mostly consumed by vegetation (i.e: transpiration), which strongly depends on trees physiological characteristics (i.e: foliar area, transpiration capacity) are very important. The quantity of water consumed by plantations is influenced mainly by forest characteristics (species physiology, age and management), catchment water retention capacity and meteorological characteristics. Eventhough in Chile, the forest sector accounts for 3.6% of the gross domestic product (GDP) and 12.5% of total exports (INFOR, 2003), afforestation with fast growing exotic species has ended up being socially and politically questionable because of the supposed impact on the environment and water resources. We present data of trees transpiration and water use efficiency from three headwater catchments: (a) second growth native evergreen forest (Aetoxicon punctatum, Drimys winterii, Gevuina avellana, Laureliopsis philippiana); (b) Eucalyptus globulus plantation, and (c) a mixed native deciduous (Nothofagus obliqua and some evergreen species) forest and Eucalyptus globulus and Acacia melanoxylon plantation located at the Coastal Mountain Range in southern Chile (40°S). Annual transpiration rates ranged from 1.24 ± 0.41 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.022 ± 0.009 L•m-2•s-1) for E. globulus, while the lowest observed was for L. philippiana 0.44 ± 0.31 mol•m-2•s-1 (0.008 ± 0.006 L•m-2•s-1). However water use efficiency for E. globulus, was the lowest observed (6.78 ± 8.92 ?mol•mol-1) compared to native species, 7.45 ± 4.41 ?mol•mol-1 for A. punctatum which showed the lowest value (p < 0.05). Preliminary results show, that the E. globulus has the highest transpiration rate, but the lowest water use efficiency values, compared to native evergreen and deciduous species. Nevertheless E. globulus showed the highest photosyntethic rate values, which finally traduces that E. globulus is a fast growing, big water drinker but it's less efficient than most native trees used in this experiment. Acknowledges This research has been supported by FONDECYT 1090345. Mr. Hervé-Fernández wishes to thank BECAS CHILE for his scholarship.

Hervé-Fernández, P.; Oyarzun, C. E.

2012-04-01

265

Microclimatological and Physiological Controls of Stomatal Conductance and Transpiration of Co-Occurring Seedlings with Varying Shade Tolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forest ecosystems provide a significant portion of fresh water to the hydrologic cycle through transpiration, the majority of which is supplied by saplings and mature trees. However, a smaller, yet measurable, proportion is also supplied by seedlings. The contribution of seedlings is dependent upon physiological characteristics of the species, whose range of habitat is ultimately controlled by microclimate. The objectives of this study were to (1) observe meteorological conditions of two forest microlimates and (2) assess the intra- and interspecific stomatal conductance and transpiration responses of naturally occurring seedlings of varying shade tolerance. Naturally established seedlings in a deciduous forest understory and an adjacent clearing were monitored throughout the 2008 growing season in southeastern Pennsylvania (39°49'N, 75°43'W). Clear spatial and temporal trends of stomatal conductance and transpiration were observed throughout this study. The understory microclimate conditions overall had a lower degree of variability and had consistently lower mean quantum flux density, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit, volumetric water content, and soil temperature than the clearing plot. Shade tolerant understory seedlings (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech) and Prunus serotina L. (black cherry)) had significantly lower mean monthly rates of water loss (p = 0.05) than shade intolerant clearing seedlings (P. serotina and Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar)). Additionally, water loss by shade grown P. serotina was significantly lower (p = 0.05) than by sun grown P. serotina. Significant intraspecific responses (p = 0.05) were also observed on a monthly basis, with the exception of L. tulipifera. These findings indicate that physiological differences, specifically shade tolerance, play an important role in determining rates of stomatal conductance and transpiration in tree seedlings. To a lesser degree, microclimate variability was also shown to influence rates stomatal conductance and transpiration (3.6% and 7.8% in the understory and 8.2% and 23.2% in the clearing, respectively). Field validations are critical to developing better models and forest management strategies and therefore the results of this study may serve to validate those obtained in previous studies conducted largely under controlled conditions.

Siegert, C. M.; Levia, D. F.

2010-12-01

266

Changes in vascular and transpiration flows affect the seasonal and daily growth of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) berry  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims The kiwifruit berry is characterized by an early stage of rapid growth, followed by a relatively long stage of slow increase in size. Vascular and transpiration flows are the main processes through which water and carbon enter/exit the fruit, determining the daily and seasonal changes in fruit size. This work investigates the biophysical mechanisms underpinning the change in fruit growth rate during the season. Methods The daily patterns of phloem, xylem and transpiration in/outflows have been determined at several stages of kiwifruit development, during two seasons. The different flows were quantified by comparing the diurnal patterns of diameter change of fruit, which were then girdled and subsequently detached while measurements continued. The diurnal courses of leaf and stem water potential and of fruit pressure potential were also monitored at different times during the season. Key Results Xylem and transpiration flows were high during the first period of rapid volume growth and sharply decreased with fruit development. Specific phloem import was lower and gradually decreased during the season, whereas it remained constant at whole-fruit level, in accordance with fruit dry matter gain. On a daily basis, transpiration always responded to vapour pressure deficit and contributed to the daily reduction of fruit hydrostatic pressure. Xylem flow was positively related to stem-to-fruit pressure potential gradient during the first but not the last part of the season, when xylem conductivity appeared to be reduced. Conclusions The fruit growth model adopted by this species changes during the season due to anatomical modifications in the fruit features. PMID:20382641

Morandi, Brunella; Manfrini, Luigi; Losciale, Pasquale; Zibordi, Marco; Corelli Grappadelli, Luca

2010-01-01

267

A quantitative application of the thermoelectric method for measuring water uptake by cotton plants  

E-print Network

they measured sap veloc- ties in intact plants with a minimum of injury (8). Dixon (9) measured flow rates in a branch of a young ash tree by using a thermocouple arrangement for detecting heat f'low. His results indicated mass flow in the stem both upward... oxy- gen and carbon dioxide levels within the soil could be detected. The thermoelectric method is based on the assumption that since Personal Communication. most of the water absorbed by plants is transpired, the rate of sap flow in the stem is a...

Naghshineh-Pour, Bahman

2012-06-07

268

Rep-rated Z-Pinch Power Plant Concept - Direct Energy Conversion and Shrapnel Generation*  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We are developing direct energy conversion schemes and shrapnel generation models to be used to optimize a high yield z-pinch IFE power plant concept. The concept uses high yield ( 10 GJ) at low rep-rate ( 0.1 Hz), with a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to provide the necessary standoff between the fusion target and the power plant chamber. The RTL would be cast out of a conventional power plant coolant material (such as Li or Flibe) that can be used to absorb the fusion energy, breed tritium, and mitigate the shock to the first wall. Current results of initial work on this concept will be discussed. *Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy Under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

de Groot, John S.; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels; Miller, Greg; Olsen, Craig L.; Rochau, Gary E.; Derzon, Mark S.; Slutz, Steven A.; Spielman, Rick B.; Peterson, Per F.; Rochau, Gregory A.; Pederson, Robert R.

2000-10-01

269

Plant-driven variation in decomposition rates improves projections of global litter stock distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter stocks are critical, regionally for their role in fueling fire regimes and controlling soil fertility, and globally through their feedback to atmospheric CO2 and climate. Here we employ two global databases linking plant functional types to decomposition rates of wood and leaf litter (Cornwell et al., 2008; Weedon et al., 2009) to improve future projections of climate and carbon cycle using an intermediate complexity Earth system model. Implementing separate wood and leaf litter decomposabilities and their temperature sensitivities for a range of plant functional types yielded a more realistic distribution of litter stocks in all present biomes with except of boreal forests and projects a strong increase in global litter stocks and a concomitant small decrease in atmospheric CO2 by the end of this century. Despite a relatively strong increase in litter stocks, the modified parameterization results in less elevated wildfire emissions because of litter redistribution towards more humid regions.

Brovkin, V.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Kleinen, T.; Wirth, C.; Cornwell, W.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Kattge, J.

2011-08-01

270

Plant-driven variation in decomposition rates improves projections of global litter stock distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant litter stocks are critical, regionally for their role in fueling fire regimes and controlling soil fertility, and globally through their feedback to atmospheric CO2 and climate. Here we employ two global databases linking plant functional types to decomposition rates of wood and leaf litter (Cornwell et al., 2008; Weedon et al., 2009) to improve future projections of climate and carbon cycle using an intermediate complexity Earth System model. Implementing separate wood and leaf litter decomposabilities and their temperature sensitivities for a range of plant functional types yielded a more realistic distribution of litter stocks in all present biomes with the exception of boreal forests and projects a strong increase in global litter stocks by 35 Gt C and a concomitant small decrease in atmospheric CO2 by 3 ppm by the end of this century. Despite a relatively strong increase in litter stocks, the modified parameterization results in less elevated wildfire emissions because of a litter redistribution towards more humid regions.

Brovkin, V.; van Bodegom, P. M.; Kleinen, T.; Wirth, C.; Cornwell, W. K.; Cornelissen, J. H. C.; Kattge, J.

2012-01-01

271

Mycorrhizal association between the desert truffle Terfezia boudieri and Helianthemum sessiliflorum alters plant physiology and fitness to arid conditions.  

PubMed

The host plant Helianthemum sessiliflorum was inoculated with the mycorrhizal desert truffle Terfezia boudieri Chatin, and the subsequent effects of the ectomycorrhizal relationship on host physiology were determined. Diurnal measurements revealed that mycorrhizal (M) plants had higher rates of photosynthesis (35%), transpiration (18%), and night respiration (49%) than non-mycorrhizal (NM) plants. Consequently, M plants exhibited higher biomass accumulation, higher shoot-to-root ratios, and improved water use efficiency compared to NM plants. Total chlorophyll content was higher in M plants, and the ratio between chlorophyll a to chlorophyll b was altered in M plants. The increase in chlorophyll b content was significantly higher than the increase in chlorophyll a content (2.58- and 1.52-fold, respectively) compared to control. Calculation of the photosynthetic activation energy indicated lower energy requirements for CO(2) assimilation in M plants than in NM plants (48.62 and 61.56 kJ mol(-1), respectively). Continuous measurements of CO(2) exchange and transpiration in M plants versus NM plants provided a complete picture of the daily physiological differences brought on by the ectomycorrhizal relationships. The enhanced competence of M plants to withstand the harsh environmental conditions of the desert is discussed in view of the mycorrhizal-derived alterations in host physiology. PMID:21416258

Turgeman, Tidhar; Asher, Jiftach Ben; Roth-Bejerano, Nurit; Kagan-Zur, Varda; Kapulnik, Yoram; Sitrit, Yaron

2011-10-01

272

Estimation of the in vivo recombination rate for a plant RNA virus.  

PubMed

Phylogenomic evidence suggested that recombination is an important evolutionary force for potyviruses, one of the larger families of plant RNA viruses. However, mixed-genotype potyvirus infections are marked by low levels of cellular coinfection, precluding template switching and recombination events between virus genotypes during genomic RNA replication. To reconcile these conflicting observations, we evaluated the in vivo recombination rate (rg) of Tobacco etch virus (TEV; genus Potyvirus, family Potyviridae) by coinfecting plants with pairs of genotypes marked with engineered restriction sites as neutral markers. The recombination rate was then estimated using two different approaches: (i) a classical approach that assumed recombination between marked genotypes can occur in the whole virus population, rendering an estimate of rg = 7.762 × 10(-8) recombination events per nucleotide site per generation, and (ii) an alternative method that assumed recombination between marked genotypes can occur only in coinfected cells, rendering a much higher estimate of rg = 3.427 × 10(-5) recombination events per nucleotide site per generation. This last estimate is similar to the TEV mutation rate, suggesting that recombination should be at least as important as point mutation in creating variability. Finally, we compared our mutation and recombination rate estimates to those reported for animal RNA viruses. Our analysis suggested that high recombination rates may be an unavoidable consequence of selection for fast replication at the cost of low fidelity. PMID:24362963

Tromas, Nicolas; Zwart, Mark P; Poulain, Maïté; Elena, Santiago F

2014-03-01

273

Extinction rate estimates for plant populations in revisitation studies: Importance of detectability  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many researchers have obtained extinction-rate estimates for plant populations by comparing historical and current records of occurrence. A population that is no longer found is assumed to have gone extinct. Extinction can then be related to characteristics of these populations, such as habitat type, size, or species, to test ideas about what factors may affect extinction. Such studies neglect the fact that a population may be overlooked, however, which may bias estimates of extinction rates upward. In addition, if populations are unequally detectable across groups to be compared, such as habitat type or population size, comparisons become distorted to an unknown degree. To illustrate the problem, I simulated two data sets, assuming a constant extinction rate, in which populations occurred in different habitats or habitats of different size and these factors affected their detectability The conventional analysis implicitly assumed that detectability equalled 1 and used logistic regression to estimate extinction rates. It wrongly identified habitat and population size as factors affecting extinction risk. In contrast, with capture-recapture methods, unbiased estimates of extinction rates were recovered. I argue that capture-recapture methods should be considered more often in estimations of demographic parameters in plant populations and communities.

Kery, M.

2004-01-01

274

The rates of shoot and root growth in intact plants of pea mutants in leaf morphology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isogenic lines of pea (Pisum sativum L.) with the genetically determined changes in leaf morphology, afila (af) and tendril-less (tl), were used to study the relationship between shoot and root growth rates. The time-course of shoot and root growth was followed\\u000a during the pre-floral period in the intact plants grown under similar conditions. The af mutation produced afila leaves without

E. M. Kof; I. A. Vinogradova; A. S. Oorzhak; Z. V. Kalibernaya

2006-01-01

275

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) response to clomazone as influenced by rate, soil type, and planting date  

E-print Network

RICE (Oryza sativa L.) RESPONSE TO CLOMAZONE AS INFLUENCED BY RATE, SOIL TYPE, AND PLANTING DATE A Dissertation by JOHN HOUSTON O?BARR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Dissertation by JOHN HOUSTON O?BARR Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved as to style and content by...

O'Barr, John Houston

2006-08-16

276

Photosynthesis in intact leaves of C 3 plants: Physics, physiology and rate limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The instantaneous rate of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in C3 plants has generally been studied in model systems such as isolated chloroplasts and algae. From these studies and from theoretical\\u000a analyses of gas exchange behavior it is now possible to study the biochemistry of photosynthesis in intact leaves using a\\u000a combination of methods, most of which are nondestructive.\\u000a \\u000a The limitations to

Thomas D. Sharkey

1985-01-01

277

Transpiration of an oak forest as predicted from porometer and weather data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transpiration of an oak forest located on one of the Castricum lysimeters is predicted from the Penman-Monteith equation and a model of canopy conductance based on porometer measurements of stomatal conductance. An upper limit to daily transpiration of 2.1 mm is introduced to regulate daily water loss. The model predicts transpiration to within 10% of observed losses on a seasonal basis. From measurements of soil moisture content and groundwater depth it appeared that the trees first depleted the unsaturated zone and only when this moisture reservoir was emptied, started to use water from the saturated zone. A possible physiological basis of the upper limit to daily transpiration is discussed.

Dolman, A. J.

1988-02-01

278

Partitioning of Latent Heat Flux between Transpiration and Direct Evaporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of land surface fluxes is critical to enhancing our understanding of the water cycle and regional climate. The partitioning of available energy into sensible and latent heat fluxes (H and LE), as well as the partitioning of latent heat flux into vegetation transpiration (Et) and bare soil evaporation (Ed), are key elements of biosphere-atmosphere interactions. In this study empirical analyses and numerical modeling studies are carried out for a suburban grass site in Princeton NJ, focusing on a two year period from 2011 - 2013. Measurements from an Eddy-Covariance station play a central role in both empirical analyses and modeling studies. Two methods are used to partition latent heat flux into direct evaporation and transpiration components: flux similarity partitioning and partitioning based on the Penman-Monteith formulation in the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM). The former takes 10Hz water vapor and CO2 flux measurements as input, assuming that the water vapor (q) / CO2 (c)flux pair from stomatal processes (transpiration and photosynthesis) is perfectly negatively correlated. Any deviation of the correlation from -1 is contaminated by the perfect positive correlation of the q c flux pair from non-stomatal processes (soil evaporation and respiration). Thus LE can be partitioned into Et and Ed by analyzing the q c correlation. The latter method is based on a commonly used physics-based model which takes fundamental forcing time series as input, using Penman-Monteith equation. We characterize the seasonal and diurnal partitioning of latent heat flux based on flux similarity analyses and compare these results to partitioning based on Noah LSM simulations. We use wavelet decomposition to examine scale-dependent properties of latent heat flux partitioning and present sensitivity analyses of Noah LSM flux partitioning to model parameters. We also present results from a water vapor isotope analyzer that was developed with the goal of providing an empirical measurement of the Et and Ed flux components.

Wang, W.; Ramamurthy, P.; Baeck, M. L.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Scanlon, T. M.; Smith, J. A.

2013-12-01

279

Control and Augmentation of Passive Porosity through Transpiration Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A device for controlling pressure loading of a member caused by a fluid moving past the member or the member moving through a fluid. The device consists of a porous skin mounted over the solid surface of the member and separated from the solid surface by a plenum. Fluid from an area exerting high pressure on the member may enter the plenum through the porous surface and exit into an area exerting a lower pressure on the member, thus controlling pressure loading of the member. A transpirational control device controls the conditions within the plenum thus controlling the side force and yaw moment on the forebody.

Banks, Daniel W. (Inventor); Wood, Richard M. (Inventor); Bauer, Steven X. S. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

280

Thermal/structural analysis of a transpiration cooled nozzle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The 8-foot High Temperature Tunnel (HTT) at LaRC is a combustion driven, high enthalpy blow down wind tunnel. In Mar. 1991, during check out of the transpiration cooled nozzle, pieces of platelets were found in the tunnel test section. It was determined that incorrect tolerancing between the platelets and the housing was the primary cause of the platelet failure. An analysis was performed to determine the tolerance layout between the platelets and the housing to meet the structural and performance criteria under a range of thermal, pressure, and bolt preload conditions. Three recommendations resulted as a product of this analysis.

Gregory, Peyton B.; Thompson, Jon E.; Babcock, Dale A.; Gray, Carl E., Jr.; Mouring, Chris A.

1992-01-01

281

Effect of kinetic boundary condition on the thermal transpiration coefficient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effect of kinetic boundary condition on the free molecular thermal transpiration coefficient ? is analyzed numerically. The Maxwell model boundary condition is applied in its original form in the sense that its accommodation coefficient depends on the speed of incident molecules. The results show that the value of ? depends much on the velocity dependency of the accommodation coefficient. The experimental result, ? < 0.5, can be reproduced if the grazing molecules reflect diffusely. This makes a sharp contrast with the previous works that ? =0.5 for the velocity independent accommodation coefficient.

Sugimoto, Hiroshi; Amakawa, Kenjiro

2014-12-01

282

Plant Growth Models Using Artificial Neural Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we descrive our motivation and approach to devloping models and the neural network architecture. Initial use of the artificial neural network for modeling the single plant process of transpiration is presented.

Bubenheim, David

1997-01-01

283

Thermal transpiration flow: A circular cross-section microtube submitted to a temperature gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal transpiration is the macroscopic movement of rarefied gas molecules induced by a temperature gradient. The gas moves from the lower to the higher temperature zone. An original method is proposed here to measure the mean macroscopic movement of gas in the case of a long circular cross-section glass microtube onto which a gradient of temperature is applied. The mass flow rate and the thermomolecular pressure difference have been measured by monitoring the absolute pressure evolution in time at both ends of the capillary using high-speed response pressure gauges. Two gases, nitrogen and helium, are studied and three different temperature differences of 50, 60, and 70 °C are applied to the tube. The analyzed gas rarefaction conditions vary from transitional to slip regime.

Rojas Cardenas, Marcos; Graur, Irina; Perrier, Pierre; Meolans, J. Gilbert

2011-03-01

284

Life history influences rates of climatic niche evolution in flowering plants  

PubMed Central

Across angiosperms, variable rates of molecular substitution are linked with life-history attributes associated with woody and herbaceous growth forms. As the number of generations per unit time is correlated with molecular substitution rates, it is expected that rates of phenotypic evolution would also be influenced by differences in generation times. Here, we make the first broad-scale comparison of growth-form-dependent rates of niche evolution. We examined the climatic niches of species on large time-calibrated phylogenies of five angiosperm clades and found that woody lineages have accumulated fewer changes per million years in climatic niche space than related herbaceous lineages. Also, climate space explored by woody lineages is consistently smaller than sister lineages composed mainly of herbaceous taxa. This pattern is probably linked to differences in the rate of climatic niche evolution. These results have implications for niche conservatism; in particular, the role of niche conservatism in the distribution of plant biodiversity. The consistent differences in the rate of climatic niche evolution also emphasize the need to incorporate models of phenotypic evolution that allow for rate heterogeneity when examining large datasets. PMID:19776076

Smith, Stephen A.; Beaulieu, Jeremy M.

2009-01-01

285

Island radiation on a continental scale: Exceptional rates of plant diversification after uplift of the Andes  

PubMed Central

Species radiations provide unique insights into evolutionary processes underlying species diversification and patterns of biodiversity. To compare plant diversification over a similar time period to the recent cichlid fish radiations, which are an order of magnitude faster than documented bird, arthropod, and plant radiations, we focus on the high-altitude flora of the Andes, which is the most species-rich of any tropical mountains. Because of the recent uplift of the northern Andes, the upland environments where much of this rich endemic flora is found have been available for colonization only since the late Pliocene or Pleistocene, 2–4 million years (Myr) ago. Using DNA sequence data we identify a monophyletic group within the genus Lupinus representing 81 species endemic to the Andes. The age of this clade is estimated to be 1.18–1.76 Myr, implying a diversification rate of 2.49–3.72 species per Myr. This exceeds previous estimates for plants, providing the most spectacular example of explosive plant species diversification documented to date. Furthermore, it suggests that the high cichlid diversification rates are not unique. Lack of key innovations associated with the Andean Lupinus clade suggests that diversification was driven by ecological opportunities afforded by the emergence of island-like habitats after Andean uplift. Data from other genera indicate that lupines are one of a set of similarly rapid Andean plant radiations, continental in scale and island-like in stimulus, suggesting that the high-elevation Andean flora provides a system that rivals other groups, including cichlids, for understanding rapid species diversification. PMID:16801546

Hughes, Colin; Eastwood, Ruth

2006-01-01

286

Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: ammonium as a nitrogen source  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

When NO3- is the sole nitrogen source in flowing solution culture, the net rate of nitrogen uptake by nonnodulated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ransom) plants cycles between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation that corresponds with the interval of leaf emergence. Since soybean plants accumulate similar quantities of nitrogen when either NH4+ or NO3- is the sole source in solution culture controlled at pH 6.0, an experiment was conducted to determine if the oscillations in net rate of nitrogen uptake also occur when NH4+ is the nitrogen source. During a 21-day period of vegetative development, net uptake of NH4+ was measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion of NH4+ from a replenished nutrient solution containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+. The net rate of NH4+ uptake oscillated with a periodicity that was similar to the interval of leaf emergence. Instances of negative net rates of uptake indicate that the transition between maxima and minima involved changes in influx and efflux components of net NH4+ uptake.

Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

1989-01-01

287

Effects of spatial and temporal variability on simulated transpiration ratios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sustainability studies are increasingly needed to determine management systems that protect the environment and maintain production potentials. Whether these analyses are performed by field experiments or by computer modelling, defining the appropriate spatial and temporal scales is essential. For three management types within one soil series in The Netherlands, the land quality indicator "transpiration ratio", Eratio (ratio between actual and potential transpiration), was determined using a simulation model of water flow in the unsaturated zone. Soils were characterised by eight profiles per management type in which measurements of the retention and hydraulic conductivity characteristics were made. Variation in weather data was described by 30 years of historical data. Soil hydraulic characteristics were used as individual data and as averaged data. Differences in Eratio obtained by using individual soil data rather than averaged data were not significant, but Eratio values for the three management types were significantly different (0.79, 0.81 and 0.83). The results of the 30 years were used to analyse the effect of the time over which an experiment is evaluated, on the Eratio. The differential of variance indicated that the length of an experiment should be at least seven years in order to reduce the effect of the variable weather conditions.

Droogers, P.

1997-12-01

288

Radome cooling by transpiration of a freezing liquid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A supersonic wind tunnel test was carried out, in which temperature distributions and the coolant mass flow were measured on a transpiration-cooled conical radome, with the purpose of obtaining data on liquid transpiration cooling that could be scaled from wind tunnel to free-flight conditions. Water coolant was injected through a small porous nose tip, and immediately froze on the surface of the model, even though the adiabatic wall temperature was about 185 deg F. The experimentally determined temperature distributions were modeled using the method of Rubesin and Inouye (1973), providing a means of scaling the experimental data to other flow conditions. The freezing liquid cooling method can be likened to an ablation-cooled radome which employs one or more bands of ablating material. A copper coolant was examined by an application to free flight at Mach number 8; approximate calculations indicate that ablation from the frozen surface of such a liquid metal might be effective in limiting the temperature of a radome.

Schindel, L.; Driftmyer, R.

1989-06-01

289

Simultaneous monitoring of electrical capacitance and water uptake activity of plant root system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pot experiments were designed to test the applicability of root electrical capacitance measurement for in situ monitoring of root water uptake activity by growing cucumber and bean cultivars in a growth chamber. Half of the plants were inoculated with Funneliformis mosseae arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, while the other half served as non-infected controls. Root electrical capacitance and daily transpiration were monitored during the whole plant ontogeny. Phenology-dependent changes of daily transpiration (related to root water uptake) and root electrical capacitance proved to be similar as they showed upward trends from seedling emergence to the beginning of flowering stage, and thereafter decreased continuously during fruit setting. A few days after arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi-colonization, daily transpiration and root electrical capacitance of infected plants became significantly higher than those of non-infected counterparts, and the relative increment of the measured parameters was greater for the more highly mycorrhizal-dependent bean cultivar compared to that of cucumber. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonization caused 29 and 69% relative increment in shoot dry mass for cucumbers and beans, respectively. Mycorrhization resulted in 37% increase in root dry mass for beans, but no significant difference was observed for cucumbers. Results indicate the potential of root electrical capacitance measurements for monitoring the changes and differences of root water uptake rate.

Cseresnyés, Imre; Takács, Tünde; Füzy, Anna; Rajkai, Kálmán

2014-10-01

290

Effects of plant genotype and insect dispersal rate on the population dynamics of a forest pest.  

PubMed

It has been shown that plant genotype can strongly affect not only individual herbivore performance, but also community composition and ecosystem function. Few studies, however, have addressed how plant genotype affects herbivore population dynamics. In this paper, we used a simulation modeling approach to ask how the genetic composition of a forest influences pest outbreak dynamics, using the example of aspen (Populus tremuloides) and forest tent caterpillars (FTC; Malacosoma disstria). Specifically, we examined how plant genotype, the relative size of genotypic patches, and the rate of insect dispersal between them, affect the frequency, amplitude, and duration of outbreaks. We found that coupling two different genotypes does not necessarily result in an averaging of insect dynamics. Instead, depending on the ratio of patch sizes, when dispersal rates are moderate, outbreaks in the two-genotype case may be more or less severe than in forests of either genotype alone. Thresholds for different dynamic behaviors were similar for all genotypic combinations. Thus, the qualitative behavior of a stand of two different genotypes can be predicted based on the response of the insect to each genotype, the relative sizes of the two patches, and the scale of insect dispersal. PMID:24597225

Moran, Emily V; Bewick, Sharon; Cobbold, Christina A

2013-12-01

291

Plant N capture from pulses: effects of pulse size, growth rate, and other soil resources.  

PubMed

In arid ecosystems, the ability to rapidly capture nitrogen (N) from brief pulses is expected to influence plant growth, survival, and competitive ability. Theory and data suggest that N capture from pulses should depend on plant growth rate and availability of other limiting resources. Theory also predicts trade-offs in plant stress tolerance and ability to capture N from different size pulses. We injected K15NO3, to simulate small and large N pulses at three different times during the growing season into soil around the co-dominant Great Basin species Sarcobatus vermiculatus, Chrysothamnus nauseosus ssp. consimilis, and Distichlis spicata. Soils were amended with water and P in a partial factorial design. As predicted, all study species showed a comparable decline in N capture from large pulses through the season as growth rates slowed. Surprisingly, however, water and P availability differentially influenced the ability of these species to capture N from pulses. Distichlis N capture increased up to tenfold with water addition while Chrysothamnus N capture increased up to threefold with P addition. Sarcobatus N capture was not affected by water or P availability. Opposite to our prediction, Sarcobatus, the most stress tolerant species, captured less N from small pulses but more N from large pulses relative to the other species. These observations suggest that variation in N pulse timing and size can interact with variable soil water and P supply to determine how N is partitioned among co-existing Great Basin species. PMID:16003506

James, J J; Richards, J H

2005-08-01

292

Labile soil carbon inputs mediate the soil microbial community composition and plant residue decomposition rates  

SciTech Connect

Root carbon (C) inputs may regulate decomposition rates in soil, and in this study we ask: how do labile C inputs regulate decomposition of plant residues, and soil microbial communities? In a 14 d laboratory incubation, we added C compounds often found in root exudates in seven different concentrations (0, 0.7, 1.4, 3.6, 7.2, 14.4 and 21.7 mg C g{sup -1} soil) to soils amended with and without {sup 13}C-labeled plant residue. We measured CO{sub 2} respiration and shifts in relative fungal and bacterial rRNA gene copy numbers using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Increased labile C input enhanced total C respiration, but only addition of C at low concentrations (0.7 mg C g{sup -1}) stimulated plant residue decomposition (+2%). Intermediate concentrations (1.4, 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) had no impact on plant residue decomposition, while greater concentrations of C (> 7.2 mg C g{sup -1}) reduced decomposition (-50%). Concurrently, high exudate concentrations (> 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased fungal and bacterial gene copy numbers, whereas low exudate concentrations (< 3.6 mg C g{sup -1}) increased metabolic activity rather than gene copy numbers. These results underscore that labile soil C inputs can regulate decomposition of more recalcitrant soil C by controlling the activity and relative abundance of fungi and bacteria.

De Graaff, Marie-Anne [ORNL; Classen, Aimee T [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Castro Gonzalez, Hector F [ORNL; Schadt, Christopher Warren [ORNL

2010-01-01

293

Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods.  

PubMed

We investigated which parameters required by the MAESTRA model were most important in predicting leaf-area-based transpiration in 5-year-old trees of five deciduous hardwood species-yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis Matsum.), red maple (Acer rubrum L. 'Autumn Flame'), trident maple (Acer buergeranum Miq.), Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. 'Kwanzan') and London plane-tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.). Transpiration estimated from sap flow measured by the heat balance method in branches and trunks was compared with estimates predicted by the three-dimensional transpiration, photosynthesis and absorbed radiation model, MAESTRA. MAESTRA predicted species-specific transpiration from the interactions of leaf-level physiology and spatially explicit micro-scale weather patterns in a mixed deciduous hardwood plantation on a 15-min time step. The monthly differences between modeled mean daily transpiration estimates and measured mean daily sap flow ranged from a 35% underestimation for Acer buergeranum in June to a 25% overestimation for A. rubrum in July. The sensitivity of the modeled transpiration estimates was examined across a 30% error range for seven physiological input parameters. The minimum value of stomatal conductance as incident solar radiation tends to zero was determined to be eight times more influential than all other physiological model input parameters. This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis. PMID:18765372

Bowden, Joseph D; Bauerle, William L

2008-11-01

294

Vascular flows and transpiration affect peach (Prunus persica Batsch.) fruit daily growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative contributions of xylem, phloem, and transpiration to fruit growth and the daily patterns of their flows have been determined in peach, during the two stages of rapid diameter increase, by precise and continuous monitoring of fruit diameter variations. Xylem, phloem, and transpiration contributions to growth were quantified by comparing the diurnal patterns of diameter change of fruits, which

Brunella Morandi; Mark Rieger; Luca Corelli Grappadelli

2007-01-01

295

Physiological tradeoffs in the parameterization of a model of canopy transpiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined physiological parameter tradeoffs in modeling stomatal control of transpiration from a number of forest species. Measurements of sapflux, micrometeorology, and leaf area index were made in stands representing 85% of the forest ecosystems around the WLEF eddy flux tower in northern Wisconsin. A Jarvis-based canopy conductance model was used to simulate canopy transpiration (EC) for five tree species

D. S. Mackay; D. E. Ahl; B. E. Ewers; S. Samanta; S. T. Gower; S. N. Burrows

2003-01-01

296

Characterization of Transpiration in a Deciduous Forest of the US Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

The exchange of water between atmosphere and biosphere is an important determinant of climate and the productivity of vegetation, as transpiration involves substantial amounts of energy. Knowing how transpiration changes over seasonal and diurnal cycles can help increase the understanding of how a forest reacts to changes in the biosphere and atmosphere on both short and long time scales. A

D. Dragoni; K. K. Caylor; H. Schmid

2006-01-01

297

Environmental and biological controls of urban tree transpiration in the Upper Midwest  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urban trees provide a variety of ecosystem services to urban and suburban areas, including carbon uptake, climate amelioration, energy reduction, and stormwater management. Tree transpiration, in particular, modifies urban water budgets by providing an alternative pathway for water after rain events. The relative importance of environmental and biological controls on transpiration are poorly understood in urban areas, yet these controls

E. B. Peters; J. McFadden; R. Montgomery

2009-01-01

298

Quantifying instantaneous regeneration rates of plant leaf waxes using stable hydrogen isotope labeling.  

PubMed

Leaf waxes protect terrestrial plants from biotic and abiotic stresses and are important sedimentary biomarkers for terrestrial plants. Thus, understanding the production and ablation of leaf waxes is critical in plant physiology and for geochemical studies. However, there have been no accurate approaches to quantify leaf wax production at different time scales. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to study leaf wax regeneration by irrigating plants with a pulse of deuterium-enriched water, followed by measurements of leaf wax D/H ratios by gas chromatography/isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GC/IRMS). We demonstrate the efficacy of this approach using the grass species Phleum pratense in a greenhouse environment. Using a binary isotope mass balance model, we are able to quantify the regeneration rates of the C(16), C(18) acids and leaf waxes (C(23)-C(31) n-alkanes; C(22)-C(30) n-acids) over a diurnal cycle. Our results show that within one day 33-47% of C(16) and C(18) acids are regenerated, and thus the recycling time for these compounds is 2-3 days. For C(22)-C(26) n-alkyl lipids, 7-21% are regenerated within one day and thus they require 5-16 days to recycle. In comparison, the recycling time for long-chain n-alkyl lipids (C(27)-C(31)) is as long as 71-128 days. Our approach can be applied to different plants at shorter or longer time scales by adjusting the degree of isotopic labeling, sampling intervals and the amount of irrigation water. PMID:22173799

Gao, Li; Burnier, Andre; Huang, Yongsong

2012-01-30

299

How to help woody plants to overcome drought stress?-a control study of four tree species in Northwest China.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water is essential for plants and involves most physical and chemical processes within their lifecycles. Drought stress is a crucial limiting factor for plant growth and production. 48% of the land in China is arid and semi-arid, and non-irrigated land occupies approximately 51.9% of the total cultivated areas. Therefore, studies on plant drought resistant mechanisms have great significance for improving water use efficiency and thus increasing productivity of economical plants. Prior research has shown that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer affects the drought-resistant characteristics of plants. This study aimed to reveal the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer on physiological aspects and its impact on the drought resistance of four tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia L., Ligustrum lucidum Ait., Acer truncatum Bge. and Ulmus pumila L. ) in northwest China. Three levels of nitrogen fertilization (46% N based of urea adjusted to: 5g/15g soil, 15g/15g soil and 25g/15g soil) and an additional control study were applied to 2-year-old well-grown seedlings under drought conditions (30% field moisture capacity). Stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate were measured by a LI-6400 photosynthesis system, while water use efficiency was calculated from net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate. The results revealed that as the amount of urea applied was raised, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and net photosynthetic rate decreased significantly, and thus water use efficiency significantly increased. It is therefore concluded that the application of nitrogenous fertilizer regulated physiological parameters by reducing stomata conductance to improve water use efficiency. In addition, among the four tree species, U. pumila had the maximum value of water use efficiency under the same drought condition. The outcome of this study provides a guided option for forest management in arid and semi-arid areas of northwest China.

Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Shuoxin

2010-05-01

300

Transpiration in a sub-tropical ridge-top cloud forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryLaurel forests in the Canary Islands (Spain) survive where humid conditions are guaranteed throughout the year. On peaks and ridges, laurel forest gives way to mixed evergreen tree-heath/beech forest of low stature ("fayal-brezal") that has to cope with rapidly changing light, temperature and humidity conditions due to the occurrence of intermittent sunny and foggy periods during the mostly rainless summer. These conditions are poorly understood and there is a lack of information on the interrelations between tree physiological behavior and ambient climatic and soil water conditions in fayal-brezal. In this study sap velocities were measured for 2 years in two dominant tree species (Myrica faya and Erica arborea) in a ridge-top forest in the National Park of Garajonay on the island of La Gomera. The resulted average daily stand transpiration was 1.2 ± 0.12 mm (416 mm year-1). However, the narrow-leaved E. arborea exhibited higher sap velocities than the broad-leaved M. faya. Also, sap velocity increased with stem diameter in E. arborea but not in M. faya. Nocturnal flow activity was observed throughout the year and reflected ambient conditions on some occasions, and stem water storage recovery on others. Strong stomatal control in response to increases in vapor pressure deficit was seen in both species. Fog reduced sap velocity from 10% up to 90% but no consistent pattern was found. Soil water uptake during the dry summer (246 mm) was much larger than atmospheric water inputs (41 mm, rain and fog). The low moisture levels in the top 0.3 m of the soil had limited influence on transpiration rates indicating that vegetation must have had access to moisture in deeper layers.

García-Santos, G.

2012-09-01

301

Regularization of Feedwater Flow Rate Evaluation for Venturi Meter Fouling Problem in Nuclear Power Plants  

SciTech Connect

Inferential sensing is a method that can be used to evaluate parameters of a physical system based on a set of measurements related to these parameters. The most common method of inferential sensing uses mathematical models to infer a parameter value from correlated sensor values. However, since inferential sensing is an inverse problem, it can produce inconsistent results due to minor perturbations in the data. This research shows that regularization can be used in inferential sensing to produce consistent results. Data from Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River nuclear power plant (NPP) are used to give an important example of monitoring NPP feedwater flow rate.

Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim K.; Hines, J. Wesley; Uhrig, Robert E. [University of Tennessee (United States)

2001-04-15

302

Yield and gas exchange ability of sweetpotato plants cultured in a hydroponic system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Life support of crews in space is greatly dependent on the amounts of food atmospheric O 2 and clean water produced by plants Therefore the space farming systems with scheduling of crop production obtaining high yields with a rapid turnover rate converting atmospheric CO 2 to O 2 and purifying water should be established with employing suitable plant species and varieties and precisely controlling environmental variables around plants grown at a high density in a limited space In this study three sweetpotato varieties were cultured in a newly developed hydroponic system and the yield the photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate were compared on the earth as a fundamental study for establishing the space farming systems The varieties were Elegant summer Koukei 14 and Beniazuma The hydroponic system mainly consisted of water channels and rockwool boards A growing space for roots was made between the rockwool board and nutrient solution in the water channel Storage roots were developed on the lower surface of the rockwool plates Fresh weights of the storage roots were 1 6 1 2 and 0 6 kg plant for Koukei 14 Elegant summer and Beniazuma respectively grown for five months from June to October under the sun light in Osaka Japan Koukei 14 and Elegant summer produced greater total phytomass than Beniazuma There were positive correlations among the total phytomass the net photosynthetic rate and the transpiration rate Young stems and leaves as well as storage roots of Elegant summer are edible Therefore Elegant-summer

Kitaya, Y.; Hirai, H.; Saiful Islam, A. F. M.; Yamamoto, M.

303

Responses of transpiration and photosynthesis to reversible changes in photosynthetic foliage area in western red cedar (Thuja plicata) seedlings.  

PubMed

Experiments were conducted on 1-year-old western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) seedlings to determine the response of illuminated foliage to reversible changes in total photosynthetic foliage area (L(A)). Reductions in L(A) were brought about by either shading the lower foliage or by reducing the ambient CO2 concentration (c(a)) of the air surrounding the lower part of the seedling. In the latter case, the vapor pressure was also changed so that transpiration rates (E) could be manipulated independently of photosynthetic rates (A). We hypothesized that following such treatments, short-term compensatory changes would occur in stomatal conductance (g(s)) and A of the remaining foliage. These changes would occur in response to hydraulic signals generated by changes in the water potential gradient rather than changes in the distribution of sources and sinks of carbon within the seedling. When a portion of the foliage was shaded, there was an immediate reduction in whole-seedling E and a concomitant increase in g(s), A and E in the remaining illuminated foliage. However, the intercellular CO2 concentration did not change. These compensatory effects were fully reversed after the shade was removed. When the lower foliage A was reduced to < 0 micromol m-2 s-1, by shading or lowering c(a), and E was either unchanged or increased (by adjusting the vapor pressure deficit), there was no significant increase in g(s) and A in the remaining foliage. We conclude that compensatory responses in illuminated foliage occur only when reductions in L(A) are accompanied by a reduction in whole-plant E. The relationship between the reduction in whole-seedling E and the increase in A is highly linear (r2 = 0.68) and confirms our hypothesis of the strong regulation of g(s) by hydraulic signals generated within the seedling. We suggest that the mechanism of the compensatory effects is a combination of both increased CO2 supply, resulting from increased g(s), and a response of the rate of carboxylation, possibly related to the activity of Rubisco. PMID:11960761

Pepin, S; Livingston, N J; Whitehead, D

2002-04-01

304

How do soil texture, plant community composition and earthworms affected the infiltration rate in a grassland plant diversity experiment depending on season?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Background and aims: In this study we analyzed the influences of plant community characteristics, soil texture and earthworm presence on infiltration rates on a managed grassland plant diversity experiment assessing the role of biotic and abiotic factors on soil hydrology. Methods: We measured infiltration using a hood infiltrometer in subplots with ambient and reduced earthworm density (earthworm extraction) nested in plots of different plant species richness (1, 4, and 16), plant functional group number and composition (1 to 4; legumes, grasses, small herbs, tall herbs) in early summer (June) and autumn (September, October) 2011. Results: The presence of certain plant functional groups such as grasses and legumes influenced infiltration rates and this effect enhanced during the growing season. Infiltration was significantly higher in plots containing legumes than in plots without, and it was significantly lower in the presence of grasses than in their absence. In early summer, earthworm presence and biomass increased the infiltration rates, independently of plant species richness. In October, plant species richness only affected infiltration rates in reduced earthworm plots. At the end of the growing season earthworm populations were negatively influenced by grasses and positively by legumes. In September, infiltration rates were positive related to the proportion of finer grains. The correlation disappears when removing all plots containing legumes from the sample. For all measurements the infiltration rates decreases from early summer to autumn at the matric potentials at pressure zero and -0.02 m, but not for smaller macropores at matric potentials -0.04 and -0.06m. Conclusions: Considering infiltration rates as ecosystem function, this function will largely depend on the ecosystem composition and season, not on biodiversity per se. Our results indicate that biotic factors are of overriding influence for shaping infiltration rates mainly for larger macropores, and should be taken into account in hydrological applications.

Fischer, Christine; Britta, Merkel; Nico, Eisenhauer; Christiane, Roscher; Sabine, Attinger; Stefan, Scheu; Anke, Hildebrandt

2013-04-01

305

Rapid plant species loss at high rates and at low frequency of N addition in temperate steppe.  

PubMed

Humans are both intentionally (fertilization) and unintentionally (atmospheric nutrient deposition) adding nutrients worldwide. Increasing availability of biologically reactive nitrogen (N) is one of the major drivers of plant species loss. It remains unclear, however, whether plant diversity will be equally reduced by inputs of reactive N coming from either small and frequent N deposition events or large and infrequent N fertilization events. By independently manipulating the rate and frequency of reactive N inputs, our study teases apart these potentially contrasting effects. Plant species richness decreased more quickly at high rates and at low frequency of N addition, which suggests that previous fertilization studies have likely over-estimated the effects of N deposition on plant species loss. N-induced species loss resulted from both acidification and ammonium toxicity. Further study of small and frequent N additions will be necessary to project future rates of plant species loss under increasing aerial N deposition. PMID:24753127

Zhang, Yunhai; Lü, Xiaotao; Isbell, Forest; Stevens, Carly; Han, Xu; He, Nianpeng; Zhang, Guangming; Yu, Qiang; Huang, Jianhui; Han, Xingguo

2014-11-01

306

Differentiating transpiration from evaporation in seasonal agricultural wetlands and the link to advective fluxes in the root zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current state of science and engineering related to analyzing wetlands overlooks the importance of transpiration and risks data misinterpretation. In response, we developed hydrologic and mass budgets for agricultural wetlands using electrical conductivity (EC) as a natural conservative tracer. We developed simple differential equations that quantify evaporation and transpiration rates using flowrates and tracer concentrations atwetland inflows and outflows. We used two ideal reactormodel solutions, a continuous flowstirred tank reactor (CFSTR) and a plug flow reactor (PFR), to bracket real non-ideal systems. From those models, estimated transpiration ranged from 55% (CFSTR) to 74% (PFR) of total evapotranspiration (ET) rates, consistent with published values using standard methods and direct measurements. The PFR model more appropriately represents these nonideal agricultural wetlands in which check ponds are in series. Using a fluxmodel, we also developed an equation delineating the root zone depth at which diffusive dominated fluxes transition to advective dominated fluxes. This relationship is similar to the Peclet number that identifies the dominance of advective or diffusive fluxes in surface and groundwater transport. Using diffusion coefficients for inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) we calculated that during high ET periods typical of summer, advective fluxes dominate root zone transport except in the top millimeters below the sediment–water interface. The transition depth has diel and seasonal trends, tracking those of ET. Neglecting this pathway has profound implications: misallocating loads along different hydrologic pathways; misinterpreting seasonal and diel water quality trends; confounding Fick's First Law calculations when determining diffusion fluxes using pore water concentration data; and misinterpreting biogeochemicalmechanisms affecting dissolved constituent cycling in the root zone. In addition,our understanding of internal root zone cycling of Hg and other dissolved constituents, benthic fluxes, and biological irrigation may be greatly affected.

Bachand, P.A.M.; S. Bachand; Fleck, Jacob A.; Anderson, Frank E.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie

2014-01-01

307

Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis increases host plant acceptance and population growth rates of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae.  

PubMed

Most terrestrial plants live in symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Studies on the direct interaction between plants and mycorrhizal fungi are numerous whereas studies on the indirect interaction between such fungi and herbivores feeding on aboveground plant parts are scarce. We studied the impact of AM symbiosis on host plant choice and life history of an acarine surface piercing-sucking herbivore, the polyphagous two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae. Experiments were performed on detached leaflets taken from common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) colonized or not colonized by the AM fungus Glomus mosseae. T. urticae females were subjected to choice tests between leaves from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. Juvenile survival and development, adult female survival, oviposition rate and offspring sex ratio were measured in order to estimate the population growth parameters of T. urticae on either substrate. Moreover, we analyzed the macro- and micronutrient concentration of the aboveground plant parts. Adult T. urticae females preferentially resided and oviposited on mycorrhizal versus non-mycorrhizal leaflets. AM symbiosis significantly decreased embryonic development time and increased the overall oviposition rate as well as the proportion of female offspring produced during peak oviposition. Altogether, the improved life history parameters resulted in significant changes in net reproductive rate, intrinsic rate of increase, doubling time and finite rate of increase. Aboveground parts of colonized plants showed higher concentrations of P and K whereas Mn and Zn were both found at lower levels. This is the first study documenting the effect of AM symbiosis on the population growth rates of a herbivore, tracking the changes in life history characteristics throughout the life cycle. We discuss the AM-plant-herbivore interaction in relation to plant quality, herbivore feeding type and site and the evolutionary implications in a multi-trophic context. PMID:18949488

Hoffmann, Daniela; Vierheilig, Horst; Riegler, Petra; Schausberger, Peter

2009-01-01

308

Effects of Post-fire Succession and Edaphic Conditions on Tree Transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forest ecosystems play an integral role in global climate change because of their large land area and ability to store large quantities of carbon. Quantifying and explaining tree water use in both well- and poorly- drained soils and across successional development is critical in understanding the influence of physiological processes on carbon, water, and energy cycling. Four black spruce stands burned in 1850, 1930, 1964, and 1989 were chosen for this research because they had been shown in previous studies to represent critical stages of forest development that capture the successional impacts of both leaf area and species composition change. We hypothesized that tree transpiration will differ between well- and poorly-drained areas and with age due to 1) tree size and age and edaphic-related hydraulic adjustments and 2) tree size will be explained by species specific growth differences from edaphic conditions. Sap flux, leaf water potential (\\PsiL), site specific allometric relationships between sapwood area and leaf area and soil properties such as texture and organic matter depth in each of the four burn ages were utilized to test these hypotheses. Results show that sap flux for Picea mariana at the 1964 burn age differed between well- and poorly-drained soils when scaled per unit xylem area with trees located on poorly-drained soils experiencing higher sap flux rates than trees in well- drained areas (101.79 & 83.02 g cm-2 day-1 respectively). However, when scaled to transpiration on a per tree basis, taking tree size into account, trees on well-drained soils had higher rates than those in poorly- drained locations (366.96 & 216.82 g tree-1 day-1 respectively). The presence of Pinus banksiana and Populus tremuloides in the well-drained areas increased stand transpiration rates for these areas considerably as compared to the poorly-drained areas. Midday \\PsiL for all four burns show no significant difference between well- and poorly-drained (average midday \\PsiL = -1.23 & -1.29 MPa respectively) sites for Picea mariana (t-value = -0.591, df = 6, p-value = 0.576). This indicates that tree size, which is constrained by growth and anaerobic conditions, drives differences in tree transpiration for well- and poorly-drained soils.

Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.; Bond-Lamberty, B.; Amiro, B.; Gower, S. T.

2007-12-01

309

Testing the Growth Rate Hypothesis in Vascular Plants with Above- and Below-Ground Biomass  

PubMed Central

The growth rate hypothesis (GRH) proposes that higher growth rate (the rate of change in biomass per unit biomass, ?) is associated with higher P concentration and lower C?P and N?P ratios. However, the applicability of the GRH to vascular plants is not well-studied and few studies have been done on belowground biomass. Here we showed that, for aboveground, belowground and total biomass of three study species, ? was positively correlated with N?C under N limitation and positively correlated with P?C under P limitation. However, the N?P ratio was a unimodal function of ?, increasing for small values of ?, reaching a maximum, and then decreasing. The range of variations in ? was positively correlated with variation in C?N?P stoichiometry. Furthermore, ? and C?N?P ranges for aboveground biomass were negatively correlated with those for belowground. Our results confirm the well-known association of growth rate with tissue concentration of the limiting nutrient and provide empirical support for recent theoretical formulations. PMID:22427823

Yu, Qiang; Wu, Honghui; He, Nianpeng; Lü, Xiaotao; Wang, Zhiping; Elser, James J.; Wu, Jianguo; Han, Xingguo

2012-01-01

310

Coupled soil respiration and transpiration dynamics from tree-scale to catchment scale in dry Rocky Mountain pine forests and the role of snowpack  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A current ecohydrological challenge is quantifying the exact nature of carbon (C) and water couplings across landscapes. An emerging framework of understanding places plant physiological processes as a central control over soil respiration, the largest source of CO2 to the atmosphere. In dry montane forests, spatial and temporal variability in forest physiological processes are governed by hydrological patterns. Critical feedbacks involving respiration, moisture supply and tree physiology are poorly understood and must be quantified at the landscape level to better predict carbon cycle implications of regional drought under future climate change. We present data from an experiment designed to capture landscape variability in key coupled hydrological and C processes in forests of Colorado's Front Range. Sites encompass three catchments within the Boulder Creek watershed, range from 1480 m to 3021 m above sea level and are co-located with the DOE Niwot Ridge Ameriflux site and the Boulder Creek Critical Zone Observatory. Key hydrological measurements (soil moisture, transpiration) are coupled with soil respiration measurements within each catchment at different landscape positions. This three-dimensional study design also allows for the examination of the role of water subsidies from uplands to lowlands in controlling respiration. Initial findings from 2012 reveal a moisture threshold response of the sensitivity of soil respiration to temperature. This threshold may derive from tree physiological responses to variation in moisture availability, which in turn is controlled by the persistence of snowpack. Using data collected in 2013, first, we determine whether respiration moisture thresholds represent triggers for transpiration at the individual tree level. Next, using stable isotope ratios of soil respiration and xylem and soil water, we compare the depths of respiration to depths of water uptake to assign tree vs. understory sources of respiration. This will help determine whether tree root-zone respiration exhibits a similar moisture threshold. Lastly, we examine whether moisture thresholds to temperature sensitivity are consistent across a range of snowpack persistence. Findings are compared to data collected from sites in Arizona and New Mexico to better establish the role of winter precipitation in governing growing season respiration rates. The outcome of this study will contribute to a better understanding of linkages among water, tree physiology, and soil respiration with the ultimate goal of scaling plot-level respiration fluxes to entire catchments.

Berryman, E.; Barnard, H. R.; Brooks, P. D.; Adams, H.; Burns, M. A.; Wilson, W.; Stielstra, C. M.

2013-12-01

311

Spatial distribution of leaf nitrogen and photosynthetic capacity within the foliage of individual trees: disentangling the effects of local light quality, leaf irradiance, and transpiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is presently no consensus about the factor(s) driving photosynthetic acclimation and the intra-can- opy distribution of leaf characteristics under natural conditions. The impact was tested of local (i) light quality (red\\/far red ratio), (ii) leaf irradiance (PPFDi), and (iii) transpiration rate (E) on total non-structural carbohydrates per leaf area (TNCa), TNC-free leaf mass-to-area ratio (LMA), total leaf nitrogen per

Ela Frak; Peter Millard; Boris Adam; Erwin Dreyer; Cynthia Escuit; Marc Vandame; Claude Varlet-Grancher

2002-01-01

312

A simple framework to analyze water constraints on seasonal transpiration in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations.  

PubMed

Climate change and fast extension in climatically suboptimal areas threaten the sustainability of rubber tree cultivation. A simple framework based on reduction factors of potential transpiration was tested to evaluate the water constraints on seasonal transpiration in tropical sub-humid climates, according pedoclimatic conditions. We selected a representative, mature stand in a drought-prone area. Tree transpiration, evaporative demand and soil water availability were measured every day over 15 months. The results showed that basic relationships with evaporative demand, leaf area index and soil water availability were globally supported. However, the implementation of a regulation of transpiration at high evaporative demand whatever soil water availability was necessary to avoid large overestimates of transpiration. The details of regulation were confirmed by the analysis of canopy conductance response to vapor pressure deficit. The final objective of providing hierarchy between the main regulation factors of seasonal and annual transpiration was achieved. In the tested environmental conditions, the impact of atmospheric drought appeared larger importance than soil drought contrary to expectations. Our results support the interest in simple models to provide a first diagnosis of water constraints on transpiration with limited data, and to help decision making toward more sustainable rubber plantations. PMID:25610443

Sopharat, Jessada; Gay, Frederic; Thaler, Philippe; Sdoodee, Sayan; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Tanavud, Charlchai; Hammecker, Claude; Do, Frederic C

2014-01-01

313

A simple framework to analyze water constraints on seasonal transpiration in rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations  

PubMed Central

Climate change and fast extension in climatically suboptimal areas threaten the sustainability of rubber tree cultivation. A simple framework based on reduction factors of potential transpiration was tested to evaluate the water constraints on seasonal transpiration in tropical sub-humid climates, according pedoclimatic conditions. We selected a representative, mature stand in a drought-prone area. Tree transpiration, evaporative demand and soil water availability were measured every day over 15 months. The results showed that basic relationships with evaporative demand, leaf area index and soil water availability were globally supported. However, the implementation of a regulation of transpiration at high evaporative demand whatever soil water availability was necessary to avoid large overestimates of transpiration. The details of regulation were confirmed by the analysis of canopy conductance response to vapor pressure deficit. The final objective of providing hierarchy between the main regulation factors of seasonal and annual transpiration was achieved. In the tested environmental conditions, the impact of atmospheric drought appeared larger importance than soil drought contrary to expectations. Our results support the interest in simple models to provide a first diagnosis of water constraints on transpiration with limited data, and to help decision making toward more sustainable rubber plantations. PMID:25610443

Sopharat, Jessada; Gay, Frederic; Thaler, Philippe; Sdoodee, Sayan; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, Supat; Tanavud, Charlchai; Hammecker, Claude; Do, Frederic C.

2015-01-01

314

Seasonal Changes in the Photosynthetic Rate in Apple Trees 1  

PubMed Central

Seasonal changes in photosynthesis of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were monitored to examine the effect of source-sink interactions on photosynthesis and photorespiration. Elevated photosynthetic rates were observed during two periods of the growing season and correlated with the fruiting process. The first period of increased photosynthetic rates was during the bloom period, when spur leaves on flowering shoots exhibited up to 25% higher photosynthetic rates than vegetative spur leaves on a leaf area basis. CO2 assimilation rates were also higher in fruiting trees than nonfruiting trees during the period of rapid fruit growth from July to September. Photorespiration, dark respiration, leaf resistance, and transpiration exhibited no seasonal changes which correlated to the presence or absence of fruit. These data represent the first comprehensive examination of the effects of flowering/fruit formation on photosynthesis and photorespiration in perennial plants. PMID:16664276

Fujii, Joann A.; Kennedy, Robert A.

1985-01-01

315

Effects of thinning on soil and tree water relations, transpiration and growth in an oak forest (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.).  

PubMed

To quantify the effects of crown thinning on the water balance and growth of the stand and to analyze the ecophysiological modifications induced by canopy opening on individual tree water relations, we conducted a thinning experiment in a 43-year-old Quercus petraea stand by removing trees from the upper canopy level. Soil water content, rainfall interception, sap flow, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance were monitored for two seasons following thinning. Seasonal time courses of leaf area index (LAI) and girth increment were also measured. Predawn leaf water potential was significantly higher in trees in the thinned stand than in the closed stand, as a consequence of higher relative extractable water in the soil. The improvement in water availability in the thinned stand resulted from decreases in both interception and transpiration. From Year 1 to Year 2, an increase in transpiration was observed in the thinned stand without any modification in LAI, whereas changes in transpiration in the closed stand were accompanied by variations in LAI. The different behaviors of the closed and open canopies were interpreted in terms of coupling to the atmosphere. Thinning increased inter-tree variability in sap flow density, which was closely related to a leaf area competition index. Stomatal conductance varied little inside the crown and differences in stomatal conductance between the treatments appeared only during a water shortage and affected mainly the closed stand. Thinning enhanced tree growth as a result of a longer growing period due to the absence of summer drought and higher rates of growth. Suppressed and dominant trees benefited more from thinning than trees in the codominant classes. PMID:14965953

Bréda, N; Granier, A; Aussenac, G

1995-05-01

316

Estimates of deep drainage rates at the U.S. Department of Energy Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas  

SciTech Connect

In FY 1996, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) provided technical assistance to Battelle Columbus Operations (BCO) in their ongoing assessment of contaminant migration at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas. The objective of this report is to calculate deep drainage rates at the Pantex Plant. These deep drainage rates may eventually be used to predict contaminant loading to the underlying unconfined aquifer for the Pantex Plant Baseline Risk Assessment. These rates will also be used to support analyses of remedial activities involving surface alterations or the subsurface injection withdrawal of liquids or gases. The scope of this report is to estimate deep drainage rates for the major surface features at the Pantex Plant, including ditches and playas, natural grassland, dryland crop rotation, unvegetated soil, and graveled surfaces. Areas such as Pantex Lake that are outside the main plant boundaries were not included in the analysis. All estimates were derived using existing data or best estimates; no new data were collected. The modeling framework used to estimate the rates is described to enable future correlations, improvements, and enhancements. The scope of this report includes only data gathered during FY 1996. However, a current review of the data gathered on weather, soil, plants, and other information in the time period since did not reveal anything that would significantly alter the results presented in this report.

Fayer, M.J.; Richmond, M.C.; Wigmosta, M.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Kelley, M.E. [Battelle Environmental Restoration Dept., Columbus, OH (United States)

1998-04-01

317

Diagnosing the Role of Transpiration in the Transition from Dry to Wet Season Over the Amazon Using Satellite Observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reanalysis data indicates that land surface evapotranspiration plays a key role in determining the timing of wet season onset over the Amazon. Here, we use satellite observations of water vapor and its stable isotopes, carbon dioxide, leaf area index, and precipitation together with reanalysis data to explore the importance of transpiration in initiating the transition from dry season to wet season over the Amazon. The growth of vegetation in this region is primarily limited by the availability of sunlight rather than the availability of soil moisture, so that the increase of solar radiation during the dry season coincides with dramatic increases in leaf area index within forested ecosystems. This period of plant growth is accompanied by uptake of carbon dioxide and enrichment of heavy isotopes in water vapor, particularly near the land surface. Reanalysis data indicate that this pre-wet season enrichment of HDO is accompanied by sharp increases in the surface latent heat flux, which eventually triggers sporadic moist convection. The transport of transpiration-enriched near-surface air by this convection causes a dramatic increase in free-tropospheric HDO in late August and September. September also marks transition points in the annual cycles of leaf area index (maximum) and carbon dioxide (minimum). The increase in convective activity during this period creates convergence, enhancing moisture transport into the region and initiating the wet season.

Wright, J. S.; Fu, R.; Yin, L.; Chae, J.

2013-12-01

318

Effect of nitrogen source, rate and time of application on soil nitrogen status and on the characteristics of the plant  

E-print Network

on July Z4. A sumxnary of the analysis of variance on soil nitrogen (NO3 and NH+4) as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application. 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on the dry weight of the plant organs and the yield of seed... cotton as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application, 17 A summary of the analysis of variance on ni- trogen (T. N. , NO3 and NH4) content of the different parts of the plant as affected by source, rate and time of nitrogen application...

Sadik, Mohamed Kamal

2012-06-07

319

Dry season foliar fog uptake, reverse sapflow, and nighttime transpiration in the tropical montane cloud forests of Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dry season fog is a ubiquitous feature of seasonal tropical cloud forests. Although cloud forests receive generous inputs of yearly precipitation, rainfall occurs primarily in the wet season. In the tropical montane forests of Veracruz Mexico, 80% of rainfall occurs in the wet season while fog occurs primarily in the dry season. Since dry-season fog occurs during months when precipitation is low or absent, this meteorological phenomenon may be important in alleviating dry-season water stress either directly through foliar fog uptake, or indirectly through a reduction in transpiration causing relaxation in xylem water tension. We determined the importance of fog on the water relations of a dominant tropical montane forest tree in La Cortadura Reserve in Veracruz, Mexico by using micrometeorological data and by measuring sap flow, leaf water potential and stomatal conductance throughout the canopies of three mature oak trees. Although the relative humidity is generally high in this habitat, in the dry season, humidity is lower and at times can be as low as 20% which causes high vapor pressure deficit and evaporative demand. We also screened sap flow data to detect periods of nighttime transpiration. Reverse sap flow occurred frequently in this site during periods of fog/drizzle. Foliar fog uptake occurred 30% of the time in the dry season although this reverse flow is likely insignificant in the water balance of cloud forest trees. Furthermore we detected low, but positive, flow rates flow at night. Finally, we conducted diurnal courses of leaf water potential and stomatal conductance at the end of the dry season to determine whether these trees were undergoing water stress. Results/Conclusions We found that reverse sap flow is a common phenomena in the dry season, indicating foliar fog uptake. Although the addition of fog to whole-tree water balance may be minimal, high dry season leaf water potential may indicate the importance of fog in reducing the negative physiological impact of dry periods. Nighttime transpiration is also a common phenomena in these forests and accounts for approximately 30% of total water transpired in the dry season. Climate change scenarios often predict a reduction of fog in montane habitats; our results indicate that this may have important repercussions on the physiology of montane forest trees and persistence of montane cloud forest vegetation in this region.

Gotsch, S. G.; Asbjornsen, H.; Holwerda, F.; Goldsmith, G. R.; Dawson, T. E.

2010-12-01

320

Plant response of onion cultivars developed from greenhouse-grown transplants to plant density and fertilizer rate  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but there are gaps in the knowledge of the cultural requirements for these plants ...

321

What determines the complex kinetics of stomatal conductance under blueless PAR in Festuca arundinacea? Subsequent effects on leaf transpiration  

PubMed Central

Light quality and, in particular, its content of blue light is involved in plant functioning and morphogenesis. Blue light variation frequently occurs within a stand as shaded zones are characterized by a simultaneous decrease of PAR and blue light levels which both affect plant functioning, for example, gas exchange. However, little is known about the effects of low blue light itself on gas exchange. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize stomatal behaviour in Festuca arundinacea leaves through leaf gas exchange measurements in response to a sudden reduction in blue light, and (ii) to test the putative role of Ci on blue light gas exchange responses. An infrared gas analyser (IRGA) was used with light transmission filters to study stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), assimilation (A), and intercellular concentration of CO2 (Ci) responses to blueless PAR (1.80 ?mol m?2 s?1). The results were compared with those obtained under a neutral filter supplying a similar photosynthetic efficiency to the blueless PAR filter. It was shown that the reduction of blue light triggered a drastic and instantaneous decrease of gs by 43.2% and of Tr by 40.0%, but a gradual stomatal reopening began 20 min after the start of the low blue light treatment, thus leading to new steady-states. This new stomatal equilibrium was supposed to be related to Ci. The results were confirmed in more developed plants although they exhibited delayed and less marked responses. It is concluded that stomatal responses to blue light could play a key role in photomorphogenetic mechanisms through their effect on transpiration. PMID:20444905

Barillot, Romain; Frak, Ela; Combes, Didier; Durand, Jean-Louis; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J.

2010-01-01

322

What determines the complex kinetics of stomatal conductance under blueless PAR in Festuca arundinacea? Subsequent effects on leaf transpiration.  

PubMed

Light quality and, in particular, its content of blue light is involved in plant functioning and morphogenesis. Blue light variation frequently occurs within a stand as shaded zones are characterized by a simultaneous decrease of PAR and blue light levels which both affect plant functioning, for example, gas exchange. However, little is known about the effects of low blue light itself on gas exchange. The aims of the present study were (i) to characterize stomatal behaviour in Festuca arundinacea leaves through leaf gas exchange measurements in response to a sudden reduction in blue light, and (ii) to test the putative role of Ci on blue light gas exchange responses. An infrared gas analyser (IRGA) was used with light transmission filters to study stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (Tr), assimilation (A), and intercellular concentration of CO(2) (Ci) responses to blueless PAR (1.80 mumol m(-2) s(-1)). The results were compared with those obtained under a neutral filter supplying a similar photosynthetic efficiency to the blueless PAR filter. It was shown that the reduction of blue light triggered a drastic and instantaneous decrease of gs by 43.2% and of Tr by 40.0%, but a gradual stomatal reopening began 20 min after the start of the low blue light treatment, thus leading to new steady-states. This new stomatal equilibrium was supposed to be related to Ci. The results were confirmed in more developed plants although they exhibited delayed and less marked responses. It is concluded that stomatal responses to blue light could play a key role in photomorphogenetic mechanisms through their effect on transpiration. PMID:20444905

Barillot, Romain; Frak, Ela; Combes, Didier; Durand, Jean-Louis; Escobar-Gutiérrez, Abraham J

2010-06-01

323

Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate in soybean plants: uptake during reproductive growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic culture was measured daily during a 63 d period of reproductive development between the first florally inductive photoperiod and [unknown word] seed growth. Removal of NO3- from a replenished solution containing 1.0 mol m-3 NO3- was determined by ion chromatography. Uptake of NO3- continued throughout reproductive development. The net uptake rate of NO3- cycled between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation of 3 to 7 d during the floral stage and about 6 d during the fruiting stage. Coupled with increasing concentrations of carbon and C : N ratios in tissues, the oscillations in net uptake rates of NO3- are evidence that the demand for carbohydrate by reproductive organs is contingent on the availability of nitrogen in the shoot pool rather than that the demand for nitrogen follows the flux of carbohydrate into reproductive tissues.

Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Henry, L. T.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

1990-01-01

324

Evaporation and Transpiration in Semiarid Grass- and Shrub-Dominated Ecosystems in Southeast Arizona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information about the ratio of transpiration (T) to total evapotranspiration (T/ET) is related to critical global change concerns, including shrub encroachment, non-native species invasion and soil erosion. In this study, a new approach was used to partition measurements of ET into daily evaporation (ED) and daily transpiration (TD) in a semiarid watershed based on the low-cost addition of an infrared thermometer and soil moisture sensors to existing eddy covariance and Bowen ratio systems. For a study period during the North American monsoon season, estimates of T/ET over three years (2004-2006) at grass- and shrub-dominated sites at the USDA Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed were used to address the hypotheses that T/ET is sensitive to changes in woody plant cover and is correlated with total precipitation, precipitation patterns and total ET. For this study period (August to October), we found a strong, multi-year relation between root zone soil moisture (to 15 cm depth) and TD at both sites. Estimates of TD and ED were summed over the study period for years 2004, 2005 and 2006 to estimate totals over the study period, TS and ES respectively. Results showed that the shrub-dominated site had higher ES than the grass-dominated site for similar precipitation patterns over the study period. TS and ES were related to the number of larger storms during the study period, and this relation was different for the two sites. For this study period, TS was related strongly to ETS, with a slope of 0.90 for the grass-dominated site and 0.84 for the shrub-dominated site for the three years. Thus, for these sites during the study period in these years, the TS/ETS was higher for the grass-dominated site than for the shrub-dominated site, and did not vary systematically with variation in amounts and timing of rainfall. The uncertainty of the new method due to sampling, instrument and algorithm errors was estimated to be about 3-7 mm or about 4% of TS over the study period.

Moran, S.; Scott, R.; Keefer, T.; Emmerich, B.; Hernandez, M.; Paige, G.; Cosh, M.; O'Neill, P.

2007-12-01

325

Transport of root-derived CO2 via the transpiration stream affects aboveground tree physiology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research on soil CO2 efflux has shown that belowground autotrophic respiration is largely underestimated using classical net CO2 flux measurements. Aubrey & Teskey (2009) found that in forest ecosystems a substantial portion of the CO2 released from root respiration remained within the root system and was transported aboveground in the stem via the transpiration stream. The magnitude of this upward movement of CO2 from belowground tissues suggested important implications for how we measure above- and belowground respiration. If a considerable fraction of root-respired CO2 is transported aboveground, where it might be fixed in woody and leaf tissues, then we are routinely underestimating the amount of C needed to sustain belowground tissues. In this study, we infused 13C labeled water into the base of field-grown poplar trees as a surrogate for root-respired CO2 to investigate the possible role of root-derived CO2 as substrate for carbon fixation. The label was transported upwards from the base of the tree toward the top. During its ascent, the 13C label was removed from the transpiration stream and fixed by chlorophyll-containing woody (young bark and xylem) and leaf (petiole) tissues. Moreover, based on 13C analysis of gas samples, we observed that up to 88 ± 0.10 % of the label applied was lost to the atmosphere by stem and branch efflux higher in the trees. Given that one-half of root-respired CO2 may follow this internal flux pathway (Aubrey & Teskey, 2009), we calculated that up to 44% of the root-respired CO2 could diffuse to the atmosphere once transported to the stem and branches. Thus, a large portion of CO2 that diffuses out of aboveground tissues may actually result from root respiration. Our results show that CO2 originating belowground can be transported internally to aboveground parts of trees, where it will have an important impact on tree physiology. Internal transport of CO2 indicates that the gas exchange approach to estimating above- and belowground autotrophic respiration is inadequate. Accurate quantification of this internal carbon flux is necessary to understand plant physiological mechanisms and to explain variations in above-and belowground respiratory patterns, but these results do not imply the necessity for a reevaluation of net CO2 flux at the ecosystem level. Reference: Aubrey DP, Teskey RO (2009) Root-derived CO2 efflux via xylem stream rivals soil CO2 efflux. New Phytologist 184: 35-40.

Bloemen, J.; McGuire, M. A.; Aubrey, D. P.; Teskey, R. O.; Steppe, K.

2012-04-01

326

On the spatial distribution of the transpiration and soil moisture of a Mediterranean heterogeneous ecosystem in water-limited conditions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mediterranean ecosystems are characterized by a strong heterogeneity, and often by water-limited conditions. In these conditions contrasting plant functional types (PFT, e.g. grass and woody vegetation) compete for the water use. Both the vegetation cover spatial distribution and the soil properties impact the soil moisture (SM) spatial distribution. Indeed, vegetation cover density and type affects evapotranspiration (ET), which is the main lack of the soil water balance in these ecosystems. With the objective to carefully estimate SM and ET spatial distribution in a Mediterranean water-limited ecosystem and understanding SM and ET relationships, an extended field campaign is carried out. The study was performed in a heterogeneous ecosystem in Orroli, Sardinia (Italy). The experimental site is a typical Mediterranean ecosystem where the vegetation is distributed in patches of woody vegetation (wild olives mainly) and grass. Soil depth is low and spatially varies between 10 cm and 40 cm, without any correlation with the vegetation spatial distribution. ET, land-surface fluxes and CO2 fluxes are estimated by an eddy covariance technique based micrometeorological tower. But in heterogeneous ecosystems a key assumption of the eddy covariance theory, the homogeneity of the surface, is not preserved and the ET estimate may be not correct. Hence, we estimate ET of the woody vegetation using the thermal dissipation method (i.e. sap flow technique) for comparing the two methodologies. Due the high heterogeneity of the vegetation and soil properties of the field a total of 54 sap flux sensors were installed. 14 clumps of wild olives within the eddy covariance footprint were identified as the most representative source of flux and they were instrumented with the thermal dissipation probes. Measurements of diameter at the height of sensor installation (height of 0.4 m above ground) were recorded in all the clumps. Bark thickness and sapwood depth were measured on several trees to obtain a generalized estimates of sapwood depth. The known of allometric relationships between sapwood area, diameter and canopy cover area within the eddy covariance footprint helped for the application of a reliable scaling procedure of the local sap flow estimates which are in a good agreement with the estimates of ET eddy covariance based. Soil moisture were also extensively monitored through 25 probes installed in the eddy covariance footprint. Results show that comparing eddy covariance and sap flow ET estimates eddy covariance technique is still accurate in this heterogeneous field, whereas the key assumption, surface homogeneity, is not preserved. Furthermore, interestingly wild olives still transpire at higher rates for the driest soil moisture conditions, confirming the hydraulic redistribution from soil below the roots, and from roots penetrating deep cracks in the underlying basalt parent rock.

Curreli, Matteo; Corona, Roberto; Montaldo, Nicola; Albertson, John D.; Oren, Ram

2014-05-01

327

Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.  

PubMed

The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (?T). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. PMID:24962705

Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

2014-06-24

328

Responses of Leaf-level Carbon Assimilation and Transpiration to Root-zone Water Potential Changes in a Subtropical Tree Species  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in terrestrial ecosystems significantly contributes to global carbon balance in the atmosphere. While vegetation photosynthesizes to fix CO2, it simultaneously transpires H2O. These two interdependent processes are regulated by leaf stomata which are sensitive to environmental conditions (such as root zone soil moisture). Knowledge of the responses of leaf-level transpiration and carbon assimilation to a change of root-zone soil moisture condition is important to understand how these processes influence water balance and carbon sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, and to understand the capacity of trees to cope with future climate changes.We will present the results of a one-year observational study on a subtropical evergreen broadleaf tree species (Osmanthus fragrans) in the central south China. The observations were carried out on two 8-year Osmanthus fragrans trees in a plantation site from 1 Sep, 2012 to 31 Aug, 2013. A portable infrared gas exchange analyzer (Li-6400, Li-COR, Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska, USA) was used to measure leaf photosynthesis and leaf transpiration on clear days. Root zone soil water potential was estimated from predawn stem water potential using stem psychrometers (ICT, Australia). Sap flow and micrometeorological data were also collected. The results show that the average leaf carbon assimilation rate at light saturation decreases quickly with the root zone water potential from 0 to -1 MPa, and slowly after the root zone water potential falls below -1 MPa. The average leaf transpiration at light saturation shows a similar pattern. Leaf-level water use efficiency increases slowly with a decrease of root-zone water potential from 0 to -1 MPa, and keeps constant when the root zone gets drier. This relationship provides a potential to estimate whole-tree carbon assimilation from sap flow measurements. Leaf assimilation rates at light saturation in early morning vs. root-zone water potential for Osmanthus fragrans.

Cicheng, Z.; Guan, H.; Han, G.; Zhang, X.

2013-12-01

329

Effects of thinning on wood production, leaf area index, transpiration and canopy interception of a plantation subject to drought.  

PubMed

We conducted thinning trials in a 5-year-old Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus Labill plantation near Warrenbayne, northeastern Victoria, Australia, where soil salinization and waterlogging are common, and assessed treatment effects on tree growth, water use and survival. Half-hectare plots were thinned from the original density of 1100 stems ha(-1) to densities of 800, 600 and 400 stems ha(-1), and stem diameter increment, leaf area index, transpiration, canopy interception and depth of tree water source monitored for 21 months. Two drought periods occurred during the study, rainfall was 30% below the long-term average and there was severe mortality in all three plots. Analysis of deuterium abundance in soil and xylem water indicated that the trees accessed water only from the top meter of the soil profile. Transpiration rates were higher in the most heavily thinned plot than in the least thinned plot, which underwent a reduction in basal area during the study. The most heavily thinned plot increased in basal area by 10% during the study. Edge trees had significantly greater diameters than trees from the middle of the plots. PMID:11498347

McJannet, D; Vertessy, R

2001-08-01

330

Visitation rates and pollinator sets at the periphery and central parts of single-species plant patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three model plant species (Aegopodium podagraria, Tripleurospermum inodorum, and Geranium palustri) were used to show the differences in visitation rates and pollinator sets between plant individuals growing at the center\\u000a and periphery of single-species patches. Most of the insect species visited the center more frequently, but Phaonia basalis (Diptera, Muscidae) and Leptura flava (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae) preferred the peripheral parts. The

S. N. Lysenkov

2009-01-01

331

Drivers of variability in tree transpiration in a Boreal Black Spruce Forest Chronosequence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boreal forests are of particular interest in climate change studies because of their large land area and ability to sequester and store carbon, which is controlled by water availability. Heterogeneity of these forests is predicted to increase with climate change through the impact of more frequent wildfires, warmer, longer growing seasons, and potential drainage of forested wetlands. This study aims to quantify the influence of stand age, drainage condition, and species on tree transpiration and its drivers in a central Canadian black spruce boreal forest. Heat dissipation sensors were installed in 113 trees (69 Picea mariana (black spruce), 25 Populus tremuloides (trembling aspen), and 19 Pinus banksiana (jack pine) at four stand ages, each containing a well- and poorly-drained site over three growing seasons (2006-2008). Sap flux per unit xylem area, JS, was expressed as transpiration per unit ground area, EC, and transpiration per unit leaf area, EL, using site- and species-specific allometry to obtain sapwood area (AS)and leaf area(AL)per unit ground area. Well-drained, younger Picea mariana daily JS was 47-64% greater than the older well-drained burn ages and younger poorly-drained stands were 64-68% greater than the two oldest poorly-drained stands. Daily EL in the well-drained Picea mariana stands was on average 12-33% higher in younger stand than in the two oldest stands whereas young, poorly-drained Picea mariana had 71% greater daily EL than the older stands. Well-drained Picea mariana trees had 52% higher daily EC than older trees and poorly-drained Picea mariana in the 1964 burn had 42-81% higher daily EC than the oldest stands. Populus tremuloides located in the two youngest stands had daily JS 38-58% greater rates than the 1930 burn, whereas daily EL and EC had no distint differences due to high interannual variability. Pinus banksiana experienced 21-33% greater daily JS in the 1989 burn than in the older 1964 burn for well- and poorly-drained sites. Poorly-drained Pinus banksiana trees from the older 1964 burn had 23-48% greater daily EL and 26-39% higher daily EC than the 1989 burn. Poorly-drained Picea mariana had 17-31% higher daily JS than the well-drained sites. Poorly-drained Picea mariana had 29-58% higher daily EL 42-50% higher daily EC than the well-drained trees. Poorly-drained Pinus banksiana on average had 27-28% higher daily JS than well-drained trees. Poorly-drained Pinus banskiana had 23.25% higher daily EL than well-drained trees and daily EC 32-67% lower than the well-drained trees. Drivers of these differences include midday leaf water potential, AS, and AL.

Angstmann, J. L.; Ewers, B. E.; Kwon, H.

2009-12-01

332

The search for optimum condenser cooling water flow rate in a thermal power plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat losses from the thermal power plant cycle are due mainly to heat rejection through the condenser. Operating the condenser at optimum circulation water flowrate is essentially important to ensure maximum efficiency and minimum operating cost of the plant. In this study, computer program codes were developed in Microsoft Excel macros for simulation of a thermal plant at various circulation

A. N. Anozie; O. J. Odejobi

2011-01-01

333

Relationship between calcium decoding elements and plant abiotic-stress resistance  

PubMed Central

Serving as an important second messenger, calcium ion has unique properties and universal ability to transmit diverse signals that trigger primary physiological actions in cells in response to hormones, pathogens, light, gravity, and stress factors. Being a second messenger of paramount significance, calcium is required at almost all stages of plant growth and development, playing a fundamental role in regulating polar growth of cells and tissues and participating in plant adaptation to various stress factors. Many researches showed that calcium signals decoding elements are involved in ABA-induced stomatal closure and plant adaptation to drought, cold, salt and other abiotic stresses. Calcium channel proteins like AtTPC1 and TaTPC1 can regulate stomatal closure. Recently some new studies show that Ca2+ is dissolved in water in the apoplast and transported primarily from root to shoot through the transpiration stream. The oscillating amplitudes of [Ca2+]o and [Ca2+]i are controlled by soil Ca2+ concentrations and transpiration rates. Because leaf water use efficiency (WUE) is determined by stomatal closure and transpiration rate, so there may be a close relationship between Ca2+ transporters and stomatal closure as well as WUE, which needs to be studied. The selection of varieties with better drought resistance and high WUE plays an increasing role in bio-watersaving in arid and semi-arid areas on the globe. The current paper reviews the relationship between calcium signals decoding elements and plant drought resistance as well as other abiotic stresses for further study. PMID:18463716

Song, Wei-Yi; Zhang, Zheng-Bin; Shao, Hong-Bo; Guo, Xiu-Lin; Cao, Hong-Xing; Zhao, Hong-Bin; Fu, Zheng-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Jun

2008-01-01

334

7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160C at a specified rate as the heat source. The actual and maximum possible thermal efficiencies and the rate of heat rejected from this power plant  

E-print Network

7-31 7-88 A geothermal power plant uses geothermal liquid water at 160ºC at a specified rate and potential energy changes are zero. 3 Steam properties are used for geothermal water. Properties Using saturated liquid properties, the source and the sink state enthalpies of geothermal water are (Table A-4) k

Bahrami, Majid

335

Relative in vitro growth rates of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) - the most rapidly growing higher plants.  

PubMed

Relative growth rates (RGR), doubling times (DT) and relative weekly yields (RY) of 39 clones (ecotypes) from 13 species representing all five genera of duckweeds were determined under standardised cultivation conditions. RGR ranged overall from 0.153 to 0.519 day(-1) , DT from 1.34 to 4.54 days and RY from 2.9 to 37.8 week(-1) . The RGR and RY data can be compared directly to other published findings to only a limited extent on account of missing clonal designations for and limited accessibility to previously investigated clones, as well as the use of different data denominators. However, they are consistent with the published results of other comparative duckweed studies of similar scope in showing that RGR does not vary primarily at the level of the genus or species, but rather reflects the adaptation of individual clones to specific local conditions. The RGR data support the widely held assumption that duckweeds can grow faster than other higher plants and that they can thus surpass land-based agricultural crops in productivity. Duckweeds are highly promising for the production of biomass for nutrition and energy, but extensive clonal comparison will be required to identify the most suitable isolates for this purpose. PMID:24803032

Ziegler, P; Adelmann, K; Zimmer, S; Schmidt, C; Appenroth, K-J

2015-01-01

336

Using tree ring data as a proxy for transpiration to reduce predictive uncertainty of a model simulating groundwater-surface water-vegetation interactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions between surface water, the vadose zone, groundwater, and vegetation are governed by complex feedback mechanisms. Numerical models simulating these interactions are essential in quantifying these processes. However, the notorious lack of field observations results in highly uncertain parameterizations. We suggest a new type of observation data to be included in the calibration data set for hydrological models simulating interactions with vegetation: Tree rings as a proxy for transpiration. We use the lower Tarim River as an example site for our approach. In order to forestall the loss of riparian ecosystems from reduced flow over a 300 km reach of the lower Tarim River, the Chinese government initiated periodical, ecological water releases. The water exchange processes in this region were simulated for a cross-section on the lower reaches of the Tarim River using a numerical model (Hydro-GeoSphere) calibrated against observations of water tables, as well as transpiration estimated from tree ring growth. A predictive uncertainty analysis quantifying the worth of different components of the observation dataset in reducing the uncertainty of model predictions was carried out. The flow of information from elements of the calibration dataset to the different parameters employed by the model was also evaluated. The flow of information and the uncertainty analysis demonstrate that tree ring records can significantly improve confidence in modeling ecosystem dynamics, even if these transpiration estimates are uncertain. To use the full potential of the historical information encapsulated in the Tarim River tree rings, however, the relationship between tree ring growth and transpiration rates has to be studied further.

Schilling, O. S.; Doherty, J.; Kinzelbach, W.; Wang, H.; Yang, P. N.; Brunner, P.

2014-11-01

337

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Get ready to explore plants! Let's Learn About Plants! Question: What do plants need to live? Watch the video to find out! What does it need to grow? Question: What are the parts of a plant? Click to find out! Parts of a Plant Question: What is the life cycle of a plant? Watch the video to find out! Plant Life Cycle Video Question: ...

Miss Berneski

2011-12-10

338

Characterization of Transpiration in a Deciduous Forest of the US Midwest  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The exchange of water between atmosphere and biosphere is an important determinant of climate and the productivity of vegetation, as transpiration involves substantial amounts of energy. Knowing how transpiration changes over seasonal and diurnal cycles can help increase the understanding of how a forest reacts to changes in the biosphere and atmosphere on both short and long time scales. A study was conducted to characterize the daily and seasonal variation of transpiration in sugar maple (Acer Saccharum) at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) AmeriFlux site in Indiana (USA), were this species represent more than 25% of the forest basal area. Transpiration was estimated by up-scaling single point measurements of sap flow density obtained using the heat-pulse technique. To characterize the variability of sap flow density in the deep sapwood of sugar maples, 3 to 4 radial profiles were obtained for each sampled tree at different positions around the trunk. Different approaches were then tested to scale up to whole tree sap flow. Seventeen trees of different diameter were sampled by three roving sap flow systems, taking measurements from each tree for 5-7 contiguous days. Because of the small scale but complex topography in the area and the relatively shallow soil, particular attention was given to the effect of spatial and temporal variability of soil moisture content on transpiration; for this reason, sampled trees were selected along a topographic gradient and soil water content was measured in the proximity of each tree. Meteorological measurements taken at the nearby MMSF AmeriFlux tower were used to explain transpiration variability in terms of vapor pressure deficit, and solar radiation, while eddy- covariance measurements of latent heat flux were related to the up-scaled transpiration of sugar maples in the study area.

Dragoni, D.; Caylor, K. K.; Schmid, H.

2006-12-01

339

The role of planted forests in urban water budgets (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In arid regions which are not naturally forested, urban trees are sustained through the redistribution of water resources as irrigation. Assessments of outdoor water use in Southwestern US cities have shown that not only is 30-75% of residential water use expended on outdoor landscapes, but that irrigation is frequently in excess of estimated plant demand. Thus, there is a need to understand the factors which influence the magnitude and variability of water use of urban trees. A complicating factor in assessing urban tree water use is the widely recognized heterogeneity of urban environments. Human choices and decision-making result in a landscape with significant variability in water and nutrient inputs, microclimate, biotic inputs and vegetation composition. In order to quantify urban tree water use and explain variation in water use resulting from variability in resource availability and species composition, we have conducted a combination of sapflux, growth and isotopic studies on more than 35 common (primarily non-native) tree species in the Los Angeles basin. The objective of these studies was to determine how much variability in water use and water use efficiency exists within and between commonly planted urban tree species, and what factors explain or can be used to predict this variability. Through these studies we have found considerable differences (up to two fold) in tree transpiration within a given species, attributable to differences in water and nutrient availability and tree planting density. Additionally, we have found substantial variation in the water use of different species: at typical urban planting densities, peak transpiration rates can be more than ten times greater for high transpiring trees than low transpiring trees. Finally, we found whole tree water use efficiency to vary across species by a factor of up to a hundred, explained to a large degree by the climate conditions (especially vapor pressure deficit) in the native ranges of these non-native trees. On the scale of the entire city of Los Angeles, we estimate that the urban forest could use as much as 50% of the total municipal water use. Overall, we have found that urban trees can use substantial quantities of water, and that species choice matters greatly in determining urban landscape water use.

McCarthy, H. R.; Pataki, D. E.; Litvak, E.

2009-12-01

340

An examination of heat rate improvements due to waste heat integration in an oxycombustion pulverized coal power plant  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxyfuel, or oxycombustion, technology has been proposed as one carbon capture technology for coal-fired power plants. An oxycombustion plant would fire coal in an oxidizer consisting primarily of CO2, oxygen, and water vapor. Flue gas with high CO2 concentrations is produced and can be compressed for sequestration. Since this compression generates large amounts of heat, it was theorized that this heat could be utilized elsewhere in the plant. Process models of the oxycombustion boiler, steam cycle, and compressors were created in ASPEN Plus and Excel to test this hypothesis. Using these models, heat from compression stages was integrated to the flue gas recirculation heater, feedwater heaters, and to a fluidized bed coal dryer. All possible combinations of these heat sinks were examined, with improvements in coal flow rate, Qcoal, net power, and unit heat rate being noted. These improvements would help offset the large efficiency impacts inherent to oxycombustion technology.

Charles, Joshua M.

341

Mechanical regulation of plant growth and development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Soybean and eggplant grown and shaken in a greenhouse exhibited decreased internode length, internode diameter, leaf area, and fresh and dry weight of roots and shoots in much the same way as outdoor-exposed plants. Perhaps more important than decreased dimensions of plant parts resulting from periodic seismic treatment is the inhibition of photosynthetic productivity that accompanies this stress. Soybeam plants briefly shaken or rubbed twice daily experienced a decrease in relative as well as absolute growth rate compared to that of undisturbed controls. Growth dynamics analysis revealed that virtually all of the decline in relative growth rate (RGR) was due to a decline in net assimilation rate (NAR), but not in leaf area ratio (LAR). Lower NAR suggests that the stress-induced decrease in dry weight gain is due to a decline in photosynthetic efficiency. Possible effects on stomatal aperture was investigated by measuring rates of whole plant transpiration as a function of seismo-stress, and a transitory decrease followed by a gradual, partial recovery was detected.

Mitchell, C. A.

1984-01-01

342

Comparisons among species composition, leaf area, and water relations in three shrub-steppe plant communities  

SciTech Connect

Observations were made on plant communities dominated by Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass site), Artemisia tridentata (sagebrush site), and Grayia spinosa (hopsage site). Leaf area on a ground area basis of sagebrush was nor significantly different between the sagebrush and hopsage sites; however, the leaf area of hopsage was one-quarter that of sagebrush at the hopsage site. Pre-dawn xylem water potential of sagebrush was -2.91 MPa, while that of hopsage was -4.79 MPa. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate of sagebrush and hopsage were nearly the same. 11 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

Link, S.O.; Kirkham, R.R.; Thiede, M.E.; Downs, J.L.; Gee, G.W.

1987-03-01

343

The use of electrical resistance in the plant stem to measure plant response to soil moisture tension and evaporative demand  

E-print Network

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Water absorption. . . ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~. . . . . . . ~ ~ . . ~ ~ . . ~ ~ . . ~ . . ~ ~ . . ~ Moisture stress in plants ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Diurnal fluctuations of plant eater stress. . . . . . . . . ~ Plant Stem.... Diurnal fluctuations of plant water stress; In NacDougal's (16) work with a dendrograph he found that diurnal variations occurred in the diameter of tree trunks. The smallest di- ameter occurred when transpiration was the greatest. Weatherley (27...

Box, James E.

1956-01-01

344

Effects of Phenylmercuric Acetate on Stomatal Movement and Transpiration of Excised Retula papyrifera Marsh. Leaves.  

PubMed

Effects of 10(-3)m, 10(-4)m, and 10(-5)m phenylmercuric acetate (PMA) on stomatal movement and transpiration of excised Betula papyrifera leaves were investigated. Duco cement leaf prints and transpiration decline curves were used for the analysis of stomatal condition. PMA induced stomatal closure and decreased transpiration. Stomata of leaves treated with any of the 3 PMA concentrations closed earlier and at a higher relative water content than did stomata of untreated leaves. As determined from transpiration decline curves, PMA at 10(-3)m caused an increase in apparent "cuticular" transpiration. However, the increase appeared to result largely from some PMA-poisoned stomata which remained open for prolonged periods. Considerable PMA toxicity was observed, with 10(-3)m and 10(-4)m concentrations causing browning of leaves. PMA treatment caused a decrease in chlorophyll content, even at a low PMA concentration (10(-5)m) which influenced stomatal response only slightly and did not cause evident browning of leaves. The time and degree of stomatal opening varied with stomatal size. Large stomata tended to open earlier and close later than small stomata. Hence, in Betula papyrifera stomata of various size classes were considered as physiologically different populations. PMID:16657121

Waisel, Y; Borger, G A; Kozlowski, T T

1969-05-01

345

Simulation tools for evaluating optical plant sensors for variable-rate application technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A significant reduction in the amount of pesticides applied in agricultural and biological systems could be achieved using spot spray technology. To accomplish this, advanced plant sensor systems must be developed that can accurately locate and identify weeds from crop plants in the field. Currently, both public and commercial efforts have concentrated on single element optical sensors based on key reflective elements of the plant and soil system. Machine vision or image analysis is being investigated as another possible tool in plant sensing. It may provide valuable optical design information for less expensive single-element sensors. Moreover, shape features and textural analysis already provides simple broadleaf-grass classification based on staged plant images. These have not been thoroughly field tested. Another approach is to test image analysis algorithms, using three-dimensional rendering of weed and plant canopy architecture under complex lighting regimes. What was essentially done was to extract plant shape and textural information, along with essential physiological data from actual photographic images and then reassemble them as a virtual plant in the computer. A dissection program was written in C and efficiently extracts and stores irregular leaf shape and texture data. A canopy architecture program was written in C and Media Cybernetics HALOR graphics routines under DOS Expanded Memory on a personal computer. The plant simulation model consists of a three dimensional space where simulated light rays are generated as diffuse or speculative illumination. Plant surfaces are simulated with actual textural maps. The virtual plant is then manipulated to generate images that would be seen with machine vision. Computer simulated weed images were used to generate and test different fields of view sizes for evaluating how single element optical sensors would respond to composite leaf-soil reflectance.

Meyer, George E.; Hindman, Timothy W.; Schultz, Mark

1996-12-01

346

The Rise of Flowering Plants and Land Surface Physics: The Cretaceous and Eocene Were Different  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Cretaceous and Eocene have served as the poster children of past greenhouse climates. One difference between the two time periods is that angiosperms (flowering plants) underwent a major diversification and rise to dominance during the mid-Cretaceous to Paleocene. Flowering plants differ from all other living and fossil plants in having significantly higher rates of transpiration and photosynthesis, which in modern leaves correlate with the density of venation (Dv), a feature that can be measured directly from fossils. This increase in Dv, coupled with an increase in the abundance of angiosperms, is thought to have had major impact on the climate system. This is, in part, because transpiration plays an important role in determining the ratio of sensible to latent heat flux from the land surface and in determining precipitation rate in regions such as the equatorial rainforest. Analysis of Dv in fossil leaves indicates two phases of increase in transpiration rate for angiosperms during the Cretaceous-Paleocene. The oldest known angiosperms (Aptian-early Albian) have a low Dv characteristic of extant and fossil ferns and gymnosperms. At this time angiosperms are low-stature plants of minor importance in terms of relative abundance and diversity (<5%). The first phase of Dv increase occurs during the Late Albian to Cenomanian, where average Dv is 40% greater than that of conifers and ferns, and maximum Dv reaches levels characteristic of many trees from the temperate zone. This first phase coincides with the first local dominance of angiosperms, the first occurrence of moderate to large angiosperm trees (up to 1 m in diameter) , and the first common occurrence of angiosperms in the Arctic. The second phase of Dv increase occurs during the Maastrichtian to Paleocene, where average Dv reaches levels characteristic of modern tropical forests and maximum Dv reaches the level found in highly productive modern vegetation. This second phase coincides with the rise to dominance of angiosperms in regional vegetation, a corresponding decline of conifers and ferns, and the modernization of hydraulic architecture in angiosperm wood. The full implications of these changes in land cover have yet to be explored with Earth System models, especially outside the tropics. However, under similar LAI and pCO2, Cretaceous vegetation would have made a greater contribution to global warming than Eocene vegetation through greater sensible heating of the land surface and possibly reduced liquid clouds due to decreased transpiration.

Upchurch, G. R.; Feild, T.

2010-12-01

347

Single high-dose vs. fractionated radiotherapy: Effects on plant growth rates  

PubMed Central

Aim To evaluate the differential effects of fractionated vs. high-dose radiotherapy on plant growth. Background Interest in hypofractionated radiotherapy has increased substantially in recent years as tumours (especially of the lung, prostate, and liver) can be irradiated with ever greater accuracy due to technological improvements. The effects of low-dose ionizing radiation on plant growth have been studied extensively, yet few studies have investigated the effect of high-dose, hypofractionated radiotherapy on plant growth development. Materials and methods A total of 150 plants from the genus Capsicum annuum were randomized to receive fractionated radiotherapy (5 doses of 10 Gy each), single high-dose (SHD) radiotherapy (single 50 Gy dose), or no radiotherapy (control group). Irradiation was delivered via linear accelerator and all samples were followed daily for 26 days to assess and compare daily growth. Results On day 26, plants in the control, fractionated, and SHD groups had grown to a mean height of 7.55 cm, 4.32 cm, and 2.94 cm, respectively. These differences in overall growth were highly significant (P = 0.005). The SHD group showed the least amount of growth. Conclusions SHD effectively stunts plant growth and development. Despite the evident differences between plant and animal cells, ionizing radiation is believed to work in a similar manner in all biological cells. These findings highlight the need to continue investigating the use of hypofractionated schemes in humans to improve cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:24416565

Guedea, Marc; Castel, Antoni; Arnalte, Marc; Mollera, Alex; Muñoz, Victor; Guedea, Ferran

2013-01-01

348

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these links to find out more about plants. This site will help you determine what a plant needs to grow. Michigan's 4-H Children's Garden This site will send you through an adventure where you try to discover if you can grow plants on the moon. Adventures of the agronauts These 2 sites are teacher resource sites on plants. Light Plants and Dark Plants, Wet Plants and Dry Ones The New York Times Daily Lesson Plan: Growing Pains ...

Quinn, Miss

2005-05-02

349

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project, students will identify the relationship of the structure of plants. Students will also understand the cycle of plants and their role in the food chain. Why are plants important? How do they affect the cycle of life? Think about these questions as you watch this video on plants: Video of plants Now go to this website: Biology of Plants and use your handout to record the information you learn about the parts of a plant. Next, take this ...

barlobe

2009-10-21

350

Groundwater Availability Alters Soil-plant Nutrient Cycling in a Stand of Invasive, N-fixing Phreatophytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-fixing phreatophytic trees are common in arid and semi-arid regions worldwide, and can play significant roles in modifying hydrology and soil-plant nutrient cycling where they are present. In light of reductions in groundwater levels in many arid regions we estimated annual transpiration rates at a stand level, and alterations to C, N and P accretion in soils as a function of groundwater depth in a ca.120 year old stand of Prosopis pallida along an elevation gradient in coastal leeward Hawaii. We measured sapflow and stand level sapwood area to quantify transpiration, and calculated groundwater transpiration rates using P. pallida stem water ?18O values. By measuring soil resistivity, we were able to compare the volume of groundwater transpired by these trees to groundwater depth across the stand. We examined nutrient deposition and accretion in soils in lowland areas of the stand with accessible shallow groundwater, compared to upland areas with no groundwater access, as indicated by stem water ?18O values. Resistivity results suggested that groundwater was at a height close to sea level throughout the stand. Transpiration was around 1900 m3 ha-1 year-1 in the areas of the stand closest to the sea (where groundwater was at around 1-4 m below ground level) and decreased to around a tenth of that volume where groundwater was not accessible. Litterfall rates over the course of the year studied were 17 times greater at lowland sites, but this litterfall contributed ca. 24 times the N, and 35 times the P of upland sites. Thus, groundwater access contributed to the total mass of nitrogen and phosphorus deposited in the form of litter through higher litter quantity and quality. Total N content of soils was 4.7 times greater and inorganic N pools were eight times higher at lowland plots. These results suggest that groundwater depth can have strong effects on soil-plant nutrient cycling, so that reductions in the availability of shallow groundwater are likely to impact soil nutrient availability in arid regions.

Dudley, B. D.; Miyazawa, Y.; Hughes, F.; Ostertag, R.; Kettwich, S. K.; MacKenzie, R.; Dulaiova, H.; Waters, C. A.; Bishop, J.; Giambelluca, T. W.

2013-12-01

351

Use of temporal patterns in vapor pressure deficit to explain spatial autocorrelation dynamics in tree transpiration.  

PubMed

To quantify the relationship between temporal and spatial variation in tree transpiration, we measured sap flow in 129 trees with constant-heat sap flow sensors in a subalpine forest in southern Wyoming, USA. The forest stand was located along a soil water gradient from a stream side to near the top of a ridge. The stand was dominated by Pinus contorta Dougl. ex Loud. with Picea engelmannii Parry ex Engelm and Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. present near the stream and scattered individuals of Populus tremuloides Michx. throughout the stand. We used a cyclic sampling design that maximized spatial information with a minimum number of samples for semivariogram analyses. All species exhibited previously established responses to environmental variables in which the dominant driver was a saturating response to vapor pressure deficit (D). This response to D is predictable from tree hydraulic theory in which stomatal conductance declines as D increases to prevent excessive cavitation. The degree to which stomatal conductance declines with D is dependent on both species and individual tree physiology and increases the variability in transpiration as D increases. We quantified this variability spatially by calculating the spatial autocorrelation within 0.2-kPa D bins. Across 11 bins of D, spatial autocorrelation in individual tree transpiration was inversely correlated to D and dropped from 45 to 20 m. Spatial autocorrelation was much less for transpiration per unit leaf area and not significant for transpiration per unit sapwood area suggesting that spatial autocorrelation within a particular D bin could be explained by tree size. Future research should focus on the mechanisms underlying tree size spatial variability, and the potentially broad applicability of the inverse relationship between D and spatial autocorrelation in tree transpiration. PMID:18244950

Adelman, Jonathan D; Ewers, Brent E; Mackay, D Scott

2008-04-01

352

Seasonal Changes in the Photosynthetic Rate in Apple Trees : A Comparison between Fruiting and Nonfruiting Trees.  

PubMed

Seasonal changes in photosynthesis of apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) were monitored to examine the effect of source-sink interactions on photosynthesis and photorespiration. Elevated photosynthetic rates were observed during two periods of the growing season and correlated with the fruiting process. The first period of increased photosynthetic rates was during the bloom period, when spur leaves on flowering shoots exhibited up to 25% higher photosynthetic rates than vegetative spur leaves on a leaf area basis. CO(2) assimilation rates were also higher in fruiting trees than nonfruiting trees during the period of rapid fruit growth from July to September. Photorespiration, dark respiration, leaf resistance, and transpiration exhibited no seasonal changes which correlated to the presence or absence of fruit. These data represent the first comprehensive examination of the effects of flowering/fruit formation on photosynthesis and photorespiration in perennial plants. PMID:16664276

Fujii, J A; Kennedy, R A

1985-07-01

353

Transcriptomics and molecular evolutionary rate analysis of the bladderwort (Utricularia), a carnivorous plant with a minimal genome  

PubMed Central

Background The carnivorous plant Utricularia gibba (bladderwort) is remarkable in having a minute genome, which at ca. 80 megabases is approximately half that of Arabidopsis. Bladderworts show an incredible diversity of forms surrounding a defined theme: tiny, bladder-like suction traps on terrestrial, epiphytic, or aquatic plants with a diversity of unusual vegetative forms. Utricularia plants, which are rootless, are also anomalous in physiological features (respiration and carbon distribution), and highly enhanced molecular evolutionary rates in chloroplast, mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal sequences. Despite great interest in the genus, no genomic resources exist for Utricularia, and the substitution rate increase has received limited study. Results Here we describe the sequencing and analysis of the Utricularia gibba transcriptome. Three different organs were surveyed, the traps, the vegetative shoot bodies, and the inflorescence stems. We also examined the bladderwort transcriptome under diverse stress conditions. We detail aspects of functional classification, tissue similarity, nitrogen and phosphorus metabolism, respiration, DNA repair, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Long contigs of plastid and mitochondrial genomes, as well as sequences for 100 individual nuclear genes, were compared with those of other plants to better establish information on molecular evolutionary rates. Conclusion The Utricularia transcriptome provides a detailed genomic window into processes occurring in a carnivorous plant. It contains a deep representation of the complex metabolic pathways that characterize a putative minimal plant genome, permitting its use as a source of genomic information to explore the structural, functional, and evolutionary diversity of the genus. Vegetative shoots and traps are the most similar organs by functional classification of their transcriptome, the traps expressing hydrolytic enzymes for prey digestion that were previously thought to be encoded by bacteria. Supporting physiological data, global gene expression analysis shows that traps significantly over-express genes involved in respiration and that phosphate uptake might occur mainly in traps, whereas nitrogen uptake could in part take place in vegetative parts. Expression of DNA repair and ROS detoxification enzymes may be indicative of a response to increased respiration. Finally, evidence from the bladderwort transcriptome, direct measurement of ROS in situ, and cross-species comparisons of organellar genomes and multiple nuclear genes supports the hypothesis that increased nucleotide substitution rates throughout the plant may be due to the mutagenic action of amplified ROS production. PMID:21639913

2011-01-01

354

Effects of nitrogen form on growth, CO2 assimilation, chlorophyll fluorescence, and photosynthetic electron allocation in cucumber and rice plants*  

PubMed Central

Cucumber and rice plants with varying ammonium (NH4 +) sensitivities were used to examine the effects of different nitrogen (N) sources on gas exchange, chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence quenching, and photosynthetic electron allocation. Compared to nitrate (NO3 ?)-grown plants, cucumber plants grown under NH4 +-nutrition showed decreased plant growth, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular carbon dioxide (CO2) level, transpiration rate, maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, and O2-independent alternative electron flux, and increased O2-dependent alternative electron flux. However, the N source had little effect on gas exchange, Chl a fluorescence parameters, and photosynthetic electron allocation in rice plants, except that NH4 +-grown plants had a higher O2-independent alternative electron flux than NO3 ?-grown plants. NO3 ? reduction activity was rarely detected in leaves of NH4 +-grown cucumber plants, but was high in NH4 +-grown rice plants. These results demonstrate that significant amounts of photosynthetic electron transport were coupled to NO3 ? assimilation, an effect more significant in NO3 ?-grown plants than in NH4 +-grown plants. Meanwhile, NH4 +-tolerant plants exhibited a higher demand for the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) for NO3 ? reduction, regardless of the N form supplied, while NH4 +-sensitive plants had a high water-water cycle activity when NH4 + was supplied as the sole N source. PMID:21265044

Zhou, Yan-hong; Zhang, Yi-li; Wang, Xue-min; Cui, Jin-xia; Xia, Xiao-jian; Shi, Kai; Yu, Jing-quan

2011-01-01

355

Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio of three tropical tree species  

E-print Network

Transpiration efficiency over an annual cycle, leaf gas exchange and wood carbon isotope ratio. Cumulative transpiration was determined by repeatedly weighing the pots with a pallet truck scale. Dry matter that leaf-level processes largely determined variation among the three tropical tree species in whole

Bermingham, Eldredge

356

Association of Biodiversity with the Rates of Micropollutant Biotransformations among Full-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant Communities.  

PubMed

Biodiversities can differ substantially among different wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) communities. Whether differences in biodiversity translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services, however, is under active debate. Theoretical considerations predict that WWTP communities with more biodiversity are more likely to contain strains that have positive effects on the rates of particular ecosystem functions, thus resulting in positive associations between those two variables. However, if WWTP communities were sufficiently biodiverse to nearly saturate the set of possible positive effects, then positive associations would not occur between biodiversity and the rates of particular ecosystem functions. To test these expectations, we measured the taxonomic biodiversity, functional biodiversity, and rates of 10 different micropollutant biotransformations for 10 full-scale WWTP communities. We have demonstrated that biodiversity is positively associated with the rates of specific, but not all, micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, one cannot assume whether or how biodiversity will associate with the rate of any particular micropollutant biotransformation. We have further demonstrated that the strongest positive association is between biodiversity and the collective rate of multiple micropollutant biotransformations. Thus, more biodiversity is likely required to maximize the collective rates of multiple micropollutant biotransformations than is required to maximize the rate of any individual micropollutant biotransformation. We finally provide evidence that the positive associations are stronger for rare micropollutant biotransformations than for common micropollutant biotransformations. Together, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in biodiversity can indeed translate into differences in the provision of particular ecosystem services by full-scale WWTP communities. PMID:25398862

Johnson, David R; Helbling, Damian E; Lee, Tae Kwon; Park, Joonhong; Fenner, Kathrin; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Ackermann, Martin

2015-01-15

357

The effect of root temperature on the induction of nitrate reductase activities and nitrogen uptake rates in arctic plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated whether six arctic plant species have the potential to induce nitrate reductase (NR) activity when exposed to NO3--nitrogen under controlled environment conditions, using an in vivo assay that uses the rate of NO2--accumulation to estimate potential NR activity. We also assessed the effect of low root temperatures on NR activity, growth and nitrogen uptake (using 15N applications) in

Owen K. Atkin; W. Raymond Cummins

1994-01-01

358

Correlation between Plant Growth Regulator Release Rate and Bioactivity for the Series of Newly Synthesized Phytoactive Polymers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoactive polymers are high molecular weight systems in which a plant growth regulator (PGR) unit is attached to the polymeric\\u000a chain by a hydrolyzable chemical bond. The release rate of the PGR is linked to the biological activity of the phytoactive\\u000a polymer and can be controlled by properties inherent in the whole macromolecular system. In this study the correlation of

Michael I. Shtilman; Manolis N. Tzatzarakis; Potvakan S. Voskanyan; Ioannis N. Tsakiris; Andreas K. Tsakalof; Aristidis M. Tsatsakis

2006-01-01

359

A simplified analytical solution for thermal response of a one-dimensional, steady state transpiration cooling system in radiative and convective environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simplified analytical method for calculation of thermal response within a transpiration-cooled porous heat shield material in an intense radiative-convective heating environment is presented. The essential assumptions of the radiative and convective transfer processes in the heat shield matrix are the two-temperature approximation and the specified radiative-convective heatings of the front surface. Sample calculations for porous silica with CO2 injection are presented for some typical parameters of mass injection rate, porosity, and material thickness. The effect of these parameters on the cooling system is discussed.

Kubota, H.

1976-01-01

360

Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does a plant grow? Fill this out as you look through the websites Worksheet First watch the video Plant Life Cycle Video Then click around on this website and learn all about plants LIfe Cycle of Plants Next review and play with parts of a plant learning parts of the plant Next watch the video and learn What does it need to grow? Then learn how to Growing a plant Once you are finished come to my desk to plant your own flower! ...

Anne Barron

2011-04-21

361

Substitution rates in the X- and Y-linked genes of the plants, Silene latifolia and S. dioica.  

PubMed

Theory predicts that selection should be less effective in the nonrecombining genes of Y-chromosomes, relative to the situation for genes on the other chromosomes, and this should lead to the accumulation of deleterious nonsynonymous substitutions. In addition, synonymous substitution rates may differ between X- and Y-linked genes because of the male-driven evolution effect and also because of actual differences in per-replication mutation rates between the sex chromosomes. Here, we report the first study of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates on plant sex chromosomes. We sequenced two pairs of sex-linked genes, SlX1-SlY1 and SlX4-SlY4, from dioecious Silene latifolia and S. dioica, and their non-sex-linked homologues from nondioecious S. vulgaris and Lychnis flos-jovis, respectively. The rate of nonsynonymous substitutions in the SlY4 gene is significantly higher than that in the SlX4 gene. Silent substitution rates are also significantly higher in both Y-linked genes, compared with their X-linked homologues. The higher nonsynonymous substitution rate in the SlY4 gene is therefore likely to be caused by a mutation rate difference between the sex chromosomes. The difference in silent substitution rates between the SlX4 and SlY4 genes is too great to be explained solely by a higher per-generation mutation rate in males than females. It is thus probably caused by a difference in per-replication mutation rates between the sex chromosomes. This suggests that the local mutation rate can change in a relatively short evolutionary time. PMID:12032246

Filatov, Dmitry A; Charlesworth, Deborah

2002-06-01

362

Monitoring Evaporation/Transpiration in a Vineyard from Two-Source Energy Balance and Radiometric Temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water management and understanding of irrigation efficiency could be significantly improved if the components of evapotranspiration (ET) in row-crop systems (plants and soil interrows) could be quantified separately. This evaporation/transpiration (E/T) partition, and its daily and seasonal evolution, depends on a variety of biophysical and environmental factors. In this work we present an operational method to provide continuous E/T results avoiding soil or canopy disturbance. This technique is based on the combination of the surface-atmosphere energy exchange modeling together with an accurate remote thermal characterization of the crop elements. An experiment was carried out in a row-crop vineyard in Mallorca, Spain, from June 2012 to May 2013. A set of 6 thermal-infrared radiometers (IRTs) were mounted in a mast placed in the middle of a vineyard N-S row. Two IRTs pointed to the soil between rows and other two pointed to the plants from a frontal view, measuring both east and west sides of the row. A fifth IRT pointed upward to collect the downwelling sky radiance and the remaining IRT was mounted at 4.5-m height over the canopy measuring the composed soil-canopy temperature. Measurements of the four components of the net radiation over the canopy and soil heat fluxes, as well as air temperature, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture, were collected and stored in 15-min averages. A two-source energy balance approach was applied to the vineyard from its appropriate thermal characterization. Total and separate soil/canopy components of net radiation, soil, sensible and latent heat fluxes were obtained every 15 minutes and averaged at hourly and daily scales. Comparison between observed and modeled values of available surface energy showed relative errors below 15%. An analysis of the partition E/T was conducted along the vineyard growing season and the different phenological stages. In this experiment, interrow soil evaporation reached as much as 1/3 of the total cumulative evapotranspiration from floration to harvest. This technique can be useful for scientists and land managers interested in improving water use efficiency, not only because it is shown as an alternative to traditional weighing lysimeters, but also because the presented method allows the continuous monitoring of the E/T partition under a variety of meteorological conditions and covering the different stages of the crop development.

Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Doña, Carolina; Cuxart, Joan; Caselles, Vicente; Niclòs, Raquel

2014-05-01

363

Mechanism of Methane Transport from the Rhizosphere to the Atmosphere through Rice Plants 1  

PubMed Central

To clarify the mechanisms of methane transport from the rhizosphere into the atmosphere through rice plants (Oryza sativa L.), the methane emission rate was measured from a shoot whose roots had been kept in a culture solution with a high methane concentration or exposed to methane gas in the gas phase by using a cylindrical chamber. No clear correlation was observed between change in the transpiration rate and that in the methane emission rate. Methane was mostly released from the culm, which is an aggregation of leaf sheaths, but not from the leaf blade. Micropores which are different from stomata were newly found at the abaxial epidermis of the leaf sheath by scanning electron microscopy. The measured methane emission rate was much higher than the calculated methane emission rate that would result from transpiration and the methane concentration in the culture solution. Rice roots could absorb methane gas in the gas phase without water uptake. These results suggest that methane dissolved in the soil water surrounding the roots diffuses into the cell-wall water of the root cells, gasifies in the root cortex, and then is mostly released through the micropores in the leaf sheaths. Images Figure 7 PMID:16667719

Nouchi, Isamu; Mariko, Shigeru; Aoki, Kazuyuki

1990-01-01

364

Comparing the effectiveness of heat rate improvements in different coal-fired power plants utilizing carbon dioxide capture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Congressional legislation may soon require coal-fired power generators to pay for their CO2 emissions and capture a minimum level of their CO2 output. Aminebased CO2 capture systems offer plants the most technically proven and commercially feasible option for CO2 capture at this time. However, these systems require a large amount of heat and power to operate. As a result, amine-based CO2 capture systems significantly reduce the net power of any units in which they are installed. The Energy Research Center has compiled a list of heat rate improvements that plant operators may implement before installing a CO2 capture system. The goal of these improvements is to upgrade the performance of existing units and partially offset the negative effects of adding a CO2 capture system. Analyses were performed in Aspen Plus to determine the effectiveness of these heat rate improvements in preserving the net power and net unit heat rate (NUHR) of four different power generator units. For the units firing high-moisture sub-bituminous coal, the heat rate improvements reduced NUHR by an average of 13.69% across a CO 2 capture level range of 50% to 90%. For the units firing bituminous coal across the same CO2 capture range, the heat rate improvements reduced NUHR by an average of 12.30%. Regardless of the units' coal or steam turbine cycle type, the heat rate improvements preserved 9.7% to 11.0% of each unit's net power across the same CO2 capture range. In general, the heat rate improvements were found to be most effective in improving the performance of units firing high-moisture sub-bituminous. The effect of the CO2 capture system on these units and the reasons for the improvements' greater effectiveness in them are described in this thesis.

Walsh, Martin Jeremy

365

A whole-plant cuvette system to measure short-term responses of conifer seedlings to environmental change.  

PubMed

A computer-controlled whole-plant cuvette system is described that allows precise and independent control of temperature (+/- 0.05 degrees C), vapor pressure (+/- 0.02 kPa), CO(2) concentration (+/- 2 micro mol mol(-1)) and photosynthetic photon flux density (+/- 5 micro mol m(-2) s(-1)), and allows the continuous measurement of net photosynthesis and transpiration rates. Vapor pressure is controlled by circulating chamber air through a CaSO(4) desiccant column supported on a digital balance. Transpiration rate is calculated from the change in desiccant mass with time. Photosynthesis rate is measured by integrating the output of a mass flow controller used to inject CO(2) into the chamber to compensate for that assimilated by the plant. The control system can be driven by set points that can be varied, for example, as a function of time, or held constant. We were able to simulate weather data obtained from climate stations and accurately follow, in real time, the output of sensors measuring outside conditions. Experiments on well-watered one- and two-year-old nursery-raised western red cedar (Thuja plicata Donn.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings showed that if the mean daily temperature was increased from 20 to 22 degrees C with vapor pressure remaining constant at 1 kPa, CO(2) concentrations must almost double to compensate for the decrease in net photosynthesis rate. PMID:14967646

Livingston, N. J.; Davies, G. J.; Eby, B. M.; Filek, G.; Fuchs, E. E.; Pepin, S.; Percy, R. E.

1994-01-01

366

Relation between the Vase Life and Transpiration, and Effect of Abscisic Acid in Spray Chrysanthemum  

Microsoft Academic Search

In spray chrysanthemum,, we investigated the effects of stomatal opening and Abstract: closing, amount of transpiration and treatment with abscisic acid (ABA) on its vase life degradation with the withering of its leaves. 1. When there was no air in the chamber during cultivation, the stoma-opening index increased, and the vase life was shortened by 2-4 days compared with those

INUBUSHI Kae; OHISHI Kazushi

2008-01-01

367

Inferences of Competitive Effects on Transpiration from Spatial Patterns in Stomatal Conductance.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stand level spatial homogeneity for transpiration is assumed and therefore spatial components are not incorporated in models. We have found whole tree sapflux to vary spatially within species for aspen ( Populus Tremuloides) along a moisture gradient in northern Wisconsin. As such we expect simulated values of reference stomatal conductance (GSref) derived from sap flux data to vary spatially as well. Sap flux data collected using a cyclic sampling design intended for geostatistical analysis was used to test this hypothesis. This data was collected over 10 days on a 1.5 ha site near the WLEF AmeriFlux tower in the Chequmegon National Forest in northern Wisconsin. We used the Terrestrial Regional Ecosystem Exchange Simulator (TREES) model to simulate values of GSref for individual trees. Geostatistical analyses indicate spatial autocorrelation among whole tree sap flux and simulated GSref values for aspen and alder ( Alnus incana). Environmental variables such as soil moisture and vapor pressure deficit that are thought to drive transpiration may explain some, but not all, of this spatial variability. One hypothesis is that competition may influence transpiration at the tree level. We explore the possibility that whole tree transpiration is influenced by the location and stature of neighboring individuals.

Loranty, M. M.; Mackay, D.; Ewers, B. E.; Adelman, J. D.; Kruger, E. L.

2005-12-01

368

Cell water potential, osmotic potential, and turgor in the epidermis and mesophyll of transpiring leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water potential, osmotic potential and turgor measurements obtained by using a cell pressure probe together with a nanoliter osmometer were compared with measurements obtained with an isopiestic psychrometer. Both types of measurements were conducted in the mature region of Tradescantia virginiana L. leaves under non-transpiring conditions in the dark, and gave similar values of all potentials. This finding indicates that

Hiroshi Nonami; E.-D. Schulze

1989-01-01

369

Connecting Increased Groundwater Contributions to Transpiration Losses in Bark Beetle-Infested Watersheds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent climate-exacerbated infestation of the mountain pine beetle (MPB) in the Rocky Mountain west has resulted in unprecedented tree death across the region. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the epidemic creates a complex and often inconsistent watershed response, impacting the primary storage and flow components of the hydrologic cycle. Within two years, trees have ceased to transpire and the subsequent loss of canopy cover results in increased precipitation and energy fluxes to the ground surface, causing changes in soil moisture dynamics and snowmelt processes. While snowmelt is of particular interest for water supply from these important mountain watersheds, the low flow season in late summer and fall may have important implications for water quality and riverine ecology. In this work, we use chemical hydrograph separation and a particle tracking model to temporally and spatially investigate alterations to stream flow generation processes from the loss of transpiration at the watershed scale. Specifically, we examine the potential for increased groundwater contributions to stream flow during the late summer and early fall. Here we found that late summer baseflow stream contributions increase with increasing levels of infestation both spatially and temporally. Consistent with water budget analyses, we hypothesize that this increase is due to the loss of transpiration from tree mortality. Ultimately, this work moves toward a better quantitative understanding of the importance of transpiration at the watershed scale.

Bearup, L. A.; Maxwell, R. M.; Penn, C. A.; Clow, D. W.; McCray, J. E.

2013-12-01

370

Coupling whole-tree transpiration and canopy photosynthesis in coniferous and broad-leaved  

E-print Network

and leaf-level gas exchange to determine whole-tree carbon gain. Both broad-leaved species (red oakCoupling whole-tree transpiration and canopy photosynthesis in coniferous and broad-leaved tree species S. Catovsky, N.M. Holbrook, and F.A. Bazzaz Abstract: We used sap flow as a measure of whole-tree

Holbrook, N. Michele

371

PIMA cotton leaf transpiration analysis using the wallmodel that accounts for liquid water movement  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Leaf transpiration of eight genotypes of Pima cotton was measured in the field of the Maricopa Agricultural Center in August 1994 at the University of Arizona. Photomicrographs of leaf cross-sections and of the leaf surfaces were scanned and analyzed with the image analysis software. The data were ...

372

International Association for Ecology Environmental and Physiological Regulation of Transpiration in Tropical Forest Gap Species  

E-print Network

International Association for Ecology Environmental and Physiological Regulation of Transpiration for Ecology Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4220916 Accessed: 29/11/2010 14:33 Your use of the JSTOR Association for Ecology are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Oecologia

Holbrook, N. Michele

373

The Competition between Liquid and Vapor Transport in Transpiring Leaves1[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

In leaves, the transpirational flux of water exits the veins as liquid and travels toward the stomata in both the vapor and liquid phases before exiting the leaf as vapor. Yet, whether most of the evaporation occurs from the vascular bundles (perivascular), from the photosynthetic mesophyll cells, or within the vicinity of the stomatal pore (peristomatal) remains in dispute. Here, a one-dimensional model of the competition between liquid and vapor transport is developed from the perspective of nonisothermal coupled heat and water molecule transport in a composite medium of airspace and cells. An analytical solution to the model is found in terms of the energy and transpirational fluxes from the leaf surfaces and the absorbed solar energy load, leading to mathematical expressions for the proportions of evaporation accounted for by the vascular, mesophyll, and epidermal regions. The distribution of evaporation in a given leaf is predicted to be variable, changing with the local environment, and to range from dominantly perivascular to dominantly peristomatal depending on internal leaf architecture, with mesophyll evaporation a subordinate component. Using mature red oak (Quercus rubra) trees, we show that the model can be solved for a specific instance of a transpiring leaf by combining gas-exchange data, anatomical measurements, and hydraulic experiments. We also investigate the effect of radiation load on the control of transpiration, the potential for condensation on the inside of an epidermis, and the impact of vapor transport on the hydraulic efficiency of leaf tissue outside the xylem. PMID:24572172

Rockwell, Fulton Ewing; Holbrook, N. Michele; Stroock, Abraham Duncan

2014-01-01

374

The evolution of inquilinism, host-plant use and mitochondrial substitution rates in Tamalia gall aphids  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used mitochondrial DNA data to infer phylogenies for 28 samples of gall- inducing Tamalia aphids from 12 host-plant species, and for 17 samples of Tamalia inquilinus, aphid 'inquilines' that obligately inhabit galls of the gall inducers and do not form their own galls. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the inquilines are monophyletic and closely related to their host aphids.

D. G. Miller; B. Crespi

2003-01-01

375

A new approach to production rate measurement in sulfuric acid plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the promulgation of the new source performance standards (NSPS) methods and standards in the December 23, 1971 Federal Register, attention has been increasingly focused on accurate determination of the process parameters for assessing compliance. For utility boilers, the standard is in units of pounds of particulate per million Btu's of heat input; for sulfuric acid plants, the units are

D. J. Grove; W. S. Smith

1983-01-01

376

Treatment of Wastewater With Slow Rate Systems: A Review of Treatment Processes and Plant Functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Land treatment systems constitute a viable alternative solution for wastewater management in cases where the construction of conventional (mechanical) wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are not affordable or other disposal options are not available. They have proven to be an ideal technology for small rural communities, clusters of homes, and small industrial units due to low energy demands and low operation

Nikolaos V. Paranychianakis; Andreas N. Angelakis; Harold Leverenz; George Tchobanoglous

2006-01-01

377

DESIGN AND OPERATION OF A CONSTANT LEVEL, CONSTANT RATE PILOT FILTRATION PLANT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular media filtration is one of the most complicated water treatment processes to operate and design. There are currently no bench scale tests which can accurately predict the performance of filters over the course of a filter run and therefore pilot plant trials should be carried out whenever filters are to be designed or modified in any way. However, the

P. A. Thompson; B. M. Brouckaert; R. Rajagopaul; M. N. Ngcekwa; M. Mhlongo

2004-01-01

378

Contrasting roles of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle - Part 2: Moisture recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contribution of land evaporation to local and remote precipitation (i.e. moisture recycling) is of significant importance to sustain water resources and ecosystems. But how important are different evaporation components in sustaining precipitation? This is the first paper to present moisture recycling metrics for partitioned evaporation. In the companion paper Wang-Erlandsson et al. (2014) (hereafter Part 1), evaporation was partitioned into vegetation interception, floor interception, soil moisture evaporation and open-water evaporation (constituting the direct, purely physical fluxes, largely dominated by interception), and transpiration (delayed, biophysical flux). Here, we track these components forward as well as backward in time. We also include age tracers to study the atmospheric residence times of these evaporation components. We present a new image of the global hydrological cycle that includes quantification of partitioned evaporation and moisture recycling as well as the atmospheric residence times of all fluxes. We demonstrate that evaporated interception is more likely to return as precipitation on land than transpired water. On average, direct evaporation (essentially interception) is found to have an atmospheric residence time of 8 days, while transpiration typically resides for 9 days in the atmosphere. The process scale over which evaporation recycles is more local for interception compared to transpiration; thus interception generally precipitates closer to its evaporative source than transpiration, which is particularly pronounced outside the tropics. We conclude that interception mainly works as an intensifier of the local hydrological cycle during wet spells and wet seasons. On the other hand, transpiration remains active during dry spells and dry seasons and is transported over much larger distances downwind, where it can act as a significant source of moisture. Thus, as various land-use types can differ considerably in their partitioning between interception and transpiration, our results stress that land-use changes (e.g. forest-to-cropland conversion) do not only affect the magnitude of moisture recycling, but could also influence the moisture recycling patterns and lead to a redistribution of water resources. As such, this research highlights that land-use changes can have complex effects on the atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle.

van der Ent, R. J.; Wang-Erlandsson, L.; Keys, P. W.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2014-12-01

379

Contrasting roles of interception and transpiration in the hydrological cycle - Part 1: Temporal characteristics over land  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moisture recycling, the contribution of terrestrial evaporation to precipitation, has important implications for both water and land management. Although terrestrial evaporation consists of different fluxes (i.e. transpiration, vegetation interception, floor interception, soil moisture evaporation, and open-water evaporation), moisture recycling (terrestrial evaporation-precipitation feedback) studies have up to now only analysed their combined total. This paper constitutes the first of two companion papers that investigate the characteristics and roles of different evaporation fluxes for land-atmosphere interactions. Here, we investigate the temporal characteristics of partitioned evaporation on land and present STEAM (Simple Terrestrial Evaporation to Atmosphere Model) - a hydrological land-surface model developed to provide inputs to moisture tracking. STEAM estimates a mean global terrestrial evaporation of 73 900 km3 year-1, of which 59% is transpiration. Despite a relatively simple model structure, validation shows that STEAM produces realistic evaporative partitioning and hydrological fluxes that compare well with other global estimates over different locations, seasons, and land-use types. Using STEAM output, we show that the terrestrial residence timescale of transpiration (days to months) has larger inter-seasonal variation and is substantially longer than that of interception (hours). Most transpiration occurs several hours or days after a rain event, whereas interception is immediate. In agreement with previous research, our simulations suggest that the vegetation's ability to transpire by retaining and accessing soil moisture at greater depth is critical for sustained evaporation during the dry season. We conclude that the differences in temporal characteristics between evaporation fluxes are substantial and reasonably can cause differences in moisture recycling, which is investigated more in the companion paper (van der Ent et al., 2014, hereafter Part 2).

Wang-Erlandsson, L.; van der Ent, R. J.; Gordon, L. J.; Savenije, H. H. G.

2014-12-01

380

Gas transport by thermal transpiration in micro-channels -- A numerical study  

SciTech Connect

A reliable micro gas pump is an essential element to the development of many micro-systems for chemical gas analyses. At Sandia, the authors are exploring a different pumping mechanism, gas transport by thermal transpiration. Thermal transpiration refers to the rarefied gas dynamics developed in a micro-channel with a longitudinal temperature gradient. To investigate the potential of thermal transpiration for gas pumping in micro-systems, the authors have performed simulations and model analysis to design micro-devices and to assess their design performance before the fabrication process. The effort is to apply ICARUS (a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo code developed at Sandia) to characterize the fluid transport and evaluate the design performance. The design being considered has two plenums at different temperatures (hot and cold) separated by a micro-channel of 0.1 micron wide and 1 micron long. The temperature difference between the two plenums is 30 kelvin. ICARUS results, a quasi-steady analysis, predicts a net flow through the micro-channel with a velocity magnitude of about 0.4 m/s due to temperature gradient at the wall (thermal creep flow) at the early time. Later as the pressure builds up in the hot plenum, flow is reversed. Eventually when the system reaches steady state equilibrium, the net flow becomes zero. The thermal creep effect is compensated by the thermo-molecular pressure effect. This result demonstrates that it is important to include the thermo-molecular pressure effect when designing a pumping mechanism based on thermal transpiration. The DSMC technique can model this complex thermal transpiration problem.

Wong, C.C.; Hudson, M.L.; Potter, D.L.; Bartel, T.J.

1998-08-01

381

Modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate for the sensitivity to acid rain of 21 plant species.  

PubMed

This study investigated the sensitivity of plant species to acid rain based on the modeled dosage-response relationship on the net photosynthetic rate (P (N)) of 21 types of plant species, subjected to the exposure of simulated acid rain (SAR) for 5 times during a period of 50 days. Variable responses of P (N) to SAR occurred depending on the type of plant. A majority (13 species) of the dosage-response relationship could be described by an S-shaped curve and be fitted with the Boltzmann model. Model fitting allowed quantitative evaluation of the dosage-response relationship and an accurate estimation of the EC(10), termed as the pH of the acid rain resulting in a P (N) 10 % lower than the reference value. The top 9 species (Camellia sasanqua, Cinnamomum camphora, etc. EC(10) ? 3.0) are highly endurable to very acid rain. The rare, relict plant Metasequoia glyptostroboides was the most sensitive species (EC(10) = 5.1) recommended for protection. PMID:22562418

Deng, Shihuai; Gou, Shuzhen; Sun, Baiye; Lv, Wenlin; Li, Yuanwei; Peng, Hong; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Yingjun

2012-08-01

382

Temporal differentiation in maximum biomass and nutrient accumulation rates in two coexisting annual plant species  

Microsoft Academic Search

The temporal patterns of growth and nutrient accumulation into above-ground biomass of two annual coexisting plant species were studied in a semi-arid unfertile grassland. The hypothesis that temporal differences in growth and in nutrient accumulation into above-ground biomass facilitate species coexistence was also tested. Of the annual species identified, only the growth data of Vulpia myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel. and

A. P. Mamolos

2006-01-01

383

Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 ?g g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 ?g g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

2011-08-01

384

Comparison of emission from the water column and wetland plants at the Berry's Creek estuary, Hackensack Meadowlands, New Jersey.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Berry's Creek is a tidal tributary to the Hackensack River, and was historically subjected to discharges of mercury from the Ventron-Velsicol mercury processing site. The emission of mercury from this site to the atmosphere can follow three pathways: 1) emission from the water column, 2) transpiration through plants, and 3) emission from exposed wetland sediments. In this poster, we present a comparison of the first two emission pathways which have been studied at this site to date. Emission of mercury from the water column mercury to the atmosphere results from complex biogeochemical reactions between photoreactive dissolved organic carbon, ultraviolet light, and dissolved aqueous mercury. Emission rates measured using a dynamic flux chamber ranged from -0.64 to 34 ng/m2-h. Solar radiation and DOC spectral slope appear to exert the strongest control on mercury emission, with solar radiation alone accounting for up to 98% of the diel changes in mercury emission. Emission of mercury from plants appears to be a complex process that includes emission of mercury along with water vapor during transpiration as well as deposition to plant surfaces. Emission rates from Phragmites australis leaves ranged from -0.64 to 0.17 ng/m2-h. Annual and diel cycles are considered in an estimation of the magnitude of total mercury emitted through each pathway over the duration of 1 year.

Peters, S.; Wollenberg, J.; Bubb, M.

2008-12-01

385

Water uptake efficiency of a maize plant - A simulation case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Water uptake by plant roots is a complex mechanism controlled by biological and physical properties of the soil-plant-atmosphere system and affects a major component of the water cycle, transpiration. This uptake of water by plants is one of the major factors of plant development. Since water uptake occurs at the roots, root architecture and hydraulic properties both play a crucial role in plant productivity. A fundamental understanding of the main processes of water uptake will enable better breeding of drought resistant plants and the improvement of irrigation strategies. In this work we analyzed the differences of root water uptake between idealized genotypes of a plant using mathematical modelling The numerical simulations were performed by the R-SWMS software (Javaux et al., 2008). The model describes 3-D water movement in soil by solving Richard's equation with a sink term representing root uptake. Water flow within the root xylem network and between soil and root is modelled based on water pressure gradients and calculated according to Doussan's model. The sink term is calculated by integration of local uptakes within rooted representative elementary volumes of soil. The plant water demand is described by a boundary condition at the base of the shoot. We compare the water uptake efficiency of three types of root system architectures of a maize plant. Two are actual architectures from genotypes showing significant differences regarding the internodal distance, the root growth rate and the insertion angle of their primary roots. The third one is an ideotype according to Lynch of the maize plant designed to perform better in one dry environment. We generated with RootBox five repetitions of these three root systems with the same total root volume and simulated two drought scenarios at the flowering stage (lack of water at the top or at the bottom of the soil domain). We did these simulations for two distinct distributions of local conductivities of root segments based on literature values. This numerical experiment shows significantly different behaviors of the root systems in terms of dynamics of the water uptake, duration of the water stress or cumulative transpiration. The ranking of the maize architectures varied according to the considered drought scenario. The performance of a root system depends on the environment and on its hydraulic architecture suggesting that we always need to take the genotype-environment interaction into account for recommending breeding options. This study also shows that an ideotype must be built for one specific environment: the one we created experienced difficulties to transpire when placed in different conditions it has been designed for. By mathematical simulation we increased the understanding of the most important underlying processes governing water uptake in a root system.

Meunier, Félicien; Leitner, Daniel; Bodner, Gernot; Javaux, Mathieu; Schnepf, Andrea

2014-05-01

386

Influence of soil moisture stress on transpiration from a grain sorghum canopy  

E-print Network

of water from the bottom of each lysimeter by means of a vaccuum pump. Thus, a measurement of deep percolation losses was pos- sible. Grain sorghum was planted in each of the lysime- ters. To simulate the actual field microclimatic cond- itions, four... Bicolor) were grown in field lysimeters which provided complete control over the water balance. Different groups of plants were subjected to water deficits during different growth stages. Actual evapotranspiration rates were determined with soil...

Moridis, George Julius

2012-06-07

387

Engineering the use of green plants to reduce produced water disposal volume.  

SciTech Connect

In 1990, the Laboratory began an investigation into biological approaches for the reduction of water produced from oil and gas wells. In the spring of 1995, the Company began an on-site experiment at an oil/gas lease in Oklahoma using one of these approaches. The process, known as phytoremediation, utilizes the ability of certain salt tolerant plants to draw the produced water through their roots, transpire the water from their leaves, and thereby reduce overall water disposal volumes and costs. At the Company experimental site, produced water flows through a trough where green plants (primarily cordgrass) have been planted