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Sample records for plant volatile emission

  1. Volatile interaction between undamaged plants affects tritrophic interactions through changed plant volatile emission.

    PubMed

    Vucetic, Andja; Dahlin, Iris; Petrovic-Obradovic, Olivera; Glinwood, Robert; Webster, Ben; Ninkovic, Velemir

    2014-01-01

    Volatile interactions between unattacked plants can lead to changes in their volatile emissions. Exposure of potato plants to onion plant volatiles results in increased emission of 2 terpenoids, (E)-nerolidol and TMTT. We investigated whether this is detectable by the ladybird Coccinella septempunctata. The odor of onion-exposed potato was significantly more attractive to ladybirds than that of unexposed potato. Further, a synthetic blend mimicking the volatile profile of onion-exposed potato was more attractive than a blend mimicking that of unexposed potato. When presented individually, TMTT was attractive to ladybirds whereas (E)-nerolidol was repellent. Volatile exchange between unattacked plants and consequent increased attractiveness for ladybirds may be a mechanism that contributes to the increased abundance of natural enemies in complex plant habitats. PMID:25763628

  2. Volatile organic compound emission profiles of four common arctic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Nymand, Josephine; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-11-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from plants impact atmosphere and climate. The species-specific emissions, and thereby the atmospheric impact, of many plant species are still unknown. Knowledge of BVOC emission from arctic plants is particularly limited. The vast area and relatively high leaf temperature give the Arctic potential for emissions that cannot be neglected. This field study aimed to elucidate the BVOC emission profiles for four common arctic plant species in their natural environment during the growing season. BVOCs were sampled from aboveground parts of Empetrum hermaphroditum, Salix glauca, Salix arctophila and Betula nana using the dynamic enclosure technique and collection of volatiles in adsorbent cartridges, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sampling occurred three times: in late June/early July, in mid-July and in early August. E. hermaphroditum emitted the least BVOCs, dominated by sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and non-isoprenoid BVOCs. The Salix spp. emitted the most, dominated by isoprene. The emissions of B. nana were composed of about two-thirds non-isoprenoid BVOCs, with moderate amounts of monoterpenes (MTs) and SQTs. The total B. nana emissions and the MT and SQT emissions standardized to 30 °C were highest in the first measurement in early July, while the other species had the highest emissions in the last measurement in early August. As climate change is expected to increase plant biomass and change vegetation composition in the Arctic, the BVOC emissions from arctic ecosystems will also change. Our results suggest that if the abundance of deciduous shrubs like Betula and Salix spp. increases at the expense of slower growing evergreens like E. hermaphroditum, there is the potential for increased emissions of isoprene, MTs and non-isoprenoid BVOCs in the Arctic.

  3. Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of tra...

  4. DIFFERENTIAL VOLATILE EMISSIONS AND SALICYLIC ACID LEVELS FROM TOBACCO PLANTS IN RESPONSE TO DIFFERENT STRAINS OF PSEUDOMONAS SYRINGAE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pathogen-induced plant responses include changes in both volatile and non-volatile secondary metabolites. To investigate the role of bacterial pathogenesis in plant volatile emissions, tobacco plants, Nicotiana tabacum K326, were inoculated with virulent, avirulent, and mutant strains of Pseudomona...

  5. Volatile organic compound emissions from usaf wastewater treatment plants in ozone nonattainment areas. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ouellette, B.A.

    1994-09-01

    In accordance with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), this research conducts an evaluation of the potential emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from selected Air Force wastewater treatment plants. Using a conservative mass balance analysis and process specific simulation models, volatile organic emission estimates are calculated for four individual facilities--Edwards AFB, Luke AFB, McGuire AFB, and McClellan AFB--which represent a cross section of the current inventory of USAF wastewater plants in ozone nonattainment areas. From these calculations, maximum facility emissions are determined which represent the upper limit for the potential VOC emissions from these wastewater plants. Based on the calculated emission estimates, each selected wastewater facility is evaluated as a potential major stationary source of volatile organic emissions under both Title I of the 1990 CAAA and the plant's governing Clean Air Act state implementation plan. Next, the potential impact of the specific volatile organics being emitted is discussed in terms of their relative reactivity and individual contribution to tropospheric ozone formation. Finally, a relative comparison is made between the estimated VOC emissions for the selected wastewater facilities and the total VOC emissions for their respective host installations.

  6. Quantitative patterns between plant volatile emissions induced by biotic stresses and the degree of damage

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Kännaste, Astrid; Copolovici, Lucian

    2013-01-01

    Plants have to cope with a plethora of biotic stresses such as herbivory and pathogen attacks throughout their life cycle. The biotic stresses typically trigger rapid emissions of volatile products of lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway (LOX products: various C6 aldehydes, alcohols, and derivatives, also called green leaf volatiles) associated with oxidative burst. Further a variety of defense pathways is activated, leading to induction of synthesis and emission of a complex blend of volatiles, often including methyl salicylate, indole, mono-, homo-, and sesquiterpenes. The airborne volatiles are involved in systemic responses leading to elicitation of emissions from non-damaged plant parts. For several abiotic stresses, it has been demonstrated that volatile emissions are quantitatively related to the stress dose. The biotic impacts under natural conditions vary in severity from mild to severe, but it is unclear whether volatile emissions also scale with the severity of biotic stresses in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, biotic impacts are typically recurrent, but it is poorly understood how direct stress-triggered and systemic emission responses are silenced during periods intervening sequential stress events. Here we review the information on induced emissions elicited in response to biotic attacks, and argue that biotic stress severity vs. emission rate relationships should follow principally the same dose–response relationships as previously demonstrated for different abiotic stresses. Analysis of several case studies investigating the elicitation of emissions in response to chewing herbivores, aphids, rust fungi, powdery mildew, and Botrytis, suggests that induced emissions do respond to stress severity in dose-dependent manner. Bi-phasic emission kinetics of several induced volatiles have been demonstrated in these experiments, suggesting that next to immediate stress-triggered emissions, biotic stress elicited emissions typically have a secondary induction

  7. EMISSION OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM DRUM-MIX ASPHALT PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research program was undertaken in order to develop a quantitative estimate of the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from drum-mix asphalt plants. The study was carried out by field sampling of five drum-mix plants under a variety of operating conditions. Include...

  8. [Source emission characteristics of malodorous volatile organic carbonyls from a municipal sewage treatment plant].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Mi; Wang, Bo-Guang; Zhao, De-Jun; Zhang, Chun-Lin; Gu, Yin-Gang

    2011-12-01

    A 4-day field observation was conducted at Liede sewage treatment plant in Guangzhou, using PFPH/GC/MS method to analyse the composition and the concentration of volatile carbonyl compounds, and investigate the source emission characteristics of the pollutants. The results were as follows: 18 carbonyl species were detected, which including 15 malodorous volatile carbonyls with a concentration range from 0.39 microg x m(-3) to 19.92 microg x m(-3) at six processing units. Mean value of the total malodorous volatile carbonyls was (68.66 +/- 10.05) microg x m(-3). Normalization data process was used to research the source emission profile for malodorous volatile carbonyls, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, 2-butanone, butyraldehyde and hexaldehyde were found to be molecular markers of the source emission with their percentage of total carbonyls up to 78.91%. Hexaldehyde was the most abundant carbonyl species with an average concentration of 11.71 microg x m(-3). Using a calculation model of area source emission, it estimated that the total annual emissions of the municipal sewage treatment plant was 2 302.33 kg(-1), and the contribution ratio of each processing unit was in an order of biochemical reaction basin, concentration basin, grade A aeration, ascending pump room, grit basin, dewatering house. The malodorous emission of sewage treatment plant is affected by many complex factors, so there's some uncertainty on the estimate. PMID:22468520

  9. The Effects of Abiotic Factors on Induced Volatile Emissions in Corn Plants1

    PubMed Central

    Gouinguené, Sandrine P.; Turlings, Ted C.J.

    2002-01-01

    Many plants respond to herbivory by releasing a specific blend of volatiles that is attractive to natural enemies of the herbivores. In corn (Zea mays), this induced odor blend is mainly composed of terpenoids and indole. The induced signal varies with plant species and genotype, but little is known about the variation due to abiotic factors. Here, we tested the effect of soil humidity, air humidity, temperature, light, and fertilization rate on the emission of induced volatiles in young corn plants. Each factor was tested separately under constant conditions for the other factors. Plants released more when standing in dry soil than in wet soil, whereas for air humidity, the optimal release was found at around 60% relative humidity. Temperatures between 22°C and 27°C led to a higher emission than lower or higher temperatures. Light intensity had a dramatic effect. The emission of volatiles did not occur in the dark and increased steadily with an increase in the light intensity. An experiment with an unnatural light-dark cycle showed that the release was fully photophase dependent. Fertilization also had a strong positive effect; the emission of volatiles was minimal when plants were grown under low nutrition, even when results were corrected for plant biomass. Changes in all abiotic factors caused small but significant changes in the relative ratios among the different compounds (quality) in the induced odor blends, except for air humidity. Hence, climatic conditions and nutrient availability can be important factors in determining the intensity and variability in the release of induced plant volatiles. PMID:12114583

  10. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-11-01

    As volatile organic compounds (VOCs) significantly affect atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects), emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic VOC emission strengths are important. The aim of this work was to achieve a description of VOC emissions from poorly described tropical vegetation to be compared with the quite well investigated and highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. For this task, common plant species of both ecosystems were investigated. Sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area, which is known for its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species, were chosen. In contrast, little information is currently available regarding emissions of VOCs from tropical tree species at the leaf level. Twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin, i.e. Terra firme, Várzea and Igapó, were screened for emission of VOCs at leaf level with a branch enclosure system. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was quantitatively the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene > limonene > sabinene > β-pinene). Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes, whereas in the case of plants from the Amazon region no sesquiterpenes were detected probably due to a lack of sensitivity in the measuring systems. On the other hand methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous emissions

  11. Genetically engineered maize plants reveal distinct costs and benefits of constitutive volatile emissions in the field.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle Aurélie Maud; Erb, Matthias; Hiltpold, Ivan; Hibbard, Bruce Elliott; Gaillard, Mickaël David Philippe; Bilat, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg; Cambet-Petit-Jean, Xavier; Turlings, Ted Christiaan Joannes; Zwahlen, Claudia

    2013-06-01

    Genetic manipulation of plant volatile emissions is a promising tool to enhance plant defences against herbivores. However, the potential costs associated with the manipulation of specific volatile synthase genes are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the physiological and ecological effects of transforming a maize line with a terpene synthase gene in field and laboratory assays, both above- and below ground. The transformation, which resulted in the constitutive emission of (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene, was found to compromise seed germination, plant growth and yield. These physiological costs provide a possible explanation for the inducibility of an (E)-β-caryophyllene-synthase gene in wild and cultivated maize. The overexpression of the terpene synthase gene did not impair plant resistance nor volatile emission. However, constitutive terpenoid emission increased plant apparency to herbivores, including adults and larvae of the above ground pest Spodoptera frugiperda, resulting in an increase in leaf damage. Although terpenoid overproducing lines were also attractive to the specialist root herbivore Diabrotica virgifera virgifera below ground, they did not suffer more root damage in the field, possibly because of the enhanced attraction of entomopathogenic nematodes. Furthermore, fewer adults of the root herbivore Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardii were found to emerge near plants that emitted (E)-β-caryophyllene and α-humulene. Yet, overall, under the given field conditions, the costs of constitutive volatile production overshadowed its benefits. This study highlights the need for a thorough assessment of the physiological and ecological consequences of genetically engineering plant signals in the field to determine the potential of this approach for sustainable pest management strategies. PMID:23425633

  12. Synergism in the effect of prior jasmonic acid application on herbivore-induced volatile emission by Lima bean plants: transcription of a monoterpene synthase gene and volatile emission

    PubMed Central

    Menzel, Tila R.; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; David, Anja; Boland, Wilhelm; Gols, Rieta; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a central role in induced plant defence e.g. by regulating the biosynthesis of herbivore-induced plant volatiles that mediate the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. Moreover, exogenous application of JA can be used to elicit plant defence responses similar to those induced by biting-chewing herbivores and mites that pierce cells and consume their contents. In the present study, we used Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) plants to explore how application of a low dose of JA followed by minor herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) affects transcript levels of P. lunatus (E)-β-ocimene synthase (PlOS), emission of (E)-β-ocimene and nine other plant volatiles commonly associated with herbivory. Furthermore, we investigated the plant’s phytohormonal response. Application of a low dose of JA increased PlOS transcript levels in a synergistic manner when followed by minor herbivory for both simultaneous and sequential infestation. Emission of (E)-β-ocimene was also increased, and only JA, but not SA, levels were affected by treatments. Projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of other volatiles showed overlap between treatments. Thus, a low-dose JA application results in a synergistic effect on gene transcription and an increased emission of a volatile compound involved in indirect defence after herbivore infestation. PMID:25318119

  13. Leaf level emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from some Amazonian and Mediterranean plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, A.; Knothe, , N. M.; Welter, S.; Staudt, M.; Costa, W. R.; Liberato, M. A. R.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2013-09-01

    Emission inventories defining regional and global biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission strengths are needed to determine the impact of VOC on atmospheric chemistry (oxidative capacity) and physics (secondary organic aerosol formation and effects). The aim of this work was to contribute with measurements of tree species from the poorly described tropical vegetation in direct comparison with the quite well-investigated, highly heterogeneous emissions from Mediterranean vegetation. VOC emission from sixteen plant species from the Mediterranean area were compared with twelve plant species from different environments of the Amazon basin by an emission screening at leaf level using branch enclosures. Analysis of the volatile organics was performed online by a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline by collection on adsorbent tubes and subsequent gas chromatographic analysis. Isoprene was the most dominant compound emitted followed by monoterpenes, methanol and acetone. The average loss rates of VOC carbon in relation to the net CO2 assimilation were found below 4% and indicating normal unstressed plant behavior. Most of the Mediterranean species emitted a large variety of monoterpenes, whereas only five tropical species were identified as monoterpene emitters exhibiting a quite conservative emission pattern (α-pinene < limonene < sabinene < ß-pinene). Mediterranean plants showed additional emissions of sesquiterpenes. In the case of Amazonian plants no sesquiterpenes were detected. However, missing of sesquiterpenes may also be due to a lack of sensitivity of the measuring systems. Furthermore, our screening activities cover only 1% of tree species of such tropical areas as estimated based on recent biodiversity reports. Methanol emissions, an indicator of growth, were found to be common in most of the tropical and Mediterranean species. A few species from both ecosystems showed acetone emissions. The observed heterogeneous

  14. Plant-specific volatile organic compound emission rates from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2011-08-01

    The seasonality of vegetation, i.e., developmental stages and phenological processes, affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the potential significance, the contributions of seasonality to VOC emission quality and quantity are not well understood and are therefore often ignored in emission simulations. We investigated the VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves of several Mediterranean plant species in relation to their physiological and developmental changes during the growing period and estimated Es. Foliar emissions of isoprenoids and oxygenated VOCs like methanol and acetone were measured online by means of a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) and offline with gas chromatography coupled with a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector. The results suggest that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and that quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced both the VOC Es and the relative importance of different VOCs. Methanol was the major compound contributing to the sum of target VOC emissions in young leaves (11.8 ± 10.4 μg g-1 h-1), while its contribution was minor in mature leaves (4.1 ± 4.1 μg g-1 h-1). Several plant species showed a decrease or complete subsidence of monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and acetone emissions upon maturity, perhaps indicating a potential response to the higher defense demands of young emerging leaves.

  15. Duration of emission of volatile organic compounds from mechanically damaged plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lincoln; Beck, John J

    2015-09-01

    Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds depends on the use of arthropod herbivores that are sufficiently host specific to avoid risk of injuring nontarget plants. Host plant specificity is usually evaluated by using a combination of behavioral and developmental experiments under choice, no-choice and field conditions. Secondary plant compounds are likely to have an important influence on host plant specificity. However, relatively little is known about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by target and nontarget plants, and how environmental conditions may affect their emission. Previous studies have shown that mechanical damage of leaves increases the composition and content of VOCs emitted. In this study we measured the VOC emissions of five species of plants in the subtribe Centaureinae (Asteraceae)--Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea cineraria, Centaurea melitensis, Centaurea rothrockii, and Centaurea solstitialis--that have previously been used in host specificity experiments for a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle (C. solstitialis). Leaves of each plant were punctured with a needle and the VOCs were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) periodically over 48 h and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 49 compounds were detected. Damage caused an immediate increase of 200-600% in the composition of VOCs emitted from each plant species, and the amounts generally remained high for at least 48 h. The results indicate that a very unspecific mechanical damage can cause a prolonged change in the VOC profile of plants. PMID:26398629

  16. The community ecology of isoprene emissions from terrestrial plants and implications for other phytogenic volatiles (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerdau, M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Shugart, H. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the 1960's Frits Went published some of the first English language descriptions of volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from plants. Within 15 years it was well understood that the dominant phytogenic VOC was isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene). The years that followed saw a host of studies on the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isoprene emissions, and many of the most important controls at these scales have been elucidated and incorporated into large-scale models of isoprene emissions to the atmosphere. In addition, extensive surveys of isoprene emissions from high latitude, temperate, and tropical ecosystems have consistently found enormous variations in emissions across taxa, and the mechanisms underlying this variability remain the largest unknown in current models of isoprene emissions. We integrate community ecological modeling with isoprene emissions modeling to develop a predictive model of isoprene emissions across decadal to centennial time scales. The model combines an individual-based model of forest succession that includes architectural and biodiversity changes over succession after disturbance with a species-based canopy-scale emissions model. We parameterize this model for the southeastern United States, a region that is well studied both in terms of forests succession and in terms of isoprene emission. Our results highlight the sensitivity of isoprene emissions to successional stage and species composition. From this effort we predict that the largest impacts of global environmental change on isoprene emissions will occur through effects on community composition and structure rather than through direct impacts on primary and secondary metabolism. We also predict that land use and disturbance history will continue to have dramatic impacts on isoprene emissions from terrestrial ecosystems through their effects on canopy structure and community composition, even in the face of climate change and nutrient deposition. We suggest

  17. Practical applications of research into the regulation of plant volatile emission.

    PubMed

    Dudareva, Natalia; Negre, Florence

    2005-02-01

    Throughout their life cycles, plants release diverse blends of volatile compounds that play crucial roles in pollinator attraction, defense and communication. The importance of plant volatiles, in addition to the general appeal of fragrances and flavors to humans, have made these secondary metabolites a target for metabolic engineering. In the past decade, significant discoveries in the plant volatile biosynthetic pathways have provided a starting point for their modification. Pioneering attempts to alter plant volatile profiles have uncovered the complexity of networks and their regulation, and have built new avenues for future successful metabolic engineering. PMID:15653408

  18. Rendering plant emissions of volatile organic compounds during sterilization and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, Z A; Maqbool, F; Langenhove, H V

    2014-01-01

    The rendering process emits odorous volatile compounds in the atmosphere; if these volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are not handled properly they can cause a serious environmental problem. During this process not all emitted compounds are odorous and hazardous but some of them have been found associated with health problems. Samples were collected in the plastic bags from the Arnout rendering plant. In this study, VOCs emission from two different processes (cooking and sterilization) was compared. For the analysis of various emitted compounds, gas chromatograph and mass spectrophotometer were used. A sterilization process was added in the rendering plant to inactivate the prion protein from meat bone meal prepared during the rendering process. The identification of mass spectrum was performed by using a mass spectral database system. The most odorous classes of compounds identified were aliphatic hydrocarbons (HCs) (29.24%), furans (28.74%), aromatic HCs (18.32%), most important sulphur-containing compounds (12.15%), aldehyde (10.91%) and ketones (0.60%). Emissions released during cooking and sterilization were 32.73 x 10(2) and 36.85 x 10(2) mg m(-3), respectively. In this study, it was observed that after the addition of the sterilization process VOCs' emissions were increased. A total of 87 mg m(-3) dimethyl disulphide (DMS) was detected only during the cooking process, whereas dimethly trisulphide (DMTS) was detected in both cooking (300 mg m(-3)) and sterilization (301 mg m(-3)) processes. About 11 mg m3 of DMS was detected during the cooking process, which was a small concentration compared with 299 mg m(-3) found during the sterilization process. At high temperature and pressure, DMTS and DMS were released more than any other sulphur-containing compounds. A condenser was applied to control the combined emission and it was successful in the reduction of VOCs to 22.83 x 10(2) mg m(-3) (67% reduction). PMID:24701929

  19. Plant specific volatile organic compound emission factors from young and mature leaves of Mediterranean vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracho-Nunez, Araceli; Welter, Saskia; Staudt, Michael; Kesselmeier, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is the most important source of atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOC) with significant influence on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. VOCs influence the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere and contribute to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols affecting cloud development and precipitation. The aim of our study was to investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in VOC emission patterns of young and mature leaves for nine typical Mediterranean plant species. The Mediterranean area was chosen due to its special diversity in VOC emitting plant species. Foliar isoprenoid emissions as well as emissions of oxygenated VOC like methanol and acetone were measured under standard light and temperature conditions during spring and summer 2008 at the CEFE-CNRS institute in Montpellier, France. A proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) was used for online measurement of VOCs. While PTR-MS is an excellent technique for fast chemical measurements it lacks specificity and compounds with the same mass cannot be distinguished. For this reason, cartridge samples were collected and afterwards analyzed with GC-FID. In parallel offline VOC analyses were performed with gas chromatography (GC) coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector, enabling assignment of the observed PTR-MS mass to charge ratios (m/z) to specific identification based on the GC-FID retention times. Thus, combining the PTR-MS and GC-FID analyses enabled accurate and online identification of the VOCs emitted. The results emphasise that VOC emission is a developmentally regulated process and quantitative and qualitative variability is plant species specific. Leaf ontogeny clearly influenced not only the standard emission rate but also the VOC composition, with methanol being the major compound that contributes to the total VOC emissions in young leaves and maintaining or decreasing its contribution with maturity.

  20. Exposure of Solidago altissima plants to volatile emissions of an insect antagonist (Eurosta solidaginis) deters subsequent herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Helms, Anjel M.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Tooker, John F.; Mescher, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work indicates that plants respond to environmental odors. For example, some parasitic plants grow toward volatile cues from their host plants, and other plants have been shown to exhibit enhanced defense capability after exposure to volatile emissions from herbivore-damaged neighbors. Despite such intriguing discoveries, we currently know relatively little about the occurrence and significance of plant responses to olfactory cues in natural systems. Here we explore the possibility that some plants may respond to the odors of insect antagonists. We report that tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima) plants exposed to the putative sex attractant of a closely associated herbivore, the gall-inducing fly Eurosta solidaginis, exhibit enhanced defense responses and reduced susceptibility to insect feeding damage. In a field study, egg-laying E. solidaginis females discriminated against plants previously exposed to the sex-specific volatile emissions of males; furthermore, overall rates of herbivory were reduced on exposed plants. Consistent with these findings, laboratory assays documented reduced performance of the specialist herbivore Trirhabda virgata on plants exposed to male fly emissions (or crude extracts), as well as enhanced induction of the key defense hormone jasmonic acid in exposed plants after herbivory. These unexpected findings from a classic ecological study system provide evidence for a previously unexplored class of plant–insect interactions involving plant responses to insect-derived olfactory cues. PMID:23237852

  1. [Source emission characteristics and impact factors of volatile halogenated organic compounds from wastewater treatment plant].

    PubMed

    He, Jie; Wang, Bo-Guang; Liu, Shu-Le; Zhao, De-Jun; Tang, Xiao-Dong; Zou, Yu

    2011-12-01

    A low enrichment method of using Tenax as absorbent and liquid nitrogen as refrigerant has been established to sample the volatile halogenated organic compounds in Guangzhou Liede municipal wastewater treatment plant as well as its ambient air. The composition and concentration of target halogenated hydrocarbons were analyzed by combined thermal desorption/GC-MS to explore its sources profile and impact factors. The result showed that 19 halogenated organic compounds were detected, including 11 halogenated alkanets, 3 halogenated alkenes, 3 halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and 2 haloesters, with their total concentrations ranged from 34.91 microg x m(-3) to 127.74 microg x m(-3) and mean concentrations ranged from n.d. to 33.39 microg x m(-3). Main pollutants of the studied plant were CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CFC-12, C2H4Cl2, CFC-11, C2HCl3 and C2Cl4, they came from the wastewater by volatilization. Among the six processing units, the dehydration room showed the highest level of halogenated organic compounds, followed by pumping station, while the sludge thickener was the lowest. The emissions from pumping station, aeration tank and biochemical pool were significantly affected by temperature and humidity of environment. PMID:22468521

  2. Source location and characterization of volatile organic compound emissions at a petrochemical plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Liang; Fang, Hung Yuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2005-10-01

    This paper elucidated a novel approach to locating volatile organic compound (VOC) emission sources and characterizing their VOCs by database and contour plotting. The target of this survey was a petrochemical plant in Linyan, Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Samples were taken with canisters from 25 sites inside this plant, twice per season, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The survey covered 1 whole year. By consolidated into a database, the data could be readily retrieved, statistically analyzed, and clearly presented in both table and graph forms. It followed from the cross-analysis of the database that the abundant types of VOCs were alkanes, alkenes/dienes, and aromatics, all of which accounted for 99% of total VOCs. By contour plotting, the emission sources for alkanes, aromatics, and alkenes/ dienes were successfully located. Through statistical analysis, the database could provide the range and 90% confidence interval of each species from each emission source. Both alkanes and alkene/dienes came from tank farm and naphtha cracking units and were mainly composed of C3-C5 members. Regarding aromatics, benzene, toluene, and xylenes were the primary species; they were emitted from tank farm, aromatic units, and xylene units. PMID:16295274

  3. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-28

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gasmore » chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC–MS–FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.« less

  4. Impacts of simulated herbivory on volatile organic compound emission profiles from coniferous plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faiola, C. L.; Jobson, B. T.; VanReken, T. M.

    2015-01-01

    The largest global source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere is from biogenic emissions. Plant stressors associated with a changing environment can alter both the quantity and composition of the compounds that are emitted. This study investigated the effects of one global change stressor, increased herbivory, on plant emissions from five different coniferous species: bristlecone pine (Pinus aristata), blue spruce (Picea pungens), western redcedar (Thuja plicata), grand fir (Abies grandis), and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). Herbivory was simulated in the laboratory via exogenous application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), a herbivory proxy. Gas-phase species were measured continuously with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer and flame ionization detector (GC-MS-FID). Stress responses varied between the different plant types and even between experiments using the same set of saplings. The compounds most frequently impacted by the stress treatment were alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, 1,8-cineol, beta-myrcene, terpinolene, limonene, and the cymene isomers. Individual compounds within a single experiment often exhibited a different response to the treatment from one another.

  5. Tracing CO2 fluxes and plant volatile organic compound emissions by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2014-05-01

    Plant metabolic processes exert a large influence on global climate and air quality through the emission of the greenhouse gas CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. The vegetation exerts a large isotopic imprint on the atmosphere through both, photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and fractionation during respiratory CO2 release (δ13Cres). While the former is well understood, many processes driving carbon isotope fractionation during respiration are unknown1. There are striking differences in variations of δ13Cres between plant functional groups, which have been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate2. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate if carbon isotope fractionation in light and dark respired CO2 is associated with VOC emissions in the atmosphere. Specifically, we hypothesize that a high carbon flux through the pyruvate into various VOC synthesis pathways is associated with a pronounced 13C-enrichment of respired CO2 above the putative substrate, as it involves the decarboxylation of the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate. Based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS) we traced carbon flow into these pathways by pyruvate positional labeling. We demonstrated that in a Mediterranean shrub the 13C-enriched C-1 from pyruvate is released in substantial amounts as

  6. Online, real-time detection of volatile emissions from plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Harren, Frans J M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2013-01-01

    Trace gas monitoring plays an important role in many areas of life sciences ranging from agrotechnology, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and phytopathology. In plants, many processes can be followed by their low-concentration gas emission, for compounds such as ethylene, nitric oxide, ethanol or other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For this, numerous gas-sensing devices are currently available based on various methods. Among them are the online trace gas detection methods; these have attracted much interest in recent years. Laser-based infrared spectroscopy and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry are the two most widely used methods, thanks to their high sensitivity at the single part per billion level and their response time of seconds. This paper starts with a short description of each method and presents performances within a wide variety of biological applications. Using these methods, the dynamics of trace gases for ethylene, nitric oxide and other VOCs released by plants under different conditions are recorded and analysed under natural conditions. In this way many hypotheses can be tested, revealing the role of the key elements in signalling and action mechanisms in plants. PMID:23429357

  7. Online, real-time detection of volatile emissions from plant tissue

    PubMed Central

    Harren, Frans J. M.; Cristescu, Simona M.

    2013-01-01

    Trace gas monitoring plays an important role in many areas of life sciences ranging from agrotechnology, microbiology, molecular biology, physiology, and phytopathology. In plants, many processes can be followed by their low-concentration gas emission, for compounds such as ethylene, nitric oxide, ethanol or other volatile organic compounds (VOCs). For this, numerous gas-sensing devices are currently available based on various methods. Among them are the online trace gas detection methods; these have attracted much interest in recent years. Laser-based infrared spectroscopy and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry are the two most widely used methods, thanks to their high sensitivity at the single part per billion level and their response time of seconds. This paper starts with a short description of each method and presents performances within a wide variety of biological applications. Using these methods, the dynamics of trace gases for ethylene, nitric oxide and other VOCs released by plants under different conditions are recorded and analysed under natural conditions. In this way many hypotheses can be tested, revealing the role of the key elements in signalling and action mechanisms in plants. PMID:23429357

  8. The effects of bacterial volatile emissions on plant abiotic stress tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Huiming

    2015-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are beneficial plant symbionts that have been successfully used in agriculture to increase seedling emergence, plant weight, crop yield, and disease resistance. Some PGPR strains release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can directly and/or indirectly mediate increases in plant biomass, disease resistance, and abiotic stress tolerance. This mini-review focuses on the enhancement of plant abiotic stress tolerance by bacterial VOCs. The review considers how PGPR VOCs induce tolerance to salinity and drought stress and also how they improve sulfur and iron nutrition in plants. The potential complexities in evaluating the effects of PGPR VOCs are also discussed. PMID:26442083

  9. A genetically-based latitudinal cline in the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Agrawal, Anurag A; Hunter, Mark D

    2013-08-01

    The existence of predictable latitudinal variation in plant defense against herbivores remains controversial. A prevailing view holds that higher levels of plant defense evolve at low latitudes compared to high latitudes as an adaptive plant response to higher herbivore pressure on low-latitude plants. To date, this prediction has not been examined with respect to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that many plants emit, often thus attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. Here, we compared genetically-based constitutive and herbivore-induced aboveground vegetative VOC emissions from plants originating across a gradient of more than 10° of latitude (>1,500 km). We collected headspace VOCs from Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed) originating from 20 populations across its natural range and grown in a common garden near the range center. Feeding by specialist Danaus plexippus (monarch) larvae induced VOCs, and field environmental conditions (temperature, light, and humidity) also influenced emissions. Monarch damage increased plant VOC concentrations and altered VOC blends. We found that genetically-based induced VOC emissions varied with the latitude of plant population origin, although the pattern followed the reverse of that predicted-induced VOC concentration increased with increasing latitude. This pattern appeared to be driven by a greater induction of sesquiterpenoids at higher latitudes. In contrast, constitutive VOC emission did not vary systematically with latitude, and the induction of green leafy volatiles declined with latitude. Our results do not support the prevailing view that plant defense is greater at lower than at higher latitudes. That the pattern holds only for herbivore-induced VOC emission, and not constitutive emission, suggests that latitudinal variation in VOCs is not a simple adaptive response to climatic factors. PMID:23888386

  10. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used (13)C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of (13)C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  11. Priming by Hexanoic Acid Induce Activation of Mevalonic and Linolenic Pathways and Promotes the Emission of Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Llorens, Eugenio; Camañes, Gemma; Lapeña, Leonor; García-Agustín, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Hexanoic acid (Hx) is a short natural monocarboxylic acid present in some fruits and plants. Previous studies reported that soil drench application of this acid induces effective resistance in tomato plants against Botrytis cinerea and Pseudomonas syringae and in citrus against Alternaria alternata and Xanthomonas citri. In this work, we performed an in deep study of the metabolic changes produced in citrus by the application of Hx in response to the challenge pathogen A. alternata, focusing on the response of the plant. Moreover, we used 13C labeled hexanoic to analyze its behavior inside the plants. Finally, we studied the volatile emission of the treated plants after the challenge inoculation. Drench application of 13C labeled hexanoic demonstrated that this molecule stays in the roots and is not mobilized to the leaves, suggesting long distance induction of resistance. Moreover, the study of the metabolic profile showed an alteration of more than 200 molecules differentially induced by the application of the compound and the inoculation with the fungus. Bioinformatics analysis of data showed that most of these altered molecules could be related with the mevalonic and linolenic pathways suggesting the implication of these pathways in the induced resistance mediated by Hx. Finally, the application of this compound showed an enhancement of the emission of 17 volatile metabolites. Taken together, this study indicates that after the application of Hx this compound remains in the roots, provoking molecular changes that may trigger the defensive response in the rest of the plant mediated by changes in the mevalonic and linolenic pathways and enhancing the emission of volatile compounds, suggesting for the first time the implication of mevalonic pathway in response to hexanoic application. PMID:27148319

  12. Genetic variation in plant volatile emission does not result in differential attraction of natural enemies in the field.

    PubMed

    Wason, Elizabeth L; Hunter, Mark D

    2014-02-01

    Volatile organic chemical (VOC) emission by plants may serve as an adaptive plant defense by attracting the natural enemies of herbivores. For plant VOC emission to evolve as an adaptive defense, plants must show genetic variability for the trait. To date, such variability has been investigated primarily in agricultural systems, yet relatively little is known about genetic variation in VOCs emitted by natural populations of native plants. Here, we investigate intraspecific variation in constitutive and herbivore-induced plant VOC emission using the native common milkweed plant (Asclepias syriaca) and its monarch caterpillar herbivore (Danaus plexippus) in complementary field and common garden greenhouse experiments. In addition, we used a common garden field experiment to gauge natural enemy attraction to milkweed VOCs induced by monarch damage. We found evidence of genetic variation in the total constitutive and induced concentrations of VOCs and the composition of VOC blends emitted by milkweed plants. However, all milkweed genotypes responded similarly to induction by monarchs in terms of their relative change in VOC concentration and blend. Natural enemies attacked decoy caterpillars more frequently on damaged than on undamaged milkweed, and natural enemy visitation was associated with higher total VOC concentrations and with VOC blend. Thus, we present evidence that induced VOCs emitted by milkweed may function as a defense against herbivores. However, plant genotypes were equally attractive to natural enemies. Although milkweed genotypes diverge phenotypically in their VOC concentrations and blends, they converge into similar phenotypes with regard to magnitude of induction and enemy attraction. PMID:24096739

  13. Volatiles emission patterns of different plant organs and pollen of Citrus limon.

    PubMed

    Flamini, Guido; Tebano, Marianna; Cioni, Pier Luigi

    2007-04-18

    The volatiles emitted in vivo by different plant parts of Citrus limon (Rutaceae) have been identified by mean of head space-solid phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses. In particular, the profiles of flower buds, mature flowers, petals, stamens, gynaecium, pericarp of unripe and ripe fruits, young and adult leaves and pollen have been examined. Furthermore, the essential oil obtained from expression of ripe pericarp was studied. Volatiles were produced in distinctive amounts by the different plant organs, creating an interesting contrast, particularly within the flower parts: the highest amount of limonene (62.5%) was emitted by gynaecium, followed by stamens (22.9%) and petals (3.1%). Pollen did not produce limonene at all. The same compound is contained in higher amounts in the young leaves than in old ones (65.3% versus 30.1%). A possible defensive role of limonene and other volatiles, mainly terpene aldehydes, produced by young leaves has been hypothesized. PMID:17397661

  14. Controls on the emission of plant volatiles through stomata: Differential sensitivity of emission rates to stomatal closure explained

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niinemets, ÜLo; Reichstein, Markus

    2003-04-01

    Volatile (VOC) flux from leaves may be expressed as GSΔP, where GS is stomatal conductance to specific compound and ΔP partial pressure gradient between the atmosphere and substomatal cavities. It has been suggested that decreases in GS are balanced by increases in ΔP such that stomata cannot control VOC emission. Yet, responses of emission rates of various volatiles to experimental manipulations of stomatal aperture are contrasting. To explain these controversies, a dynamic emission model was developed considering VOC distribution between gas and liquid phases using Henry's law constant (H, Pa m3 mol-1). Our analysis demonstrates that highly volatile compounds such as isoprene and monoterpenes with H values on the order of 103 have gas and liquid pool half-times of a few seconds, and thus cannot be controlled by stomata. More soluble compounds such as alcohols and carboxylic acids with H values of 10-2-101 are controlled by stomata with the degree of stomatal sensitivity varying with H. Inability of compounds with high solubility to support a high partial pressure, and thus to balance ΔP in response to a decrease in GS is the primary explanation for different stomatal sensitivities. For compounds with low H, the analysis predicts bursts of emission after stomatal opening that accord with experimental observations, but that cannot be currently explained. Large within-leaf VOC pool sizes in compounds with low H also increase the system inertia to environmental fluctuations. In conclusion, dynamic models are necessary to simulate diurnal variability of the emissions of compounds that preferably partition to aqueous phase.

  15. On-Plant Volatile Analysis Utilizing Solid-Phase Microextraction and a New Volatile Collection Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile emission of plants is typically measured by removal of the plant-part, transportation to a laboratory, and subsequent volatile analyses via a number of accepted methodologies. Studies performed by our laboratory have shown the volatile emission of removed plant parts are essentially identic...

  16. Tracing the link between plant volatile organic compound emissions and CO2 fluxes and by stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Christiane; Wegener, Frederik; Jardine, Kolby

    2015-04-01

    The vegetation exerts a large influence on the atmosphere through the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the emission and uptake of the greenhouse gas CO2. Despite the enormous importance, processes controlling plant carbon allocation into primary and secondary metabolism, such as photosynthetic carbon uptake, respiratory CO2 emission and VOC synthesis, remains unclear. Moreover, vegetation-atmosphere CO2 exchange is associated with a large isotopic imprint due to photosynthetic carbon isotope discrimination and 13C-fractionation during respiratory CO2 release1. The latter has been proposed to be related to carbon partitioning in the metabolic branching points of the respiratory pathways and secondary metabolism, which are linked via a number of interfaces including the central metabolite pyruvate. Notably, it is a known substrate in a large array of secondary pathways leading to the biosynthesis of many volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, aromatics, fatty acid oxidation products, which can be emitted by plants. Here we investigate the linkage between VOC emissions, CO2 fluxes and associated isotope effects based on simultaneous real-time measurements of stable carbon isotope composition of branch respired CO2 (CRDS) and VOC fluxes (PTR-MS). We utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding experiments in the mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs versus CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. These observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high carbon flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and

  17. Remote sensing of plant emissions of volatile isoprenoids with PRI. Prospects for upscaling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penuelas, J.

    2013-12-01

    Josep Peñuelas*1,2, Giovanni Marino1,2,3,4, Joan LLusia1,2, Catherine Morfopoulos1,2,5, Gerard Farre-Armengol1,2, Shawn Kefauver, Alex Guenther6 , Francesca Rapparini7 , Roger Seco1,2,6, Marc Estiarte1,2, Mónica Mejia-Chang1,2, Romà Ogaya1,2, Jordi Sardans1,2 , Andrew Turnipseed6, Peter Harley6, Osvaldo Facini7, Rita Baraldi7, Jim Greenberg6 , Iolanda Filella1,2 1 CSIC, Global Ecology Unit CREAF-CEAB-UAB, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 2 CREAF, Cerdanyola del Vallés 08193, Catalonia, Spain 3 Dipartimento di Bioscienze e Territorio, Università degli Studi del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, 86090 Pesche (IS), Italy 4 Institute for Plant Protection, National Research Council, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italy 5 Division of Ecology and Evolution, Imperial College, Silwood Park, Ascot, SL5 7PY, UK 6 Atmospheric Chemistry Division, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000, USA 7 Biometeorology Institute, IBIMET-CNR, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna, Italy Abstract Terrestrial plants re-emit around 1-2% of the carbon they fix as isoprene and monoterpenes. These emissions play major roles in the ecological relationships among living organisms and in atmospheric chemistry and climate, and yet their actual quantification at the ecosystem level in different regions is far from being resolved. Phenomenological models are used to estimate the emission rates, but the limited understanding of the function and regulation of these emissions leads to large uncertainties in such estimations. Many measurements have been made at the foliar but few at the ecosystem level, and those that do exist are limited in space and time. We here provide evidence that a simple remote sensing index, the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which is indicative of light use efficiency (LUE), is a good indirect estimator of foliar isoprenoid emissions and therefore can be used to sense them remotely. These results open

  18. Development and Application of a Fast Chromatography Technique for Analysis of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds in Plant Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Yamazakii, S.; Kajii, Y. J.

    2011-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from vegetation constitute the largest fraction (>90 %) of total global non-methane VOC supplied to the atmosphere, yet the chemical complexity of these emissions means that achieving comprehensive measurements of BVOCs, and in particular the less volatile terpenes, is not straightforward. As such, there is still significant uncertainty associated with the contribution of BVOCs to the tropospheric oxidation budget, and to atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The rate of BVOC emission from vegetation is regulated by environmental conditions such as light intensity and temperature, and thus can be highly variable, necessitating high time-resolution BVOC measurements. In addition, the numerous monoterpene and sesquiterpene isomers, which are indistinguishable by some analytical techniques, have greatly varying lifetimes with respect to atmospheric oxidants, and as such quantification of each individual isomer is fundamental to achieving a comprehensive characterisation of the impact of BVOCs upon the atmospheric oxidation capacity. However, established measurement techniques for these trace gases typically offer a trade-off between sample frequency and the level of speciation; detailed information regarding chemical composition may be obtained, but with reduced time resolution, or vice versa. We have developed a Fast-GC-FID technique for quantification of a range of monoterpene, sesquiterpene and oxygenated C10 BVOC isomers, which retains the separation capability of conventional gas chromatography, yet offers considerably improved sample frequency. Development of this system is ongoing, but currently a 20 m x 0.18 mm i.d resistively heated metal column is employed to achieve chromatographic separation of thirteen C10-C15 BVOCs, within a total cycle time of ~15 minutes. We present the instrument specifications and analytical capability, together with the first application of this Fast-GC technique

  19. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from nine tree species used in an urban tree-planting program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, A. J.; Helmig, D.; Baroch, C.; Daly, R.; Davis, S.

    2014-10-01

    The biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions of nine urban tree species were studied to assess the air quality impacts from planting a large quantity of these trees in the City and County of Denver, Colorado, through the Mile High Million tree-planting initiative. The deciduous tree species studied were Sugar maple, Ohio buckeye, northern hackberry, Turkish hazelnut, London planetree, American basswood, Littleleaf linden, Valley Forge elm, and Japanese zelkova. These tree species were selected using the i-Tree Species Selector (itreetools.org). BVOC emissions from the selected tree species were investigated to evaluate the Species Selector data under the Colorado climate and environmental growing conditions. Individual tree species were subjected to branch enclosure experiments in which foliar emissions of BVOC were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges. The cartridge samples were analyzed for monoterpenes (MT), sesquiterpenes (SQT), and other C10-C15 BVOC using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectroscopy (GC-FID/MS). Individual compounds and their emission rates (ER) were identified. MT were observed in all tree species, exhibiting the following total MT basal emission rates (BER; with a 1-σ lower bound, upper bound uncertainty window): Sugar maple, 0.07 (0.02, 0.11) μg g-1 h-1; London planetree, 0.15 (0.02, 0.27) μg g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.33 (0.09, 0.57) μg g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.42 (0.26, 0.58) μg g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.71 (0.33, 1.09) μg g-1 h-1; Valley Forge elm, 0.96 (0.01, 1.92) μg g-1 h-1; Turkish hazelnut, 1.30 (0.32, 2.23) μg g-1 h-1; American basswood, 1.50 (0.40, 2.70) μg g-1 h-1; and Ohio buckeye, 6.61 (1.76, 11.47) μg g-1 h-1. SQT emissions were seen in five tree species with total SQT BER of: London planetree, 0.11 (0.01, 0.20) μg g-1 h-1; Japanese zelkova, 0.11 (0.05, 0.16) μg g-1 h-1; Littleleaf linden, 0.13 (0.06, 0.21) μg g-1 h-1; northern hackberry, 0.20 (0

  20. Identification of Seasonal Variations in Volatile Sulfur Compound Formation and Emission From the Secondary Treatment System at a Large Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Offensive odors associated with gaseous emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are a nuisance to residential communities that exist in close proximity to these facilities. The purpose of this study was to identify, quantify and determine source locations of significant volatile sulfur c...

  1. Rhizobacterial colonization of roots modulates plant volatile emission and enhances the attraction of a parasitoid wasp to host-infested plants.

    PubMed

    Pangesti, Nurmi; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Langendorf, Benjamin; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Pineda, Ana

    2015-08-01

    Beneficial root-associated microbes modify the physiological status of their host plants and affect direct and indirect plant defense against insect herbivores. While the effects of these microbes on direct plant defense against insect herbivores are well described, knowledge of the effect of the microbes on indirect plant defense against insect herbivores is still limited. In this study, we evaluate the role of the rhizobacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS417r in indirect plant defense against the generalist leaf-chewing insect Mamestra brassicae through a combination of behavioral, chemical, and gene-transcriptional approaches. We show that rhizobacterial colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana roots results in an increased attraction of the parasitoid Microplitis mediator to caterpillar-infested plants. Volatile analysis revealed that rhizobacterial colonization suppressed the emission of the terpene (E)-α-bergamotene and the aromatics methyl salicylate and lilial in response to caterpillar feeding. Rhizobacterial colonization decreased the caterpillar-induced transcription of the terpene synthase genes TPS03 and TPS04. Rhizobacteria enhanced both the growth and the indirect defense of plants under caterpillar attack. This study shows that rhizobacteria have a high potential to enhance the biocontrol of leaf-chewing herbivores based on enhanced attraction of parasitoids. PMID:25783487

  2. Duration of emission of volatile organic compounds from mechanically damaged plant leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds depends on the use of arthropod herbivores that are sufficiently host specific to avoid risk of injuring nontarget plants. Host plant specificity is usually evaluated by using a combination of behavioral and developmental experiments under choice...

  3. EMISSION OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS BY SEEDS UNDER DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Small mammals locate buried wet seeds more efficiently than buried dry seeds. This may be attributable to emission of volatile compounds by the seeds. To test this hypothesis I measured emission of volatile compounds from seeds of three plant species (Pinus contorta, Purshia tr...

  4. Plant defense phenotypes determine the consequences of volatile emission for individuals and neighbors

    PubMed Central

    Schuman, Meredith C; Allmann, Silke; Baldwin, Ian T

    2015-01-01

    Plants are at the trophic base of terrestrial ecosystems, and the diversity of plant species in an ecosystem is a principle determinant of community structure. This may arise from diverse functional traits among species. In fact, genetic diversity within species can have similarly large effects. However, studies of intraspecific genetic diversity have used genotypes varying in several complex traits, obscuring the specific phenotypic variation responsible for community-level effects. Using lines of the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata genetically altered in specific well-characterized defense traits and planted into experimental populations in their native habitat, we investigated community-level effects of trait diversity in populations of otherwise isogenic plants. We conclude that the frequency of defense traits in a population can determine the outcomes of these traits for individuals. Furthermore, our results suggest that some ecosystem-level services afforded by genetically diverse plant populations could be recaptured in intensive monocultures engineered to be functionally diverse. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04490.001 PMID:25873033

  5. Effect of mechanical damage on emission of volatile organic compounds from plant leaves and implications for evaluation of host plant specificity of prospective biological control agents of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Assessment of host plant specificity is a critical step in the evaluation of classical biological control agents of weeds, which is necessary for avoiding possible damage to nontarget plants. Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by plants likely play an important role in determining which plant...

  6. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  7. Herbivore-induced Blueberry Volatiles and Intra-plant Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar R.

    2011-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are commonly emitted from plants after herbivore attack1,2. These HIPVs are mainly regulated by the defensive plant hormone jasmonic acid (JA) and its volatile derivative methyl jasmonate (MeJA)3,4,5. Over the past 3 decades researchers have documented that HIPVs can repel or attract herbivores, attract the natural enemies of herbivores, and in some cases they can induce or prime plant defenses prior to herbivore attack. In a recent paper6, I reported that feeding by gypsy moth caterpillars, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage induce the emissions of volatiles from blueberry plants, albeit differently. In addition, blueberry branches respond to HIPVs emitted from neighboring branches of the same plant by increasing the levels of JA and resistance to herbivores (i.e., direct plant defenses), and by priming volatile emissions (i.e., indirect plant defenses). Similar findings have been reported recently for sagebrush7, poplar8, and lima beans9.. Here, I describe a push-pull method for collecting blueberry volatiles induced by herbivore (gypsy moth) feeding, exogenous MeJA application, and mechanical damage. The volatile collection unit consists of a 4 L volatile collection chamber, a 2-piece guillotine, an air delivery system that purifies incoming air, and a vacuum system connected to a trap filled with Super-Q adsorbent to collect volatiles5,6,10. Volatiles collected in Super-Q traps are eluted with dichloromethane and then separated and quantified using Gas Chromatography (GC). This volatile collection method was used n my study6 to investigate the volatile response of undamaged branches to exposure to volatiles from herbivore-damaged branches within blueberry plants. These methods are described here. Briefly, undamaged blueberry branches are exposed to HIPVs from neighboring branches within the same plant. Using the same techniques described above, volatiles emitted from branches after exposure to HIPVs are

  8. Volatile Emissions from Compressed Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Dini, Francesca; Capuano, Rosamaria; Strand, Tillan; Ek, Anna-Christina; Lindgren, Margareta; Paolesse, Roberto; Di Natale, Corrado; Lundström, Ingemar

    2013-01-01

    Since almost every fifth patient treated in hospital care develops pressure ulcers, early identification of risk is important. A non-invasive method for the elucidation of endogenous biomarkers related to pressure ulcers could be an excellent tool for this purpose. We therefore found it of interest to determine if there is a difference in the emissions of volatiles from compressed and uncompressed tissue. The ultimate goal is to find a non-invasive method to obtain an early warning for the risk of developing pressure ulcers for bed-ridden persons. Chemical analysis of the emissions, collected in compresses, was made with gas-chromatography – mass spectrometry and with a chemical sensor array, the so called electronic nose. It was found that the emissions from healthy and hospitalized persons differed significantly irrespective of the site. Within each group there was a clear difference between the compressed and uncompressed site. Peaks that could be certainly deemed as markers of the compression were, however, not identified. Nonetheless, different compounds connected to the application of local mechanical pressure were found. The results obtained with GC-MS reveal the complexity of VOC composition, thus an array of non-selective chemical sensors seems to be a suitable choice for the analysis of skin emission from compressed tissues; it may represent a practical instrument for bed side diagnostics. Results show that the adopted electronic noses are likely sensitive to the total amount of the emission rather than to its composition. The development of a gas sensor-based device requires then the design of sensor receptors adequate to detect the VOCs bouquet typical of pressure. This preliminary experiment evidences the necessity of studies where each given person is followed for a long time in a ward in order to detect the insurgence of specific VOCs pattern changes signalling the occurrence of ulcers. PMID:23874929

  9. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  10. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past three decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982-2011. Driven with hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH Forcing Data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data), the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a-2 in gross primary productivity (GPP) and 185 Tg C a-2 in the net primary productivity (NPP). CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a-1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of LAI at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a-2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. In contrast, driven with alternative meteorology from MERRA (Modern Era-Retrospective Analysis), the model predicts significant increases of 59 Tg C a-2 in the land sink due to strengthened uptake in the Amazon. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a-2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases

  11. Distinguishing the drivers of trends in land carbon fluxes and plant volatile emissions over the past 3 decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Unger, N.; Zheng, Y.

    2015-10-01

    The terrestrial biosphere has experienced dramatic changes in recent decades. Estimates of historical trends in land carbon fluxes remain uncertain because long-term observations are limited on the global scale. Here, we use the Yale Interactive terrestrial Biosphere (YIBs) model to estimate decadal trends in land carbon fluxes and emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and to identify the key drivers for these changes during 1982-2011. Driven by hourly meteorology from WFDEI (WATCH forcing data methodology applied to ERA-Interim data), the model simulates an increasing trend of 297 Tg C a-2 in gross primary productivity (GPP) and 185 Tg C a-2 in the net primary productivity (NPP). CO2 fertilization is the main driver for the flux changes in forest ecosystems, while meteorology dominates the changes in grasslands and shrublands. Warming boosts summer GPP and NPP at high latitudes, while drought dampens carbon uptake in tropical regions. North of 30° N, increasing temperatures induce a substantial extension of 0.22 day a-1 for the growing season; however, this phenological change alone does not promote regional carbon uptake and BVOC emissions. Nevertheless, increases of leaf area index at peak season accounts for ~ 25 % of the trends in GPP and isoprene emissions at the northern lands. The net land sink shows statistically insignificant increases of only 3 Tg C a-2 globally because of simultaneous increases in soil respiration. Global BVOC emissions are calculated using two schemes. With the photosynthesis-dependent scheme, the model predicts increases of 0.4 Tg C a-2 in isoprene emissions, which are mainly attributed to warming trends because CO2 fertilization and inhibition effects offset each other. Using the MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature) scheme, the YIBs model simulates global reductions of 1.1 Tg C a-2 in isoprene and 0.04 Tg C a-2 in monoterpene emissions in response to the CO2 inhibition effects. Land use

  12. Effects of cyclamen mite (Phytonemus pallidus) and leaf beetle (Galerucella tenella) damage on volatile emission from strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) plants and orientation of predatory mites (Neoseiulus cucumeris, N. californicus, and Euseius finlandicus).

    PubMed

    Himanen, Sari; Vuorinen, Terhi; Tuovinen, Tuomo; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2005-11-01

    Volatile emission profile of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) plants (cvs. Polka and Honeoye) damaged by cyclamen mite (Phytonemus pallidus Banks) or leaf beetle Galerucella tenella (L.) (cv. Polka) was analyzed to determine the potential of these strawberry plants to emit herbivore-induced volatiles. The total volatile emissions as well as emissions of many green leaf volatiles (e.g., (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate) and methyl salicylate were greater from cyclamen mite-damaged strawberry plants than from intact plants. Leaf beetle feeding increased emissions of monoterpenes (Z)-ocimene and (E)-beta-ocimene, sesquiterpenes (E)-beta-caryophyllene, (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, and germacrene-D, and a homoterpene (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) significantly. Nevertheless, the naïve generalist predatory mites, Neoseiulus cucumeris, Neoseiulus californicus, and Euseius finlandicus did not prefer P. pallidus- or G. tenella-damaged plants over intact plants in a Y-tube olfactometer, suggesting that these predatory mite species are not attracted by the herbivore-induced volatiles being released from young strawberry plants. PMID:16248563

  13. Plant phenotypic plasticity in the phytobiome: a volatile issue.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Marcel

    2016-08-01

    Plants live in a diverse and dynamic phytobiome, consisting of a microbiome as well as a macrobiome. They respond to arthropod herbivory with the emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) that are public information and can be used by any member of the phytobiome. Other members of the phytobiome, which do not directly participate in the interaction, may both modulate the induction of HIPV in the plant, as well as respond to the volatiles. The use of HIPV by individual phytobiome members may have beneficial as well as detrimental consequences for the plant. The collective result of phytobiome-modulated HIPV emission on the responses of phytobiome members and the resulting phytobiome dynamics will determine whether and under which circumstances HIPV emission has a net benefit to the plant or not. Only when we understand HIPV emission in the total phytobiome context can we understand the evolutionary consequences of HIPV emission by plants. PMID:27267277

  14. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photo-oxidation under a range of controlled conditions (relative humidity or RH ~65-89%, volatile organic compound-to-NOx or VOC / NOx ~3-9 and NOx ~2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measurable amounts of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e. in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photo-oxidation products of the minor volatile organic compounds (VOCs) co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally isoprene-emitting landscapes in Southeast

  15. Volatile Emission of Mechanically Damaged Almonds: An Old and New Method of Investigation to Determine Potential NOW Attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile emission of plants is typically measured by removal of the plant-part, transportation to a laboratory, and subsequent volatile analyses via a number of accepted methodologies. Studies performed by our laboratory have shown the volatile emission of removed plant parts are essentially identic...

  16. Volatile organic compound emissions from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols with other impor...

  17. Mapping and profile of emission sources for airborne volatile organic compounds from process regions at a petrochemical plant in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ching-Liang; Fang, Hung-Yuan; Shu, Chi-Min

    2006-06-01

    This work surveyed five process regions inside a petrochemical plant in Taiwan to characterize the profiles of airborne volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and locate emission sources. Samples, taken with canisters, were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry according to the TO-14 method. Each region was deployed with 24 sampling sites, sampled twice, and 240 samples in total were measured during the survey period. All of the data were consolidated into a database on Excel to facilitate retrieval, statistical analysis, and presentation in the form of a table or graph, and, subsequently, the profile of VOCs was elucidated. Emission sources were located by mapping the concentration distribution of either an individual or a type of species in terms of contour maps on Surfer. Through the cross-analysis of data, the abundant VOCs included alkenes, dienes, alkanes, and aromatics. A total of 19 emission sources were located from these five regions. The sources for alkanes stood inside first, third aromatic, and fourth naphtha cracking regions, whereas the ones for alkenes were inside two naphtha cracking regions. The sources for dienes were found inside the third naphtha cracking region alone; in contrast, the sources for aromatics were universally traced except inside the third naphtha cracking region. The measured intensity for sources mostly ranged from 1000 to 7000 ppb. PMID:16805407

  18. Volatile communication in plant-aphid interactions.

    PubMed

    de Vos, Martin; Jander, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Volatile communication plays an important role in mediating the interactions between plants, aphids, and other organisms in the environment. In response to aphid infestation, many plants initiate indirect defenses through the release of volatiles that attract ladybugs, parasitoid wasps, and other aphid-consuming predators. Aphid-induced volatile release in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana requires the jasmonate signaling pathway. Volatile release is also induced by infection with aphid-transmitted viruses. Consistent with mathematical models of optimal transmission, viruses that are acquired rapidly by aphids induce volatile release to attract migratory aphids, but discourage long-term aphid feeding. Although the ecology of these interactions is well-studied, further research is needed to identify the molecular basis of aphid-induced and virus-induced changes in plant volatile release. PMID:20627668

  19. Effects of Feeding Spodoptera littoralis on Lima Bean Leaves: IV. Diurnal and Nocturnal Damage Differentially Initiate Plant Volatile Emission1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Arimura, Gen-ichiro; Köpke, Sabrina; Kunert, Maritta; Volpe, Veronica; David, Anja; Brand, Peter; Dabrowska, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Boland, Wilhelm

    2008-01-01

    Continuous mechanical damage initiates the rhythmic emission of volatiles in lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) leaves; the emission resembles that induced by herbivore damage. The effect of diurnal versus nocturnal damage on the initiation of plant defense responses was investigated using MecWorm, a robotic device designed to reproduce tissue damage caused by herbivore attack. Lima bean leaves that were damaged by MecWorm during the photophase emitted maximal levels of β-ocimene and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate in the late photophase. Leaves damaged during the dark phase responded with the nocturnal emission of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, but with only low amounts of β-ocimene; this emission was followed by an emission burst directly after the onset of light. In the presence of 13CO2, this light-dependent synthesis of β-ocimene resulted in incorporation of 75% to 85% of 13C, demonstrating that biosynthesis of β-ocimene is almost exclusively fueled by the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 along the plastidial 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. Jasmonic acid (JA) accumulated locally in direct response to the damage and led to immediate up-regulation of the P. lunatus β-ocimene synthase gene (PlOS) independent of the phase, that is, light or dark. Nocturnal damage caused significantly higher concentrations of JA (approximately 2–3 times) along with enhanced expression levels of PlOS. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with PlOS promoter∷β-glucuronidase fusion constructs confirmed expression of the enzyme at the wounded sites. In summary, damage-dependent JA levels directly control the expression level of PlOS, regardless of light or dark conditions, and photosynthesis is the major source for the early precursors of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-P pathway. PMID:18165324

  20. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound and Respiratory CO2 Emissions after 13C-Labeling: Online Tracing of C Translocation Dynamics in Poplar Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Gutknecht, Jessica; Zimmer, Ina; Brüggemann, Nicolas; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background Globally plants are the primary sink of atmospheric CO2, but are also the major contributor of a large spectrum of atmospheric reactive hydrocarbons such as terpenes (e.g. isoprene) and other biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC). The prediction of plant carbon (C) uptake and atmospheric oxidation capacity are crucial to define the trajectory and consequences of global environmental changes. To achieve this, the biosynthesis of BVOC and the dynamics of C allocation and translocation in both plants and ecosystems are important. Methodology We combined tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) and proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) for studying isoprene biosynthesis and following C fluxes within grey poplar (Populus x canescens) saplings. This was achieved by feeding either 13CO2 to leaves or 13C-glucose to shoots via xylem uptake. The translocation of 13CO2 from the source to other plant parts could be traced by 13C-labeled isoprene and respiratory 13CO2 emission. Principal Finding In intact plants, assimilated 13CO2 was rapidly translocated via the phloem to the roots within 1 hour, with an average phloem transport velocity of 20.3±2.5 cm h−1. 13C label was stored in the roots and partially reallocated to the plants' apical part one day after labeling, particularly in the absence of photosynthesis. The daily C loss as BVOC ranged between 1.6% in mature leaves and 7.0% in young leaves. Non-isoprene BVOC accounted under light conditions for half of the BVOC C loss in young leaves and one-third in mature leaves. The C loss as isoprene originated mainly (76–78%) from recently fixed CO2, to a minor extent from xylem-transported sugars (7–11%) and from photosynthetic intermediates with slower turnover rates (8–11%). Conclusion We quantified the plants' C loss as respiratory CO2 and BVOC emissions, allowing in tandem with metabolic analysis to deepen our understanding of ecosystem C flux. PMID:21387007

  1. Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jianwu; Deng, Hao; Bai, Zhipeng; Kong, Shaofei; Wang, Xiuyan; Hao, Jiming; Han, Xinyu; Ning, Ping

    2015-05-15

    107 kinds of C₂-C₁₂ volatile organic compound (VOC) mass concentrations and profiles for four types of coal-fired stationary sources in Liaoning Province were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method, which are of significant importance with regard to VOC emissions in northeast of China. The results showed that there were some differences among these VOC source profiles. The total mass concentrations of analyzed 107 VOC species varied from 10,917 to 19,652 μg m(-3). Halogenated hydrocarbons exhibited higher mass percentages for the VOC source profiles of iron smelt (48.8%) and coke production plant (37.7%). Aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant in heating station plant (69.1%). Ketones, alcohols and acetates held 45.0% of total VOCs in thermal power plant. For non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are demanded for photochemical assessment in the USA, toluene and n-hexane were the most abundant species in the iron smelt, coke production and thermal power plant, with the mass percentages of 64.8%, 52.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Trimethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and o,m-ethyltoluene approximately accounted for 70.0% in heating station plant. NMHCs emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant listed above presented different chemical reactivities. The average OH loss rate of NMHCs from heating station, was 4 to 5.6 times higher than that of NMHCs from iron smelt, coke production and power plant, which implies that VOCs emitted from heating station in northeast of China should be controlled firstly to avoid photochemical ozone pollution and protect human health. There are significant variations in the ratios of benzene/toluene and m, p-xylene/ethylbenzene of these coal-fired source profiles. The representativeness of the coal-fired sources studied and the VOC samples collected should be more closely examined. The accuracy of VOC source profiles related to coal-fired processes is highly dependent on

  2. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds and subsequent photochemical production of secondary organic aerosol in mesocosm studies of temperate and tropical plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyche, K. P.; Ryan, A. C.; Hewitt, C. N.; Alfarra, M. R.; McFiggans, G.; Carr, T.; Monks, P. S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Capes, G.; Hamilton, J. F.; Pugh, T. A. M.; MacKenzie, A. R.

    2014-06-01

    Silver birch (Betula pendula) and three Southeast Asian tropical plant species (Ficus cyathistipula, Ficus benjamina and Caryota millis) from the pantropical fig and palm genera were grown in a purpose-built and environment-controlled whole-tree chamber. The volatile organic compounds emitted from these trees were characterised and fed into a linked photochemical reaction chamber where they underwent photooxidation under a range of controlled conditions (RH ∼65-89%, VOC/NOx ∼3-9 and NOx ∼2 ppbV). Both the gas phase and the aerosol phase of the reaction chamber were monitored in detail using a comprehensive suite of on-line and off-line, chemical and physical measurement techniques. Silver birch was found to be a high monoterpene and sesquiterpene, but low isoprene emitter, and its emissions were observed to produce measureable amounts of SOA via both nucleation and condensation onto pre-existing seed aerosol (YSOA 26-39%). In contrast, all three tropical species were found to be high isoprene emitters with trace emissions of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In tropical plant experiments without seed aerosol there was no measurable SOA nucleation, but aerosol mass was shown to increase when seed aerosol was present. Although principally isoprene emitting, the aerosol mass produced from tropical fig was mostly consistent (i.e., in 78 out of 120 aerosol mass calculations using plausible parameter sets of various precursor specific yields) with condensation of photooxidation products of the minor VOCs co-emitted; no significant aerosol yield from condensation of isoprene oxidation products was required in the interpretations of the experimental results. This finding is in line with previous reports of organic aerosol loadings consistent with production from minor biogenic VOCs co-emitted with isoprene in principally-isoprene emitting landscapes in Southeast Asia. Moreover, in general the amount of aerosol mass produced from the emissions of the principally

  3. Electroantennographic bioassay as a screening tool for host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Light, Douglas M; Gee, Wai S

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles play an important role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant. When a host plant is an important agronomic commodity feeding damage by insect pests can inflict serious economic losses to growers. Accordingly, kairomones can be used as attractants to lure or confuse these insects and, thus, offer an environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides for insect control. Unfortunately, plants can emit a vast number volatiles with varying compositions and ratios of emissions dependent upon the phenology of the commodity or the time of day. This makes identification of biologically active components or blends of volatile components an arduous process. To help identify the bioactive components of host plant volatile emissions we employ the laboratory-based screening bioassay electroantennography (EAG). EAG is an effective tool to evaluate and record electrophysiologically the olfactory responses of an insect via their antennal receptors. The EAG screening process can help reduce the number of volatiles tested to identify promising bioactive components. However, EAG bioassays only provide information about activation of receptors. It does not provide information about the type of insect behavior the compound elicits; which could be as an attractant, repellent or other type of behavioral response. Volatiles eliciting a significant response by EAG, relative to an appropriate positive control, are typically taken on to further testing of behavioral responses of the insect pest. The experimental design presented will detail the methodology employed to screen almond-based host plant volatiles by measurement of the electrophysiological antennal responses of an adult insect pest navel orangeworm (Amyelois transitella) to single components and simple blends of components via EAG bioassay. The method utilizes two excised antennae placed across a "fork" electrode holder. The protocol

  4. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM VEGETATION IN SOUTHERN YUNNAN PROVINCE, CHINA: EMISSION RATES AND SOME POTENTIAL REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVO...

  5. High Arctic Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schollert, Michelle; Buchard, Sebrina; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from terrestrial vegetation participate in oxidative reactions, affecting the tropospheric ozone concentration and the lifetimes of greenhouse gasses such as methane. Also, they affect the formation of secondary organic aerosols. BVOCs thus provide a strong link between the terrestrial biosphere, the atmosphere and the climate. Global models of BVOC emissions have assumed minimal emissions from the high latitudes due to low temperatures, short growing seasons and sparse vegetation cover. However, measurements from this region of the world are lacking and emissions from the High Arctic have not been published yet. The aim of this study was to obtain the first estimates for BVOC emissions from the High Arctic. Hereby, we wish to add new knowledge to the understanding of global BVOC emissions. Measurements were conducted in NE Greenland (74°30' N, 20°30' W) in four vegetation communities in the study area. These four vegetation communities were dominated by Cassiope tetragona, Salix arctica, Vaccinium uliginosum and Kobresia myosuroides/Dryas octopetela/Salix arctica, respectively. Emissions were measured by enclosure technique and collection of volatiles into adsorbent cartridges in August 2009. The volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following thermal desorption. Isoprene showed highest emissions in S. arctica-dominated heath, where it was the dominant single BVOC. However, isoprene emission decreased below detection limit in the end of August when the temperature was at or below 10°C. According to a principal component analysis, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions were especially associated with C. tetragona-dominated heath. Especially S. arctica and C. tetragona dominated heaths showed distinct patterns of emitted BVOCs. Emissions of BVOC from the studied high arctic heaths were clearly lower than the emissions observed previously in subarctic heaths with more dense vegetation

  6. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Abrell, L.; Kurc, S. A.; Huxman, T.; Ortega, J.; Guenther, A.

    2010-07-01

    The emission of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from plants impacts both climate and air quality by fueling atmospheric chemistry and by contributing to aerosol particles. While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (<5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (>80 mm) occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009) field study in Southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of VOCs. We observed a strong diurnal pattern with branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids) as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan

  7. Plant volatiles in extreme terrestrial and marine environments.

    PubMed

    Rinnan, Riikka; Steinke, Michael; McGenity, Terry; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes the current understanding on plant and algal volatile organic compound (VOC) production and emission in extreme environments, where temperature, water availability, salinity or other environmental factors pose stress on vegetation. Here, the extreme environments include terrestrial systems, such as arctic tundra, deserts, CO₂ springs and wetlands, and marine systems such as sea ice, tidal rock pools and hypersaline environments, with mangroves and salt marshes at the land-sea interface. The emission potentials at fixed temperature and light level or actual emission rates for phototrophs in extreme environments are frequently higher than for organisms from less stressful environments. For example, plants from the arctic tundra appear to have higher emission potentials for isoprenoids than temperate species, and hypersaline marine habitats contribute to global dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in significant amounts. DMS emissions are more widespread than previously considered, for example, in salt marshes and some desert plants. The reason for widespread VOC, especially isoprenoid, emissions from different extreme environments deserves further attention, as these compounds may have important roles in stress resistance and adaptation to extremes. Climate warming is likely to significantly increase VOC emissions from extreme environments both by direct effects on VOC production and volatility, and indirectly by altering the composition of the vegetation. PMID:24601952

  8. Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds & their photochemical transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhujun; Hohaus, Thorsten; Tillmann, Ralf; Andres, Stefanie; Kuhn, Uwe; Rohrer, Franz; Wahner, Andreas; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid

    2015-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic activities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. While it is known that land vegetation accounts for 90% of the global VOC emissions, only a few molecules' emission factors are understood. Through VOCs atmospheric oxidation intermediate products are formed. The detailed chemical mechanisms involved are insufficiently known to date and need to be understood for air quality management and climate change predictions. In an experiment using a PTR-ToF-MS with the new-built plant chamber SAPHIR-PLUS in Forschungszentrum Juelich, biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from Quercus ilex trees were measured. The BVOC emissions were dominated by monoterpenes, minor emissions of isoprene and methanol were also observed with the overall emission pattern typical for Quercus ilex trees in the growing season. Monoterpenes and isoprene emissions showed to be triggered by light. Additionally, their emissions showed clear exponential temperature dependence under constant light condition as reported in literature. As a tracer for leaf growth, methanol emission showed an abrupt increase at the beginning of light exposure. This is explained as instantaneous release of methanol produced during the night once stomata of leaves open upon light exposure. Emission of methanol showed a near linear increase with temperature in the range of 10 to 35 °C. BVOC were transferred from the plant chamber PLUS to the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR, where their oxidation products from O3 oxidation were measured with PTR-ToF-MS. Gas phase oxidation products such as acetone and acetaldehyde were detected. A quantitative analysis of the data will be presented, including comparison of observations to the Master Chemical Mechanism model.

  9. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2005-09-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were acetic acid, furylaldehyde, methyl acetate, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 mgC/gC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and the pyrolysis of vegetation heated under low turbulence conditions produces concentrations near leaves that reach the lower limits of flammability and the emissions may be important in the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  10. Volatile organic compound emissions from Larrea tridentata (creosotebush)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Abrell, L.; Kurc, S. A.; Huxman, T.; Ortega, J.; Guenther, A.

    2010-12-01

    We present results from the CREosote ATmosphere Interactions through Volatile Emissions (CREATIVE 2009) field study in southern Arizona aimed at quantifying emission rates of VOCs from creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) during the summer 2009 monsoon season. This species was chosen because of its vast distribution in North and South American deserts and because its resins have been reported to contain a rich set of volatile organic compounds (VOC). While a variety of ecosystems have been investigated for VOC emissions, deserts remain essentially unstudied, partially because of their low biomass densities and water limitations. However, during the North American monsoon, a pronounced increase in rainfall from an extremely dry June (<5 mm precipitation) to a rainy July (>80 mm) occurs over large areas of the Sonoran desert in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico. We observed a strong diurnal pattern of branch emissions and ambient concentrations of an extensive suite of VOCs with maxima in early afternoon. These include VOCs typically observed in forest sites (oxygenated VOCs and volatile isoprenoids) as well as a large number of other compounds, some of which have not been previously described from any plant including 1-chloro-2-methoxy-benzene and isobutyronitrile. Although generally considered to be derived from anthropogenic sources, we observed emissions of aromatic compounds including benzene, and a broad range of phenolics. Dimethyl sulfide emissions from creosotebush were higher than reported from any previously studied plant suggesting that terrestrial ecosystems should be reconsidered as an important source of this climatically important gas. We also present direct, primary emission measurements of isoprene and its apparent oxidation products methyl vinyl ketone, methacrolein, and 3-methyl furan (the later three compounds are typically assumed to form from secondary reactions within the atmosphere), as well as a group of compounds considered

  11. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Friedli, H.; Guenther, A. B.; Hanson, D.; Harley, P.; Karl, T.

    2006-01-01

    Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa) were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC)/gC(CO2)) measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively.

    The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  12. Systemically induced plant volatiles emitted at the time of "danger".

    PubMed

    Mattiacci, L; Rocca, B A; Scascighini, N; D'Alessandro, M; Hern, A; Dorn, S

    2001-11-01

    Feeding by Pieris brassicae caterpillars on the lower leaves of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) plants triggers the release of volatiles from upper leaves. The volatiles are attractive for a natural antagonist of the herbivore, the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. Parasitoids are attracted only if additional damage is inflicted on the systemically induced upper leaves and only after at least three days of herbivore feeding on the lower leaves. Upon termination of caterpillar feeding, the systemic signal is emitted for a maximum of one more day. Systemic induction did not occur at low levels of herbivore infestation. Systemically induced leaves emitted green leaf volatiles, cyclic monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenes. GC-MS profiles of systemically induced and herbivore-infested leaves did not differ for most compounds, although herbivore infested plants did emit higher amounts of green leaf volatiles. Emission of systemically induced volatiles in Brussels sprouts might function as an induced defense that is activated only when needed, i.e., at the time of caterpillar attack. This way, plants may adopt a flexible management of inducible defensive resources to minimize costs of defense and to maximize fitness in response to unpredictable herbivore attack. PMID:11817078

  13. Development of a sparging technique for volatile emissions from potato (Solanum tuberosum)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdis, Elizabeth; Peterson, Barbara Vieux; Yorio, Neil C.; Batten, Jennifer; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    1993-01-01

    Accumulation of volatile emissions from plants grown in tightly closed growth chambers may have allelopathic or phytotoxic properties. Whole air analysis of a closed chamber includes both biotic and abiotic volatile emissions. A method for characterization and quantification of biogenic emissions solely from plantlets was developed to investigate this complex mixture of volatile organic compounds. Volatile organic compounds from potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Norland) were isolated, separated and identified using an in-line configuration consisting of a purge and trap concentrator with sparging vessels coupled to a GC/MS system. Analyses identified plant volatile compounds: transcaryophyllene, alpha-humulene, thiobismethane, hexanal, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, and cis-3-hexenyl acetate.

  14. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires

    PubMed Central

    CICCIOLI, PAOLO; CENTRITTO, MAURO; LORETO, FRANCESCO

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

  15. Biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from vegetation fires.

    PubMed

    Ciccioli, Paolo; Centritto, Mauro; Loreto, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide an overview of the current state of the art on research into the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from vegetation fires. Significant amounts of VOCs are emitted from vegetation fires, including several reactive compounds, the majority belonging to the isoprenoid family, which rapidly disappear in the plume to yield pollutants such as secondary organic aerosol and ozone. This makes determination of fire-induced BVOC emission difficult, particularly in areas where the ratio between VOCs and anthropogenic NOx is favourable to the production of ozone, such as Mediterranean areas and highly anthropic temperate (and fire-prone) regions of the Earth. Fire emissions affecting relatively pristine areas, such as the Amazon and the African savannah, are representative of emissions of undisturbed plant communities. We also examined expected BVOC emissions at different stages of fire development and combustion, from drying to flaming, and from heatwaves coming into contact with unburned vegetation at the edge of fires. We conclude that forest fires may dramatically change emission factors and the profile of emitted BVOCs, thereby influencing the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere, the physiology of plants and the evolution of plant communities within the ecosystem. PMID:24689733

  16. Slow Release of Plant Volatiles Using Sol-Gel Dispensers.

    PubMed

    Bian, L; Sun, X L; Cai, X M; Chen, Z M

    2014-12-01

    The black citrus aphid, also known as the tea aphid, (Toxoptera aurantii Boyer) attacks economically important crops, including tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze). In the current study, silica sol-gel formulations were screened to find one that could carry and release C. sinensis plant volatiles to lure black citrus aphids in a greenhouse. The common plant volatile trans-2-hexen-1-al was used as a model molecule to screen for suitable sol-gel formulations. A zNose (Electronic Sensor Technology, Newbury Park, CA) transportable gas chromatograph was used to continuously monitor the volatile emissions. A sol-gel formulation containing tetramethyl orthosilicate and methyltrimethoxysilane in an 8:2 (vol:vol) ratio was selected to develop a slow-release dispenser. The half-life of trans-2-hexen-1-al in the sol-gel dispenser increased slightly with the volume of this compound in the dispenser. Ten different volatiles were tested in the sol-gel dispenser. Alcohols of 6-10 carbons had the longest half-lives (3.01-3.77 d), while esters of 6-12 carbons had the shortest (1.53-2.28 d). Release of these volatiles from the dispensers could not be detected by the zNose after 16 d (cis-3-hexenyl acetate) to 26 d (3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-ol). In greenhouse experiments, trans-2-hexen-1-al and cis-3-hexen-1-ol released from the sol-gel dispensers attracted aphids for ≍17 d, and release of these volatiles could not be detected by the zNose after ≍24 d. The sol-gel dispensers performed adequately for the slow release of plant volatiles to trap aphids in the greenhouse. PMID:26470065

  17. Hyperparasitoids Use Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles to Locate Their Parasitoid Host

    PubMed Central

    Poelman, Erik H.; Bruinsma, Maaike; Zhu, Feng; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Boursault, Aline E.; Jongema, Yde; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Vet, Louise E. M.; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the emission of induced plant volatiles. These volatiles may attract parasitic wasps (parasitoids) that attack the herbivores. Although in this sense the emission of volatiles has been hypothesized to be beneficial to the plant, it is still debated whether this is also the case under natural conditions because other organisms such as herbivores also respond to the emitted volatiles. One important group of organisms, the enemies of parasitoids, hyperparasitoids, has not been included in this debate because little is known about their foraging behaviour. Here, we address whether hyperparasitoids use herbivore-induced plant volatiles to locate their host. We show that hyperparasitoids find their victims through herbivore-induced plant volatiles emitted in response to attack by caterpillars that in turn had been parasitized by primary parasitoids. Moreover, only one of two species of parasitoids affected herbivore-induced plant volatiles resulting in the attraction of more hyperparasitoids than volatiles from plants damaged by healthy caterpillars. This resulted in higher levels of hyperparasitism of the parasitoid that indirectly gave away its presence through its effect on plant odours induced by its caterpillar host. Here, we provide evidence for a role of compounds in the oral secretion of parasitized caterpillars that induce these changes in plant volatile emission. Our results demonstrate that the effects of herbivore-induced plant volatiles should be placed in a community-wide perspective that includes species in the fourth trophic level to improve our understanding of the ecological functions of volatile release by plants. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the impact of species in the fourth trophic level should also be considered when developing Integrated Pest Management strategies aimed at optimizing the control of insect pests using parasitoids. PMID:23209379

  18. Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions during malting and beer manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Nigel B.; Costigan, Gavin T.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Woodfield, Michael J.

    Estimates have been made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released during different stages of beer manufacture. The estimates are based on recent measurements and plant specification data supplied by manufacturers. Data were obtained for three main manufacturing processes (malting, wort processing and fermentation) for three commercial beer types. Some data on the speciation of emitted compounds have been obtained. Based on these measurements, an estimate of the total unabated VOC emission. from the U.K. brewing industry was calculated as 3.5 kta -1, over 95% of which was generated during barley malting. This value does not include any correction for air pollution control.

  19. Volatile Emission of Mechanically Damaged Almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mature almonds from the Monterey variety were evaluated for their volatile composition after mechanical damage and compared to the volatile composition of the corresponding undamaged almonds. Volatiles were collected on Tenax, desorbed with diethyl ether, and identified via GC-MS analyses. Volatile ...

  20. Volatile Exchange between Undamaged Plants - a New Mechanism Affecting Insect Orientation in Intercropping

    PubMed Central

    Ninkovic, Velemir; Dahlin, Iris; Vucetic, Andja; Petrovic-Obradovic, Olivera; Glinwood, Robert; Webster, Ben

    2013-01-01

    Changes in plant volatile emission can be induced by exposure to volatiles from neighbouring insect-attacked plants. However, plants are also exposed to volatiles from unattacked neighbours, and the consequences of this have not been explored. We investigated whether volatile exchange between undamaged plants affects volatile emission and plant-insect interaction. Consistently greater quantities of two terpenoids were found in the headspace of potato previously exposed to volatiles from undamaged onion plants identified by mass spectrometry. Using live plants and synthetic blends mimicking exposed and unexposed potato, we tested the olfactory response of winged aphids, Myzus persicae. The altered potato volatile profile deterred aphids in laboratory experiments. Further, we show that growing potato together with onion in the field reduces the abundance of winged, host-seeking aphids. Our study broadens the ecological significance of the phenomenon; volatiles carry not only information on whether or not neighbouring plants are under attack, but also information on the emitter plants themselves. In this way responding plants could obtain information on whether the neighbouring plant is a competitive threat and can accordingly adjust their growth towards it. We interpret this as a response in the process of adaptation towards neighbouring plants. Furthermore, these physiological changes in the responding plants have significant ecological impact, as behaviour of aphids was affected. Since herbivore host plants are potentially under constant exposure to these volatiles, our study has major implications for the understanding of how mechanisms within plant communities affect insects. This knowledge could be used to improve plant protection and increase scientific understanding of communication between plants and its impact on other organisms. PMID:23922710

  1. Plant volatile analogues strengthen attractiveness to insect.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  2. Plant Volatile Analogues Strengthen Attractiveness to Insect

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yufeng; Yu, Hao; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Pickett, John A.; Wu, Kongming

    2014-01-01

    Green leaf bug Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür) is one of the major pests in agriculture. Management of A. lucorum was largely achieved by using pesticides. However, the increasing population of A. lucorum since growing Bt cotton widely and the increased awareness of ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety makes their population-control very challenging. Therefore this study was conducted to explore a novel ecological approach, synthetic plant volatile analogues, to manage the pest. Here, plant volatile analogues were first designed and synthesized by combining the bioactive components of β-ionone and benzaldehyde. The stabilities of β-ionone, benzaldehyde and analogue 3 g were tested. The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of A. lucorum adult antennae to the analogues were recorded. And the behavior assay and filed experiment were also conducted. In this study, thirteen analogues were acquired. The analogue 3 g was demonstrated to be more stable than β-ionone and benzaldehyde in the environment. Many of the analogues elicited EAG responses, and the EAG response values to 3 g remained unchanged during seven-day period. 3 g was also demonstrated to be attractive to A. lucorum adults in the laboratory behavior experiment and in the field. Its attractiveness persisted longer than β-ionone and benzaldehyde. This indicated that 3 g can strengthen attractiveness to insect and has potential as an attractant. Our results suggest that synthetic plant volatile analogues can strengthen attractiveness to insect. This is the first published study about synthetic plant volatile analogues that have the potential to be used in pest control. Our results will support a new ecological approach to pest control and it will be helpful to ecoenvironment and agricultural product safety. PMID:24911460

  3. Electroantennographic bioassay as a screening tool for host plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant volatiles play an important role in plant-insect interactions. Herbivorous insects use plant volatiles, known as kairomones, to locate their host plant. When a host plant is an important agronomic or economic commodity feeding damage by these insects can inflict serious economic losses to grow...

  4. Endogenous signals regulating herbivore-associated volatile emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Induced volatiles are a well-characterized response of maize plants to herbivory and contribute to defense through recruitment of natural enemies. Despite the importance of these volatiles, many questions remain regarding plant regulation of this response. While elicitor-induced production of jasm...

  5. Biological aspects of constructing volatile organic compound emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monson, Russell K.; Lerdau, Manuel T.; Sharkey, Thomas D.; Schimel, David S.; Fall, Ray

    The: emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from vegetation is subject to numerous biological controls. Past inventories have relied heavily on empirical models which are limited in their ability to simulate the response of organisms to short- and long-term changes in their growth environment. In this review we consider the principal biochemical, physiological and ecological controls over VOC emission with specific reference to how such controls can be included in ecosystem-level inventories. A distinction is made between longer-term biological controls over basal VOC emission rates (rates determined under a standard set of environmental conditions) and instantaneous biological and environmental controls over instantaneous VOC emission rates (rates determined at the prevailing, instantaneous set of environmental conditions). Emphasis is placed on the emission of isoprene and monoterpenes. Isoprene emission occurs essentially without a leaf reservoir and is tightly linked to instantaneous photosynthetic metabolism and the activity of isoprene synthase, the enzyme that underlies isoprene production. At present, there are still large uncertainties about which of these controls dominates isoprene emission rate. Ecosystem-level inventories of isoprene emission would be best handled through consideration of (1) the early season induction of isoprene emission, (2) seasonal and spatial variability in light, nitrogen and water availability and their influences on the basal emission rate, and (3) the influence of instantaneous changes in light and temperature on the basal emission rate. Monoterpene emission occurs from a large leaf reservoir, is uncoupled from instantaneous controls over biosynthesis, and is likely linked to whole-plant carbon allocation patterns. Because of the well-defined role of monoterpenes as herbivore deterrents and their linkage to plant carbon balance, there is promise for ecosystem-level inventories based on biological resource allocation

  6. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  7. Non-Host Plant Volatiles Disrupt Sex Pheromone Communication in a Specialist Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fumin; Deng, Jianyu; Schal, Coby; Lou, Yonggen; Zhou, Guoxin; Ye, Bingbing; Yin, Xiaohui; Xu, Zhihong; Shen, Lize

    2016-01-01

    The ecological effects of plant volatiles on herbivores are manifold. Little is known, however, about the impacts of non-host plant volatiles on intersexual pheromonal communication in specialist herbivores. We tested the effects of several prominent constitutive terpenoids released by conifers and Eucalyptus trees on electrophysiological and behavioral responses of an oligophagous species, Plutella xylostella, which feeds on Brassicaceae. The non-host plant volatile terpenoids adversely affected the calling behavior (pheromone emission) of adult females, and the orientation responses of adult males to sex pheromone were also significantly inhibited by these terpenoids in a wind tunnel and in the field. We suggest that disruption of both pheromone emission and orientation to sex pheromone may explain, at least in part, an observed reduction in herbivore attack in polyculture compared with monoculture plantings. We also propose that mating disruption of both male and female moths with non-host plant volatiles may be a promising alternative pest management strategy. PMID:27585907

  8. Herbivore-induced volatile emission in black poplar: regulation and role in attracting herbivore enemies.

    PubMed

    Clavijo McCormick, Andrea; Irmisch, Sandra; Reinecke, Andreas; Boeckler, G Andreas; Veit, Daniel; Reichelt, Michael; Hansson, Bill S; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G; Unsicker, Sybille B

    2014-08-01

    After herbivory, plants release volatile organic compounds from damaged foliage as well as from nearby undamaged leaves that attract herbivore enemies. Little is known about what controls the volatile emission differences between damaged and undamaged tissues and how these affect the orientation of herbivore enemies. We investigated volatile emission from damaged and adjacent undamaged foliage of black poplar (Populus nigra) after herbivory by gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars and determined the compounds mediating the attraction of the gypsy moth parasitoid Glyptapanteles liparidis (Braconidae). Female parasitoids were more attracted to gypsy moth-damaged leaves than to adjacent non-damaged leaves. The most characteristic volatiles of damaged versus neighbouring undamaged leaves included terpenes, green leaf volatiles and nitrogen-containing compounds, such as aldoximes and nitriles. Electrophysiological recordings and olfactometer bioassays demonstrated the importance of nitrogenous volatiles. Under field conditions, parasitic Hymenoptera were more attracted to traps baited with these substances than most other compounds. The differences in volatile emission profiles between damaged and undamaged foliage appear to be regulated by jasmonate signalling and the local activation of volatile biosynthesis. We conclude that characteristic volatiles from damaged black poplar foliage are essential cues enabling parasitoids to find their hosts. PMID:24471487

  9. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants.

    PubMed

    Mutyambai, Daniel M; Bruce, Toby J A; van den Berg, Johnnie; Midega, Charles A O; Pickett, John A; Khan, Zeyaur R

    2016-01-01

    Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant's chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Recent investigations have shown that certain maize varieties are able to emit volatiles following stemborer egg deposition. These volatiles attract the herbivore's parasitoids and directly deter further oviposition. However, it was not known whether these oviposition-induced maize (Zea mays, L.) volatiles can mediate chemical phenotypic changes in neighbouring unattacked maize plants. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of oviposition-induced maize volatiles on intact neighbouring maize plants in 'Nyamula', a landrace known to respond to oviposition, and a standard commercial hybrid, HB515, that did not. Headspace volatile samples were collected from maize plants exposed to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) egg deposition and unoviposited neighbouring plants as well as from control plants kept away from the volatile emitting ones. Behavioural bioassays were carried out in a four-arm olfactometer using egg (Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)) and larval (Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)) parasitoids. Coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for volatile analysis. For the 'Nyamula' landrace, GC-MS analysis revealed HIPV production not only in the oviposited plants but also in neighbouring plants not exposed to insect eggs. Higher amounts of EAG-active biogenic volatiles such as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were emitted from these plants compared to control plants. Subsequent behavioural assays with female T. bournieri and C

  10. Volatile composition, emission pattern, and localization of floral scent emission in Mirabilis jalapa (Nyctaginaceae).

    PubMed

    Effmert, Uta; Große, Jana; Röse, Ursula S R; Ehrig, Fred; Kägi, Ralf; Piechulla, Birgit

    2005-01-01

    We elucidated scent components, daily emission patterns, and the localization of floral scent release of Mirabilis jalapa. Volatiles emitted by the whole plant as well as by detached flowers were investigated using dynamic headspace analysis and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Among several constituents including (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, β-myrcene, (Z)-ocimene, and benzyl benzoate, the monoterpene (E)-β-ocimene was the major fragrance component. Fragrance release occurred in a time-dependent manner. The emission of volatiles, including (E)-β-ocimene, showed an evening-specific maximum (1700-2000 pm). The emission of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate reached its maximum 3 h later. Histological (neutral red staining) and morphological studies (electron and light microscopy) of the flower surface and tissues of M. jalapa revealed differences in surface structures and tissue characteristics. The flower could be divided into four main sections, including the tube, the transition zone between tube and limb, a star-shaped center of the limb, and petaloid lobes of the limb. These petaloid lobes are the site of (E)-β-ocimene release. Stomata and trichomes found on the abaxial flower surface were not directly involved in fragrance release. Clear indications of osmophores involved in scent release could not be found. Thus, the results indicate that floral volatiles probably are released by diffuse emission in M. jalapa. PMID:21652378

  11. An Indirect Defence Trait Mediated through Egg-Induced Maize Volatiles from Neighbouring Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mutyambai, Daniel M.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; van den Berg, Johnnie; Midega, Charles A. O.; Pickett, John A.; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2016-01-01

    Attack of plants by herbivorous arthropods may result in considerable changes to the plant’s chemical phenotype with respect to emission of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs). These HIPVs have been shown to act as repellents to the attacking insects as well as attractants for the insects antagonistic to these herbivores. Plants can also respond to HIPV signals from other plants that warn them of impending attack. Recent investigations have shown that certain maize varieties are able to emit volatiles following stemborer egg deposition. These volatiles attract the herbivore’s parasitoids and directly deter further oviposition. However, it was not known whether these oviposition-induced maize (Zea mays, L.) volatiles can mediate chemical phenotypic changes in neighbouring unattacked maize plants. Therefore, this study sought to investigate the effect of oviposition-induced maize volatiles on intact neighbouring maize plants in ‘Nyamula’, a landrace known to respond to oviposition, and a standard commercial hybrid, HB515, that did not. Headspace volatile samples were collected from maize plants exposed to Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) egg deposition and unoviposited neighbouring plants as well as from control plants kept away from the volatile emitting ones. Behavioural bioassays were carried out in a four-arm olfactometer using egg (Trichogramma bournieri Pintureau & Babault (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)) and larval (Cotesia sesamiae Cameron (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)) parasitoids. Coupled Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for volatile analysis. For the ‘Nyamula’ landrace, GC-MS analysis revealed HIPV production not only in the oviposited plants but also in neighbouring plants not exposed to insect eggs. Higher amounts of EAG-active biogenic volatiles such as (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene were emitted from these plants compared to control plants. Subsequent behavioural assays with female T. bournieri

  12. Toluene emissions from plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiden, A. C.; Kobel, K.; Komenda, M.; Koppmann, R.; Shao, M.; Wildt, J.

    The emission of toluene from different plants was observed in continuously stirred tank reactors and in field measurements. For plants growing without stress, emission rates were low and ranged from the detection limit up to 2·10-16 mol·cm-2·s-1. Under conditions of stress, the emission rates exceeded 10-14 mol·cm-2·s-1. Exposure of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv. Gigantheus) to 13CO2 resulted in 13C-labeling of the emitted toluene on a time scale of hours. Although no biochemical pathway for the production of toluene is known, these results indicate that toluene is synthesized by the plants. The emission rates of toluene from sunflower are dependent on nutrient supply and wounding. Since α-pinene emission rates are also influenced by these factors, toluene and α-pinene emissions show a high correlation. During pathogen attack on Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) significant toluene emissions were observed. In this case emissions of toluene and α-pinene also show a good correlation. Toluene emissions were also found in field experiments with pines using branch enclosures.

  13. A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenther, Alex; Hewitt, C. Nicholas; Erickson, David; Fall, Ray; Geron, Chris; Graedel, Tom; Harley, Peter; Klinger, Lee; Lerdau, Manuel; McKay, W. A.; Pierce, Tom; Scholes, Bob; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Tallamraju, Raja; Taylor, John; Zimmerman, Pat

    1995-05-01

    Numerical assessments of global air quality and potential changes in atmospheric chemical constituents require estimates of the surface fluxes of a variety of trace gas species. We have developed a global model to estimate emissions of volatile organic compounds from natural sources (NVOC). Methane is not considered here and has been reviewed in detail elsewhere. The model has a highly resolved spatial grid (0.5°×0.5° latitude/longitude) and generates hourly average emission estimates. Chemical species are grouped into four categories: isoprene, monoterpenes, other reactive VOC (ORVOC), and other VOC (OVOC). NVOC emissions from oceans are estimated as a function of geophysical variables from a general circulation model and ocean color satellite data. Emissions from plant foliage are estimated from ecosystem specific biomass and emission factors and algorithms describing light and temperature dependence of NVOC emissions. Foliar density estimates are based on climatic variables and satellite data. Temporal variations in the model are driven by monthly estimates of biomass and temperature and hourly light estimates. The annual global VOC flux is estimated to be 1150 Tg C, composed of 44% isoprene, 11% monoterpenes, 22.5% other reactive VOC, and 22.5% other VOC. Large uncertainties exist for each of these estimates and particularly for compounds other than isoprene and monoterpenes. Tropical woodlands (rain forest, seasonal, drought-deciduous, and savanna) contribute about half of all global natural VOC emissions. Croplands, shrublands and other woodlands contribute 10-20% apiece. Isoprene emissions calculated for temperate regions are as much as a factor of 5 higher than previous estimates.

  14. VOLATILIZED LUBRICANT EMISSIONS FROM STEEL ROLLING OPERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the volatilization of lubricants used in steel rolling. Data from nine steel mills were used to: define the volatilized portion of lubricants used in rolling; and prepare total oil, grease, and hydraulic material balances for actual and typi...

  15. Volatile organic compound emissions from dairy facilities in central California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from dairy facilities are thought to be an important contributor to high ozone levels in central California, but emissions inventories from these sources contain significant uncertainties. In this work, VOC emissions were measured at two central Califor...

  16. Predicting the emission of volatile organic compounds from silage systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a precursor to smog, emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere is an environmental concern in some regions. The major VOC emission source from farms is silage, with emissions coming from the silo face, mixing wagon, and feed bunk. The major compounds emitted are alcohols wit...

  17. Rethinking how volatiles are released from plant cells.

    PubMed

    Widhalm, Joshua R; Jaini, Rohit; Morgan, John A; Dudareva, Natalia

    2015-09-01

    For plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to be emitted, they must cross membrane(s), the aqueous cell wall, and sometimes the cuticle, before moving into the gas phase. It is presumed that VOC movement through each barrier occurs via passive diffusion. However, VOCs, which are primarily nonpolar compounds, will preferentially partition into membranes, making diffusion into aqueous compartments slow. Using Fick's first law, we calculated that to achieve observed VOC emission rates by diffusion alone would necessitate toxic VOC levels in membranes. Here, we propose that biological mechanisms, such as those involved in trafficking other hydrophobic compounds, must contribute to VOC emission. Such parallel biological pathways would lower barrier resistances and, thus, steady-state emission rates could be maintained with significantly reduced intramembrane VOC concentrations. PMID:26189793

  18. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. t includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and ...

  19. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....

  20. GLOBAL INVENTORY OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FORM ANTHROPOGENIC SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a global inventory anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds....

  1. Subterranean, herbivore-induced plant volatile increases biological control activity of multiple beneficial nematode species in distinct habitats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no stu...

  2. Infection of corn ears by Fusarium spp. induces the emission of volatile sesquiterpenes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Eva-Maria; Herrfurth, Cornelia; Irmisch, Sandra; Köllner, Tobias G; Feussner, Ivo; Karlovsky, Petr; Splivallo, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Infection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears with fungal pathogens of the Fusarium genus might result in yield losses and in the accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this study was to investigate whether volatile profiles could be used to identify Fusarium-infected corn ears. The volatiles released by corn ears infected by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium subglutinans were studied. Volatile emission was recorded at 24 days postinoculation (dpi) and in a time series (from 4 to 24 dpi). Twenty-two volatiles were differentially emitted from Fusarium-infected versus healthy corn ears. These included C6-C8 compounds and sesquiterpenoids. All volatiles indicative of Fusarium infection were detectable as early as 4-8 dpi and continued to be produced to the final sampling time (early milk maturity stage). The induced emission of β-macrocarpene and β-bisabolene correlated with an increased transcript accumulation of corn terpene synthase 6/11 (tps6/11). Additionally, the modification of volatile profiles after Fusarium infection was accompanied by the induction of plant defense compounds such as zealexins and oxylipins. Together, these results reveal a broad metabolic response of the plant to pathogen attack. Volatile biomarkers of Fusarium infection are promising indicators for the early detection of fungal infection before disease symptoms become visible. PMID:24816267

  3. Large increases in Arctic biogenic volatile emissions are a direct effect of warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramshøj, Magnus; Vedel-Petersen, Ida; Schollert, Michelle; Rinnan, Åsmund; Nymand, Josephine; Ro-Poulsen, Helge; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-05-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds are reactive gases that can contribute to atmospheric aerosol formation. Their emission from vegetation is dependent on temperature and light availability. Increasing temperature, changing cloud cover and shifting composition of vegetation communities can be expected to affect emissions in the Arctic, where the ongoing climate changes are particularly severe. Here we present biogenic volatile organic compound emission data from Arctic tundra exposed to six years of experimental warming or reduced sunlight treatment in a randomized block design. By separately assessing the emission response of the whole ecosystem, plant shoots and soil in four measurements covering the growing season, we have identified that warming increased the emissions directly rather than via a change in the plant biomass and species composition. Warming caused a 260% increase in total emission rate for the ecosystem and a 90% increase in emission rates for plants, while having no effect on soil emissions. Compared to the control, reduced sunlight decreased emissions by 69% for the ecosystem, 61-65% for plants and 78% for soil. The detected strong emission response is considerably higher than observed at more southern latitudes, emphasizing the high temperature sensitivity of ecosystem processes in the changing Arctic.

  4. MICROBIAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES AND EXPOSURE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents the results from a study that examined microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions from six fungi and one bacterial species (Streptomyces spp.) commonly found in indoor environments. Data are presented on peak emission rates from inoculated agar plate...

  5. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM DESERT VEGETATION OF THE SOUTHWESTERN U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen common plant species in the Mojave and Sonoran Desert regions of the western United States were tested for emissions of biogenic non-methane volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Only two of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates of 10 µgCg−1 ...

  6. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM A LOWLAND TROPICAL WET FOREST IN COSTA RICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty common plant species were screened for emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCS) at a lowland tropical wet forest site in Costa Rica. Ten of the species. examined emitted substantial quantities of isoprene. These species accounted for 35-50% of the total bas...

  7. EVALUATION OF VOC (VOLATILE CARBON) EMISSIONS FROM WASTEWATER SYSTEMS (SECONDARY EMISSIONS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The technical objective of this project was to obtain data for evaluating volatile carbon (VOC) emissions from wastewater treatment facilities for the synthetic organic chemicals manufacturing industry (SOCMI). VOC emissions data were obtained using the Concentration-Profile tech...

  8. Patterns in Volatile Emission of Different Aerial Parts of Caper (Capparis spinosa L.).

    PubMed

    Ascrizzi, Roberta; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Giusti, Giulia; Pistelli, Luisa; Flamini, Guido

    2016-07-01

    We analyzed the spontaneous volatile emission of different aerial parts of the caper (Capparis spinosa L.) by HS-SPME-GC/MS. We identified 178 different compounds of which, in different proportions based on the sample type, the main ones were (E)-β-ocimene, methyl benzoate, linalool, β-caryophyllene, α-guaiene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, germacrene B, (E)-nerolidol, isopropyl tetradecanoate, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone. The multivariate statistical analyses seem to point out that the parameter leading the emission patterns is the function of the analyzed sample; the flower samples showed differences in the emission profile between their fertile and sterile portions and between the other parts of the plant. The green parts emission profiles group together in a cluster and are different from those of seeds and fruits. We also hydrodistilled fully bloomed caper flowers, whose volatile oil showed significant differences in the composition from those of other parts of the plant reported. PMID:27276076

  9. Thermogenic respiratory processes drive the exponential increase of volatile organic compound emissions in Macrozamia cycad cones.

    PubMed

    Terry, L Irene; Roemer, Robert B; Booth, David T; Moore, Chris J; Walter, Gimme H

    2016-07-01

    An important outcome of plant thermogenesis is increased emissions of volatiles that mediate pollinator behaviour. We investigated whether the large increase in emissions, mainly the monoterpene ß-myrcene (>90%), during daily thermogenic events of Macrozamia macleayi and lucida cycad cones are due solely to the influence of high cone temperatures or are, instead, a result of increased respiratory rates during thermogenesis. We concurrently measured temperature, oxygen consumption and ß-myrcene emission profiles during thermogenesis of pollen cones under typical environmental temperatures and during experimental manipulations of cone temperatures and aerobic conditions, all in the dark. The exponential rise in ß-myrcene emissions never occurred without a prior, large increase in respiration, whereas an increase in cone temperature alone did not increase emissions. When respiration during thermogenesis was interrupted by anoxic conditions, ß-myrcene emissions decreased. The increased emission rates are not a result of increased cone temperature per se (through increased enzyme activity or volatilization of stored volatiles) but are dependent on biosynthetic pathways associated with increased respiration during thermogenesis that provide the carbon, energy (ATP) and reducing compounds (NADPH) required for ß-myrcene production through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. These findings establish the significant contribution of respiration to volatile production during thermogenesis. PMID:26924274

  10. Power plant emissions reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; Nagarjuna Reddy, Thirumala Reddy

    2015-10-20

    A system for improved emissions performance of a power plant generally includes an exhaust gas recirculation system having an exhaust gas compressor disposed downstream from the combustor, a condensation collection system at least partially disposed upstream from the exhaust gas compressor, and a mixing chamber in fluid communication with the exhaust gas compressor and the condensation collection system, where the mixing chamber is in fluid communication with the combustor.

  11. Selenium detoxification by volatilization and precipitation in aquatic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, T.W.M.; Higashi, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    The narrow margin of requirement and toxicity for selenium makes it a difficult pollution problem to solve. Selenium bioaccumulation has been a major threat to wildlife in California and is becoming a major concern in the San Francisco Bay/Estuaries. Despite the past efforts in Se nutrition, chemistry, and remediation, its toxicity and detoxification mechanism(s) in wildlife, particularly primary producers, is still unclear, due to a lack of understanding in Se biochemistry. This is becoming a critical issue in assessing Se risk and remediation. To address this gap, the authors have been characterizing Se speciation and its linkage to detoxification mechanism(s) of two indigenous aquatic plants, duckweed (Lemna minor) and a microphyte (Chlorella). Using GT-MS analysis, they found that Chlorella monocultures transformed Se oxyanions into volatile dimethylselenide and dimethyidiselenide and into insoluble So at extremely high Se (up to 750 ppm) concentrations. This alga did not accumulate selenomethionine which is among the most toxic forms of Se to wildlife. Dimethylsulfide was also volatilized, consistent with the hypothesis that dimethylsulfide/dimethylselenide emissions share a similar biochemical pathway. Se-treated Chlorella biomass released dimethylsulfide/dimethylselenide upon alkaline hydrolysis, suggesting the presence of dimethylsulfonium and dimethylselenonium propionates. Dimethylsulfoniumpropionate is known as an osmoprotectant in marine phytoplankton and as a major contributor to global biogenic dimethylsulfide emissions. Dimethylselenoniumpropionate has not been identified previously and may be a byproduct of dimethylsulfoniumpropionate synthesis. The unusual Se tolerance of Chlorella may be due to its ability to volatilize and precipitate Se. Such activities may be utilized for in situ Se bioremediation. Similar investigations with duckweed is underway.

  12. Plant volatiles in a polluted atmosphere: stress response and signal degradation

    PubMed Central

    Blande, James D.; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Plants emit a plethora of volatile organic compounds, which provide detailed information on the physiological condition of emitters. Volatiles induced by herbivore-feeding are among the best studied plant responses to stress and may constitute an informative message to the surrounding community and function in the process of plant defence. However, under natural conditions, plants are potentially exposed to multiple concurrent stresses, which can have complex effects on the volatile emissions. Atmospheric pollutants are an important facet of the abiotic environment and can impinge on a plant’s volatile-mediated defences in multiple ways at multiple temporal scales. They can exert changes in volatile emissions through oxidative stress, as is the case with ozone pollution. They may also react with volatiles in the atmosphere; such is the case for ozone, nitrogen oxides, hydroxyl radicals and other oxidizing atmospheric species. These reactions result in breakdown products, which may themselves be perceived by community members as informative signals. In this review we demonstrate the complex interplay between stress, emitted signals and modification in signal strength and composition by the atmosphere, collectively determining the responses of the biotic community to elicited signals. PMID:24738697

  13. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles mediate host selection by a root herbivore.

    PubMed

    Robert, Christelle A M; Erb, Matthias; Duployer, Marianne; Zwahlen, Claudia; Doyen, Gwladys R; Turlings, Ted C J

    2012-06-01

    In response to herbivore attack, plants mobilize chemical defenses and release distinct bouquets of volatiles. Aboveground herbivores are known to use changes in leaf volatile patterns to make foraging decisions, but it remains unclear whether belowground herbivores also use volatiles to select suitable host plants. We therefore investigated how above- and belowground infestation affects the performance of the root feeder Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, and whether the larvae of this specialized beetle are able to use volatile cues to assess from a distance whether a potential host plant is already under herbivore attack. Diabrotica virgifera larvae showed stronger growth on roots previously attacked by conspecific larvae, but performed more poorly on roots of plants whose leaves had been attacked by larvae of the moth Spodoptera littoralis. Fittingly, D. virgifera larvae were attracted to plants that were infested with conspecifics, whereas they avoided plants that were attacked by S. littoralis. We identified (E)-β-caryophyllene, which is induced by D. virgifera, and ethylene, which is suppressed by S. littoralis, as two signals used by D. virgifera larvae to locate plants that are most suitable for their development. Our study demonstrates that soil-dwelling insects can use herbivore-induced changes in root volatile emissions to identify suitable host plants. PMID:22486361

  14. Measuring Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are considered to be important precursors to smog and ozone production. An experimental protocol was developed to obtain undisturbed silage samples from silage storages. Samples were placed in a wind tunnel where temperature, humidity, and air flow were cont...

  15. MEASUREMENT OF VOLATILE CHEMICAL EMISSIONS FROM WASTEWATER BASINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project was to measure the rate at which selected volatile organic carbon (VOC) compounds are being emitted to air from waste-water treatment basins of the pulp and paper industry. The emission rates of methanol, acetone and acetaldehyde were measured and th...

  16. VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) FUGITIVE EMISSION PREDICTIVE MODEL - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a mathematical model that can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of various leak detection and repair (LDAR) programs on controlling volatile organic compound (VOC) fugitive emissions from chemical, petroleum, and other process units. The report also descr...

  17. Beetle feeding induces a different volatile emission pattern from black poplar foliage than caterpillar herbivory.

    PubMed

    Unsicker, Sybille B; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G

    2015-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatile emission is often considered to be attacker species-specific, but most experimental evidence comes from short lived herbaceous species. In a recent study we showed that black poplar (Populus nigra) trees emit a complex blend of volatiles from damaged leaves when they are attacked by generalist gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars. Minor nitrogenous volatiles were especially characteristic of this blend. Here we show that attack on P. nigra by a beetle species, Phratora vulgatissima (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), led to the emission of the same compounds as already observed after caterpillar herbivory, but with striking quantitative changes in the blend. The consequences for attraction of herbivore enemies are discussed. PMID:25831045

  18. Beetle feeding induces a different volatile emission pattern from black poplar foliage than caterpillar herbivory

    PubMed Central

    Unsicker, Sybille B.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Köllner, Tobias G.

    2015-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatile emission is often considered to be attacker species-specific, but most experimental evidence comes from short lived herbaceous species. In a recent study we showed that black poplar (Populus nigra) trees emit a complex blend of volatiles from damaged leaves when they are attacked by generalist gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) caterpillars. Minor nitrogenous volatiles were especially characteristic of this blend. Here we show that attack on P. nigra by a beetle species, Phratora vulgatissima (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae), led to the emission of the same compounds as already observed after caterpillar herbivory, but with striking quantitative changes in the blend. The consequences for attraction of herbivore enemies are discussed. PMID:25831045

  19. Pepper weevil attraction to volatiles from host and nonhost plants.

    PubMed

    Addesso, Karla M; McAuslane, Heather J

    2009-02-01

    The location of wild and cultivated host plants by pepper weevil (Anthonomus eugenii Cano) may be aided by visual cues, the male-produced aggregation pheromone, herbivore-induced, or constitutive host plant volatiles. The attractiveness of constitutive plant volatiles to pioneer weevils is important in understanding, and perhaps controlling, dispersal of this insect between wild and cultivated hosts. Ten-day-old male and 2- and 10-day-old female weevils were tested in short-range Y-tube assays. Ten-day-old male and female weevils were attracted to the volatiles released by whole plants of three known oviposition hosts, 'Jalapeno' pepper, American black nightshade, and eggplant, as well as tomato, a congener, which supports feeding but not oviposition. Two-day-old females were attracted to all plants tested, including lima bean, an unrelated, nonhost plant. Fruit volatiles from all three hosts and flower volatiles from nightshade and eggplant were also attractive. In choice tests, weevils showed different preferences for the oviposition hosts, depending on age and sex. Upwind response of 10-day-old male and female weevils to host plant volatiles was also tested in long-range wind tunnel assays. Weevils responded to pepper, nightshade, and eggplant volatiles by moving upwind. There was no difference in the observed upwind response of the weevils to the three host plants under no-choice conditions. Reproductively mature pepper weevils can detect, orient to, and discriminate between the volatile plumes of host plants in the absence of visual cues, conspecific feeding damage, or the presence of their aggregation pheromone. PMID:19791617

  20. Release of volatile mercury from vascular plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Puerner, N. J.; Speitel, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Volatile, organic solvent soluble mercury has been found in leaves and seeds of several angiosperms. Leaves of garlic vine, avocado, and haole-koa release mercury in volatile form rapidly at room temperature. In garlic vine, the most active release is temperature dependent, but does not parallel the vapor-pressure temperature relationship for mercury. Mercury can be trapped in nitric-perchloric acid digestion fluid, or n-hexane, but is lost from the hexane unless the acid mixture is present. Seeds of haole-koa also contain extractable mercury but volatility declines in the series n-hexane (90%), methanol (50%), water (10%). This suggests that reduced volatility may accompany solvolysis in the more polar media.

  1. MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REFINERY AND SYNFUELS VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSION DATA. VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT AND APPENDIX A

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum refineries and synfuel plants. The model, responding to a need to define a consistent and comprehensive approach for estimating VOC emissions from these tw...

  2. MODEL FOR EVALUATION OF REFINERY AND SYNFUELS VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS) EMISSION DATA. VOLUME 2. APPENDICES B AND C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes the development of a model for estimating emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petroleum refineries and synfuel plants. The model, responding to a need to define a consistent and comprehensive approach for estimating VOC emissions from these tw...

  3. Differential Performance and Parasitism of Caterpillars on Maize Inbred Lines with Distinctly Different Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Degen, Thomas; Bakalovic, Nenad; Bergvinson, David; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Plant volatiles induced by insect feeding are known to attract natural enemies of the herbivores. Six maize inbred lines that showed distinctly different patterns of volatile emission in laboratory assays were planted in randomized plots in the Central Mexican Highlands to test their ability to recruit parasitic wasps under field conditions. The plants were artificially infested with neonate larvae of the fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda, and two of its main endoparasitoids, Campoletis sonorensis and Cotesia marginiventris, were released in the plots. Volatiles were collected from equally treated reference plants in the neighbourhood of the experimental field. The cumulative amount of 36 quantified volatile compounds determined for each line was in good accordance with findings from the laboratory; there was an almost 15-fold difference in total emission between the two extreme lines. We found significant differences among the lines with respect to the numbers of armyworms recovered from the plants, their average weight gain and parasitism rates. Average weight of the caterpillars was negatively correlated with the average total amount of volatiles released by the six inbred lines. However, neither total volatile emission nor any specific single compound within the blend could explain the differential parasitism rates among the lines, with the possible exception of (E)-2-hexenal for Campoletis sonorensis and methyl salicylate for Cotesia marginiventris. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles and/or correlates thereof contribute to reducing insect damage of maize plants through direct plant defence and enhanced attraction of parasitoids, alleged indirect defence. The potential to exploit these volatiles for pest control deserves to be further evaluated. PMID:23112820

  4. On the detection of lunar volatile emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srnka, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    This letter shows that the Apollo lunar-surface Suprathermal Ion Detection Experiment (SIDE) instruments lack the sensitivity to detect even large emissions of radiogenic gases from the moon if the venting of these gases occurs primarily at a few-well-defined sites of lunar transient phenomena (LTPs). It is suggested that specific flight instruments for the proposed ESA Polar Orbiting Lunar Observatory (POLO) mission, which could detect active venting, would help determine the energy source for LTPs and would increase knowledge of lunar geophysics. A critical-velocity model for the LTP energy source is briefly discussed.

  5. The volatile emission of Eurosta solidaginis primes herbivore-induced volatile production in Solidago altissima and does not directly deter insect feeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The induction of plant defenses in response to herbivory is well documented. In addition, many plants prime their anti-herbivore defenses following exposure to environmental cues associated with increased risk of subsequent attack, including induced volatile emissions from herbivore-damaged plant tissues. Recently, we showed in both field and laboratory settings that tall goldenrod plants (Solidago altissima) exposed to the putative sex attractant of a specialist gall-inducing fly (Eurosta solidaginis) experienced less herbivory than unexposed plants. Furthermore, we observed stronger induction of the defense phytohormone jasmonic acid in exposed plants compared to controls. These findings document a novel class of plant-insect interactions mediated by the direct perception, by plants, of insect-derived olfactory cues. However, our previous study did not exclude the possibility that the fly emission (or its residue) might also deter insect feeding via direct effects on the herbivores. Results Here we show that the E. solidaginis emission does not (directly) deter herbivore feeding on Cucurbita pepo or Symphyotrichum lateriflorum plants—which have no co-evolutionary relationship with E. solidaginis and thus are not expected to exhibit priming responses to the fly emission. We also document stronger induction of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) in S. altissima plants given previous exposure to the fly emission relative to unexposed controls. No similar effect was observed in maize plants (Zea mays), which have no co-evolutionary relationship with E. solidaginis. Conclusions Together with our previous findings, these results provide compelling evidence that reduced herbivory on S. altissima plants exposed to the emission of male E. solidaginis reflects an evolved plant response to olfactory cues associated with its specialist herbivore and does not involve direct effects of the fly emission on herbivore feeding behavior. We further discuss

  6. Orientation behavior of predaceous ground beetle species in response to volatile emissions from yellow starthistle damaged by an invasive slug

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The up-regulation or emission of plant volatiles in response to herbivory may signal to the natural predators and parasitoids that a plant is under attack from herbivores. This is known as an indirect defense within a tritrophic system - where herbivore number is reduced through predation that is st...

  7. Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sedman, R.M.; Esparza, J.R. )

    1991-08-01

    Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators.

  8. Evaluation of volatile organic emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M; Esparza, J R

    1991-01-01

    Conventional methods of risk assessment typically employed to evaluate the impact of hazardous waste incinerators on public health must rely on somewhat speculative emissions estimates or on complicated and expensive sampling and analytical methods. The limited amount of toxicological information concerning many of the compounds detected in stack emissions also complicates the evaluation of the public health impacts of these facilities. An alternative approach aimed at evaluating the public health impacts associated with volatile organic stack emissions is presented that relies on a screening criterion to evaluate total stack hydrocarbon emissions. If the concentration of hydrocarbons in ambient air is below the screening criterion, volatile emissions from the incinerator are judged not to pose a significant threat to public health. Both the screening criterion and a conventional method of risk assessment were employed to evaluate the emissions from 20 incinerators. Use of the screening criterion always yielded a substantially greater estimate of risk than that derived by the conventional method. Since the use of the screening criterion always yielded estimates of risk that were greater than that determined by conventional methods and measuring total hydrocarbon emissions is a relatively simple analytical procedure, the use of the screening criterion would appear to facilitate the evaluation of operating hazardous waste incinerators. PMID:1954928

  9. Host plant volatiles induce oriented flight behaviour in male European grapevine moths, Lobesia botrana.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Martin; Schmidt-Büsser, Daniela; Guerin, Patrick M

    2011-10-01

    The European grapevine moth Lobesia botrana relies on a female produced sex pheromone for long-distance mate finding. Grapevine moth males compete heavily during limited time windows for females. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of host plant volatiles by grapevine moth males and whether such compounds elicit upwind oriented flights. We compared five host plant headspace extracts by means of gas chromatography linked electroantennogram (EAG) recording. We identified 12 common host plant volatiles (aliphatic esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, aromatic compounds and terpenes) that elicit EAG responses from grapevine moth males and that occur in at least three of the host plant volatile headspace extracts tested. Subsequently the behavioural response of grapevine moth males to four these compounds presented singly and in mixtures (1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate and (E)-β-caryophyllene) was recorded in a wind tunnel. Grapevine moth males engaged in upwind flights to all of four compounds when released singly at 10,000 pg/min and to all, except 1-octen-3-ol, when released at 100 pg/min. A blend of the four host plant volatiles released at 10,000 pg/min and mixed at a ratio based on the analysis of Vitis vinifera cv. Solaris volatile emissions attracted significantly more males than any single compound. Grapevine moth males perceive and respond to host plant volatiles at biologically relevant levels indicating that host plant volatiles figure as olfactory cues and that L. botrana males can discern places where the likelihood of encountering females is higher. PMID:21729701

  10. Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Piccot, S.D.; Watson, J.J.; Jones, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The paper discusses the development of a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. It includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. These classes represent general classes of VOC compounds that possess different chemical reactivities in the atmosphere. The inventory shows total global anthropogenic VOC emissions of about 110,000 Gg/yr, about 10% lower than global VOC inventories developed by other researchers. The study identifies the U.S. as the largest emitter (21% of the total global VOC), followed by the USSR, China, India, and Japan. Globally, fuel wood combustion and savanna burning were among the largest VOC emission sources, accounting for over 35% of the total global VOC emissions. The production and use of gasoline, refuse disposal activities, and organic chemical and rubber manufacturing were also found to be significant sources of global VOC emissions.

  11. Plutella xylostella (L.) infestations at varying temperatures induce the emission of specific volatile blends by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Dieu-Hien; Delory, Benjamin M; Brostaux, Yves; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Delaplace, Pierre; Francis, Frédéric; Lognay, Georges

    2014-01-01

    The effect of combined abiotic and biotic factors on plant volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions is poorly understood. This study evaluated the VOC emissions produced by Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Col-0 subjected to 3 temperature regimes (17, 22, and 27°C) in the presence and absence of Plutella xylostella larvae over 2 time intervals (0–4 and 4–8 h), in comparison to control plants. The analyses of VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis plants were made by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). It was found that certain volatile groups (e.g., alcohols, ketones, aldehydes, and terpenes) are induced by both single factors (temperature or larval infestation) and combined factors (temperature and larvae interactions), whereas other volatile groups (e.g., isothiocyanates [ITCs] and nitrile) were specific to the experimental conditions. ITCs (mainly 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate) were emitted from plants subjected to larval infestation at 17 and 27°C after the 2 time intervals. The proportions of sulfides (mainly dimethyl disulfide) and 4-(methylthio) butanenitrile were significantly higher on herbivore-infested plants at 22°C compared to the other treatments. Overall, our findings indicate that changes in all experimental conditions caused significant changes to the VOC emissions of Arabidopsis plants. Therefore, the interaction between temperature and larval feeding may represent an important factor determining the variability of volatile emissions by plants subjected to multiple simultaneous factors. PMID:25482777

  12. Are bursts of green leaf volatile emissions from plants following light to dark transitions associated with de-novo biosynthesis of free fatty acids and not stress-induced membrane degradation? J. Norman- University of North Carolina K. Jardine- University of Arizona G. Barron-Gafford- University of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, J. P.; Jardine, K. J.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.

    2011-12-01

    Green Leaf Volatiles (GLVs) are a diverse group of fatty acid-derived Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) emitted by all plants. These GLVs are involved in a wide variety of stress-related biological functions, as well as the formation of secondary organic aerosols and ozone in the troposphere. To date, GLV emissions have primarily been associated with acute stress responses wherein fatty acids are released from plant membranes and enzymatically oxidized to GLVs via the lipoxygenase pathway. However the biochemical role of these gases within unwounded plants has remained unknown so far. Recently, GLV emissions were reported following light-dark transitions and were hypothesized to also be related to a mechanical stress response (i.e. leaf cutting). However in this study we show that GLV emissions from mesquite trees have a separate biochemical pathway for their production that is unrelated to stress. GLV emission rates following light-dark transitions were quantified from young and mature Mesquite branches. It was found that young branches had very high photosynthetic rates and displayed strong bursts of a wide array of GLVs following darkening, while mature branches had much lower photosynthetic rates showed much weaker or no bursts. This is interesting because neither the mature nor the juvenile plants were subjected to any type of stress during measurement. Moreover, the older plant samples (which had the lower emissions) were collected by clipping branches from a tree and re-clipping their stems under water. Given what has previously been established concerning the relationship of GLV emissions to mechanical stress, one would expect these older branches to have higher emissions than their juvenile counterparts rather than lower emissions. We speculate that the emission of GLVs during light-dark transitions is not the result of a stress response, but rather the result of rapid de-novo fatty acid biosynthesis occurring in chloroplasts of young branches fed by a

  13. Volatile isoprenoids as defense compounds during abiotic stress in tropical plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.

    2015-12-01

    Emissions of volatile isoprenoids from tropical forests play central roles in atmospheric processes by fueling atmospheric chemistry resulting in modified aerosol and cloud lifecycles and their associated feedbacks with the terrestrial biosphere. However, the identities of tropical isoprenoids, their biological and environmental controls, and functions within plants and ecosystems remain highly uncertain. As part of the DOE ARM program's GoAmazon 2014/15 campaign, extensive field and laboratory observations of volatile isoprenoids are being conducted in the central Amazon. Here we report the results of our completed and ongoing activities at the ZF2 forest reserve in the central Amazon. Among the results of the research are the suprisingly high abundance of light-dependent volatile isoprenoid emissions across abundant tree genera in the Amazon in both primary and secondary forests, the discovery of highly reactive monoterpene emissions from Amazon trees, and evidence for the importance of volatile isoprenoids in protecting photosynthesis during oxidative stress under elevated temperatures including energy consumption and direct antioxidant functions and a tight connection betwen volatile isoprenoid emissions, photorespiration, and CO2 recycling within leaves. The results highlight the need to model allocation of carbon to isoprenoids during elevated temperature stress in the tropics.

  14. Off-season biogenic volatile organic compound emissions from heath mesocosms: responses to vegetation cutting

    PubMed Central

    Rinnan, Riikka; Gierth, Diana; Bilde, Merete; Rosenørn, Thomas; Michelsen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) affect both atmospheric processes and ecological interactions. Our primary aim was to differentiate between BVOC emissions from above- and belowground plant parts and heath soil outside the growing season. The second aim was to assess emissions from herbivory, mimicked by cutting the plants. Mesocosms from a temperate Deschampsia flexuosa-dominated heath ecosystem and a subarctic mixed heath ecosystem were either left intact, the aboveground vegetation was cut, or all plant parts (including roots) were removed. For 3–5 weeks, BVOC emissions were measured in growth chambers by an enclosure method using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. CO2 exchange, soil microbial biomass, and soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations were also analyzed. Vegetation cutting increased BVOC emissions by more than 20-fold, and the induced compounds were mainly eight-carbon compounds and sesquiterpenes. In the Deschampsia heath, the overall low BVOC emissions originated mainly from soil. In the mixed heath, root, and soil emissions were negligible. Net BVOC emissions from roots and soil of these well-drained heaths do not significantly contribute to ecosystem emissions, at least outside the growing season. If insect outbreaks become more frequent with climate change, ecosystem BVOC emissions will periodically increase due to herbivory. PMID:23966983

  15. Inbreeding in horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) alters night-time volatile emissions that guide oviposition by Manduca sexta moths

    PubMed Central

    Kariyat, Rupesh R.; Mauck, Kerry E.; Balogh, Christopher M.; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2013-01-01

    Plant volatiles serve as key foraging and oviposition cues for insect herbivores as well as their natural enemies, but little is known about how genetic variation within plant populations influences volatile-mediated interactions among plants and insects. Here, we explore how inbred and outbred plants from three maternal families of the native weed horsenettle (Solanum carolinense) vary in the emission of volatile organic compounds during the dark phase of the photoperiod, and the effects of this variation on the oviposition preferences of Manduca sexta moths, whose larvae are specialist herbivores of Solanaceae. Compared with inbred plants, outbred plants consistently released more total volatiles at night and more individual compounds—including some previously reported to repel moths and attract predators. Female moths overwhelmingly chose to lay eggs on inbred (versus outbred) plants, and this preference persisted when olfactory cues were presented in the absence of visual and contact cues. These results are consistent with our previous findings that inbred plants recruit more herbivores and suffer greater herbivory under field conditions. Furthermore, they suggest that constitutive volatiles released during the dark portion of the photoperiod can convey accurate information about plant defence status (and/or other aspects of host plant quality) to foraging herbivores. PMID:23446531

  16. Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds in laboratory peat fire emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Ingrid J.; Black, Robert R.; Geron, Chris D.; Aurell, Johanna; Hays, Michael D.; Preston, William T.; Gullett, Brian K.

    2016-05-01

    In this study, volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOCs and SVOCs) mass emission factors were determined from laboratory peat fire experiments. The peat samples originated from two National Wildlife Refuges on the coastal plain of North Carolina, U.S.A. Gas- and particle-phase organic compounds were quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high pressure liquid chromatography. Hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) accounted for a large fraction (∼60%) of the speciated VOC emissions from peat burning, including large contributions of acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, benzene, toluene, and chloromethane. In the fine particle mass (PM2.5), the following organic compound classes were dominant: organic acids, levoglucosan, n-alkanes, and n-alkenes. Emission factors for the organic acids in PM2.5 including n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenoic acids, n-alkanedioic acids, and aromatic acids were reported for the first time for peat burning, representing the largest fraction of organic carbon (OC) mass (11-12%) of all speciated compound classes measured in this work. Levoglucosan contributed to 2-3% of the OC mass, while methoxyphenols represented 0.2-0.3% of the OC mass on a carbon mass basis. Retene was the most abundant particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Total HAP VOC and particulate PAH emissions from a 2008 peat wildfire in North Carolina were estimated, suggesting that peat fires can contribute a large fraction of state-wide HAP emissions.

  17. Identification of loci affecting flavour volatile emissions in tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Tieman, Denise M; Zeigler, Michelle; Schmelz, Eric A; Taylor, Mark G; Bliss, Peter; Kirst, Matias; Klee, Harry J

    2006-01-01

    Fresh tomato fruit flavour is the sum of the interaction between sugars, acids, and a set of approximately 30 volatile compounds synthesized from a diverse set of precursors, including amino acids, lipids, and carotenoids. Some of these volatiles impart desirable qualities while others are negatively perceived. As a first step to identify the genes responsible for the synthesis of flavour-related chemicals, an attempt was made to identify loci that influence the chemical composition of ripe fruits. A genetically diverse but well-defined Solanum pennellii IL population was used. Because S. pennellii is a small green-fruited species, this population exhibits great biochemical diversity and is a rich source of genes affecting both fruit development and chemical composition. This population was used to identify multiple loci affecting the composition of chemicals related to flavour. Twenty-five loci were identified that are significantly altered in one or more of 23 different volatiles and four were altered in citric acid content. It was further shown that emissions of carotenoid-derived volatiles were directly correlated with the fruit carotenoid content. Linked molecular markers should be useful for breeding programmes aimed at improving fruit flavour. In the longer term, the genes responsible for controlling the levels of these chemicals will be important tools for understanding the complex interactions that ultimately integrate to provide the unique flavour of a tomato. PMID:16473892

  18. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  19. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  20. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  1. 27 CFR 19.144 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises. 19.144 Section 19.144 Alcohol, Tobacco... § 19.144 Alternation of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant premises... use with the premises of a contiguous volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant. If a proprietor...

  2. A Challenge for a Male Noctuid Moth? Discerning the Female Sex Pheromone against the Background of Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Badeke, Elisa; Haverkamp, Alexander; Hansson, Bill S.; Sachse, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Finding a partner is an essential task for members of all species. Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific pheromone blend to attract conspecific males. While tracking these blends, male moths are also continuously confronted with a wide range of other odor molecules, many of which are plant volatiles. Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic a natural situation, we tracked pheromone-guided behavior when males were presented with the headspaces of each of two host plants in addition to the female pheromone blend. Since volatile emissions are also dependent on the physiological state of the plant, we compared pheromone attraction in the background of both damaged and intact plants. Surprisingly, our results show that a natural odor bouquet does not influence flight behavior at all, although previous studies had shown a suppressive effect at the sensory level. We also chose different concentrations of single plant-emitted volatiles, which have previously been shown to be neurophysiologically relevant, and compared their influence on pheromone attraction. We observed that pheromone attraction in male moths was significantly impaired in a concentration-dependent manner when single plant volatiles were added. Finally, we quantified the amounts of volatile emission in our experiments using gas chromatography. Notably, when the natural emissions of host plants were compared with those of the tested single plant compounds, we found that host plants do not release volatiles at concentrations that impact pheromone-guided flight behavior of the moth. Hence, our results lead to the conclusion that pheromone-plant interactions in Heliothis virescens might be an effect of stimulation with supra-natural plant odor concentrations, whereas under more natural conditions the olfactory system of the male moth appears

  3. A Challenge for a Male Noctuid Moth? Discerning the Female Sex Pheromone against the Background of Plant Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Badeke, Elisa; Haverkamp, Alexander; Hansson, Bill S; Sachse, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Finding a partner is an essential task for members of all species. Like many insects, females of the noctuid moth Heliothis virescens release chemical cues consisting of a species-specific pheromone blend to attract conspecific males. While tracking these blends, male moths are also continuously confronted with a wide range of other odor molecules, many of which are plant volatiles. Therefore, we analyzed how background plant odors influence the degree of male moth attraction to pheromones. In order to mimic a natural situation, we tracked pheromone-guided behavior when males were presented with the headspaces of each of two host plants in addition to the female pheromone blend. Since volatile emissions are also dependent on the physiological state of the plant, we compared pheromone attraction in the background of both damaged and intact plants. Surprisingly, our results show that a natural odor bouquet does not influence flight behavior at all, although previous studies had shown a suppressive effect at the sensory level. We also chose different concentrations of single plant-emitted volatiles, which have previously been shown to be neurophysiologically relevant, and compared their influence on pheromone attraction. We observed that pheromone attraction in male moths was significantly impaired in a concentration-dependent manner when single plant volatiles were added. Finally, we quantified the amounts of volatile emission in our experiments using gas chromatography. Notably, when the natural emissions of host plants were compared with those of the tested single plant compounds, we found that host plants do not release volatiles at concentrations that impact pheromone-guided flight behavior of the moth. Hence, our results lead to the conclusion that pheromone-plant interactions in Heliothis virescens might be an effect of stimulation with supra-natural plant odor concentrations, whereas under more natural conditions the olfactory system of the male moth appears

  4. Caterpillar-induced plant volatiles remain a reliable signal for foraging wasps during dual attack with a plant pathogen or non-host insect herbivore.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Camille; Gols, Rieta; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Dicke, Marcel

    2014-08-01

    Plants respond to herbivory with the emission of plant volatiles, which can be used by the herbivores' natural enemies to locate their hosts or prey. In nature, plants are often simultaneously confronted with insect herbivores and phytopathogens, potentially interfering with the attraction of the herbivores' enemies as a result of modifications of the induced volatile blend. Here, we investigated parasitoid (Cotesia glomerata) attraction to volatiles of plants challenged by different attackers, either alone or in combination with Pieris brassicae caterpillars, hosts of C. glomerata. We used a natural system consisting of Brassica nigra plants, eggs and larvae of P. brassicae, Brevicoryne brassicae aphids and the bacterial phytopathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris. In all cases, parasitoids successfully located host-infested plants, and wasp foraging behaviour was unaffected by the simultaneous presence of a non-host attacker or host eggs. Analysis of the volatile emissions show that the volatile blends of caterpillar-infested treatments were different from those without caterpillars. Furthermore, dually attacked plants could not be separated from those with only caterpillars, regardless of non-host identity, supporting the behavioural data. Our results suggest that, in this system, indirect plant defences may be more resistant to interference than is generally assumed, with volatiles induced during dual attack remaining reliable indicators of host presence for parasitoids. PMID:24697624

  5. Methyl bromide emissions from a covered field: II. Volatilization

    SciTech Connect

    Yates, S.R.; Gan, J.; Ernst, F.F.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment to investigate the environmental fate and transport of methyl bromide in agricultural fields is described. The methyl bromide volatilization rate was determined as a function of time for conditions where methyl bromide was applied at a rate of 843 kg in a 3.5-ha (i.e., 240 kg/ha) field covered with plastic at a depth of 25 cm. Three methods were used to estimate the methyl bromide volatilization rate, including: the aerodynamic, theoretical profile shape and integrated horizontal flux methods. The highest methyl bromide volatilization rates were at the beginning of the experiment. Within the first 24 h, approximately 36% of the applied methyl bromide mass was lost. Diurnally, the largest volatilization rates occurred during the day when temperatures were high and the atmosphere was unstable. Cooler temperatures, light winds, and neutral to stable atmospheric conditions were present at night, reducing the flux. The total emission calculated using these methods was found to be approximately 64% ({+-} 10%) of the applied mass. A mass balance was calculated using each flux estimation technique and several methods for analyzing the data. The average mass recovery using all the flux methods was 867 kg ({+-}83 kg), which was 102.8% ({+-}9.8%) of the applied (i.e., 843 kg). The range in the mass balance percent (i.e., percent of applied mass that is measured) is from 88 to 112%. The averaged mass balance percent for the aerodynamic method, which involved using the measured data directly, was approximately 100.8%. The total emission calculated using the aerodynamic method was found to be approximately 62% ({+-}11%) of the applied mass. 29 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Emissions of volatile fatty acids from feed at dairy facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alanis, Phillip; Ashkan, Shawn; Krauter, Charles; Campbell, Sean; Hasson, Alam S.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggest that dairy operations may be a major source of non-methane volatile organic compounds in dairy-intensive regions such as Central California, with short chain carboxylic acids (volatile fatty acids or VFAs) as the major components. Emissions of four VFAs (acetic acid, propanoic acid, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid) were measured from two feed sources (silage and total mixed rations (TMR)) at six Central California Dairies over a fifteen-month period. Measurements were made using a combination of flux chambers, solid phase micro-extraction fibers coupled to gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME/GC-MS) and infra-red photoaccoustic detection (IR-PAD for acetic acid only). The relationship between acetic acid emissions, source surface temperature and four sample composition factors (acetic acid content, ammonia-nitrogen content, water content and pH) was also investigated. As observed previously, acetic acid dominates the VFA emissions. Fluxes measured by IR-PAD were systematically lower than SPME/GC-MS measurements by a factor of two. High signals in field blanks prevented emissions from animal waste sources (flush lane, bedding, open lot) from being quantified. Acetic acid emissions from feed sources are positively correlated with surface temperature and acetic acid content. The measurements were used to derive a relationship between surface temperature, acetic acid content and the acetic acid flux. The equation derived from SPME/GC-MS measurements predicts estimated annual average acetic acid emissions of (0.7 + 1/-0.4) g m -2 h -1 from silage and (0.2 + 0.3/-0.1) g m -2 h -1 from TMR using annually averaged acetic acid content and meteorological data. However, during the summer months, fluxes may be several times higher than these values.

  7. Evolutionary patterns of volatile terpene emissions across 202 tropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Elodie A; Dexter, Kyle G; Paine, Charles Eliot Timothy; Stien, Didier; Engel, Julien; Baraloto, Christopher; Chave, Jérôme

    2016-05-01

    Plant responses to natural enemies include formation of secondary metabolites acting as direct or indirect defenses. Volatile terpenes represent one of the most diverse groups of secondary metabolites. We aimed to explore evolutionary patterns of volatile terpene emission. We measured the composition of damage-induced volatile terpenes from 202 Amazonian tree species, spanning the angiosperm phylogeny. Volatile terpenes were extracted with solid-phase micro extraction and desorbed in a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for compound identification. The chemical diversity of the terpene blend showed a strong phylogenetic signal as closely related species emitted a similar number of compounds. Closely related species also tended to have compositionally similar blends, although this relationship was weak. Meanwhile, the ability to emit a given compound showed no significant phylogenetic signal for 200 of 286 compounds, indicating a high rate of diversification in terpene synthesis and/or great variability in their expression. Three lineages (Magnoliales, Laurales, and Sapindales) showed exceptionally high rates of terpene diversification. Of the 70 compounds found in >10% of their species, 69 displayed significant correlated evolution with at least one other compound. These results provide insights into the complex evolutionary history of volatile terpenes in angiosperms, while highlighting the need for further research into this important class of compounds. PMID:27069586

  8. Fourfold higher tundra volatile emissions due to arctic summer warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindwall, Frida; Schollert, Michelle; Michelsen, Anders; Blok, Daan; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-03-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), which are mainly emitted by vegetation, may create either positive or negative climate forcing feedbacks. In the Subarctic, BVOC emissions are highly responsive to temperature, but the effects of climatic warming on BVOC emissions have not been assessed in more extreme arctic ecosystems. The Arctic undergoes rapid climate change, with air temperatures increasing at twice the rate of the global mean. Also, the amount of winter precipitation is projected to increase in large areas of the Arctic, and it is unknown how winter snow depth affects BVOC emissions during summer. Here we examine the responses of BVOC emissions to experimental summer warming and winter snow addition—each treatment alone and in combination—in an arctic heath during two growing seasons. We observed a 280% increase relative to ambient in BVOC emissions in response to a 4°C summer warming. Snow addition had minor effects on growing season BVOC emissions after one winter but decreased BVOC emissions after the second winter. We also examined differences between canopy and air temperatures and found that the tundra canopy surface was on average 7.7°C and maximum 21.6°C warmer than air. This large difference suggests that the tundra surface temperature is an important driver for emissions of BVOCs, which are temperature dependent. Our results demonstrate a strong response of BVOC emissions to increasing temperatures in the Arctic, suggesting that emission rates will increase with climate warming and thereby feed back to regional climate change.

  9. The emission of volatile compounds during the aerobic and the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting of biowaste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smet, Erik; Van Langenhove, Herman; De Bo, Inge

    Two different biowaste composting techniques were compared with regard to their overall emission of volatile compounds during the active composting period. In the aerobic composting process, the biowaste was aerated during a 12-week period, while the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process consisted of a sequence of a 3-week anaerobic digestion (phase I) and a 2-week aeration period (phase II). While the emission of volatiles during phase I of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was measured in a full-scale composting plant, the aerobic stages of both composting techniques were performed in pilot-scale composting bins. Similar groups of volatile compounds were analysed in the biogas and the aerobic composting waste gases, being alcohols, carbonyl compounds, terpenes, esters, sulphur compounds and ethers. Predominance of alcohols (38% wt/wt of the cumulative emission) was observed in the exhaust air of the aerobic composting process, while predominance of terpenes (87%) and ammonia (93%) was observed in phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process, respectively. In the aerobic composting process, 2-propanol, ethanol, acetone, limonene and ethyl acetate made up about 82% of the total volatile organic compounds (VOC)-emission. Next to this, the gas analysis during the aerobic composting process revealed a strong difference in emission profile as a function of time between different groups of volatiles. The total emission of VOC, NH 3 and H 2S during the aerobic composting process was 742 g ton -1 biowaste, while the total emission during phases I and II of the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process was 236 and 44 g ton -1 biowaste, respectively. Taking into consideration the 99% removal efficiency of volatiles upon combustion of the biogas of phase I in the electricity generator, the combined anaerobic/aerobic composting process can be considered as an attractive alternative for aerobic biowaste composting because of

  10. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

  11. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

  12. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

  13. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

  14. 27 CFR 18.39 - Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. 18.39 Section 18.39 Alcohol... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.39 Qualification to alternate a volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and a distilled spirits plant. A...

  15. Parasitoids select plants more heavily infested with their caterpillar hosts: a new approach to aid interpretation of plant headspace volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Girling, Robbie D.; Stewart-Jones, Alex; Dherbecourt, Julie; Staley, Joanna T.; Wright, Denis J.; Poppy, Guy M.

    2011-01-01

    Plants produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in response to herbivore attack, and these VOCs can be used by parasitoids of the herbivore as host location cues. We investigated the behavioural responses of the parasitoid Cotesia vestalis to VOCs from a plant–herbivore complex consisting of cabbage plants (Brassica oleracea) and the parasitoids host caterpillar, Plutella xylostella. A Y-tube olfactometer was used to compare the parasitoids' responses to VOCs produced as a result of different levels of attack by the caterpillar and equivalent levels of mechanical damage. Headspace VOC production by these plant treatments was examined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Cotesia vestalis were able to exploit quantitative and qualitative differences in volatile emissions, from the plant–herbivore complex, produced as a result of different numbers of herbivores feeding. Cotesia vestalis showed a preference for plants with more herbivores and herbivore damage, but did not distinguish between different levels of mechanical damage. Volatile profiles of plants with different levels of herbivores/herbivore damage could also be separated by canonical discriminant analyses. Analyses revealed a number of compounds whose emission increased significantly with herbivore load, and these VOCs may be particularly good indicators of herbivore number, as the parasitoid processes cues from its external environment. PMID:21270031

  16. Metabolic engineering of volatile isoprenoids in plants and microbes.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Claudia E; Bongers, Mareike; Liu, Qing; Delatte, Thierry; Bouwmeester, Harro

    2014-08-01

    The chemical properties and diversity of volatile isoprenoids lends them to a broad variety of biological roles. It also lends them to a host of biotechnological applications, both by taking advantage of their natural functions and by using them as industrial chemicals/chemical feedstocks. Natural functions include roles as insect attractants and repellents, abiotic stress protectants in pathogen defense, etc. Industrial applications include use as pharmaceuticals, flavours, fragrances, fuels, fuel additives, etc. Here we will examine the ways in which researchers have so far found to exploit volatile isoprenoids using biotechnology. Production and/or modification of volatiles using metabolic engineering in both plants and microorganisms are reviewed, including engineering through both mevalonate and methylerythritol diphosphate pathways. Recent advances are illustrated using several case studies (herbivores and bodyguards, isoprene, and monoterpene production in microbes). Systems and synthetic biology tools with particular utility for metabolic engineering are also reviewed. Finally, we discuss the practical realities of various applications in modern biotechnology, explore possible future applications, and examine the challenges of moving these technologies forward so that they can deliver tangible benefits. While this review focuses on volatile isoprenoids, many of the engineering approaches described here are also applicable to non-isoprenoid volatiles and to non-volatile isoprenoids. PMID:24588680

  17. A biogenic volatile organic compounds emission inventory for Yunnan Province.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-Hui; Bai, Yu-Hua; Zhang, Shu-Yu

    2005-01-01

    The first detailed inventory for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions from vegetation over Yunnan Province, China was presented. The spatially and temporally resolved inventory was developed based on a geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing (RS) data and field measurement data, such as digitized land-use data, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and temperature data from direct real-time measurement. The inventory has a spatial resolution of 5 km x 5 km and a time resolution of 1 h. Urban, agriculture, and natural land-use distributions in Yunnan Province were combined with biomass factors for each land-use category to produce a spatially resolved biomass inventory. A biogenic emission inventory was developed by combining the biomass inventory with hourly emission rates for tree, shrub and ground cover species of the study area. Correcting for environmental factors, including light intensity and temperature, a value of 1.1 x 10(12) gC for total annual biogenic VOC emissions from Yunnan Province, including 6.1 x 10(11) gC for isoprene, 2.1 x 10(11) gC for monoterpenes, and 2.6 x 10(11) gC for OVOC was obtained. The highest VOC emissions occurred in the northwestern, southwestern and north region of Yunnan Province. Some uncertainties were also discussed in this study. PMID:16083102

  18. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emission Rates From Urban Vegetation in Southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, B.; Graessli, M.; Bai, J.; Huang, A.; Li, N.; Guenther, A.

    2005-12-01

    Currently, the country of China is growing economically at an extraordinary pace. With this growth comes an increase in emissions of anthropogenic pollutants such as hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides from factories and vehicles. To accurately determine the effects of these pollutants on regional ozone production, and to best determine mitigation strategies, biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions must be considered in regional atmospheric chemistry models. To date, few studies have been carried out to determine BVOC emission factors for plant species that occur in China. Considering that approximately 20% of the world's population resides in this region, it is important to develop accurate databases for BVOC emissions for the country of China. This experiment took place during May and June of 2005 and was based in the Fairy Lake Botanical Gardens (FLBG) located to the northeast of the city of Shenzhen. The city of Shenzhen is located in southeast China in Guangdong province. The city was designated a 'special economic zone' in 1980 and has experienced intense population and economic growth ever since. The dense city is surrounded by hilly rural areas of forest on three sides, and Hong Kong to the south. The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate emissions of BVOC from plants that are important to the Shenzhen region as well as to southeastern China. Over 150 species of plants were screened for emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes. These species include most of the dominant trees and shrubs planted in the Shenzhen area. Samples were collected at the FLBG as well as at various locations around the city of Shenzhen. BVOC emission samples were collected and analyzed in one of two ways. First, a Teflon enclosure was placed over a plant's branch with a constant flow of ambient air passing through the enclosure. Samples were then pumped into a Teflon bag for analysis. Samples were analyzed within 30 minutes by gas chromatography (GC) with either a photo

  19. Volatile organic compounds as non-invasive markers for plant phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Niederbacher, B; Winkler, J B; Schnitzler, J P

    2015-09-01

    Plants emit a great variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can actively participate in plant growth and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. VOC emissions are strongly dependent on environmental conditions; the greatest ambiguity is whether or not the predicted change in climate will influence and modify plant-pest interactions that are mediated by VOCs. The constitutive and induced emission patterns between plant genotypes, species, and taxa are highly variable and can be used as pheno(chemo)typic markers to distinguish between different origins and provenances. In recent years significant progress has been made in molecular and genetic plant breeding. However, there is actually a lack of knowledge in functionally linking genotypes and phenotypes, particularly in analyses of plant-environment interactions. Plant phenotyping, the assessment of complex plant traits such as growth, development, tolerance, resistance, etc., has become a major bottleneck, and quantitative information on genotype-environment relationships is the key to addressing major future challenges. With increasing demand to support and accelerate progress in breeding for novel traits, the plant research community faces the need to measure accurately increasingly large numbers of plants and plant traits. In this review article, we focus on the promising outlook of VOC phenotyping as a fast and non-invasive measure of phenotypic dynamics. The basic principle is to define plant phenotypes according to their disease resistance and stress tolerance, which in turn will help in improving the performance and yield of economically relevant plants. PMID:25969554

  20. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Cotesia plutellae to plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, You-Nan; Gurr, Geoff M; Vasseur, Liette; You, Min-Sheng

    2016-04-01

    Plant volatiles have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating the behavior of Cotesia plutellae, a major larval parasitoid of the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, but little is currently known about the function of each volatile and their mixtures. We selected 13 volatiles of the DBM host plant, a cruciferous vegetable, to study the electroantennogram (EAG) and behavioral responses of C. plutellae. EAG responses to each of the compounds generally increased with concentration. Strong EAG responses were to 100 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal and cis-3-hexenol, and 10 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde with the strongest response provoked by trans-2-hexenal at 100 μL/mL. In the Y-tube olfactometer, C. plutellae, was significantly attracted by 1 μL/mL of trans-2-hexenal and benzaldehyde. β-caryophyllene, cis-3-hexenol or trans-2-hexenal significantly attracted C. plutellae at 10 μL/mL, while nonanal, benzyl alcohol, cis-3-hexenol or benzyl cyanide at 100 μL/mL significantly attracted C. plutellae. Trans-2-hexenal significantly repelled C. plutellae at 100 μL/mL. EAG of C. plutellae showed strong responses to all mixtures made of five various compounds with mixtures 3 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, nonanal, cis-3-hexenol, benzyl cyanide, farnesene, eucalyptol) and 4 (trans-2-hexenal, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, (R)-(+)-limonene, β-ionone, farnesene, eucalyptol) significantly attracting C. plutellae. These findings demonstrate that the behavior of C. plutellae can be affected either by individual compounds or mixtures of plant volatiles, suggesting a potential of using plant volatiles to improve the efficiency of this parasitoid for biocontrol of P. xylostella. PMID:26711914

  1. Spatio-temporal variation of biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Li, L Y; Chen, Y; Xie, S D

    2013-11-01

    Aiming to reduce the large uncertainties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions estimation, the emission inventory of BVOCs in China at a high spatial and temporal resolution of 36 km × 36 km and 1 h was established using MEGANv2.1 with MM5 providing high-resolution meteorological data, based on the most detailed and latest vegetation investigations. BVOC emissions from 82 plant functional types in China were computed firstly. More local species-specific emission rates were developed combining statistical analysis and category classification, and the leaf biomass was estimated based on vegetation volume and production with biomass-apportion models. The total annual BVOC emissions in 2003 were 42.5 Tg, including isoprene 23.4 Tg, monoterpene 5.6 Tg, sesquiterpene 1.0 Tg, and other VOCs (OVOCs) 12.5 Tg. Subtropical and tropical evergreen and deciduous broadleaf shrubs, Quercus, and bamboo contributed more than 45% to the total BVOC emissions. The highest biogenic emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, and southwestern China. Strong seasonal pattern was observed with the highest BVOC emissions in July and the lowest in January and December, with daily emission peaked at approximately 13:00 or 14:00 local time. PMID:23916627

  2. Elevated Ozone Modulates Herbivore-Induced Volatile Emissions of Brassica nigra and Alters a Tritrophic Interaction.

    PubMed

    Khaling, Eliezer; Li, Tao; Holopainen, Jarmo K; Blande, James D

    2016-05-01

    Plants damaged by herbivores emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are used by parasitoids for host location. In nature, however, plants are exposed to multiple abiotic and biotic stresses of varying intensities, which may affect tritrophic interactions. Here, we studied the effects of ozone exposure and feeding by Pieris brassicae larvae on the VOCs emitted by Brassica nigra and the effects on oriented flight of the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. We also investigated the oriented flight of C. glomerata in a wind-tunnel with elevated ozone levels. Herbivore-feeding induced the emission of several VOCs, while ozone alone had no significant effect. However, exposure to 120 ppb ozone, followed by 24 hr of herbivore-feeding, induced higher emissions of all VOCs as compared to herbivore-feeding alone. In accordance, herbivore-damaged plants elicited more oriented flights than undamaged plants, whereas plants exposed to 120 ppb ozone and 24 hr of herbivore-feeding elicited more oriented flights than plants subjected to herbivore-feeding alone. Ozone enrichment of the wind-tunnel air appeared to negatively affect orientation of parasitoids at 70 ppb, but not at 120 ppb. These results suggest that the combination of ozone and P. brassicae-feeding modulates VOC emissions, which significantly influence foraging efficiency of C. glomerata. PMID:27167383

  3. Oceanic Emissions and Atmospheric Depositions of Volatile Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, M.; Blomquist, B.; Beale, R.; Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric volatile organic compounds (VOCs) affect the tropospheric oxidative capacity due to their ubiquitous abundance and relatively high reactivity towards the hydroxyal radical. Over the ocean and away from terrestrial emission sources, oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) make up a large fraction of VOCs as airmasses age and become more oxidized. In addition to being produced or destroyed in the marine atmosphere, OVOCs can also be emitted from or deposited to the surface ocean. Here we first present direct air-sea flux measurements of three of the most abundant OVOCs - methanol, acetone, and acetaldehyde, by the eddy covariance technique from two cruises in the Atlantic: the Atlantic Meridional Transect in 2012 and the High Wind Gas Exchange Study in 2013. The OVOC mixing ratios were quantified by a high resolution proton-reaction-transfer mass spectrometer with isotopically labeled standards and their air-sea (net) fluxes were derived from the eddy covariance technique. Net methanol flux was consistently from the atmosphere to the surface ocean, while acetone varied from supersaturation (emission) in the subtropics to undersaturation (deposition) in the higher latitudes of the North Atlantic. The net air-sea flux of acetaldehyde is near zero through out the Atlantic despite the apparent supersaturation of this compound in the surface ocean. Knowing the dissolved concentrations and in situ production rates of these compounds in seawater, we then estimate their bulk atmospheric depositions and oceanic emissions. Lastly, we summarize the state of knowledge on the air-sea transport of a number of organic gasses, and postulate the magnitude and environmental impact of total organic carbon transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere.

  4. Effects of sulfur dioxide on volatile terpene emission from balsam fir

    SciTech Connect

    Renwick, J.A.A.; Potter, J.

    1981-01-01

    Exposure of balsam fir trees to SO/sub 2/ can cause increased emission of volatile terpenes from the foliage. This phenomenon may prove to be a more general physiological reaction of conifers to SO/sub 2/. Longer term exposures of scotch pine to the gas in Europe have resulted in a similar increase in terpene emissions. The greater difference between fumigated and control plants in levels of terpene emitted may be particularly relevant to plant-insect relationships. Monoterpene hydrocarbons have been implicated in the attraction of spruce budworm moths to their host trees. After dispersal of many such forest insects, the process of finding a host tree is critical for their survival. It is conceivable that increased levels of attractive terpenes could contribute towards the success of this process. Experiments on host selection behavior of the insects when offered fumigated and unfumigated trees may provide more definitive evidence to support these conclusions.

  5. Spatial and temporal variations in biogenic volatile organic compound emissions for Africa south of the equator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otter, L.; Guenther, A.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Fleming, G.; Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.

    2003-07-01

    Improved vegetation distribution and emission data for Africa south of the equator were developed for the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) and were combined with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emission measurements to estimate BVOC emissions for the southern African region. The BVOCs are estimated to total 80 Tg C yr-1 for the region, with isoprene and monoterpenes contributing 56 and 7 Tg C yr-1, respectively. The large uncertainties, particularly in terms of basal emission capacity assignment, associated with these outputs are discussed. Woodlands are predicted to be the dominant vegetation type, covering 23% of southern Africa, and are the largest annual source of isoprene (20 Tg C), monoterpenes (3 Tg C), and other VOCs (4 Tg C). Mopane savannas and woodlands are predicted to contribute over 75% of all monoterpenes, primarily from light-dependent emission processes. Rain forests cover only 3.5% of the total area but have high annual emission rates (9.8 g C m-2 yr-1). In the tropical regions with high rainfall, warm temperatures, and high plant productivity throughout the year, the seasonal variation in VOC emissions was small. In subtropical regions, dominated by highly seasonal savannas and grasslands, large variations were predicted, with emissions declining by up to 85% during dry winter periods (June-August) due to low leaf area index after leaf drop.

  6. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-03-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires detailed measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground, 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from ground idle (~4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine-idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  7. Online measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds from aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, E. S.; Hunter, J. F.; Carrasquillo, A. J.; Franklin, J. P.; Herndon, S. C.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Kroll, J. H.

    2013-08-01

    A detailed understanding of the climate and air quality impacts of aviation requires measurements of the emissions of intermediate-volatility and semi-volatile organic compounds (I/SVOCs) from aircraft. Currently both the amount and chemical composition of aircraft I/SVOC emissions remain poorly characterized. Here we characterize I/SVOC emissions from aircraft, using a novel instrument for the online, quantitative measurement of the mass loading and composition of low-volatility organic vapors. Emissions from the NASA DC8 aircraft were sampled on the ground 143 m downwind of the engines and characterized as a function of engine power from idle (4% maximum rated thrust) through 85% power. Results show that I/SVOC emissions are highest during engine idle operating conditions, with decreasing but non-zero I/SVOC emissions at higher engine powers. Comparison of I/SVOC emissions with total hydrocarbon (THC) measurements, VOC measurements, and an established emissions profile indicates that I/SVOCs comprise 10-20% of the total organic gas-phase emissions at idle, and an increasing fraction of the total gas-phase organic emissions at higher powers. Positive matrix factorization of online mass spectra is used to identify three distinct types of I/SVOC emissions: aliphatic, aromatic and oxygenated. The volatility and chemical composition of the emissions suggest that unburned fuel is the dominant source of I/SVOCs at idle, while pyrolysis products make up an increasing fraction of the I/SVOCs at higher powers. Oxygenated I/SVOC emissions were detected at lower engine powers (≤30%) and may be linked to cracked, partially oxidized or unburned fuel components.

  8. Canopy light cues affect emission of constitutive and methyl jasmonate-induced volatile organic compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Kegge, Wouter; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Soler, Roxina; Vergeer-Van Eijk, Marleen; Dicke, Marcel; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2013-11-01

    The effects of plant competition for light on the emission of plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were studied by investigating how different light qualities that occur in dense vegetation affect the emission of constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced VOCs. Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia (Col-0) plants and Pieris brassicae caterpillars were used as a biological system to study the effects of light quality manipulations on VOC emissions and attraction of herbivores. VOCs were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effects of light quality, notably the red : far red light ratio (R : FR), on expression of genes associated with VOC production were studied using reverse transcriptase-quantitative PCR. The emissions of both constitutive and methyl-jasmonate-induced green leaf volatiles and terpenoids were partially suppressed under low R : FR and severe shading conditions. Accordingly, the VOC-based preference of neonates of the specialist lepidopteran herbivore P. brassicae was significantly affected by the R : FR ratio. We conclude that VOC-mediated interactions among plants and between plants and organisms at higher trophic levels probably depend on light alterations caused by nearby vegetation. Studies on plant-plant and plant-insect interactions through VOCs should take into account the light quality within dense stands when extrapolating to natural and agricultural field conditions. PMID:23845065

  9. Biosynthesis of Plant Volatiles: Nature’s Diversity and Ingenuity

    PubMed Central

    Pichersky, Eran; Noel, Joseph P.; Dudareva, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Plant volatiles (PVs) are lipophilic molecules with high vapor pressure that serve various ecological roles. The synthesis of PVs involves the removal of hydrophilic moieties and oxidation/hydroxylation, reduction, methylation, and acylation reactions. Some PV biosynthetic enzymes produce multiple products from a single substrate or act on multiple substrates. Genes for PV biosynthesis evolve by duplication of genes that direct other aspects of plant metabolism; these duplicated genes then diverge from each other over time. Changes in the preferred substrate or resultant product of PV enzymes may occur through minimal changes of critical residues. Convergent evolution is often responsible for the ability of distally related species to synthesize the same volatile. PMID:16469917

  10. Simple plant-based design strategies for volatile organic pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, M.; Erickson, L.E.; Davis, L.C.

    1999-12-31

    Vegetation which enhances in-situ biodegradation of organic compounds can play a key role in the bioremediation of such contaminants in polluted soils and groundwater. Plants may act directly on some contaminants by degrading them, but their main effect is to enhance microbial populations in the thizosphere. Microbially mediated transformations are thus indirectly facilitated by root exudates which nourish the indigenous microorganisms. Plants may also be viewed as a solar driven pump-and-treat system which can contain a plume and reduce the spread of contaminated water. Laboratory investigations carried out in a growth chamber with alfalfa plants provide evidence for the (microbially mediated) biodegradation of organic compounds such as toluene, phenol and TCE. Alfalfa plants tolerate concentrations of these organics in contaminated water up to 100 mg/L. They facilitate transfer of the contaminants from the saturated to the vadose zone. For volatile organic compounds such as TCE, vegetation provides a controlled release of compounds and hence assures dilution of the TCE evapotranspired into the atmosphere from contaminated soils. Using a range of calculated plausible scenarios, it is shown that intermedia transfer caused by volatilization associated with plants is most unlikely to lead to exceedance of standards for gas phase contamination, for most volatile contaminants. Possible action level exceedances might occur with highly toxic substances including vinyl chloride and carbon tetrachloride, if they re present in ground water at levels above kilogram amounts in a single plume of a few hectares, and released by vigorously growing plants under hot dry conditions. Information needed for the calculation and design of plant-based bioremediation systems for typical sites is discussed in this paper.

  11. Adaptation of a resistive model to pesticide volatilization from plants at the field scale: Comparison with a dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichiheb, Nebila; Personne, Erwan; Bedos, Carole; Barriuso, Enrique

    2014-02-01

    Volatilization from plants is known to greatly contribute to pesticide emission into the atmosphere. Modeling would allow estimating this contribution, but few models are actually available because of our poor understanding of processes occurring at the leaf surface, competing with volatilization, and also because available datasets for validating models are lacking. The SURFATM-Pesticides model was developed to predict pesticide volatilization from plants. It is based on the concept of resistances and takes into account two processes competing with volatilization (leaf penetration and photodegradation). Model is here presented and simulated results are compared with the experimental dataset obtained at the field scale for two fungicides applied on wheat, fenpropidin and chlorothalonil. These fungicides were chosen because they are largely used, as well as because of their differentiated vapor pressures. The model simulates the energy balance and surface temperature which are in good agreement with the experimental data, using the climatic variables as inputs. The model also satisfactorily simulates the volatilization fluxes of chlorothalonil. In fact, by integrating estimated rate coefficients of leaf penetration and photodegradation for chlorothalonil giving in the literature, the volatilization fluxes were estimated to be 24.8 ng m-2 s-1 compared to 23.6 ng m-2 s-1 measured by the aerodynamic profile method during the first hours after application. At six days, the cumulated volatilization fluxes were estimated by the model to be 19 g ha-1 compared to 17.5 g ha-1 measured by the inverse modeling approach. However, due to the lack of data to estimate processes competing with volatilization for fenpropidin, the volatilization of this compound is still not well modeled yet. Thus the model confirms that processes competing with volatilization represent an important factor affecting pesticide volatilization from plants.

  12. Volatile organic emissions from adhesives with indoor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Girman, J.R.; Hodgson, A.T.; Newton, A.S.; Winkes, A.W.

    1984-02-01

    Studies have shown that volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from building materials are a potentially important source of indoor air pollution. In this study, we investigated emissions of VOC from both solvent- and water-based adhesives. Adhesives were applied to an inert substrate and dried for at least a week. VOC were cryogenically trapped and identified by GC-MS or sorbent trapped, solvent extracted, and quantified by GC-FID. Among the compounds emitted by adhesives were toluene, styrene, and a variety of normal, branched, and cyclic alkanes. The measured emission rates ranged from below the limit of detection for some adhesives to a total alkane emission rate of over 700 ..mu..g g/sup -1/h/sup -1/ for a water-based adhesive. A simple, well-mixed tank model was used to assess the potential impacts of the adhesives studied and to demonstrate that adhesives can be significant sources of VOC. 8 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATES FROM MIXED DECIDUOUS AND CONIFEROUS FORESTS IN NORTHERN WISCONSIN, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from forests play an important role in regulating the atmospheric trace gas composition including global tropospheric ozone concentrations. However, more information is needed on VOC emission rates from different forest regio...

  14. Impact of heat stress on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Andres, S.; Bohne, A.; Folkers, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2012-07-01

    Changes in the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce exposed to heat stress were measured in a laboratory setup. In general, heat stress decreased the de novo emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Decreasing emission strength with heat stress was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo emissions being constitutive or induced by biotic stress. In contrast, heat stress induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. It also amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers probably due to heat-induced damage of these resin ducts. The increased release of monoterpenes could be strong and long lasting. But, despite of such strong monoterpene emission pulses, the net effect of heat stress on BVOC emissions from conifers can be an overall decrease. In particular during insect attack on conifers the plants showed de novo emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat stress induced decrease of these de novo emissions was larger than the increased release caused by damage of resin ducts. We project that global change induced heat waves may cause increased BVOC emissions only in cases where the respective areas are predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. Otherwise the overall effect of heat stress will be a decrease in BVOC emissions.

  15. Volatile organic compound emissions from elephant grass and bamboo cultivars used as potential bioethanol crop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, E.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Fall, R.; Harren, F. J. M.; Warneke, C.

    2013-02-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from elephant grass (Miscanthus gigantus) and black bamboo (Phyllostachys nigra) were measured online in semi-field chamber and plant enclosure experiments during growth and harvest using proton-transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS), proton-transfer reaction ion-trap mass spectrometry (PIT-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Both cultivars are being considered for second-generation biofuel production. Before this study, no information was available on their yearly VOC emissions. This exploratory investigation shows that black bamboo is a strong isoprene emitter (daytime 28,516 ng gdwt-1 h-1) and has larger VOC emissions, especially for wound compounds from the hexanal and hexenal families, than elephant grass. Daytime emissions of methanol, acetaldehyde, acetone + propanal and acetic acid of black bamboo were 618, 249, 351, and 1034 ng gdwt-1 h-1, respectively. In addition, it is observed that elephant grass VOC emissions after harvesting strongly depend on the seasonal stage. Not taking VOC emission variations throughout the season for annual and perennial species into account, may lead to an overestimation of the impact on local air quality in dry periods. In addition, our data suggest that the use of perennial grasses for extensive growing for biofuel production have lower emissions than woody species, which might be important for regional atmospheric chemistry.

  16. Plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in ozone (O3) polluted atmospheres: the ecological effects.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Delia M; Blande, James D; Souza, Silvia R; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2010-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is an important secondary air pollutant formed as a result of photochemical reactions between primary pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). O3 concentrations in the lower atmosphere (troposphere) are predicted to continue increasing as a result of anthropogenic activity, which will impact strongly on wild and cultivated plants. O3 affects photosynthesis and induces the development of visible foliar injuries, which are the result of genetically controlled programmed cell death. It also activates many plant defense responses, including the emission of phytogenic VOCs. Plant emitted VOCs play a role in many eco-physiological functions. Besides protecting the plant from abiotic stresses (high temperatures and oxidative stress) and biotic stressors (competing plants, micro- and macroorganisms), they drive multitrophic interactions between plants, herbivores and their natural enemies e.g., predators and parasitoids as well as interactions between plants (plant-to-plant communication). In addition, VOCs have an important role in atmospheric chemistry. They are O3 precursors, but at the same time are readily oxidized by O3, thus resulting in a series of new compounds that include secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Here, we review the effects of O3 on plants and their VOC emissions. We also review the state of current knowledge on the effects of ozone on ecological interactions based on VOC signaling, and propose further research directions. PMID:20084432

  17. Penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin

    2013-01-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis (L.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of Europe and Asia. To identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from H. abietis feces and frass. Female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. We hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass are responsible for producing compounds that deter weevils. Here, we describe the isolation of a fungus from feces and frass of H. abietis and the biological activity of its volatile metabolites. The fungus was identified by morphological and molecular methods as Penicillium expansum Link ex. Thom. It was cultured on sterilized H. abietis frass medium in glass flasks, and volatiles were collected by SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. The major volatiles of the fungus were styrene and 3-methylanisole. The nutrient conditions for maximum production of styrene and 3-methylanisole were examined. Large quantities of styrene were produced when the fungus was cultured on grated pine bark with yeast extract. In a multi-choice arena test, styrene significantly reduced male and female pine weevils' attraction to cut pieces of Scots pine twigs, whereas 3-methylanisole only reduced male weevil attraction to pine twigs. These studies suggest that metabolites produced by microbes may be useful as compounds for controlling insects, and could serve as sustainable alternatives to synthetic insecticides. PMID:23297108

  18. Irreversible impacts of heat on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleist, E.; Mentel, T. F.; Andres, S.; Bohne, A.; Folkers, A.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rudich, Y.; Springer, M.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate change will induce extended heat waves to parts of the vegetation more frequently. High temperatures may act as stress (thermal stress) on plants changing emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). As BVOCs impact the atmospheric oxidation cycle and aerosol formation, it is important to explore possible alterations of BVOC emissions under high temperature conditions. Applying heat to European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce in a laboratory setup either caused the well-known exponential increases of BVOC emissions or induced irreversible changes of BVOC emissions. Considering only irreversible changes of BVOC emissions as stress impacts, we found that high temperatures decreased the de novo emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. This behaviour was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo emissions were constitutive or induced by biotic stress. In contrast, application of thermal stress to conifers amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers and induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. In particular during insect attack on conifers, the plants showed de novo emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOCs, which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat-induced decrease of de novo emissions was larger than the increased monoterpene release caused by damage of resin ducts. For insect-infested conifers the net effect of thermal stress on BVOC emissions could be an overall decrease. Global change-induced heat waves may put hard thermal stress on plants. If so, we project that BVOC emissions increase is more than predicted by models only in areas predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOCs. Otherwise overall effects of high temperature stress will be lower increases of BVOC emissions than predicted by algorithms that do not consider stress impacts.

  19. Patterns in volatile organic compound emissions along a savanna-rainforest gradient in central Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, L. F.; Greenburg, J.; Guenther, A.; Tyndall, G.; Zimmerman, P.; M'bangui, M.; Moutsamboté, J.-M.; Kenfack, D.

    1998-01-01

    In temperate regions the chemistry of the lower troposphere is known to be significantly affected by biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants. The chemistry of the lower troposphere over the tropics, however, is poorly understood, in part because of the considerable uncertainties in VOC emissions from tropical ecosystems. Present global VOC models predict that base emissions of isoprene from tropical rainforests are considerably higher than from savannas. These global models of VOC emissions which rely mainly on species inventories are useful, but significant improvement might be made with more ecologically based models of VOC emissions by plants. Ecosystems along a successional transect from woodland savanna to primary rainforest in central Africa were characterized for species composition and vegetation abundance using ground surveys and remotely sensed data. A total of 336 species (mostly trees) at 13 sites were recorded, and 208 of these were measured for VOC emissions at near-optimal light and temperature conditions using a leaf cuvette and hand-held photoionization detector (PID). A subset of 59 species was also sampled using conventional VOC emission techniques in order to validate the PID technique. Results of ecological and VOC emission surveys indicate both phylogenetic and successional patterns along the savanna-rainforest transect. Genera and families of trees which tend to emit isoprene include Lophira, Irvingia, Albizia, Artocarpus, Ficus, Pterocarpus, Caesalpiniaceae, Arecaceae, and Moraceae. Other taxa tend to contain stored VOCs (Annonaceae and Asteraceae). Successional patterns suggest that isoprene emissions are highest in the relatively early successional Isoberlinia forest communities and progressively decrease in the later successional secondary and primary rainforest communities. Stored VOCs appear to increase along the savanna-rainforest succession, but these data are more tentative. These findings are consistent with

  20. Insect herbivore feeding and their excretion contribute to volatile organic compounds emission to the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebelo, S.; Gnavi, G.; Bertea, C.; Bossi, S.; Andrea, O.; Cordero, C.; Rubiolo, P.; Bicchi, C.; Maffei, M.

    2011-12-01

    Secondary plant metabolites play an important role in insect plant interactions. The Lamiaceae family, especially Mentha species, accumulate secondary plant metabolites in their glandular trichomes, mainly mono and sesquiterpenes. Here we show that mint plants respond to herbivory by changing the quality and quantity of leaf secondary plant metabolite components. The volatiles from herbivore damaged, mechanical damage and healthy plant were collected by HS-SPME and analyzed by GC-MS. Plants with the same treatment were kept for genomic analysis. Total RNA was extracted from the above specified treatments. The terpenoid quantitative gene expressions (qPCR) were then assayed. Upon herbivory, M. aquatica synthesizes and emits (+)-menthofuran and the other major monoterpene (+)-pulegone emitted by healthy and mechanically damaged plants. Herbivory was found to up-regulate the expression of genes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis. The increased emission of (+)-menthofuran was correlated with the upregulation of (+)-menthofuran synthase. In addition we analysed the VOC composition of C. herbacea frass from insects feeding on Mentha aquatica. VOCs were sampled by HS-SPME and analyzed by GCxGC-qMS, and the results compared through quantitative comparative analysis of 2D chromatographic data. Most terpenoids from M. aquatica were completely catabolized by C. herbacea and were absent in the frass volatile fraction. On the other hand, the monoterpene 1,8-cineole was oxidized and frass yielded several new hydroxy-1,8-cineoles, among which 2α-OH-, 3α-OH-, 3β-OH- and 9-OH-1,8-cineole. The role of VOC emitted during herbivory and frass excretion on secondary organic aerosol formation is discussed.

  1. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from new carpets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, John C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Gadgil, Ashok J.

    A simple model is proposed to account for observed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. The model assumes that the VOCs originate predominantly in a uniform slab of polymer backing material. Parameters for the model (the initial concentration of a VOC in the polymer, a diffusion coefficient and an equilibrium polymer/air partition coefficient) are obtained from experimental data produced by a previous chamber study. The diffusion coefficients generally decrease as the molecular weight of the VOCs increase, while the partition coefficients generally increase as the vapor pressure of the compounds decreases. In addition, for two of the study carpets that have a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, the diffusion and partition coefficients are similar to independently reported values for SBR. The results suggest that prediction of VOC emissions from new carpets may be possible based solely on a knowledge of the physical properties of the relevant compounds and the carpet backing material. However, a more rigorous validation of the model is desirable.

  2. Modeling Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from New Carpets

    SciTech Connect

    Little, J.C.; Hodgson, A.T.; Gadgil, A.J.

    1993-02-01

    A simple model is proposed to account for observed emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from new carpets. The model assumes that the VOCs originate predominantly in a uniform slab of polymer backing material. Parameters for the model (the initial concentration of a VOC in the polymer, a diffusion coefficient and an equilibrium polymer/air partition coefficient) are obtained from experimental data produced by a previous chamber study. The diffusion coefficients generally decrease as the molecular weight of the VOCs increase, while the polymer/air partition coefficients generally increase as the vapor pressure of the compounds decrease. In addition, for two of the study carpets that have a styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) backing, the diffusion and partition coefficients are similar to independently reported values for SBR. The results suggest that predictions of VOCs emissions from new carpets may be possible based solely on a knowledge of the physical properties of the relevant compounds and the carpet backing material. However, a more rigorous validation of the model is desirable.

  3. Emission of volatile chemicals from flowering dogwood (cornus Florida L.) flowers.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xiaofeng; Klingeman, William E; Hu, Jun; Chen, Feng

    2008-10-22

    Reproduction of flowering dogwood trees occurs via obligate out-crossing, and U.S. native bees have been suggested to be primary pollinators of this ecologically and economically important deciduous tree. Whether floral volatiles play a role in reproduction of the dogwood remains unclear. Objectives of this study were to identify principal volatile chemicals emitted from dogwood flowers and to assess a temporal volatile emission profile and volatile consistency across four cultivars. Inflorescences with intact bracts and 5 cm flower pedicel were removed from dogwood trees and subjected to headspace volatile collection. Six principal volatile compounds were detected from the flowers of the cultivar 'World's Fair' with 3-formylpyridine as the most abundant constituent. Subsequent headspace analyses performed using inflorescences without bracts or floral pedicels alone indicated that 3-formylpyridine, E-beta-ocimene, S-linalool, and ketoisophorone were mainly emitted from inflorescences. Experiments were also conducted to determine whether volatile emissions differed across time and between different cultivars of flowering dogwood. When volatile emission was analyzed for 48 h using 12 h light/dark cycles, the emission of several volatile compounds displayed diurnal patterns. Finally, whereas florets in inflorescences of four different dogwood cultivars emitted similar levels of the six principal floral volatile chemicals, 'Cherokee Brave' flowers alone yielded 4-methoxybenzaldehyde and germacrene-D. The implications of the findings of this study to dogwood breeding programs are discussed. PMID:18811168

  4. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research.

    PubMed

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant-plant and plant-insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  5. The formation and function of plant volatiles: perfumes for pollinator attraction and defense.

    PubMed

    Pichersky, Eran; Gershenzon, Jonathan

    2002-06-01

    Plants synthesize and emit a large variety of volatile organic compounds with terpenoids and fatty-acid derivatives the dominant classes. Whereas some volatiles are probably common to almost all plants, others are specific to only one or a few related taxa. The rapid progress in elucidating the biosynthetic pathways, enzymes, and genes involved in the formation of plant volatiles allows their physiology and function to be rigorously investigated at the molecular and biochemical levels. Floral volatiles serve as attractants for species-specific pollinators, whereas the volatiles emitted from vegetative parts, especially those released after herbivory, appear to protect plants by deterring herbivores and by attracting the enemies of herbivores. PMID:11960742

  6. The Amazonian Floodplains, an ecotype with challenging questions on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesselmeier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions are affected by a variety of biotic and abiotic factors such as light intensity, temperature, CO2 and drought. Another factor usually overlooked but very important for the tropical rainforest in Amazonia is regular flooding. According to recent estimates, the total Amazonian floodplain area easily ranges up to 700,000 km^2, including whitewater river floodplains (várzea) blackwater regions (igapó) and further clearwater regions. Regarding the total Amazonian wetlands the area sums up to more than 2.000.000 km^2, i.e. 30% of Amazonia. To survive the flooding periods causing anoxic conditions for the root system of up to several months, vegetation has developed several morphological, anatomical and physiological strategies. One is to switch over the root metabolism to fermentation, thus producing ethanol as one of the main products. Ethanol is a toxic metabolite which is transported into the leaves by the transpiration stream. From there it can either be directly emitted into the atmosphere, or can be re-metabolized to acetaldehyde and/or acetate. All of these compounds are volatile enough to be partly released into the atmosphere. We observed emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid under root anoxia. Furthermore, plant stress induced by flooding also affected leaf primary physiological processes as well as other VOC emissions such as the release of isoprenoids and other volatiles. For example, Hevea spruceana could be identified as a monoterpene emitting tree species behaving differently upon anoxia depending on the origin, with increasing emissions of the species from igapó and decreasing with the corresponding species from várzea. Contrasting such short term inundations, studies of VOC emissions under long term conditions (2-3 months) did not confirm the ethanol/acetaldehyde emissions, whereas emissions of other VOC species decreased considerably. These results demonstrate that the transfer of our knowledge

  7. NATURAL VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION RATE ESTIMATES FOR U.S. WOODLAND LANDSCAPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission rate factors are estimated for 49 tree genera based on a review of foliar emission rate measurements. oliar VOC emissions are grouped into three categories: isoprene, monoterpenes and other VOC'S. ypical emission rates at a leaf temperatur...

  8. Monitoring of volatile and non-volatile urban air genotoxins using bacteria, human cells and plants.

    PubMed

    Ceretti, E; Zani, C; Zerbini, I; Viola, G; Moretti, M; Villarini, M; Dominici, L; Monarca, S; Feretti, D

    2015-02-01

    Urban air contains many mutagenic pollutants. This research aimed to investigate the presence of mutagens in the air by short-term mutagenicity tests using bacteria, human cells and plants. Inflorescences of Tradescantia were exposed to air in situ for 6h, once a month from January to May, to monitor volatile compounds and micronuclei frequency was computed. On the same days PM10 was collected continuously for 24h. Half of each filter was extracted with organic solvents and studied by means of the Ames test, using Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains, and the comet assay on human leukocytes. A quarter of each filter was extracted with distilled water in which Tradescantia was exposed. PM10 concentration was particularly high in the winter season (> 50 μg/m(3)). In situ exposure of inflorescences to urban air induced a significant increase in micronuclei frequency at all the sites considered, but only in January (p < 0.01). Aqueous extracts collected in January and February induced genotoxic effects in Tradescantia exposed in the laboratory (p < 0.01). Ames test showed that organic extracts of winter urban air were able to induce genetic mutations in S. typhimurium TA98 strain (± S9), but not in TA100 strain, with a revertants/plate number nine times higher than the negative control. Comet assay showed that winter extracts were more toxic and genotoxic than spring extracts. All the mutagenicity tests performed confirmed that urban air in North Italy in winter contains both volatile and non-volatile genotoxic substances able to induce genetic damage in bacteria, human cells and plants. PMID:25084136

  9. Analyses of Plant UDP-Dependent Glycosyltransferases to Identify Their Volatile Substrates Using Recombinant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Yusuke; Tieman, Denise M; Klee, Harry J

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is one of major modifications for plant secondary metabolites. In the case of volatile compounds, glycosylation makes them nonvolatile and odorless. Identification of UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases responsible for volatile glycosylation is essential to understand the regulatory mechanism of volatile release from plant tissues. Here, we describe an efficient protocol to find possible combinations of volatiles/glycosyltransferases using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli. The presented method requires a basic gas chromatography system and conventional laboratory tools. PMID:26577791

  10. Volatile organic compound emission rate from diffused aeration systems. 1: Mass transfer modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, J.M.; Yu, C.F.

    1995-08-01

    The activated sludge process is one of the most commonly used biochemical oxidation process for the secondary treatment of municipal and industrial wastewaters. The release of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater treatment plants has recently caused great concern. In wastewater treatment plants, many operation units such s equalization and aeration involve oxygen transfer between wastewater and air. While oxygen is transferred from air to wastewater, VOCs are stripped from wastewater to air. Due to increasingly stringent environmental regulations, wastewater treatment operators have to do VOC inventory of their facilities. A mass transfer model for VOCs is therefore called for to assess VOC emission rates from wastewater treatment processes. Almost all existing methods adopt an oxygen mass transfer model standardized by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) to evaluate VOC emission rates. A new and more fundamental oxygen mass transfer model for diffused aeration systems was developed to assess the VOC emission rates. The new model provides better insight of the VOC mass transfer process and requires only aeration performance data to predict the VOC emission rates. The results and implications of both models were discussed and compared.

  11. Methods in plant foliar volatile organic compounds research1

    PubMed Central

    Materić, Dušan; Bruhn, Dan; Turner, Claire; Morgan, Geraint; Mason, Nigel; Gauci, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Plants are a major atmospheric source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). These secondary metabolic products protect plants from high-temperature stress, mediate in plant–plant and plant–insect communication, and affect our climate globally. The main challenges in plant foliar VOC research are accurate sampling, the inherent reactivity of some VOC compounds that makes them hard to detect directly, and their low concentrations. Plant VOC research relies on analytical techniques for trace gas analysis, usually based on gas chromatography and soft chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Until now, these techniques (especially the latter one) have been developed and used primarily by physicists and analytical scientists, who have used them in a wide range of scientific research areas (e.g., aroma, disease biomarkers, hazardous compound detection, atmospheric chemistry). The interdisciplinary nature of plant foliar VOC research has recently attracted the attention of biologists, bringing them into the field of applied environmental analytical sciences. In this paper, we review the sampling methods and available analytical techniques used in plant foliar VOC research to provide a comprehensive resource that will allow biologists moving into the field to choose the most appropriate approach for their studies. PMID:26697273

  12. Trace gas emissions by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D.; Holland, E.A.

    1991-12-31

    The trace gases released or influenced by plants play a key role in atmospheric processes. In the troposphere, methane and carbon monoxide are key species that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH), an effective atmospheric detergent. Carbon monoxide is formed by the oxidation of the biogenic hydrocarbons discussed previously. In the presence of NO, the oxidation of CO, CH{sub 4} and NMHC can lead to the formation of ozone, a tropospheric pollutant. In the stratosphere, methane is an important source of water vapor. Volatile sulfur compounds released by plants may be an important source of cloud condensation nuclei. Collectively, these compounds may directly regulate the earth`s climate because they are radiatively active and influence the radiation balance at the earth`s surface or indirectly regulate the earth`s climate because they influence the concentration of radiatively active gases. The focus of the workshop was on naturally occurring gas fluxes. It is sometimes claimed that the gas fluxes from plants pollute the atmosphere. Our focus was on the natural chemistry occurring at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  13. Trace gas emissions by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sharkey, T.D. . Dept. of Botany); Holland, E.A. ); Mooney, H.A. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    The trace gases released or influenced by plants play a key role in atmospheric processes. In the troposphere, methane and carbon monoxide are key species that react with the hydroxyl radical (OH), an effective atmospheric detergent. Carbon monoxide is formed by the oxidation of the biogenic hydrocarbons discussed previously. In the presence of NO, the oxidation of CO, CH[sub 4] and NMHC can lead to the formation of ozone, a tropospheric pollutant. In the stratosphere, methane is an important source of water vapor. Volatile sulfur compounds released by plants may be an important source of cloud condensation nuclei. Collectively, these compounds may directly regulate the earth's climate because they are radiatively active and influence the radiation balance at the earth's surface or indirectly regulate the earth's climate because they influence the concentration of radiatively active gases. The focus of the workshop was on naturally occurring gas fluxes. It is sometimes claimed that the gas fluxes from plants pollute the atmosphere. Our focus was on the natural chemistry occurring at the biosphere-atmosphere interface. Individual reports are processed separately for the data bases.

  14. Supercritical fluid extraction in plant essential and volatile oil analysis.

    PubMed

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh

    2007-09-01

    The use of supercritical fluids, especially carbon dioxide, in the extraction of plant volatile components has increased during two last decades due to the expected advantages of the supercritical extraction process. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) is a rapid, selective and convenient method for sample preparation prior to the analysis of compounds in the volatile product of plant matrices. Also, SFE is a simple, inexpensive, fast, effective and virtually solvent-free sample pretreatment technique. This review provides a detailed and updated discussion of the developments, modes and applications of SFE in the isolation of essential oils from plant matrices. SFE is usually performed with pure or modified carbon dioxide, which facilitates off-line collection of extracts and on-line coupling with other analytical methods such as gas, liquid and supercritical fluid chromatography. In this review, we showed that a number of factors influence extraction yields, these being solubility of the solute in the fluid, diffusion through the matrix and collection process. Finally, SFE has been compared with conventional extraction methods in terms of selectivity, rapidity, cleanliness and possibility of manipulating the composition of the extract. PMID:17624357

  15. PLANT VOLATILES. Biosynthesis of monoterpene scent compounds in roses.

    PubMed

    Magnard, Jean-Louis; Roccia, Aymeric; Caissard, Jean-Claude; Vergne, Philippe; Sun, Pulu; Hecquet, Romain; Dubois, Annick; Hibrand-Saint Oyant, Laurence; Jullien, Frédéric; Nicolè, Florence; Raymond, Olivier; Huguet, Stéphanie; Baltenweck, Raymonde; Meyer, Sophie; Claudel, Patricia; Jeauffre, Julien; Rohmer, Michel; Foucher, Fabrice; Hugueney, Philippe; Bendahmane, Mohammed; Baudino, Sylvie

    2015-07-01

    The scent of roses (Rosa x hybrida) is composed of hundreds of volatile molecules. Monoterpenes represent up to 70% percent of the scent content in some cultivars, such as the Papa Meilland rose. Monoterpene biosynthesis in plants relies on plastid-localized terpene synthases. Combining transcriptomic and genetic approaches, we show that the Nudix hydrolase RhNUDX1, localized in the cytoplasm, is part of a pathway for the biosynthesis of free monoterpene alcohols that contribute to fragrance in roses. The RhNUDX1 protein shows geranyl diphosphate diphosphohydrolase activity in vitro and supports geraniol biosynthesis in planta. PMID:26138978

  16. Detection, Composition and Treatment of Volatile Organic Compounds from Waste Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Font, Xavier; Artola, Adriana; Sánchez, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Environmental policies at the European and global level support the diversion of wastes from landfills for their treatment in different facilities. Organic waste is mainly treated or valorized through composting, anaerobic digestion or a combination of both treatments. Thus, there are an increasing number of waste treatment plants using this type of biological treatment. During waste handling and biological decomposition steps a number of gaseous compounds are generated or removed from the organic matrix and emitted. Different families of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) can be found in these emissions. Many of these compounds are also sources of odor nuisance. In fact, odors are the main source of complaints and social impacts of any waste treatment plant. This work presents a summary of the main types of VOC emitted in organic waste treatment facilities and the methods used to detect and quantify these compounds, together with the treatment methods applied to gaseous emissions commonly used in composting and anaerobic digestion facilities. PMID:22163835

  17. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-10-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple (Malus sp.), horse chestnut (Aesculus carnea, "Ft. McNair"), honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, "Sunburst"), and hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata, "Pauls Scarlet"). These species constitute ~ 65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the post-blooming state for crabapple and honey locust. The results were scaled to the dry mass of leaves and flowers contained in the enclosure. Only flower dry mass was accounted for crabapple emission rates as leaves appeared at the end of the flowering period. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.3 μgC g-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.2 μgC g-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same

  18. Photocatalytic: oxidation of volatile organic compounds present in airborne environment adjacent to sewage treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Raillard, C; Héquet, V; Le Cloirec, P; Legrand, J

    2004-01-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wastewater in municipal sewage or industrial wastewater treatment plants are often overlooked as sources of exposure to hazardous substances. The impact of such emissions on local airborne environments represents a growing source of scientific, toxicological and public health interest. Actually, VOCs are suspected to be quite dangerous for human health. Some of them belong to the family of odorous compounds and can cause serious annoyance in the neighbourhood of the emission sources. A way to remove VOCs released from sewers and wastewater treatment facilities could be to degrade them by photocatalytic oxidation. TiO2-based photocatalysts are known to be efficient for this kind of application. In the present work TiO2 P25 Degussa was deposited on glass supports. These materials were tested for the degradation of butanone-2 in a photocatalytic reactor. The influence of water vapour (relative humidity) was shown using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. PMID:14979545

  19. European Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound emissions estimate using MEGAN v2.10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawoud, M.; Pozzoli, L.; Unal, A.; Kindap, T.; Poupkou, A.; Katragou, E.; Melas, D.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions estimations are essential to obtain a comprehensive understanding of both anthropogenic and biogenic contributions of the emissions. In this paper we have calculated the Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from vegetation over Europe using the newly developed Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.10 (MEGAN2.10). We performed a simulation of the entire year 2008 for a domain covering all Europe at a resolution of 30 x 30 km. The meteorological fields needed to calculate the BVOC emissions (surface temperature and shortwave radiation) were provided by a WRFv3.3 simulation (driven by NCEP/FNL global reanalysis data at 1° x 1°) and interfaced to MEGAN with MCIPv3.6. We used the global dataset provided with the MEGAN2.10 model containing the Plant Functional Types (PFT, at 0.5° x 0.5°), Leaf Area Indices (LAI, at 30s resolution) and Emission Factors (EF, at 0.01° x 0.01°). The motivation behind this study is to quantify the biogenic emissions as calculated from the new version of MEGAN over Europe for the entire annual cycle, and in second step to quantify the impact of biogenic emissions on air quality, using the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ). Isoprene emissions comprise about half of the total global biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) estimated using MEGAN2.10, while all Terpenes comprise about 18% of the estimated total global BVOC emissions. Our simulations showed that Isoprene emissions are ranging from 10.7 Gg/month in December to 6572.8 Gg/month over Europe in July, while Terpenes emissions range from 38 Gg/month in January and 1598.23 Gg/month in July. Around 15 Tg/year and 5 Tg/year are estimated as total annual emissions of Isoprene and Terpenes, respectively. In comparison with a previous study using the Natural Emission Model (NEMO), for the same period and the similar domain and resolution, for July we found 70% higher Isoprene emissions and 30% lower Terpenes emissions

  20. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-03-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the tree species crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust, and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65 % of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were analyzed for C10-C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions increased with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30 °C) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were higher during flowering (5.26 μg Cg-1 h-1) than after flowering (1.23 μg Cg-1 h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μg Cg-1 h-1) during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed from plants to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these tree species, some of which

  1. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles to enhance biological control in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Peñaflor, M F G V; Bento, J M S

    2013-08-01

    Plants under herbivore attack synthetize defensive organic compounds that directly or indirectly affect herbivore performance and mediate other interactions with the community. The so-called herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) consist of odors released by attacked plants that serve as important cues for parasitoids and predators to locate their host/prey. The understanding that has been gained on the ecological role and mechanisms of HIPV emission opens up paths for developing novel strategies integrated with biological control programs with the aim of enhancing the efficacy of natural enemies in suppressing pest populations in crops. Tactics using synthetic HIPVs or chemically/genetically manipulating plant defenses have been suggested in order to recruit natural enemies to plantations or help guiding them to their host more quickly, working as a "synergistic" agent of biological control. This review discusses strategies using HIPVs to enhance biological control that have been proposed in the literature and were categorized here as: (a) exogenous application of elicitors on plants, (b) use of plant varieties that emit attractive HIPVs to natural enemies, (c) release of synthetic HIPVs, and (d) genetic manipulation targeting genes that optimize HIPV emission. We discuss the feasibility, benefits, and downsides of each strategy by considering not only field studies but also comprehensive laboratory assays that present an applied approach for HIPVs or show the potential of employing them in the field. PMID:23949852

  2. Volatile chemical cues guide host location and host selection by parasitic plants.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2006-09-29

    The importance of plant volatiles in mediating interactions between plant species is much debated. Here, we demonstrate that the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona (dodder) uses volatile cues for host location. Cuscuta pentagona seedlings exhibit directed growth toward nearby tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) and toward extracted tomato-plant volatiles presented in the absence of other cues. Impatiens (Impatiens wallerana) and wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) also elicit directed growth. Moreover, seedlings can distinguish tomato and wheat volatiles and preferentially grow toward the former. Several individual compounds from tomato and wheat elicit directed growth by C. pentagona, whereas one compound from wheat is repellent. These findings provide compelling evidence that volatiles mediate important ecological interactions among plant species. PMID:17008532

  3. Induction of stress volatiles and changes in essential oil content and composition upon microwave exposure in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum.

    PubMed

    Lung, Ildikó; Soran, Maria-Loredana; Opriş, Ocsana; Truşcă, Mihail Radu Cătălin; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2016-11-01

    Exposure to sustained low intensity microwaves can constitute a stress for the plants, but its effects on plant secondary chemistry are poorly known. We studied the influence of GSM and WLAN-frequency microwaves on emissions of volatile organic compounds and content of essential oil in the aromatic plant Ocimum basilicum L. hypothesizing that microwave exposure leads to enhanced emissions of stress volatiles and overall greater investment in secondary compounds. Compared to the control plants, microwave irradiation led to decreased emissions of β-pinene, α-phellandrene, bornyl acetate, β-myrcene, α-caryophyllene and benzaldehyde, but increased emissions of eucalyptol, estragole, caryophyllene oxide, and α-bergamotene. The highest increase in emission, 21 times greater compared to control, was observed for caryophyllene oxide. The irradiation resulted in increases in the essential oil content, except for the content of phytol which decreased by 41% in the case of GSM-frequency, and 82% in the case of WLAN-frequency microwave irradiation. The strongest increase in response to WLAN irradiation, >17 times greater, was observed for hexadecane and octane contents. Comparisons of volatile compositions by multivariate analyses demonstrated a clear separation of different irradiance treatments, and according to the changes in the volatile emissions, the WLAN-frequency irradiation represented a more severe stress than the GSM-frequency irradiation. Overall, these results demonstrating important modifications in the emission rates, essential oil content and composition indicate that microwave irradiation influences the quality of herbage of this economically important spice plant. PMID:27362630

  4. Changes in Mercury Volatilization between Planted and Unplanted Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs, C.; Gustin, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important question with respect to the Hg biogeochemical cycle is how does the presence of plants affect the flux of Hg from a soil? Previous research has shown that with leaf development over a growing season and increased soil shading Hg emission decreases, while others have suggested that increased activity of rhizosphere bacteria due to the presence of plants would result in the increased Hg emission from soils. This study examined Hg release to the air associated with low Hg containing soils from three states—Indiana, Alabama, and Ohio over 24 h periods. Hg flux was quantified on a seasonal time step over one year for bare soil and for soil when planted with perennial rye grass (Lolium perennel). For the latter fluxes were measured 5 and 10 weeks after planting. Preliminary data assessment suggests that both planted and unplanted substrates in the summer are generally a net source of Hg to the atmosphere with total daily flux ranging from -50 to 1000 ng/m2 day. Fluxes observed for planted soils exhibited diel trends that were the opposite of that measured for bare soils, that is maximum Hg flux was observed during the night instead of at midday. Planted Indiana and Ohio soils emitted a lower Hg flux than the bare soils while the Alabama soils were not consistent. Good correlations were observed between flux versus soil moisture, soil temperature, local ozone concentration, and solar radiation for bare soils however correlation coefficients were not as strong for the planted materials. Mercury concentration of foliar material showed that plant uptake could not account for reduced flux at midday. This work suggests that the presence of plants does alter the flux of Hg occurring from soils.

  5. Abiotic formation of volatile organic compounds from plant biomass and its dependence on temperature and UV radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derendorp, L.; Holzinger, R.; Röckmann, T.

    2009-04-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from living vegetation are measured for many different plant species. However, almost no research has been performed on the VOC emissions from plant litter and senescent leaves. The few studies that are done on plant litter indicate that the VOC emissions from this material can be significant for atmospheric chemistry and the global budgets of those VOCs. Recently, research showed that methane is emitted from dead and senescent leaves, and that the emission rates are influenced by temperature and ultraviolet (UV) radiation. It is also observed that not only methane, but also ethane and ethylene were emitted from leaf material under the influence of UV radiation. In this study, the emissions of ethane, ethylene, acetylene, propane, propylene, i-butane, n-butane and methyl chloride are measured with a gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector. The effect of temperature and UV radiation on the emission rates of the different VOCs is measured for leaves of several plant species. The emission rates of ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, and methylchloride increased exponentially with increasing temperature for all measured plant species, while a linear increase of the emission rates was observed for increasing intensity of the UV radiation. Emissions of acetylene, i-butane, and n-butane were not observed.

  6. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  7. Selenium uptake and volatilization from plants growing in soil. [Astragalus bisulcatus

    SciTech Connect

    Duckhart, E.C.; Waldron, L.J.; Donner, H.E. )

    1992-02-01

    Selenium volatilization rates from plants and soil confined in a closed transparent chamber varied greatly among five plant species over 3- to 6-day collection periods. Astragalus bisulcatus and broccoli showed the highest rates of volatilization, 1.7 and 1.1 {mu}g Se/kg dry soil/day, respectively. Volatilization rates for soil only, tomato, tall fescue, and alfalfa were 0.7, 0.5, 0.3, and 0.2 {mu}g/kg/day, respectively. Although it was not possible to separate plant and soil microbial volatilization, the large differences between plant species suggest a significant role for plants in Se volatilization from soils. Se(VI) added to soil as sodium selenate was rapidly taken up by all five plant types to the extent that plant uptake dominated Se removal from the soil. Volatilization accounted for only 0.5% (alfalfa) to 6.1% (Astragalus bis.) of the selenium lost from the soil. Although Astragalus had the highest tissue selenium concentration and selenium volatilization rates, it ranked fourth behind broccoli, tomato, and alfalfa in order of selenium removal because of its small biomass at 15 weeks. Alfalfa accumulated 22.1 {mu}g Se/g plant tissue from the Se(VI) amended soil, a concentration exceeded only by Astragalus (80.6) and broccoli (22.3). However, alfalfa had the lowest short-term net volatilization rate of the five plant types.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol;...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol;...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol;...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol;...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1080 - Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Plant volatiles and pheromone... RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1080 Plant volatiles and pheromone; exemptions from the... pheromone Z-2-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclobutaneethanol; Z-3,3-dimethyl-Δ1,β-cyclohexaneethanol;...

  13. Light dependency of VOC emissions from selected Mediterranean plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, S. M.; Harley, P.; Guenther, A.; Hewitt, C. N.

    The light, temperature and stomatal conductance dependencies of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from ten plant species commonly found in the Mediterranean region were studied using a fully controlled leaf cuvette in the laboratory. At standard conditions of temperature and light (30°C and 1000 μmol m -2 s -1 PAR), low emitting species ( Arbutus unedo, Pinus halepensis, Cistus incanus, Cistus salvifolius, Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris) emitted between 0.1 and 5.0 μg (C) (total VOCs) g -1 dw h -1, a medium emitter ( Pinus pinea) emitted between 5 and 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1 and high emitters ( Cistus monspeliensis, Lavendula stoechas and Quercus sp.) emitted more than 10 μg (C) g -1 dw h -1. VOC emissions from all of the plant species investigated showed some degree of light dependency, which was distinguishable from temperature dependency. Emissions of all compounds from Quercus sp. were light dependent. Ocimene was one of several monoterpene compounds emitted by P. pinea and was strongly correlated to light. Only a fraction of monoterpene emissions from C. incanus exhibited apparent weak light dependency but emissions from this plant species were strongly correlated to temperature. Data presented here are consistent with past studies, which show that emissions are independent of stomatal conductance. These results may allow more accurate predictions of monoterpene emission fluxes from the Mediterranean region to be made.

  14. Emission of volatile sulfur compounds during composting of municipal solid waste (MSW)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongyu; Schuchardt, Frank; Li, Guoxue; Yang, Jinbing; Yang, Qingyuan

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► We compare the volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) emissions during three types of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) composting. ► The VSCs released from the kitchen waste composting was significantly higher than that from 15–80 mm fraction of MSW. ► Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. ► Addition of 20% cornstalks could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions during kitchen waste composting. - Abstract: Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) are the main source for malodor from composting plants. In this study, the VSCs generated from composting of 15–80 mm municipal solid waste (T0), kitchen waste (T1) and kitchen waste mixed dry cornstalks (T2) were measured in 60 L reactors with forced aeration for a period of 30 days. The VSCs detected in all treatments were hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), methyl mercaptan (MM), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon bisulfide (CS{sub 2}) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Over 90% of the VSCs emissions occurred during the first 15 days, and reached their peak values at days 4–7. The emission profiles of five VSCs species were significantly correlated with internal materials temperature and outlet O{sub 2} concentration (p < 0.05). Total emissions of the VSCs were 216.1, 379.3 and 126.0 mg kg{sup −1} (dry matter) for T0, T1 and T2, respectively. Among the five VSCs, H{sub 2}S was the most abundant compound with 39.0–43.0% of total VSCs released. Composting of kitchen waste from separate collection posed a negative influence on the VSC and leachate production because of its high moisture content. An addition of dry cornstalks at a mixing ratio of 4:1 (wet weight) could significantly reduce the VSCs emissions and avoid leachate. Compared to pure kitchen waste, VSCs were reduced 66.8%.

  15. Volatile organic compound emission rates from mechanical surface aerators: Mass-transfer modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chern, J.M.; Chou, S.R.

    1999-08-01

    In wastewater treatment plants, many operation units such as equalization and aeration involve oxygen transfer between wastewater and air. While oxygen is transferred from air to wastewater, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are stripped from wastewater to air. Because of increasingly stringent environmental regulations, wastewater treatment operators have to do VOC inventory of their facilities. A new mass-transfer model has been developed to predict the VOC emission rates from batch and continuous aeration tanks with mechanical surface aerators. The model takes into consideration that the VOC mass transfer occurs in two separate mass-transfer zones instead of lumping the overall VOC transfer in the whole aeration tank as is done in the conventional ASCE-based model. The predictive capabilities of the two-zone and the ASCE-based models were examined by calculating the emission rates of 10 priority pollutants from aeration tanks. The effects of the hydraulic retention time, the Henry`s law constant, gas-phase resistance, and the water and air environmental conditions on the VOC emission rates were predicted by the two models.

  16. Volatile emissions from the crater and flank of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koepenick, K. W.; Brantley, S. L.; Thompson, J. M.; Rowe, G. L.; Nyblade, A. A.; Moshy, C.

    1996-06-01

    As a comparison to airborne infrared (IR) flux measurements, ground-based sampling of fumarole and soil gases was used to characterize the quiescent degassing of CO2 from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Aerial and ground-based measurements are in good agreement: ˜75% of the aerially measured CO2 flux at Lengai (0.05-0.06 × 1012 mol yr-1 or 6000-7200 tonnes CO2 d-1) can be attributed to seven large crater vents. In contrast to Etna and Vulcano Island, where 15-50% of the total CO2 flux emanates diffusely through the volcanic flanks, diffuse emissions were measured only within 500 m of the crater rim at Lengai, contributing <2% of the total flux. The lack of extensive flank emissions may reflect the dimensions of the magma chamber and/or the lack of a shallow fluid flow system. Thermodynamic restoration of fumarole analyses shows that gases are the most CO2-rich and H2O-poor reported for any volcano, containing 64-74% CO2, 24-34% H2O, 0.88-1.0% H2, 0.1-0.4% CO and <0.1% H2S, HCl, HF, and CH4. Volatile emissions of S, Cl, and F at Oldoiyno Lengai are estimated as 4.5, 1.5, and 1.0 × 107 mol yr-1, respectively. Accuracy of the airborne technique was also assessed by measuring the C emission rate from a coal-burning power plant. CO2 fluxes were measured within ±10% near the plant; however, poor resolution at increased distances caused an underestimation of the flux by a factor of 2. The relatively large CO2 fluxes measured for alkaline volcanoes such as Oldoinyo Lengai or Etna may indicate that midplate volcanoes represent a large, yet relatively unknown, natural source of CO2.

  17. Volatile emissions from the crater and flank of Oldoinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koepenick, K.W.; Brantley, S.L.; Thompson, J.M.; Rowe, G.L.; Nyblade, A.A.; Moshy, C.

    1996-01-01

    As a comparison to airborne infrared (IR) flux measurements, ground-based sampling of fumarole and soil gases was used to characterize the quiescent degassing of CO2 from Oldoinyo Lengai volcano. Aerial and ground-based measurements are in good agreement: ???75% of the aerially measured CO2 flux at Lengai (0.05-0.06 ?? 1012 mol yr-1 or 6000-7200 tonnes CO2 d-1) can be attributed to seven large crater vents. In contrast to Etna and Vulcano Island, where 15-50% of the total CO2 flux emanates diffusely through the volcanic flanks, diffuse emissions were measured only within 500 m of the crater rim at Lengai, contributing < 2% of the total flux. The lack of extensive flank emissions may reflect the dimensions of the magma chamber and/or the lack of a shallow fluid flow system. Thermodynamic restoration of fumarole analyses shows that gases are the most CO2-rich and H2O-poor reported for any volcano, containing 64-74% CO2, 24-34% H2O, 0.88-1.0% H2, 0.1-0.4% CO and < 0.1% H2S, HCl, HF, and CH4. Volatile emissions of S, Cl, and F at Oldoiyno Lengai are estimated as 4.5, 1.5, and 1.0 ?? 107 mol yr-1, respectively. Accuracy of the airborne technique was also assessed by measuring the C emission rate from a coal-burning power plant. CO2 fluxes were measured within ??10% near the plant; however, poor resolution at increased distances caused an underestimation of the flux by a factor of 2. The relatively large CO2 fluxes measured for alkaline volcanoes such as Oldoinyo Lengai or Etna may indicate that midplate volcanoes represent a large, yet relatively unknown, natural source of CO2.

  18. Eco-evolutionary factors drive induced plant volatiles: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rowen, Elizabeth; Kaplan, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) mediate critical ecological functions, but no studies have quantitatively synthesized data published on HIPVs to evaluate broad patterns. We tested three hypotheses that use eco-evolutionary theory to predict volatile induction: feeding guild (chewing arthropods > sap feeders), diet breadth (specialist herbivores > generalists), and selection history (domesticated plants < wild species). To test these hypotheses, we extracted data from 236 experiments that report volatiles produced by herbivore-damaged and undamaged plants. These data were subjected to meta-analysis, including effects on total volatiles and major biochemical classes. Overall, we found that chewers induced more volatiles than sap feeders, for both total volatiles and most volatile classes (e.g. green leaf volatiles, monoterpenes). Although specialist herbivores induced more total volatiles than generalists, this was inconsistent across chemical classes. Contrary to our expectation, domesticated species induced stronger volatile responses than wild species, even when controlling for plant taxonomy. Surprisingly, this is the first quantitative synthesis of published studies on HIPVs. Our analysis provides support for perceptions in the published literature (chewers > sap feeders), while challenging other commonly held notions (wild > crop). Despite the large number of experiments, we identified several gaps in the existing literature that should guide future investigations. PMID:26725245

  19. Rhythmic emission of floral volatiles from Rosa damascena semperflorens cv. 'Quatre Saisons'.

    PubMed

    Picone, Joanne M; Clery, Robin A; Watanabe, Naoharu; MacTavish, Hazel S; Turnbull, Colin G N

    2004-07-01

    The control of rhythmic emission of floral volatiles emitted from Rosa damascena semperflorens cv. 'Quatre Saisons' throughout floral development under various light regimes was studied. 2-Phenylethanol was the major volatile emitted in addition to monoterpenols, oxidised monoterpenols, monoterpenes and aromatic compounds. All detected volatiles were emitted rhythmically, with maximum peaks coinciding 8-10 h into a 12-h photoperiod. For some compounds a secondary, nocturnal peak was apparent. The primary and secondary maxima both occurred at approximately 24-h intervals. Rhythms appeared to be regulated endogenously: rhythmic emission continued upon exposure to continuous light or continuous darkness, and a phase shift in emission was induced upon inversion of the photoperiod. Additionally, emission continued after flower excision. A similar profile of free volatiles was stored within the floral tissue, together with glycosidic forms of 2-phenylethanol (>99% beta-D-glucoside), benzyl alcohol, citronellol and geraniol. Regression analysis indicated a significant decrease in glycosylated 2-phenylethanol through the photoperiod. These results suggest that glycosylated volatiles stored within petals may be a source of rhythmically emitted volatiles. PMID:15054660

  20. Alcohol, volatile fatty acid, phenol, and methane emissions from dairy cows and fresh manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 2.5 million dairy cows in California. Emission inventories list dairy cows and their waste as the major source of regional air pollutants, but data on their actual emissions remain sparse, particularly for smog-forming volatile organic compounds (VOC) and greenhouse gases (GH...

  1. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSION PROJECTION MODEL (VERSION 1.8). USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a model that can be used to estimate future emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and costs of their control by applying growth factors, emission constraints, control cost functions, and capacity retirement rates to the base line estimates of VOC emi...

  2. 77 FR 14279 - National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings-Addition of Dimethyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-09

    ...The EPA is taking direct final action to amend the National Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Aerosol Coatings final rule, which is a rule that establishes national reactivity-based emission standards for the aerosol coatings category (aerosol spray paints) under the Clean Air Act, published elsewhere in the Federal Register. This direct final action adds three compounds:......

  3. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: compounds, sources, and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission r...

  4. NITROGEN DEFICIENCY INCREASES VOLICITIN-INDUCED VOLATILE EMISSION BY ALTERING ETHYLENE SENSITIVITY AND THE KINETICS OF JA ACCUMULATION IN ZEA MAYS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Caterpillar-induced plant volatile emission and the subsequent attraction of natural enemies is facilitated by fatty acid-amino acid conjugate (FAC) elicitors, such as volicitin (N-(17-hydroxylinolenoyl)-L-glutamine), present in herbivore oral secretions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that both...

  5. Effect of crop development on biogenic emissions from plant populations grown in closed plant growth chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, J. H.; Stutte, G. W.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Biomass Production Chamber at John F. Kennedy Space Center is a closed plant growth chamber facility that can be used to monitor the level of biogenic emissions from large populations of plants throughout their entire growth cycle. The head space atmosphere of a 26-day-old lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Waldmann's Green) stand was repeatedly sampled and emissions identified and quantified using GC-mass spectrometry. Concentrations of dimethyl sulphide, carbon disulphide, alpha-pinene, furan and 2-methylfuran were not significantly different throughout the day; whereas, isoprene showed significant differences in concentration between samples collected in light and dark periods. Volatile organic compounds from the atmosphere of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Yecora Rojo) were analysed and quantified from planting to maturity. Volatile plant-derived compounds included 1-butanol, 2-ethyl-1-hexanol, nonanal, benzaldehyde, tetramethylurea, tetramethylthiourea, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran. Concentrations of volatiles were determined during seedling establishment, vegetative growth, anthesis, grain fill and senescence and found to vary depending on the developmental stage. Atmospheric concentrations of benzaldehyde and nonanal were highest during anthesis, 2-methylfuran and 3-methylfuran concentrations were greatest during grain fill, and the concentration of the tetramethylurea peaked during senescence.

  6. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), necessary reactants for photochemical smog formation, are emitted from numerous sources. Limited available data suggest that dairy farms emit VOCs with cattle feed, primarily silage, being the primary source. Process-based models of VOC transfer within and from si...

  7. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photochemical smog is a major air pollution problem and a significant cause of premature death in the U.S. Smog forms in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are emitted primarily from industry and motor vehicles in the U.S. However, dairy farms may be an important source in so...

  8. Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Xiu, Chunli; Geng, Huihui; Cai, Xiaoming; Sun, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yongjun; Williams III, Livy; Wyckhuys, Kris A. G.; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton and fruit trees in China. The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally. In this study, we examine whether flower preference of its adults is mediated by plant volatiles, and which volatile compositions play an important role in attracting them. In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants. Although the adults responded to all seven synthetic plant volatiles in electroantennography tests, only four (m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) elicited positive behavioral responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The adults were strongly attracted to these four active volatiles in multi-year laboratory and field trials. Our results suggest that these four fragrant volatiles, which are emitted in greater amounts once plants begin to flower, mediate A. lucorum’s preference to flowering host plants. We proved that the use of commonly occurring plant volatiles to recognize a large range of plant species can facilitate host selection and preference of polyphagous insect herbivore. PMID:26423224

  9. Volatile fragrances associated with flowers mediate host plant alternation of a polyphagous mirid bug.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongsheng; Lu, Yanhui; Xiu, Chunli; Geng, Huihui; Cai, Xiaoming; Sun, Xiaoling; Zhang, Yongjun; Williams Iii, Livy; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Wu, Kongming

    2015-01-01

    Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important insect pest of cotton and fruit trees in China. The adults prefer host plants at the flowering stage, and their populations track flowering plants both spatially and temporally. In this study, we examine whether flower preference of its adults is mediated by plant volatiles, and which volatile compositions play an important role in attracting them. In olfactometer tests with 18 key host species, the adults preferred flowering plants over non-flowering plants of each species. Coupled gas chromatography-electroantennography revealed the presence of seven electrophysiologically active compounds from flowering plants. Although the adults responded to all seven synthetic plant volatiles in electroantennography tests, only four (m-xylene, butyl acrylate, butyl propionate and butyl butyrate) elicited positive behavioral responses in Y-tube olfactometer bioassays. The adults were strongly attracted to these four active volatiles in multi-year laboratory and field trials. Our results suggest that these four fragrant volatiles, which are emitted in greater amounts once plants begin to flower, mediate A. lucorum's preference to flowering host plants. We proved that the use of commonly occurring plant volatiles to recognize a large range of plant species can facilitate host selection and preference of polyphagous insect herbivore. PMID:26423224

  10. Laboratory measurements of emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from biomass burning in Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, S.; Tanimoto, H.; PAN, X.; Taketani, F.; Komazaki, Y.; Miyakawa, T.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency by the laboratory experiments. The VOCs including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Two samples, wheat straw and rape plant, were burned in dry conditions and for some experiments wheat straw was burned under wet conditions. We compared the present data to the field data reported by Kudo et al. [2014]. The agreement between the field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics for relatively more smoldering data of dry samples but the field data were slightly underestimated compared with the laboratory data for oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs) and acetonitrile. When the EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the underestimations for OVOCs and acetonitrile were improved compared with the data of dry samples. It may be a property of the burning of crop residue in the region of high temperature and high humidity that some inside parts of piled crop residue and/or the crop residue facing on the ground are still wet. But the ratios for acetic acid/glycolaldehyde was still lower than 1. This may suggest that strong loss processes of acetic acid/glycolaldehyde are present in the fresh plume.Kudo S., H. Tanimoto, S. Inomata, S. Saito, X. L. Pan, Y. Kanaya, F. Taketani, Z. F. Wang, H. Chen, H. Dong, M. Zhang, and K. Yamaji (2014), Emissions of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from open crop residue burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 119, 7684-7698, doi: 10.1002/2013JD021044.

  11. Subterranean, Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatile Increases Biological Control Activity of Multiple Beneficial Nematode Species in Distinct Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Jared G.; Alborn, Hans T.; Campos-Herrera, Raquel; Kaplan, Fatma; Duncan, Larry W.; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Koppenhöfer, Albrecht M.; Stelinski, Lukasz L.

    2012-01-01

    While the role of herbivore-induced volatiles in plant-herbivore-natural enemy interactions is well documented aboveground, new evidence suggests that belowground volatile emissions can protect plants by attracting entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs). However, due to methodological limitations, no study has previously detected belowground herbivore-induced volatiles in the field or quantified their impact on attraction of diverse EPN species. Here we show how a belowground herbivore-induced volatile can enhance mortality of agriculturally significant root pests. First, in real time, we identified pregeijerene (1,5-dimethylcyclodeca-1,5,7-triene) from citrus roots 9–12 hours after initiation of larval Diaprepes abbreviatus feeding. This compound was also detected in the root zone of mature citrus trees in the field. Application of collected volatiles from weevil-damaged citrus roots attracted native EPNs and increased mortality of beetle larvae (D. abbreviatus) compared to controls in a citrus orchard. In addition, field applications of isolated pregeijerene caused similar results. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that pregeijerene increased pest mortality by attracting four species of naturally occurring EPNs in the field. Finally, we tested the generality of this root-zone signal by application of pregeijerene in blueberry fields; mortality of larvae (Galleria mellonella and Anomala orientalis) again increased by attracting naturally occurring populations of an EPN. Thus, this specific belowground signal attracts natural enemies of widespread root pests in distinct agricultural systems and may have broad potential in biological control of root pests. PMID:22761668

  12. Aboveground and Belowground Herbivores Synergistically Induce Volatile Organic Sulfur Compound Emissions from Shoots but Not from Roots.

    PubMed

    Danner, Holger; Brown, Phil; Cator, Eric A; Harren, Frans J M; van Dam, Nicole M; Cristescu, Simona M

    2015-07-01

    Studies on aboveground (AG) plant organs have shown that volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions differ between simultaneous attack by herbivores and single herbivore attack. There is growing evidence that interactive effects of simultaneous herbivory also occur across the root-shoot interface. In our study, Brassica rapa roots were infested with root fly larvae (Delia radicum) and the shoots infested with Pieris brassicae, either singly or simultaneously, to study these root-shoot interactions. As an analytical platform, we used Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) to investigate VOCs over a 3 day time period. Our set-up allowed us to monitor root and shoot emissions concurrently on the same plant. Focus was placed on the sulfur-containing compounds; methanethiol, dimethylsulfide (DMS), and dimethyldisulfide (DMDS), because these compounds previously have been shown to be biologically active in the interactions of Brassica plants, herbivores, parasitoids, and predators, yet have received relatively little attention. The shoots of plants simultaneously infested with AG and belowground (BG) herbivores emitted higher levels of sulfur-containing compounds than plants with a single herbivore species present. In contrast, the emission of sulfur VOCs from the plant roots increased as a consequence of root herbivory, independent of the presence of an AG herbivore. The onset of root emissions was more rapid after damage than the onset of shoot emissions. The shoots of double infested plants also emitted higher levels of methanol. Thus, interactive effects of root and shoot herbivores exhibit more strongly in the VOC emissions from the shoots than from the roots, implying the involvement of specific signaling interactions. PMID:26195194

  13. Trophic Complexity and the Adaptive Value of Damage-Induced Plant Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Indirect plant defenses are those facilitating the action of carnivores in ridding plants of their herbivorous consumers, as opposed to directly poisoning or repelling them. Of the numerous and diverse indirect defensive strategies employed by plants, inducible volatile production has garnered the most fascination among plant-insect ecologists. These volatile chemicals are emitted in response to feeding by herbivorous arthropods and serve to guide predators and parasitic wasps to their prey. Implicit in virtually all discussions of plant volatile-carnivore interactions is the premise that plants “call for help” to bodyguards that serve to boost plant fitness by limiting herbivore damage. This, by necessity, assumes a three-trophic level food chain where carnivores benefit plants, a theoretical framework that is conceptually tractable and convenient, but poorly depicts the complexity of food-web dynamics occurring in real communities. Recent work suggests that hyperparasitoids, top consumers acting from the fourth trophic level, exploit the same plant volatile cues used by third trophic level carnivores. Further, hyperparasitoids shift their foraging preferences, specifically cueing in to the odor profile of a plant being damaged by a parasitized herbivore that contains their host compared with damage from an unparasitized herbivore. If this outcome is broadly representative of plant-insect food webs at large, it suggests that damage-induced volatiles may not always be beneficial to plants with major implications for the evolution of anti-herbivore defense and manipulating plant traits to improve biological control in agricultural crops. PMID:23209381

  14. Volcanic gas emissions: constraining magma degassing and volatile sources (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, T. P.; de Moor, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Approximately 70 volcanoes erupt per year and about 500 emit gases through vents or hydrothermal systems. The global volcanic sulfur flux is dominated by passively degassing volcanoes and only 1-10% of the total SO2 flux is emitted during eruptions [1, 2] - likely also the case for other volatiles. Magmas lose their volatiles during ascent from the mantle and magma with 7 wt% water will become saturated at 15-17 km depth [3]. Volcanic eruptions commonly release more gas into the atmosphere than could have been dissolved in the erupted magma, first recognized by Rose [4]. Volcanic gases provide information on magmatic volatiles. Sampling of high temperature (> 400°C) volcanic gases emitted from crater fumaroles provide complete information on gas chemistry and isotopic ratios that are generally unaffected by low-temperature processes [5]. Complete gas compositions can be evaluated for equilibrium and corrected for modifications due to atmospheric contamination to obtain near-pristine magmatic gas compositions. In cases where gas and magma have been evaluated for fO2 both generally agree. Oxygen fugacities calculated using gas equilibria (H2/H2O; CO2/CO) show that the highest temperature (>800C) gases from rifts (Erta Ale) are close to QFM, arc volcanoes record oxygen fugacities above QFM (ΔQFM +6 to +8 based on H2O/H2; +0.2 to +3.7 based on CO2/CO) consistent with a more oxidized nature of the subarc-mantle. H-based gas equilibria show significantly higher oxygen fugacities than C-based values. This may be related to surfical water in the system or oxidation of H, which can be tracked by stable isotopes. H2O/CO2 values vary between arcs where Kuriles, Japan and Kamchatka show higher ratios (40 to 800) than Cascades, Central America, S. America, Java, and Aeolian (1 to 70). Erta Ale gases have H2O/CO2 of 3. Order of magnitude changes in H2O/CO2 ratios (2 to 20) due to magma degassing have been unequivocally documented by Gerlach [6] at Kilauea. H2O/CO2 ratios in

  15. Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds from gorse (Ulex europaeus): Diurnal emission fluxes at Kelling Heath, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X.-L.; Boissard, C.; Juan, A. J.; Hewitt, C. N.; Gallagher, M.

    1997-08-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission fluxes from Gorse (Ulex europaeus) were measured during May 30-31, 1995 at Kelling Heath in eastern England by using bag enclosure and gradient methods simultaneously. The enclosure measurements were made from branches at different stages of physiological development (flowering, after flowering, and mixed). Isoprene was found to represent 90% of the total VOC emissions, and its emission rates fluctuated from 6 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 in the early morning to about 9700 ng(g dwt)-1 h-1 at midday. Averaged emission rates standardized to 20°C were 1625, 2120, and 3700 ng (g dwt)-1 h-1 for the new grown, "mixed," and flowering branch, respectively. Trans-ocimene and α-pinene were the main monoterpenes emitted and represented, on average, 47.6% and 36.9% of the total monoterpenes. Other monoterpenes, camphene, sabinene, β-pinene, myrcene, limonene and γ-terpinene, were positively identified but together represented less than 1.5% of the total VOC emissions from gorse. Maximum isoprene concentrations in air at the site were measured around midday at 2 m (174 parts per trillion by volume, or pptv) and 6 m (149 pptv), and minimum concentrations were measured during the night (8 pptv at both heights). Mean daytime α-pinene air concentrations of 141 and 60 pptv at 2 and 6 m height were determined, but trans-ocimene concentrations were less than the analytical detection limit (4 pptv), suggesting rapid chemical removal of this compound from air. The isoprene fluxes calculated by the micrometeorological gradient method showed a pattern similar to that of those calculated by the enclosure method, with isoprene emission rates maximum at midday (100 μg m-2 h-1) and not detectable during the nighttime. Assessment of the fraction of the site covered by gorse plants enabled an extrapolation of emission fluxes from the enclosure measurements. When averaged over the 2 day experiment, isoprene fluxes of 29.8 and 27.8 μg m-2 h-1 were obtained from

  16. Climate change-induced vegetation change as a driver of increased subarctic biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    PubMed Central

    Valolahti, Hanna; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Faubert, Patrick; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have been earlier shown to be highly temperature sensitive in subarctic ecosystems. As these ecosystems experience rapidly advancing pronounced climate warming, we aimed to investigate how warming affects the BVOC emissions in the long term (up to 13 treatment years). We also aimed to assess whether the increased litterfall resulting from the vegetation changes in the warming subarctic would affect the emissions. The study was conducted in a field experiment with factorial open-top chamber warming and annual litter addition treatments on subarctic heath in Abisko, northern Sweden. After 11 and 13 treatment years, BVOCs were sampled from plant communities in the experimental plots using a push–pull enclosure technique and collection into adsorbent cartridges during the growing season and analyzed with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Plant species coverage in the plots was analyzed by the point intercept method. Warming by 2 °C caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and 5-fold increase in sesquiterpene emissions, averaged over all measurements. When the momentary effect of temperature was diminished by standardization of emissions to a fixed temperature, warming still had a significant effect suggesting that emissions were also indirectly increased. This indirect increase appeared to result from increased plant coverage and changes in vegetation composition. The litter addition treatment also caused significant increases in the emission rates of some BVOC groups, especially when combined with warming. The combined treatment had both the largest vegetation changes and the highest BVOC emissions. The increased emissions under litter addition were probably a result of a changed vegetation composition due to alleviated nutrient limitation and stimulated microbial production of BVOCs. We suggest that the changes in the subarctic vegetation composition induced by climate warming will be the major factor

  17. Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the food and drink industries of the European community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passant, Neil R.; Richardson, Stephen J.; Swannell, Richard P. J.; Gibson, N.; Woodfield, M. J.; van der Lugt, Jan Pieter; Wolsink, Johan H.; Hesselink, Paul G. M.

    Estimates were made of the amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released into the atmosphere as a result of the industrial manufacture and processing of food and drink in the European Community. The estimates were based on a review of literature sources, industrial and government contacts and recent measurements. Data were found on seven food manufacturing sectors (baking, vegetable oil extraction, solid fat processing, animal rendering, fish meal processing, coffee production and sugar beet processing) and three drink manufacturing sectors (brewing, spirit production and wine making). The principle of a data quality label is advocated to illustrate the authors' confidence in the data, and to highlight areas for further research. Emissions of ethanol from bread baking and spirit maturation were found to be the principle sources. However, significant losses of hexane and large quantities of an ill-defined mixture of partially oxidized hydrocarbons were noted principally from seed oil extraction and the drying of plant material, respectively. This latter mixture included low molecular weight aldehydes, carboxylic acids, ketones, amines and esters. However, the precise composition of many emissions were found to be poorly understood. The total emission from the food and drink industry in the EC was calculated as 260 kt yr -1. However, many processes within the target industry were found to be completely uncharacterized and therefore not included in the overall estimate (e.g. soft drink manufacture, production of animal food, flavourings, vinegar, tea, crisps and other fried snacks). Moreover, the use of data quality labels illustrated the fact that many of our estimates were based on limited data. Hence, further emissions monitoring is recommended from identified sources (e.g. processing of sugar beet, solid fat and fish meal) and from uncharacterized sources.

  18. Fusarium Oxysporum Volatiles Enhance Plant Growth Via Affecting Auxin Transport and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bitas, Vasileios; McCartney, Nathaniel; Li, Ningxiao; Demers, Jill; Kim, Jung-Eun; Kim, Hye-Seon; Brown, Kathleen M.; Kang, Seogchan

    2015-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have well-documented roles in plant-plant communication and directing animal behavior. In this study, we examine the less understood roles of VOCs in plant-fungal relationships. Phylogenetically and ecologically diverse strains of Fusarium oxysporum, a fungal species complex that often resides in the rhizosphere of assorted plants, produce volatile compounds that augment shoot and root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana and tobacco. Growth responses of A. thaliana hormone signaling mutants and expression patterns of a GUS reporter gene under the auxin-responsive DR5 promoter supported the involvement of auxin signaling in F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement. In addition, 1-naphthylthalamic acid, an inhibitor of auxin efflux, negated F. oxysporum volatile-mediated growth enhancement in both plants. Comparison of the profiles of volatile compounds produced by F. oxysporum strains that differentially affected plant growth suggests that the relative compositions of both growth inhibitory and stimulatory compounds may determine the degree of plant growth enhancement. Volatile-mediated signaling between fungi and plants may represent a potentially conserved, yet mostly overlooked, mechanism underpinning plant-fungus interactions and fungal niche adaption. PMID:26617587

  19. Plant volatiles induced by herbivore egg deposition affect insects of different trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Fatouros, Nina E; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Pashalidou, Foteini G; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant's volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels. PMID:22912893

  20. Pathways and relative contributions to arsenic volatilization from rice plants and paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yan; Huang, Hai; Sun, Guo-Xin; Zhao, Fang-Jie; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2012-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that higher plants are unable to methylate arsenic (As), but it is not known whether methylated As species taken up by plants can be volatilized. Rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants were grown axenically or in a nonsterile soil using a two-chamber system. Arsenic transformation and volatilization were investigated. In the axenic system, uptake of As species into rice roots was in the order of arsenate (As(V)) > monomethylarsonic acid (MMAs(V)) > dimethylarsinic acid (DMAs(V)) > trimethylarsine oxide (TMAs(V)O), but the order of the root-to-shoot transport index (Ti) was reverse. Also, volatilization of trimethylarsine (TMAs) from rice plants was detected when plants were treated with TMAs(V)O but not with As(V), DMAs(V), or MMAs(V). In the soil culture, As was volatilized mainly from the soil. Small amounts of TMAs were also volatilized from the rice plants, which took up DMAs(V), MMAs(V), and TMAs(V)O from the soil solution. The addition of dried distillers grain (DDG) to the soil enhanced As mobilization into the soil solution, As methylation and volatilization from the soil, as well as uptake of different As species and As volatilization from the rice plants. Results show that rice is able to volatilize TMAs after the uptake of TMAs(V)O but not able to convert inorganic As, MMAs(V) or DMAs(V) into TMAs and that the extent of As volatilization from rice plants was much smaller than that from the flooded soil. PMID:22724924

  1. Novel Set-Up for Low-Disturbance Sampling of Volatile and Non-volatile Compounds from Plant Roots.

    PubMed

    Eilers, Elisabeth J; Pauls, Gerhard; Rillig, Matthias C; Hansson, Bill S; Hilker, Monika; Reinecke, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Most studies on rhizosphere chemicals are carried out in substrate-free set-ups or in artificial substrates using sampling methods that require an air flow and may thus cause disturbance to the rhizosphere. Our study aimed to develop a simplified and inexpensive system that allows analysis of rhizosphere chemicals at experimentally less disturbed conditions. We designed a mesocosm in which volatile rhizosphere chemicals were sampled passively (by diffusion) without air- and water flow on polydimethylsiloxane-(PDMS) tubes. Dandelion (Taraxacum sect. ruderalia) was used as model plant; roots were left undamaged. Fifteen volatiles were retrieved from the sorptive material by thermal desorption for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Furthermore, three sugars were collected from the rhizosphere substrate by aqueous extraction and derivatized prior to GC/MS analysis. In order to study how the quantity of detected rhizosphere compounds depends on the type of soil or substrate, we determined the matrix-dependent recovery of synthetic rhizosphere chemicals. Furthermore, we compared sorption of volatiles on PDMS tubes with and without direct contact to the substrate. The results show that the newly designed mesocosm is suitable for low-invasive extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from rhizospheres. We further highlight how strongly the type of substrate and contact of PDMS tubes to the substrate affect the detectability of compounds from rhizospheres. PMID:25795090

  2. Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Luculia pinceana Flower and Its Changes at Different Stages of Flower Development.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuying; Ma, Hong; Wan, Youming; Li, Taiqiang; Liu, Xiuxian; Sun, Zhenghai; Li, Zhenghong

    2016-01-01

    Luculia plants are famed ornamental plants with sweetly fragrant flowers, of which L. pinceana Hooker, found primarily in Yunnan Province, China, has the widest distribution. Solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was employed to identify the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different flower development stages of L. pinceana for the evaluation of floral volatile polymorphism. Peak areas were normalized as percentages and used to determine the relative amounts of the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 39 compounds were identified at four different stages of L. pinceana flower development, including 26 at the bud stage, 26 at the initial-flowering stage, 32 at the full-flowering stage, and 32 at the end-flowering stage. The most abundant compound was paeonol (51%-83%) followed by (E,E)-α-farnesene, cyclosativene, and δ-cadinene. All these volatile compounds create the unique fragrance of L. pinceana flower. Floral scent emission offered tendency of ascending first and descending in succession, meeting its peak level at the initial-flowering stage. The richest diversity of floral volatile was detected at the third and later periods of flower development. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition and its relative content of floral scent differed throughout the whole flower development. The result has important implications for future floral fragrance breeding of Luculia. L. pinceana would be adequate for a beneficial houseplant and has a promising prospect for development as essential oil besides for a fragrant ornamental owing to the main compounds of floral scent with many medicinal properties. PMID:27110758

  3. Plant Volatiles Induced by Herbivore Egg Deposition Affect Insects of Different Trophic Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fatouros, Nina E.; Lucas-Barbosa, Dani; Weldegergis, Berhane T.; Pashalidou, Foteini G.; van Loon, Joop J. A.; Dicke, Marcel; Harvey, Jeffrey A.; Gols, Rieta; Huigens, Martinus E.

    2012-01-01

    Plants release volatiles induced by herbivore feeding that may affect the diversity and composition of plant-associated arthropod communities. However, the specificity and role of plant volatiles induced during the early phase of attack, i.e. egg deposition by herbivorous insects, and their consequences on insects of different trophic levels remain poorly explored. In olfactometer and wind tunnel set-ups, we investigated behavioural responses of a specialist cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae) and two of its parasitic wasps (Trichogramma brassicae and Cotesia glomerata) to volatiles of a wild crucifer (Brassica nigra) induced by oviposition of the specialist butterfly and an additional generalist moth (Mamestra brassicae). Gravid butterflies were repelled by volatiles from plants induced by cabbage white butterfly eggs, probably as a means of avoiding competition, whereas both parasitic wasp species were attracted. In contrast, volatiles from plants induced by eggs of the generalist moth did neither repel nor attract any of the tested community members. Analysis of the plant’s volatile metabolomic profile by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and the structure of the plant-egg interface by scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the plant responds differently to egg deposition by the two lepidopteran species. Our findings imply that prior to actual feeding damage, egg deposition can induce specific plant responses that significantly influence various members of higher trophic levels. PMID:22912893

  4. Volatiles induction in rice stink bug host grasses and rice plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice stink bug (RSB), Oebalus pugnax F., is an important pest of heading rice in the United States. Little is known about plant volatiles production following herbivory by the rice stink bug. RSB feeding induced volatiles production in different RSB host grasses and rice varieties, and may help expl...

  5. Emission of Volatile OrganoHalogens by Southern African Solar Salt Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotte, Karsten; Weissflog, Ludwig; Lange, Christian Albert; Huber, Stefan; Pienaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds containing halogens - especially chlorine - have been considered for a long time of industrial origin only, and it was assumed that the production and emission of these compounds can easily be controlled by humans in case they will cause a threat for life on Earth. Since the middle of the 80ies of the last century it became clear that the biologically active organohalogens isolated by chemists are purposefully produced by nature as antibiotics or as antifeedant etc. To date more than 3800 organohalogens are known to be naturally produced by bio-geochemical processes. The global budgets of many such species are poorly understood and only now with the emergence of better analytical techniques being discovered. For example the compound chloromethane nature's production (5 GT) outdates the anthropogenic production (50 KT) by a factor of 100. Thus organohalogens are an interesting recent case in point since they can influence the ozone budget of the boundary layer, play a role in the production of aerosols and the climate change discussion. An intriguing observation is that most of the atmospheric CH3Cl and CH3Br are of terrestrial rather than of marine origin and that a number of halogenated small organic molecules are produced in soils. The high concentrations of halides in salt soils point to a possibly higher importance of natural halogenation processes as a source of volatile organohalogens. Terrestrial biota, such as fungi, plants, animals and insects, as well as marine algea, bacteria and archaea are known or suspected to be de-novo producers of volatile organohalogens. In recent years we revealed the possibility for VOX to form actively in water and bottom sediments of hyper-saline environments in the course of studying aridization processes during climatic warming. Due to the nature of their production process solar salt works, as to be found along-side the Southern African coast line but also upcountry, combine a variety of semi- and

  6. NATURAL EMISSIONS OF NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, CARBON MONOXIDE, AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN FROM NORTH AMERICA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are repsonsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile organic compounds (N...

  7. Implementation of the effects of physicochemical properties on the foliar penetration of pesticides and its potential for estimating pesticide volatilization from plants.

    PubMed

    Lichiheb, Nebila; Personne, Erwan; Bedos, Carole; Van den Berg, Frederik; Barriuso, Enrique

    2016-04-15

    Volatilization from plant foliage is known to have a great contribution to pesticide emission to the atmosphere. However, its estimation is still difficult because of our poor understanding of processes occurring at the leaf surface. A compartmental approach for dissipation processes of pesticides applied on the leaf surface was developed on the base of experimental study performed under controlled conditions using laboratory volatilization chamber. This approach was combined with physicochemical properties of pesticides and was implemented in SURFATM-Pesticides model in order to predict pesticide volatilization from plants in a more mechanistic way. The new version of SURFATM-Pesticide model takes into account the effect of formulation on volatilization and leaf penetration. The model was evaluated in terms of 3 pesticides applied on plants at the field scale (chlorothalonil, fenpropidin and parathion) which display a wide range of volatilization rates. The comparison of modeled volatilization fluxes with measured ones shows an overall good agreement for the three tested compounds. Furthermore the model confirms the considerable effect of the formulation on the rate of the decline in volatilization fluxes especially for systemic products. However, due to the lack of published information on the substances in the formulations, factors accounting for the effect of formulation are described empirically. A sensitivity analysis shows that in addition to vapor pressure, the octanol-water partition coefficient represents important physicochemical properties of pesticides affecting pesticide volatilization from plants. Finally the new version of SURFATM-Pesticides is a prospecting tool for key processes involved in the description of pesticide volatilization from plants. PMID:26855355

  8. Addressing the complexity and diversity of agricultural plant volatiles: a call for the integration of laboratory- and field-based analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the sophistication and sensitivity of chemical instrumentation increases so do the number of applications. Correspondingly, new questions and opportunities for systems previously studied also arise. As with most plants, the emission of volatiles from agricultural products is complex and varies am...

  9. Characteristics and photochemical potentials of volatile organics emission from stack exhaust gas of industrial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, Y.C.; Tsai, J.H.; Lin, T.C.; Cheng, C.C.; Huang, Y.H.

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this project was to measure the main volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in stack gas from the downstream petrochemical plants. Six pollution sources of industrial processes, including Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS), Vinyl Chloride(VC), Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC), Acrylic Resin, para-Terephthalic Acid (PTA) and Polyurethane (PU) synthetic manufacturing processes, were measured by using USEPA Method 18. The concentration and emission rate database of twenty-seven VOCs has been established. Fifty-two selected stacks were sampled and analyzed for VOCs. Analysis of emission factors and characteristics of the twenty-seven VOCs in these stacks show that the emission characteristics are various among different industrial processes. The order of the single-stack VOCs average emission factor are ABS (1.109 lbs VOCs/ton-ABS; 22 stacks) {gt} Acrylic Resin (0.651 lbs VOCs/ton-acrylic resin; 7 stacks) {gt} PU Synthetic (0.606 lbs VOCs/ton-PU synthetic; 4 stacks) {gt} PTA (0.054 lbs VOCs/ton-PTA; 4 stacks) {gt} PVC (0.014 lbs VOCs/ton-PVC; 11 stacks) {gt} VC ({lt} 0.001; 4 stacks) manufacturing processes. The emission factors of VOC in AP-42 database for the processes of are 5 to 40 times higher than those of VOCs in this research. Because of the equipment of pollutant control setting up before the emitted exhaust gas, their average emission factors in these measured processes are almost lower than those of VOCs in AP-42 database. Compared with the characteristics of VOCs, there is little similarity in VOC characteristics for the stacks of six processes between the results from this research and the data from US EPA SPECIATE data system. Furthermore, according to maximum incremental reactivities (MIR) of VOCs probed into photochemical reaction potentials, the results show that those of PTA manufacturing process have an ozone formation potential of 2.33 g O{sub 3}/g VOCs, which is higher than other processes.

  10. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).

  11. A Comparative study of Volatile Organic Compounds from two desert plant species growing in Southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasche, K. M.; Meyers, K.; Jardine, K.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout their lives, plants are subjected to a multitude of stressors, ranging from herbivory to changes in weather. In order to survive, plants have created an arsenal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and aromatic compounds, to combat these stressors. In this study, two plant species, Baccharis salicifolia (Seep willow) and Dodonaea viscosa (Hopbush) were examined for isoprenoids, GLVs, and aromatic compound emissions. Although, the species are not related, they should share some emitted compounds as they can be seen growing in the same environment, though the majority of the emitted compounds should remain unique to each species type. Both the Seep willow, sampled in Catalina State Park, and the Hopbush, sampled at Biosphere 2, were sampled using a Teflon bag enclosure connected to an apex lite air-sampling device and a thermal desorption (TD) tube, which was used to collect the emitted compounds. TD tube samples were analyzed using a Unity 2 thermal desorption system, which was directly connected to a 5975C series gas chromatograph/electron impact mass spectrometer with a triple-axis detector. The major compounds emitted from the Seep willow were GLVs (Octanal, Decanal, and Nonanal) and aromatics (Benzoic acid, Benzaldehyde, 1,2,3-Trifluorobenzene, and Acetophenone). The major compounds emitted from the Hopbush were isoprene and monoterpenes (1R-α-Pinene, Limonene, and α-Phellandrene.) Our results show the two species emit completely different compounds from each other, which could indicate adaptive differences. The Hopbush may be a hardier species better adapted to the Arizona environment as isoprene and monoterpenes have been indicated in thermo tolerance. GLVs on the other hand indicate the Seep willow is under severe stress.

  12. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.40 Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of...

  13. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.40 Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of...

  14. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.40 Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of...

  15. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.40 Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of...

  16. 27 CFR 18.40 - Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. 18.40 Section 18.40 Alcohol, Tobacco... PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Changes After Original Establishment § 18.40 Qualification to alternate volatile fruit-flavor concentrate plant and bonded wine cellar. A proprietor of...

  17. Low threshold amplified spontaneous emission and ambipolar charge transport in non-volatile liquid fluorene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ribierre, Jean-Charles; Zhao, Li; Inoue, Munetomo; Schwartz, Pierre-Olivier; Kim, Ju-Hyung; Yoshida, Kou; Sandanayaka, Atula S D; Nakanotani, Hajime; Mager, Loic; Méry, Stéphane; Adachi, Chihaya

    2016-02-21

    Highly fluorescent non-volatile fluidic fluorene derivatives functionalized with siloxane chains were synthesized and used in monolithic solvent-free liquid organic semiconductor distributed feedback lasers. The photoluminescence quantum yield values, the amplified spontaneous emission thresholds and the ambipolar charge carrier mobilities demonstrate that this class of materials is extremely promising for organic fluidic light-emitting and lasing devices. PMID:26734693

  18. Cold Temperature and Biodiesel Fuel Effects on Speciated Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds from Diesel Trucks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Speciated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured in diesel exhaust from three medium heavy-duty trucks equipped with modern aftertreatment technologies. Emissions testing was conducted on a chassis dynamometer at two ambient temperatures (-6.7°C and 21.7°C) operating on ...

  19. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound... Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a... with a vapor collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced...

  20. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound... Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a... with a vapor collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced...

  1. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound... Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a... with a vapor collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced...

  2. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound... Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a... with a vapor collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced...

  3. 40 CFR 60.502 - Standard for Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standard for Volatile Organic Compound... Compound (VOC) emissions from bulk gasoline terminals. On and after the date on which § 60.8(a) requires a... with a vapor collection system designed to collect the total organic compounds vapors displaced...

  4. Emission of volatile organic compounds as affected by rate of application of cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable nutrient source for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following land application may pose a potential off-site odor concern. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of land application method, N- application...

  5. Emission of volatile organic compounds after land application of cattle manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef cattle manure can serve as a valuable source of nutrients for crop production. However, emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) following land application may pose an odor nuisance to downwind populations. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of application method, diet, so...

  6. Modeling emissions of volatile organic compounds from silage storages and feed lanes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An initial volatile organic compound (VOC) emission model for silage sources, developed using experimental data from previous studies, was incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM), a whole-farm simulation model used to assess the performance, environmental impacts, and economics of ...

  7. AN IMPROVED MODEL FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANICCOMPOUNDS FROM FORESTS IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important inputs for models of atmospheric chemistry and carbon budgets. ince forests are the primary emitters of BVOCs, it is important to develop reliable estimates of their areal coverage and BVOC em...

  8. Microbial Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on Gypsum Wallboard and Ceiling tile

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study compared seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum found in water-damaged buildings to characterize the microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) emissions profile while growing on gypsum wallboard (W) and ceiling tile (C) coupons. The inoculated coupons with their sub...

  9. Characterizing and mitigating emissions of volatile organic compounds from animal feeding operations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted from animal feeding operations negatively impact local and potentially regional air quality though the release of both odorous and ozone precursor molecules. Characterizing emissions of VOCs from AFOs is strongly influenced by both the method and location of ...

  10. Surface irrigation reduces the emission of volatile 1,3-dichloropropene from agricultural soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low-cost, practicable techniques are required to limit the release of volatile organic compound-containing fumigants such as 1,3-D to the atmosphere. In this study we aimed to quantify 1,3-D diffusion and emission from laboratory soil columns maintained under realistic conditions, and thereby assess...

  11. Plant volatile terpenoid metabolism: biosynthetic genes, transcriptional regulation and subcellular compartmentation.

    PubMed

    Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2010-07-16

    Volatile terpenoids released from different plant parts play crucial roles in pollinator attraction, plant defense, and interaction with the surrounding environment. Two distinct pathways localized in different subcellular compartments are responsible for the biosynthesis of these compounds. Recent advances in the characterization of genes and enzymes responsible for substrate and end product biosynthesis as well as efforts in metabolic engineering have revealed new aspects of volatile terpenoid biosynthesis. This review summarizes recent progress in the characterization of volatile terpenoid biosynthetic genes, their spatio-temporal expression patterns and subcellular localization of corresponding proteins. In addition, recent information obtained from metabolic engineering is discussed. PMID:20553718

  12. Isoprene Emission from Plants: Why and How

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Thomas D.; Wiberley, Amy E.; Donohue, Autumn R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Some, but not all, plants emit isoprene. Emission of the related monoterpenes is more universal among plants, but the amount of isoprene emitted from plants dominates the biosphere–atmosphere hydrocarbon exchange. Scope The emission of isoprene from plants affects atmospheric chemistry. Isoprene reacts very rapidly with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere making hydroperoxides that can enhance ozone formation. Aerosol formation in the atmosphere may also be influenced by biogenic isoprene. Plants that emit isoprene are better able to tolerate sunlight-induced rapid heating of leaves (heat flecks). They also tolerate ozone and other reactive oxygen species better than non-emitting plants. Expression of the isoprene synthase gene can account for control of isoprene emission capacity as leaves expand. The emission capacity of fully expanded leaves varies through the season but the biochemical control of capacity of mature leaves appears to be at several different points in isoprene metabolism. Conclusions The capacity for isoprene emission evolved many times in plants, probably as a mechanism for coping with heat flecks. It also confers tolerance of reactive oxygen species. It is an example of isoprenoids enhancing membrane function, although the mechanism is likely to be different from that of sterols. Understanding the regulation of isoprene emission is advancing rapidly now that the pathway that provides the substrate is known. PMID:17921528

  13. Historical variations of biogenic volatile organic compound emission inventories in China, 1981-2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. Y.; Xie, S. D.

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the variations in temporal and spatial distribution of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions in China, historical BVOC emission inventories at a spatial resolution of 36 km × 36 km for the period of 1981-2003 were developed firstly. Based on the time-varying statistical data and Vegetation Atlas of China (1:1,000,000), emissions of isoprene, 37 monoterpenes, 32 sesquiterpenes, and other volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) were estimated using MEGANv2.1 driven by WRF model. Results show China's BVOC emissions had increased by 28.01% at an annual average rate of 1.27% from 37.89 Tg in 1981 to 48.50 Tg in 2003. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs had increased by 41.60%, 34.78%, 41.05%, and 4.89%, respectively. With fixed meteorological variables, the estimated BVOC emissions would increase by 19.25%, resulting from the increasing of vegetation biomass during the last 23 years. On average, isoprene, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and OVOCs were responsible for 52.40%, 12.73%, 2.58%, and 32.29% of the national BVOC emissions, respectively. β-pinene and α-pinene, farnesene and caryophyllene were the largest contributors to the total monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions, respectively. The highest emissions were found over northeastern, southeastern, southwestern China, Qinling Mountain, and Hainan and Taiwan provinces. The regions with high emissions had been expanding over the years, especially in the Changbai Mountain, southern China, and southwestern forest regions. The lowest emissions in southern China occurred in 1984-1988. Almost all the provinces had experienced increasing emissions, but their contributions to the national emissions differed significantly over the past 23 years. Yunnan, Guangxi, Heilongjiang, Jiangxi, Fujian, Guangdong, and Sichuan provinces always dominated the national BVOC emissions, excluding in 1977-1981, when the three northeastern provinces had relatively lower emissions.

  14. CONTROL OF HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM COTTON AND SYNTHETIC TEXTILE FINISHING PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the applicability and economics of emissions control technologies for the abatement of volatile organic compounds emanating from cotton and synthetic textile finishing plants. A survey of the state-of-the-art and control technologies d...

  15. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpets. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Wooley, J.D.; Daisey, J.M.

    1992-04-01

    The primary objective of this research, was to measure the emission rates of selected individual VOC, including low molecular-weight aldehydes, released by samples of four new carpets that are typical of the major types of carpets used in residences, schools and offices. The carpet samples were collected directly from the manufacturers` mills and packaged to preserve their chemical integrity. The measurements of the concentrations and emission rates of these compounds were made under simulated indoor conditions in a 20-M{sup 3} environmental chamber designed specifically for investigations of VOC. The measurements were conducted over a period of one week following the installation of the carpet samples in the chamber. Duplicate experiments were conducted for one carpet. In addition, the concentrations and emission rates of VOC resulting from the installation of a new carpet in a residence were measured over a period of seven weeks. The stabilities of the week-long ventilation rates and temperatures were one percent relative standard deviation. The four carpets emitted a variety of VOC, 40 of which were positively identified. Eight of these were considered to be dominant. They were (in order of chromatographic retention time) formaldehyde, vinyl acetate, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane), 1,2-propanediol (propylene glycol), styrene, 2-ethyl-l-hexanol, 4-phenylcyclohexene (4-PCH), and 2,6 di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT). With the exception of formaldehyde, only limited data are available on the toxicity and irritancy of these compounds at low concentrations. Therefore, it is difficult to determine at this time the potential magnitude of the health and comfort effects that may occur among the population from exposures to emissions from new carpets. The concentrations and emission rates of most compounds decreased rapidly over the first 12 h of the experiments.

  16. Laboratory measurements of emission factors of nonmethane volatile organic compounds from burning of Chinese crop residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Pan, Xiaole; Taketani, Fumikazu; Komazaki, Yuichi; Miyakawa, Takuma; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2015-05-01

    The emission factors (EFs) of nonmethane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) emitted during the burning of Chinese crop residue were investigated as a function of modified combustion efficiency in laboratory experiments. NMVOCs, including acetonitrile, aldehydes/ketones, furan, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were monitored by proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry. Rape plant was burned in dry conditions and wheat straw was burned in both wet and dry conditions to simulate the possible burning of damp crop residue in regions of high temperature and humidity. We compared the present data to field data reported by Kudo et al. (2014). Good agreement between field and laboratory data was obtained for aromatics under relatively more smoldering combustion of dry samples, but laboratory data were slightly overestimated compared to field data for oxygenated VOC (OVOC). When EFs from the burning of wet samples were investigated, the consistency between the field and laboratory data for OVOCs was stronger than for dry samples. This may be caused by residual moisture in crop residue that has been stockpiled in humid regions. Comparison of the wet laboratory data with field data suggests that Kudo et al. (2014) observed the biomass burning plumes under relatively more smoldering conditions in which approximately a few tens of percentages of burned fuel materials were wet.

  17. Bidirectional exchange of biogenic volatiles with vegetation: emission sources, reactions, breakdown and deposition

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Fares, Silvano; Harley, Peter; Jardine, Kolby J.

    2014-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are widely modeled as inputs to atmospheric chemistry simulations. However, BVOC may interact with cellular structures and neighboring leaves in a complex manner during volatile diffusion from the sites of release to leaf boundary layer and during turbulent transport to the atmospheric boundary layer. Furthermore, recent observations demonstrate that the BVOC emissions are bidirectional, and uptake and deposition of BVOC and their oxidation products are the rule rather than the exception. This review summarizes current knowledge of within-leaf reactions of synthesized volatiles with reactive oxygen species (ROS), uptake, deposition and storage of volatiles and their oxidation products as driven by adsorption on leaf surface and solubilization and enzymatic detoxification inside leaves. The available evidence indicates that due to reactions with ROS and enzymatic metabolism, the BVOC gross production rates are much larger than previously thought. The degree to which volatiles react within leaves and can be potentially taken up by vegetation depends on compound reactivity, physicochemical characteristics, as well as their participation in leaf metabolism. We argue that future models should be based on the concept of bidirectional BVOC exchange and consider modification of BVOC sink/source strengths by within-leaf metabolism and storage. PMID:24635661

  18. The contribution of evaporative emissions from gasoline vehicles to the volatile organic compound inventory in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; González-Macías, C

    2014-06-01

    The strategy for decreasing volatile organic compound emissions in Mexico has been focused much more on tailpipe emissions than on evaporative emissions, so there is very little information on the contribution of evaporative emissions to the total volatile organic compound inventory. We examined the magnitudes of exhaust and evaporative volatile organic compound emissions, and the species emitted, in a representative fleet of light-duty gasoline vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City. The US "FTP-75" test protocol was used to estimate volatile organic compound emissions associated with diurnal evaporative losses, and when the engine is started and a journey begins. The amount and nature of the volatile organic compounds emitted under these conditions have not previously been accounted in the official inventory of the area. Evaporative emissions from light-duty vehicles in the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City were estimated to be 39 % of the total annual amount of hydrocarbons emitted. Vehicles built before 1992 (16 % of the fleet) were found to be responsible for 43 % of the total hydrocarbon emissions from exhausts and 31 % of the evaporative emissions of organic compounds. The relatively high amounts of volatile organic compounds emitted from older vehicles found in this study show that strong emission controls need to be implemented in order to decrease the contribution of evaporative emissions of this fraction of the fleet. PMID:24526614

  19. Biofiltration of a mixture of volatile organic emissions.

    PubMed

    Aizpuru, A; Malhautier, L; Roux, J C; Fanlo, J L

    2001-12-01

    Air biofiltration is now under active consideration for the removal of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from polluted airstreams. To optimize this emerging environmental technology and to understand compound removal mechanisms, a biofilter packed with peat was developed to treat a complex mixture of VOCs: oxygenated, aromatic, and chlorinated compounds. The removal efficiency of this process was high. The maximum elimination capacity (ECmax) obtained was approximately 120 g VOCs/m3 peat/hr. Referring to each of the mixture's components, the ECmax showed the limits in terms of biodegradability of VOCs, especially for the halogenated compounds and xylene. A stratification of biodegradation was observed in the reactor. The oxygenated compounds were metabolized before the aromatic and halogenated ones. Two assumptions are suggested. There was a competition between bacterial communities. Different communities colonized the peat-based biofilter, one specialized for the elimination of oxygenated compounds, the others more specialized for elimination of aromatic and halogenated compounds. There was also substrate competition. Bacterial communities were the same over the height of the column, but the more easily biodegradable compounds were used first for the microorganism metabolism when they were present in the gaseous effluent. PMID:15666471

  20. Attraction of egg-killing parasitoids toward induced plant volatiles in a multi-herbivore context.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Antonino; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Colazza, Stefano; Dicke, Marcel; Fatouros, Nina E

    2015-09-01

    In response to insect herbivory, plants emit volatile organic compounds which may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. In nature, plants are often attacked by multiple herbivores, but the majority of studies which have investigated indirect plant defenses to date have focused on the recruitment of different parasitoid species in a single-herbivore context. Here, we report our investigation on the attraction of egg parasitoids of lepidopteran hosts (Trichogramma brassicae and T. evanescens) toward plant volatiles induced by different insect herbivores in olfactometer bioassays. We used a system consisting of a native crucifer, Brassica nigra, two naturally associated herbivores [the butterfly Pieris brassicae (eggs and caterpillars) and the aphid Brevicoryne brassicae] and an alien invasive herbivore (eggs and caterpillars of the moth Spodoptera exigua). We found that Trichogramma wasps were attracted by volatiles induced in the plants by P. brassicae eggs, but not by those induced in the plants by S. exigua eggs, indicating the specificity of the plant responses toward lepidopteran herbivores. The results of the chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the volatile blends emitted by plants in response to attack by P. brassicae and S. exigua eggs which were in agreement with the behavioural observations. We investigated the attraction of Trichogramma wasps toward P. brassicae egg-induced volatiles in plants simultaneously attacked by larvae and nymphs of different non-hosts. The two chewing caterpillars P. brassicae and S. exigua, but not the phloem-feeding aphid B. brassicae, can disrupt the attraction of Trichogramma species toward P. brassicae egg-induced volatiles. Indirect plant defenses are discussed in the context of multiple herbivory by evaluating the importance of origin, dietary specialization and feeding guild of different attackers on the recruitment of egg-killing parasitoids. PMID

  1. Identification of octanal as plant growth inhibitory volatile compound released from Heracleum sosnowskyi fruit.

    PubMed

    Mishyna, Maryia; Laman, Nikolai; Prokhorov, Valery; Maninang, John Solomon; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Heracleum sosnowskyi Manden of the Apiaceae family is a malignant invasive plant in Eastern Europe, Belarus and Russia. The species is known for its prolific seed production, which has been linked to the plant's invasive success. The fruit also has a strong aroma, but the contribution of the fruit's volatile constituent to out-compete neighboring plants has not been fully established. In this study, fruit volatiles of H. sosnowskyi and conspecifics (i.e. H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum, H. hirtum) were identified by headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS). Octyl acetate, octanol, octanal, hexyl isobutyrate, and hexyl-2-methyl butyrate were found to be the principal volatiles. Using authentic standards, the growth-inhibitory property of the individual compounds was assayed by the novel Cotton swab method. Assay results with lettuce (Lactuca sativa) showed that octanal strongly inhibited seed germination and radicle elongation of seedlings. The results suggest that octanal may be the main contributor to the allelopathic activity of H. sosnowksyi fruits. Furthermore, the mixture of fruit volatiles from the invasive H. sosnowskyi more strongly delayed lettuce seedling elongation than the volatiles from fruits of the non-invasive H. asperum, H. lescovii, H. dissectum and H. hirtum. Thus, the present study is the first to demonstrate the possible involvement of fruit volatiles of Heracleum species in plant-plant interaction. PMID:26058155

  2. Volatile Emissions from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Mirror Bacterial Growth and Enable Distinction of Different Strains

    PubMed Central

    Trefz, Phillip; Koehler, Heike; Klepik, Klaus; Moebius, Petra; Reinhold, Petra; Schubert, Jochen K.; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2013-01-01

    Control of paratuberculosis in livestock is hampered by the low sensitivity of established direct and indirect diagnostic methods. Like other bacteria, Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) emits volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Differences of VOC patterns in breath and feces of infected and not infected animals were described in first pilot experiments but detailed information on potential marker substances is missing. This study was intended to look for characteristic volatile substances in the headspace of cultures of different MAP strains and to find out how the emission of VOCs was affected by density of bacterial growth. One laboratory adapted and four field strains, three of MAP C-type and one MAP S-type were cultivated on Herrold’s egg yolk medium in dilutions of 10-0, 10-2, 10-4 and 10-6. Volatile substances were pre-concentrated from the headspace over the MAP cultures by means of Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME), thermally desorbed from the SPME fibers and separated and identified by means of GC-MS. Out of the large number of compounds found in the headspace over MAP cultures, 34 volatile marker substances could be identified as potential biomarkers for growth and metabolic activity. All five MAP strains could clearly be distinguished from blank culture media by means of emission patterns based on these 34 substances. In addition, patterns of volatiles emitted by the reference strain were significantly different from the field strains. Headspace concentrations of 2-ethylfuran, 2-methylfuran, 3-methylfuran, 2-pentylfuran, ethyl acetate, 1-methyl-1-H-pyrrole and dimethyldisulfide varied with density of bacterial growth. Analysis of VOCs emitted from mycobacterial cultures can be used to identify bacterial growth and, in addition, to differentiate between different bacterial strains. VOC emission patterns may be used to approximate bacterial growth density. In a perspective volatile marker substances could be used to diagnose MAP

  3. Associational susceptibility in broccoli: mediated by plant volatiles, impeded by ozone.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Blande, James D

    2015-05-01

    Plant-emitted volatile organic compounds (VOCs) mediate interactions within a plant community. Typically, receiving a signal from a damaged neighbour enhances the defensive attributes of a receiver plant. The mechanisms underlying plant-plant interactions may be divided into active and passive processes, both of which involve transit of VOCs between plants and are vulnerable to environmental perturbation. Numerous studies have documented between-plant interactions, but the specific effects on a receiver plant's interactions with herbivores have received little attention. Moreover, the relative contributions of active and passive processes to plant defence and the effects of environmental pollutants on the processes have been largely unexplored. We used a system comprising Brassica oleracea var. italica (broccoli) and the specialist herbivore Plutella xylostella to test whether plants previously exposed to herbivore-damaged neighbours differed from nonexposed plants in their susceptibility to oviposition. We then investigated the roles of active and passive mechanisms in our observations and whether differences in susceptibility remained under elevated ozone concentrations. Plants exposed to herbivore-damaged neighbours were more susceptible to oviposition than plants exposed to undamaged neighbours, which indicates associational susceptibility. Mechanistically, active and passive volatile-mediated processes occurred in tandem with the passive process - involving adsorption of sesquiterpenes to receiver plants - appearing to structure the oviposition response. Exposure to ozone rapidly degraded the sesquiterpenes and eliminated the associational susceptibility. Plant volatiles have typically been thought to play roles in between-plant interactions and to promote receiver plant defence. Here, we show that receiver plants may also become more susceptible to oviposition and thus more likely to be damaged. Extensive disruption of volatile-mediated interactions by an

  4. Dielectric barrier discharge carbon atomic emission spectrometer: universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds.

    PubMed

    Han, Bingjun; Jiang, Xiaoming; Hou, Xiandeng; Zheng, Chengbin

    2014-01-01

    It was found that carbon atomic emission can be excited in low temperature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), and an atmospheric pressure, low power consumption, and compact microplasma carbon atomic emission spectrometer (AES) was constructed and used as a universal and sensitive gas chromatographic (GC) detector for detection of volatile carbon-containing compounds. A concentric DBD device was housed in a heating box to increase the plasma operation temperature to 300 °C to intensify carbon atomic emission at 193.0 nm. Carbon-containing compounds directly injected or eluted from GC can be decomposed, atomized, and excited in this heated DBD for carbon atomic emission. The performance of this new optical detector was first evaluated by determination of a series of volatile carbon-containing compounds including formaldehyde, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, and absolute limits of detection (LODs) were found at a range of 0.12-0.28 ng under the optimized conditions. Preliminary experimental results showed that it provided slightly higher LODs than those obtained by GC with a flame ionization detector (FID). Furthermore, it is a new universal GC detector for volatile carbon-containing compounds that even includes those compounds which are difficult to detect by FID, such as HCHO, CO, and CO2. Meanwhile, hydrogen gas used in conventional techniques was eliminated; and molecular optical emission detection can also be performed with this GC detector for multichannel analysis to improve resolution of overlapped chromatographic peaks of complex mixtures. PMID:24328147

  5. Emission spectrographic determination of volatile trace elements in geologic materials by a carrier distillation technique

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, H.N.

    1986-01-01

    Trace levels of chalcophile elements that form volatile sulfide minerals are determined in stream sediments and in the nonmagnetic fraction of a heavy-mineral concentrate of stream sediments by a carrier distillation emission spectrographic method. Photographically recorded spectra of samples are visually compared with those of synthetic standards for the two sample types. Rock and soil samples may also be analyzed by comparison with the stream-sediment standards. A gallium oxide spectrochemical carrier/buffer enhances the early emission of the volatile elements. Detection limits in parts per million attained are: Sb 5, As 20, Bi 0.1, Cd 1, Cu 1, Pb 2, Ag 0.1, Zn 2, and Sn 0.1. A comparison with other methods of analysis, total-burn emission and atomic absorption spectroscopy, shows good correlation for standard reference for materials and samples from a variety of geologic terranes. ?? 1986.

  6. Effect of land-use change and management on biogenic volatile organic compound emissions--selecting climate-smart cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Maaria; Pugh, Thomas A M; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Arneth, Almut

    2015-09-01

    Land-use change (LUC) has fundamentally altered the form and function of the terrestrial biosphere. Increasing human population, the drive for higher living standards and the potential challenges of mitigating and adapting to global environmental change mean that further changes in LUC are unavoidable. LUC has direct consequences on climate not only via emissions of greenhouse gases and changing the surface energy balance but also by affecting the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Isoprenoids, which dominate global BVOC emissions, are highly reactive and strongly modify atmospheric composition. The effects of LUC on BVOC emissions and related atmospheric chemistry have been largely ignored so far. However, compared with natural ecosystems, most tree species used in bioenergy plantations are strong BVOC emitters, whereas intensively cultivated crops typically emit less BVOCs. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on LUC-driven BVOC emissions and how these might affect atmospheric composition and climate. We further discuss land management and plant-breeding strategies, which could be taken to move towards climate-friendly BVOC emissions while simultaneously maintaining or improving key ecosystem functions such as crop yield under a changing environment. PMID:25255900

  7. The defensive role of volatile emission and extrafloral nectar secretion for lima bean in nature.

    PubMed

    Kost, Christian; Heil, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) features two indirect anti-herbivore defenses--emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and secretion of extrafloral nectar (EFN)--which are both inducible upon herbivore damage. In a previous field study, Lima bean benefited from the simultaneous induction of the two defenses, yet it remained unclear whether both had contributed to plant protection. Our experimental approach aimed at studying the defensive role of both indirect defenses simultaneously. Tendrils were sprayed with jasmonic acid (JA) to induce both defenses, and performance was compared to that of others that were treated with a synthetic blend of either EFN or VOCs. Confirming earlier results, JA treatment and application of the VOC mixture induced EFN secretion in treated tendrils in quantitatively similar amounts. The composition of the applied synthetic blend of EFN was adjusted to match the concentration of EFN secreted from JA- and VOC-treated tendrils. Repeated application of either enhanced the performance of several fitness-relevant plant parameters such as growth rate and flower production. Tendrils treated with JA showed a similar trend, yet some fitness-related parameters responded less to this treatment. This suggests a minor importance of any putative JA-dependent direct defense traits or higher costs of JA-elicited responses as compared to VOCS and EFN, as otherwise JA-treated tendrils should have outperformed VOC- and EFN-treated tendrils. Moreover, the beneficial effect of applying synthetic EFN alone equaled or exceeded that of VOCs and JA. Ants were by far the dominant group among the arthropods that was attracted to JA-, VOC-, or EFN-treated tendrils. The results suggest that EFN plays a more important role as an indirect defense of lima bean than VOCs or any other JA-responsive trait. PMID:18071821

  8. Comparative Toxicity of Combined Particle and Semi-Volatile Organic Fractions of Gasoline and Diesel Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mauderly, Joe; Seagrave, JeanClare; McDonald, Jacob; Gigliotti,Andrew; Nikula, Kristen; Seilkop, Steven; Gurevich, Michael

    2002-08-25

    Little is known about the relative health hazards presented by emissions from in-use gasoline and diesel engines. Adverse health effects have been ascribed to engine emissions on the basis of: (1) the presence of known toxic agents in emissions; (2) high-dose animal and bacterial mutagenicity tests; and (3) studies indicating gradients of health effects with proximity to roadways. Most attention has been given to the particulate fraction of emissions; little attention has been given to the semi-volatile organic fraction. However, the semi-volatile fraction overlaps the particulate fraction in composition and is always present in the vicinity of fresh emissions. Although the potential health effects of diesel emissions have been frequently studied and debated during the past 20 years (EPA, 2002), relatively little attention has been given to the toxicity of emissions from gasoline engines. In view of the considerable progress in cleaning up diesel emissions, it would be useful to compare the toxicity of emissions from contemporary on-road diesel technology with that of emissions from the in-use gasoline fleet that is well-accepted by the public. It would also be useful to have a set of validated tests for rapid, cost-effective comparisons of the toxicity of emission samples, both for comparisons among competing technologies (e.g., diesel, gasoline, natural gas) and for determining the impacts of new fuel, engine, and after-treatment strategies on toxicity. The Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies has sponsored research aimed at developing and applying rapid-response toxicity tests for collected emission samples (Seagrave et al., 2000). This report presents selected results from that work, which is being published in much greater detail in the peer-reviewed literature (Seagrave et al., 2002).

  9. On the use of plant emitted volatile organic compounds for atmospheric chemistry simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Hohaus, T.; Yu, Z.; Tillmann, R.; Kuhn, U.; Andres, S.; Kaminski, M.; Wegener, R.; Novelli, A.; Fuchs, H.; Wahner, A.

    2015-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) contribute to about 90% of the emitted VOC globally with isoprene being one of the most abundant BVOC (Guenther 2002). Intensive efforts in studying and understanding the impact of BVOC on atmospheric chemistry were undertaken in the recent years. However many uncertainties remain, e.g. field studies have shown that in wooded areas measured OH reactivity can often not be explained by measured BVOC and their oxidation products (e.g. Noelscher et al. 2012). This discrepancy may be explained by either a lack of understanding of BVOC sources or insufficient understanding of BVOC oxidation mechanisms. Plants emit a complex VOC mixture containing likely many compounds which have not yet been measured or identified (Goldstein and Galbally 2007). A lack of understanding BVOC sources limits bottom-up estimates of secondary products of BVOC oxidation such as SOA. Similarly, the widespread oversimplification of atmospheric chemistry in simulation experiments, using single compound or simple BVOC mixtures to study atmospheric chemistry processes limit our ability to assess air quality and climate impacts of BVOC. We will present applications of the new extension PLUS (PLant chamber Unit for Simulation) to our atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR. PLUS is used to produce representative BVOC mixtures from direct plant emissions. We will report on the performance and characterization of the newly developed chamber. As an exemplary application, trees typical of a Boreal forest environment were used to compare OH reactivity as directly measured by LIF to the OH reactivity calculated from BVOC measured by GC-MS and PTRMS. The comparison was performed for both, primary emissions of trees without any influence of oxidizing agents and using different oxidation schemes. For the monoterpene emitters investigated here, we show that discrepancies between measured and calculated total OH reactivity increase with increasing degree of oxidation

  10. Compound specific carbon and hydrogen stable isotope analyses of volatile organic compounds in various emissions of combustion processes.

    PubMed

    Vitzthum von Eckstaedt, Christiane D; Grice, Kliti; Ioppolo-Armanios, Marisa; Kelly, David; Gibberd, Mark

    2012-11-01

    This study presents carbon (δ(13)C) and hydrogen (δD) isotope values of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in various emission sources using thermal desorption-gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (TD-GC-irMS). The investigated VOCs ranged from C6 to C10. Samples were taken from (i) car exhaust emissions as well as from plant combustion experiments of (ii) various C3 and (iii) various C4 plants. We found significant differences in δ values of analysed VOCs between these sources, e.g. δ(13)C of benzene ranged between (i) -21.7 ± 0.2 ‰, (ii) -27.6 ± 1.6 ‰ and (iii) -16.3 ± 2.2 ‰, respectively and δD of benzene ranged between (i) -73 ± 13 ‰, (ii) -111 ± 10 ‰ and (iii) -70 ± 24 ‰, respectively. Results of VOCs present in investigated emission sources were compared to values from the literature (aluminium refinery emission). All source groups could be clearly distinguished using the dual approach of δ(13)C and δD analysis. The results of this study indicate that the correlation of compound specific carbon and hydrogen isotope analysis provides the potential for future research to trace the fate and to determine the origin of VOCs in the atmosphere using thermal desorption compound specific isotope analysis. PMID:22921436

  11. [The emission flux of volatile organic compounds in the Inner Mongolia Grassland].

    PubMed

    Bai, Jianhui; Wang, Gengchen; Ren, Lixin; Baker, Brad; Zimmerman, Patrick; Liang, Baosheng

    2003-11-01

    During the summer season of 2002, emissions of volatile organic compounds were firstly measured by a static enclosure technique at a grassland site in the Inner Mongolia grassland. The parameters including solar radiation, air temperature and relative humidity were also measured in the same time period. The results showed that isoprene was the main component of volatile organic compounds emitted from the grassland. Isoprene exhibited an evident diurnal, daily and seasonal variation. Solar visible radiation, air temperature and water vapor content were the main factors to affect isoprene emission, and solar visible radiation was the most important factor to control the isoprene emission. Base on the correlation analysis, when considering the affecting factors of isoprene emission, it is not only to consider solar visible radiation, temperature, but also the water vapor. It is impossible to avoid the changes of solar radiation, temperature and humidity between inside and outside the chamber by using the enclosure technique. So, it is necessary to take these effects into the considerations and modify isoprene emission. In summer 2002, the maximum emission flux (C) of isoprene was 1649.3 micrograms/(m2.h), and monthly averaged emission flux (C) in June, August and September were 886.6, 707.0 and 427.2 micrograms/(m2.h), respectively. PMID:14768559

  12. Bacterial-Plant-Interactions: Approaches to Unravel the Biological Function of Bacterial Volatiles in the Rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Marco; Effmert, Uta; Piechulla, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Rhizobacteria produce an enormous amount of volatile compounds, however, the function of these metabolites is scarcely understood. Investigations evaluating influences on plants performed in various laboratories using individually developed experimental setups revealed different and often contradictory results, e.g., ranging from a significant plant growth promotion to a dramatic suppression of plant development. In addition to these discrepancies, these test systems neglected properties and complexity of the rhizosphere. Therefore, to pursue further investigations of the role of bacterial volatiles in this underground habitat, the applied methods have to simulate its natural characteristics as much as possible. In this review, we will describe and discuss pros and cons of currently used bioassays, give insights into rhizosphere characteristics, and suggest improvements for test systems that would consider in natura conditions and would allow gaining further knowledge of the potential function and significance of rhizobacterial volatiles in plant life. PMID:26903987

  13. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby J; Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B; Fontes, Clarissa G; Zorzanelli, Raquel F; Meyers, Kimberly T; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O; Piva, Luani R de O; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C₅ and C₆ GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C₆ GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress. PMID:27135346

  14. Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates in new manufactured and site-built houses.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, A T; Rudd, A F; Beal, D; Chandra, S

    2000-09-01

    Concentrations of 54 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and ventilation rates were measured in four new manufactured houses over 2-9.5 months following installation and in seven new site-built houses 1-2 months after completion. The houses were in four projects located in hot-humid and mixed-humid climates. They were finished and operational, but unoccupied. Ventilation rates ranged from 0.14-0.78 h-1. Several of the site-built houses had ventilation rates below the ASHRAE recommended value. In both manufactured and site-built houses, the predominant airborne compounds were alpha-pinene, formaldehyde, hexanal, and acetic acid. Formaldehyde concentrations were below or near 50 ppb with a geometric mean value for all houses of 40 ppb. Similarities in the types of VOCs and in VOC concentrations indicated that indoor air quality in the houses was impacted by the same or similar sources. Major identified sources included plywood flooring, latex paint and sheet vinyl flooring. One site-built house was operated at ventilation rates of 0.14 and 0.32 h-1. VOC emission rates calculated at the two conditions agreed within +/- 10% for the most volatile compounds. Generally, the ratios of emission rates at the low and high ventilation rates decreased with decreasing compound volatility. Changes in VOC emission rates in the manufactured houses over 2-9.5 months after installation varied by compound. Only several compounds showed a consistent decrease in emission rate over this period. PMID:10979199

  15. Green Leaf Volatile Emissions during High Temperature and Drought Stress in a Central Amazon Rainforest

    PubMed Central

    Jardine, Kolby J.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Holm, Jennifer; Jardine, Angela B.; Fontes, Clarissa G.; Zorzanelli, Raquel F.; Meyers, Kimberly T.; de Souza, Vinicius Fernadez; Garcia, Sabrina; Gimenez, Bruno O.; de O. Piva, Luani R.; Higuchi, Niro; Artaxo, Paulo; Martin, Scot; Manzi, Antônio O.

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged drought stress combined with high leaf temperatures can induce programmed leaf senescence involving lipid peroxidation, and the loss of net carbon assimilation during early stages of tree mortality. Periodic droughts are known to induce widespread tree mortality in the Amazon rainforest, but little is known about the role of lipid peroxidation during drought-induced leaf senescence. In this study, we present observations of green leaf volatile (GLV) emissions during membrane peroxidation processes associated with the combined effects of high leaf temperatures and drought-induced leaf senescence from individual detached leaves and a rainforest ecosystem in the central Amazon. Temperature-dependent leaf emissions of volatile terpenoids were observed during the morning, and together with transpiration and net photosynthesis, showed a post-midday depression. This post-midday depression was associated with a stimulation of C5 and C6 GLV emissions, which continued to increase throughout the late afternoon in a temperature-independent fashion. During the 2010 drought in the Amazon Basin, which resulted in widespread tree mortality, green leaf volatile emissions (C6 GLVs) were observed to build up within the forest canopy atmosphere, likely associated with high leaf temperatures and enhanced drought-induced leaf senescence processes. The results suggest that observations of GLVs in the tropical boundary layer could be used as a chemical sensor of reduced ecosystem productivity associated with drought stress. PMID:27135346

  16. Determination of Plant Volatiles Using Solid Phase Microextraction GC-MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bramer, Scott; Goodrich, Katherine R.

    2015-01-01

    This experiment combines analytical techniques of solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with easily relatable and accessible plant volatile chemistry (floral and vegetative scents of local/available plants). The biosynthesis and structure of these chemicals are of interest in the areas of organic chemistry,…

  17. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles-especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  18. Plant volatiles influence the African weaver ant-cashew tree mutualism.

    PubMed

    Wanjiku, Caroline; Khamis, Fathiya M; Teal, Peter E A; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-12-01

    Plant volatiles influence virtually all forms of ant-plant symbioses. However, little is known about their role in the mutualistic relationship between the African weaver ant and the cashew tree. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that cashew tree volatiles from plant parts most vulnerable to herbivory viz. inflorescence, leaves, and fruits, are attractive to weaver ants. Using behavioral assays, we show that these volatiles attract weaver ants but without significant difference in preference for any of the odors. These same plant parts are associated with extra floral nectaries (EFNs') and therefore we evaluated the possibility that the ants associate the volatiles with food rewards. We found that perception of the odors was followed by a searching response that led the ants to non-volatile sugar rewards. More importantly, we observed that weaver ants spent significantly more time around the odor when it was paired to a reward. Chemical analysis of volatiles showed that the plant parts shared similarities in chemical composition, dominated by monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. Additionally, we evaluated the attractiveness of a synthetic blend of three ocimene isomers ((E)-β-ocimene, (Z)-β-ocimene and allo-ocimene) identified in cashew leaf odor and shown to constitute a candidate kairomone for the cashew pest Pseudotheraptus wayi. We found that the attractiveness of the blend was dose dependent, and the response of the ants was not significantly different to that established with the crude volatiles from plant tissues. These results present new and interesting possibilities for improving weaver ant performance in cashew pest management. PMID:25355634

  19. The effect of warming and enhanced ultraviolet radiation on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds from European aspen.

    PubMed

    Maja, Mengistu M; Kasurinen, Anne; Holopainen, Toini; Julkunen-Tiitto, Riitta; Holopainen, Jarmo K

    2016-03-15

    Different environmental stress factors often occur together but their combined effects on plant secondary metabolism are seldom considered. We studied the effect of enhanced ultraviolet (UV-B) (31% increase) radiation and temperature (ambient +2 °C) singly and in combination on gender-specific emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from 2-year-old clones of European aspen (Populus tremula L.). Plants grew in 36 experimental plots (6 replicates for Control, UV-A, UV-B, T, UV-A+T and UV-B+T treatments), in an experimental field. VOCs emitted from shoots were sampled from two (1 male and 1 female) randomly selected saplings (total of 72 saplings), per plot on two sampling occasions (June and July) in 2014. There was a significant UV-B×temperature interaction effect on emission rates of different VOCs. Isoprene emission rate was increased due to warming, but warming also modified VOC responses to both UV-A and UV-B radiation. Thus, UV-A increased isoprene emissions without warming, whereas UV-B increased emissions only in combination with warming. Warming-modified UV-A and UV-B responses were also seen in monoterpenes (MTs), sesquiterpenes (SQTs) and green leaf volatiles (GLVs). MTs showed also a UV × gender interaction effect as females had higher emission rates under UV-A and UV-B than males. UV × gender and T × gender interactions caused significant differences in VOC blend as there was more variation (more GLVs and trans-β-caryophyllene) in VOCs from female saplings compared to male saplings. VOCs from the rhizosphere were also collected from each plot in two exposure seasons, but no significant treatment effects were observed. Our results suggest that simultaneous warming and elevated-UV-radiation increase the emission of VOCs from aspen. Thus the contribution of combined environmental factors on VOC emissions may have a greater impact to the photochemical reactions in the atmosphere compared to the impact of individual factors acting alone. PMID

  20. Measurements of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo City , Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, L.; Pisani, S.; Pool, C.; Vasconcellos, P.

    2003-04-01

    The presence of the biogenic hydrocarbons in an NO_x-containing atmosphere can enhance ozone generation and the impact of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from vegetation on atmospheric chemistry has been investigated. No study of VOC emission rates from plant species has been carried out in São Paulo City, Brazil, prior to this work. This study is part of a three-years project on biogenic volatile organic compounds emissions from species of plants found in the vegetation of the São Paulo metropolitan area. Typical plants (Alchornea sidifolia, Cupania oblongifolia, Cecropia pachystachia, Casearia sylvestris, Machaerium villosum, Croton floribundus, Myrcia rostrata, Solanum erianthum and Ficus insípida) were selected and identical species were studied in urban, sub-urban and forest regions. Biogenic hydrocarbons were determined placing branches of plants in enclosures and measuring the accumulation of emitted compounds in an all-Teflon chamber, the cuvette system. Measuring ambient VOC concentration adsorptive preconcentration, followed by GC-MS after thermal desorption of the sample, was employed to determine components heavier than C_5. Collection of carbonyl compounds on 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazine coated particles followed by HPLC-UV was used to analyze low molecular weight carbonyl compounds. Emissions rates of isoprene, a-pinene, camphene and limonene ranged from 0.01 to 2.16 μg C/h.g and emissions rates of aldehydes (C_1 - C_6), acrolein, methacrolein, 2-butanone and acetone ranged from 0.04 to 4.20 μg C/h.g. Ambient and chamber temperatures, relative humidity, light intensity, O_3 and NO_x were monitored during experiments.

  1. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emissions from agricultural crop species: is guttation a possible source for methanol emissions following light/dark transition ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozaffar, Ahsan; Amelynck, Crist; Bachy, Aurélie; Digrado, Anthony; Delaplace, Pierre; du Jardin, Patrick; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Schoon, Niels; Aubinet, Marc; Heinesch, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the CROSTVOC (CROp STress VOC) project, the exchange of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) between two important agricultural crop species, maize and winter wheat, and the atmosphere has recently been measured during an entire growing season by using the eddy covariance technique. Because of the co-variation of BVOC emission drivers in field conditions, laboratory studies were initiated in an environmental chamber in order to disentangle the responses of the emissions to variations of the individual environmental parameters (such as PPFD and temperature) and to diverse abiotic stress factors. Young plants were enclosed in transparent all-Teflon dynamic enclosures (cuvettes) through which BVOC-free and RH-controlled air was sent. BVOC enriched air was subsequently sampled from the plant cuvettes and an empty cuvette (background) and analyzed for BVOCs in a high sensitivity Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (hs-PTR-MS) and for CO2 in a LI-7000 non-dispersive IR gas analyzer. Emissions were monitored at constant temperature (25 °C) and at a stepwise varying PPFD pattern (0-650 µmol m-2 s-1). For maize plants, sudden light/dark transitions at the end of the photoperiod were accompanied by prompt and considerable increases in methanol (m/z 33) and water vapor (m/z 39) emissions. Moreover, guttation droplets appeared on the sides and the tips of the leaves within a few minutes after light/dark transition. Therefore the assumption has been raised that methanol is also coming out with guttation fluid from the leaves. Consequently, guttation fluid was collected from young maize and wheat plants, injected in an empty enclosure and sampled by PTR-MS. Methanol and a large number of other compounds were observed from guttation fluid. Recent studies have shown that guttation from agricultural crops frequently occurs in field conditions. Further research is required to find out the source strength of methanol emissions by this guttation

  2. Particle emissions, volatility, and toxicity from an ethanol fumigated compression ignition engine.

    PubMed

    Surawski, Nicholas C; Miljevic, Branka; Roberts, Boyd A; Modini, Robin L; Situ, Rong; Brown, Richard J; Bottle, Steven E; Ristovski, Zoran D

    2010-01-01

    Particle emissions, volatility, and the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated for a pre-Euro I compression ignition engine to study the potential health impacts of employing ethanol fumigation technology. Engine testing was performed in two separate experimental campaigns with most testing performed at intermediate speed with four different load settings and various ethanol substitutions. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) was used to determine particle size distributions, a volatilization tandem differential mobility analyzer (V-TDMA) was used to explore particle volatility, and a new profluorescent nitroxide probe, BPEAnit, was used to investigate the potential toxicity of particles. The greatest particulate mass reduction was achieved with ethanol fumigation at full load, which contributed to the formation of a nucleation mode. Ethanol fumigation increased the volatility of particles by coating the particles with organic material or by making extra organic material available as an external mixture. In addition, the particle-related ROS concentrations increased with ethanol fumigation and were associated with the formation of a nucleation mode. The smaller particles, the increased volatility, and the increase in potential particle toxicity with ethanol fumigation may provide a substantial barrier for the uptake of fumigation technology using ethanol as a supplementary fuel. PMID:19994903

  3. Emission rates of selected volatile organic compounds from skin of healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Mochalski, Paweł; King, Julian; Unterkofler, Karl; Hinterhuber, Hartmann; Amann, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC–MS) coupled with solid phase micro-extraction as pre-concentration method (SPME) was applied to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by human skin. A total of 64 C4-C10 compounds were quantified in skin emanation of 31 healthy volunteers. Amongst them aldehydes and hydrocarbons were the predominant chemical families with eighteen and seventeen species, respectively. Apart from these, there were eight ketones, six heterocyclic compounds, six terpenes, four esters, two alcohols, two volatile sulphur compounds, and one nitrile. The observed median emission rates ranged from 0.55 to 4790 fmol cm−2 min−1. Within this set of analytes three volatiles; acetone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and acetaldehyde exhibited especially high emission rates exceeding 100 fmol cm−2 min−1. Thirty-three volatiles were highly present in skin emanation with incidence rates over 80%. These species can be considered as potential markers of human presence, which could be used for early location of entrapped victims during Urban Search and Rescue Operations (USaR). PMID:24768920

  4. 27 CFR 19.207 - Alternate use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. 19.207 Section 19.207 Alcohol, Tobacco... use of distilled spirits plant and volatile fruit-flavor concentrate premises. If a proprietor of...-flavor concentrate plant or vice-a-versa, the proprietor must comply with the requirements of §§...

  5. The role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles in biological control: a journey from lab to field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some plants respond to herbivory by emitting volatiles that attract natural enemies of the herbivores responsible for the damage. Several herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are known to affect the behavior of pest and beneficial insects. Thus, chemical signaling by plants in response to her...

  6. Emission of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the aerobic decomposition of orange wastes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Xinming

    2015-07-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) emitted from orange wastes during aerobic decomposition were investigated in a laboratory-controlled incubator for a period of two months. Emission of total OVOCs (TOVOCs) from orange wastes reached 1714 mg/dry kg (330 mg/wet kg). Ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, methyl acetate, 2-butanone and acetaldehyde were the most abundant OVOC species with shares of 26.9%, 24.8%, 20.3%, 13.9%, 2.8% and 2.5%, respectively, in the TOVOCs released. The emission fluxes of the above top five OVOCs were quite trivial in the beginning but increased sharply to form one "peak emission window" with maximums at days 1-8 until leveling off after 10 days. This type of "peak emission window" was synchronized with the CO2 fluxes and incubation temperature of the orange wastes, indicating that released OVOCs were mainly derived from secondary metabolites of orange substrates through biotic processes rather than abiotic processes or primary volatilization of the inherent pool in oranges. Acetaldehyde instead had emission fluxes decreasing sharply from its initial maximum to nearly zero in about four days, suggesting that it was inherent rather than secondarily formed. For TOVOCs or all OVOC species except 2-butanone and acetone, over 80% of their emissions occurred during the first week, implying that organic wastes might give off a considerable amount of OVOCs during the early disposal period under aerobic conditions. PMID:26141879

  7. Characteristics of microbial volatile organic compound flux rates from soil and plant litter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, C. M.; Fierer, N.

    2013-12-01

    Our knowledge of microbial production and consumption of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from soil and litter, as well as which microorganisms are involved, is relatively limited compared to what we know about VOC emissions from terrestrial plants. With climate change expecting to alter plant community composition, nitrogen (N) deposition rates, mean annual temperatures, precipitation patterns, and atmospheric VOC concentrations, it is unknown how microbial production and consumption of VOCs from litter and soil will respond. We have spent the last 5 years quantifying VOC flux rates in decaying plant litter, mineral soils and from a subalpine field site using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Microbial production, relative to abiotic sources, accounted for 78% to 99% of the total VOC emissions from decomposing litter, highlighting the importance of microbial metabolisms in these systems. Litter chemistry correlated with the types of VOCs emitted, of which, methanol was emitted at the highest rates from all studies. The net emissions of carbon as VOCs was found to be up to 88% of that emitted as CO2 suggesting that VOCs likely represent an important component of the carbon cycle in many terrestrial systems. Nitrogen additions drastically reduced VOC emissions from litter to near zero, though it is still not understood whether this was due to an increase in consumption or a decrease in production. In the field, the root system contributed to 53% of the carbon that was emitted as VOCs from the soil with increasing air temperatures correlating to an increase in VOC flux rates from the soil system. Finally, we are currently utilizing next generation sequencing techniques (Illumina MiSeq) along with varying concentrations of isoprene, the third most abundant VOC in the atmosphere behind methane and methanol, above soils in a laboratory incubation to determine consumption rates and the microorganisms (bacteria, archaea and fungi) associated with the

  8. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser. PMID:25464701

  9. Application of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger for volatile organic compounds (VOC) emission control.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, P M; Dawande, S D

    2013-04-01

    The petroleum products have wide range of volatility and are required to be stored in bulk. The evaporation losses are significant and it is a economic as well as environmental concern, since evaporative losses of petroleum products cause increased VOC in ambient air. Control of these losses poses a major problem for the storage tank designers. Ever rising cost of petroleum products further adds to the gravity of the problem. Condensation is one of the technologies for reducing volatile organic compounds emissions. Condensation is effected by condenser, which is basically a heat exchanger and the heat exchanger configuration plays an important role. The horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger is a promising configuration that finds an application in VOC control. This paper attempts to understand underlying causes of emissions and analyse the option of horizontal spiral coil heat exchanger as vent condenser. PMID:25508332

  10. Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of the sphinx moth Manduca sexta to host plant headspace volatiles.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Ann M; Mechaber, Wendy L; Hildebrand, John G

    2003-08-01

    Coupled gas chromatography with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) using antennae of adult female Manduca sexta was employed to screen for olfactory stimulants present in headspace collections from four species of larval host plants belonging to two families: Solanaceae--Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Capiscum annuum (bell pepper), and Datura wrightii; and Martyniaceae--Pronboscideaparviflora. Headspace volatiles were collected from undamaged foliage of potted, living plants. GC-EAD revealed 23 EAD-active compounds, of which 15 were identified by GC-mass spectrometry. Identified compounds included aliphatic, aromatic, and terpenoid compounds bearing a range of functional groups. Nine EAD-active compounds were common to all four host plant species: (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, nonanal, decanal, phenylacetaldehyde, methyl salicylate, benzyl alcohol, geranyl acetone, (E)-nerolidol, and one unidentified compound. Behavioral responses of female moths to an eight-component synthetic blend of selected tomato headspace volatiles were tested in a laboratory wind tunnel. Females were attracted to the blend. A comparison of responses from antennae of males and females to bell pepper headspace volatiles revealed that males responded to the same suite of volatiles as females, except for (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate. EAD responses of males also were lower for (Z)-and (E)-nerolidol and one unidentified compound. Electroantennogram EAG dose-response curves for the 15 identified EAD-active volatiles were recorded. At the higher test doses (10-100 microg), female antennae yielded larger EAG responses to terpenoids and to aliphatic and aromatic esters. Male antennae did respond to the higher doses of (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate, indicating that they can detect this compound. On the basis of ubiquity of the EAD-active volatiles identified to date in host plant headspace collections, we suggest that M. sexta uses a suite of volatiles to locate and identify appropriate host plants. PMID

  11. Modelling the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds to new particle formation in the Jülich plant atmosphere chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roldin, P.; Liao, L.; Mogensen, D.; Dal Maso, M.; Rusanen, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2015-09-01

    We used the Aerosol Dynamics gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM) to simulate the contribution of BVOC plant emissions to the observed new particle formation during photooxidation experiments performed in the Jülich Plant-Atmosphere Chamber and to evaluate how well smog chamber experiments can mimic the atmospheric conditions during new particle formation events. ADCHAM couples the detailed gas-phase chemistry from Master Chemical Mechanism with a novel aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module. Our model simulations reveal that the observed particle growth may have either been controlled by the formation rate of semi- and low-volatility organic compounds in the gas phase or by acid catalysed heterogeneous reactions between semi-volatility organic compounds in the particle surface layer (e.g. peroxyhemiacetal dimer formation). The contribution of extremely low-volatility organic gas-phase compounds to the particle formation and growth was suppressed because of their rapid and irreversible wall losses, which decreased their contribution to the nano-CN formation and growth compared to the atmospheric situation. The best agreement between the modelled and measured total particle number concentration (R2 > 0.95) was achieved if the nano-CN was formed by kinetic nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of BVOCs.

  12. Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities in the Yangtze River Delta, China.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ziwei; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Qu, Hang; Zhou, Mengyi; Sun, Jin; Gou, Bin

    2015-11-15

    Process-specific emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from petrochemical facilities were investigated in the Yangtze River Delta, China. Source samples were collected from various process units in the petrochemical, basic chemical, and chlorinated chemical plants, and were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detection. The results showed that propane (19.9%), propene (11.7%), ethane (9.5%) and i-butane (9.2%) were the most abundant species in the petrochemical plant, with propene at much higher levels than in petrochemical profiles measured in other regions. Styrene (15.3%), toluene (10.3%) and 1,3-butadiene (7.5%) were the major species in the basic chemical industry, while halocarbons, especially dichloromethane (15.2%) and chloromethane (7.5%), were substantial in the chlorinated chemical plant. Composite profiles were calculated using a weight-average approach based on the VOC emission strength of various process units. Emission profiles for an entire petrochemical-related industry were found to be process-oriented and should be established considering the differences in VOC emissions from various manufacturing facilities. The VOC source reactivity and carcinogenic risk potential of each process unit were also calculated in this study, suggesting that process operations mainly producing alkenes should be targeted for possible controls with respect to reducing the ozone formation potential, while process units emitting 1,3-butadiene should be under priority control in terms of toxicity. This provides a basis for further measurements of process-specific VOC emissions from the entire petrochemical industry. Meanwhile, more representative samples should be collected to reduce the large uncertainties. PMID:26179779

  13. Powdery mildew suppresses herbivore-induced plant volatiles and interferes with parasitoid attraction in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Desurmont, Gaylord A; Xu, Hao; Turlings, Ted C J

    2016-09-01

    The co-occurrence of different antagonists on a plant can greatly affect infochemicals with ecological consequences for higher trophic levels. Here we investigated how the presence of a plant pathogen, the powdery mildew Erysiphe cruciferarum, on Brassica rapa affects (1) plant volatiles emitted in response to damage by a specialist herbivore, Pieris brassicae; (2) the attraction of the parasitic wasp Cotesia glomerata and (3) the performance of P. brassicae and C. glomerata. Plant volatiles were significantly induced by herbivory in both healthy and mildew-infected plants, but were quantitatively 41% lower for mildew-infected plants compared to healthy plants. Parasitoids strongly preferred Pieris-infested plants to dually-infested (Pieris + mildew) plants, and preferred dually infested plants over only mildew-infected plants. The performance of P. brassicae was unaffected by powdery mildew, but C. glomerata cocoon mass was reduced when parasitized caterpillars developed on mildew-infected plants. Thus, avoidance of mildew-infested plants may be adaptive for C. glomerata parasitoids, whereas P. brassicae caterpillars may suffer less parasitism on mildew-infected plants in nature. From a pest management standpoint, the concurrent presence of multiple plant antagonists can affect the efficiency of specific natural enemies, which may in turn have a negative impact on the regulation of pest populations. PMID:27043839

  14. Parasitism overrides herbivore identity allowing hyperparasitoids to locate their parasitoid host using herbivore-induced plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Broekgaarden, Colette; Weldegergis, Berhane T; Harvey, Jeffrey A; Vosman, Ben; Dicke, Marcel; Poelman, Erik H

    2015-06-01

    Foraging success of predators profoundly depends on reliable and detectable cues indicating the presence of their often inconspicuous prey. Carnivorous insects rely on chemical cues to optimize foraging efficiency. Hyperparasitoids that lay their eggs in the larvae or pupae of parasitic wasps may find their parasitoid hosts developing in different herbivores. They can use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to locate parasitized caterpillars. Because different herbivore species induce different HIPV emission from plants, hyperparasitoids may have to deal with large variation in volatile information that indicates host presence. In this study, we used an ecogenomics approach to first address whether parasitized caterpillars of two herbivore species (Pieris rapae and P. brassicae) induce similar transcriptional and metabolomic responses in wild Brassica oleracea plants and, second, whether hyperparasitoids Lysibia nana are able to discriminate between these induced plant responses to locate their parasitoid host in different herbivores under both laboratory and field conditions. Our study revealed that both herbivore identity and parasitism affect plant transcriptional and metabolic responses to herbivory. We also found that hyperparasitoids are able to respond to HIPVs released by wild B. oleracea under both laboratory and field conditions. In addition, we observed stronger attraction of hyperparasitoids to HIPVs when plants were infested with parasitized caterpillars. However, hyperparasitoids were equally attracted to plants infested by either herbivore species. Our results indicate that parasitism plays a major role in HIPV-mediated plant-hyperparasitoid interactions. Furthermore, these findings also indicate that plant trait-mediated indirect interaction networks play important roles in community-wide species interactions. PMID:25789566

  15. Two volatile organic compounds trigger plant self-defense against a bacterial pathogen and a sucking insect in cucumber under open field conditions.

    PubMed

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  16. Two Volatile Organic Compounds Trigger Plant Self-Defense against a Bacterial Pathogen and a Sucking Insect in Cucumber under Open Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2013-01-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a plant self-defense mechanism against a broad-range of pathogens and insect pests. Among chemical SAR triggers, plant and bacterial volatiles are promising candidates for use in pest management, as these volatiles are highly effective, inexpensive, and can be employed at relatively low concentrations compared with agrochemicals. However, such volatiles have some drawbacks, including the high evaporation rate of these compounds after application in the open field, their negative effects on plant growth, and their inconsistent levels of effectiveness. Here, we demonstrate the effectiveness of volatile organic compound (VOC)-mediated induced resistance against both the bacterial angular leaf spot pathogen, Pseudononas syringae pv. lachrymans, and the sucking insect aphid, Myzus persicae, in the open field. Using the VOCs 3-pentanol and 2-butanone where fruit yields increased gave unexpectedly, a significant increase in the number of ladybird beetles, Coccinella septempunctata, a natural enemy of aphids. The defense-related gene CsLOX was induced by VOC treatment, indicating that triggering the oxylipin pathway in response to the emission of green leaf volatiles can recruit the natural enemy of aphids. These results demonstrate that VOCs may help prevent plant disease and insect damage by eliciting induced resistance, even in open fields. PMID:23698768

  17. Photochemical production of aerosols from real plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Th. F.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Dal Maso, M.; Fisseha, R.; Hohaus, Th.; Spahn, H.; Uerlings, R.; Wegener, R.; Griffiths, P. T.; Dinar, E.; Rudich, Y.; Wahner, A.

    2009-07-01

    Emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOC) which on oxidation form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) can couple the vegetation with the atmosphere and climate. Particle formation from tree emissions was investigated in a new setup: a plant chamber coupled to a reaction chamber for oxidizing the plant emissions and for forming SOA. Emissions from the boreal tree species birch, pine, and spruce were studied. In addition, α-pinene was used as reference compound. Under the employed experimental conditions, OH radicals were essential for inducing new particle formation, although O3 (≤80 ppb) was always present and a fraction of the monoterpenes and the sesquiterpenes reacted with ozone before OH was generated. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were linearly related to the VOC carbon mixing ratios, as were the maximum observed volume and the condensational growth rates. For all trees, the threshold of new particle formation was lower than for α-pinene. It was lowest for birch which emitted the largest fraction of oxygenated VOC (OVOC), suggesting that OVOC may play a role in the nucleation process. Incremental mass yields were ≍5% for pine, spruce and α-pinene, and ≍10% for birch. α-Pinene was a good model compound to describe the yield and the growth of SOA particles from coniferous emissions. The mass fractional yields agreed well with observations for boreal forests. Despite the somewhat enhanced VOC and OH concentrations our results may be up-scaled to eco-system level. Using the mass fractional yields observed for the tree emissions and weighting them with the abundance of the respective trees in boreal forests SOA mass concentration calculations agree within 6% with field observations. For a future VOC increase of 50% we predict a particle mass increase due to SOA of 19% assuming today's mass contribution of pre-existing aerosol and oxidant levels.

  18. Photochemical production of aerosols from real plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mentel, Th. F.; Wildt, J.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Tillmann, R.; Dal Maso, M.; Fisseha, R.; Hohaus, Th.; Spahn, H.; Uerlings, R.; Wegener, R.; Griffiths, P. T.; Dinar, E.; Rudich, Y.; Wahner, A.

    2009-01-01

    By emission of volatile organic compounds (VOC) which on oxidation form secondary organic aerosols (SOA) the vegetation is coupled to atmosphere and climate. New particle formation from tree emissions was investigated in a new setup: a plant chamber coupled to a reaction chamber for oxidizing the plant emissions and for forming SOA. The boreal tree species birch, pine, and spruce were studied and α-pinene was used as reference compound. Under the experimental conditions OH radicals were essential for inducing new particle formation, although O3 (≤80 ppb) was always present and a part of the monoterpenes and the sesquiterpenes reacted already with ozone before OH was generated. Formation rates of 3 nm particles were linearly related to the carbon mixing ratios of the VOC, as were the maximum observed volume and the condensational growth rates. The threshold of new particle formation was lower for the tree emissions than for α-pinene. It was lowest for birch with the largest fraction of oxygenated VOC (OVOC) suggesting that OVOC may play a pivotal role in new particle formation. Incremental mass yields were ≍5% for pine, spruce and α-pinene, and ≍10% for birch. α-Pinene was a good model compound to describe the yield and the growth of SOA particles from coniferous emissions. The mass fractional yields agreed well with observations for boreal forests. Despite our somewhat enhanced VOC and OH concentrations our results may thus be up-scaled to eco-system level. Using the mass fractional yields observed for the tree emissions and weighting them with the abundance of the respective trees in boreal forests we calculate SOA mass concentrations which agree within 6% with field observations. For a future VOC increase of 50% we predict a particle mass increase due to SOA of 19% assuming today's mass contribution of pre-existing aerosol.

  19. Toxic volatile organic compounds in environmental tobacco smoke: Emission factors for modeling exposures of California populations

    SciTech Connect

    Daisey, J.M.; Mahanama, K.R.R.; Hodgson, A.T.

    1994-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to measure emission factors for selected toxic air contaminants in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) using a room-sized environmental chamber. The emissions of 23 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including, 1,3-butadiene, three aldehydes and two vapor-phase N-nitrosamines were determined for six commercial brands of cigarettes and reference cigarette 1R4F. The commercial brands were selected to represent 62.5% of the cigarettes smoked in California. For each brand, three cigarettes were machine smoked in the chamber. The experiments were conducted over four hours to investigate the effects of aging. Emission factors of the target compounds were also determined for sidestream smoke (SS). For almost all target compounds, the ETS emission factors were significantly higher than the corresponding SS values probably due to less favorable combustion conditions and wall losses in the SS apparatus. Where valid comparisons could be made, the ETS emission factors were generally in good agreement with the literature. Therefore, the ETS emission factors, rather than the SS values, are recommended for use in models to estimate population exposures from this source. The variabilities in the emission factors ({mu}g/cigarette) of the selected toxic air contaminants among brands, expressed as coefficients of variation, were 16 to 29%. Therefore, emissions among brands were Generally similar. Differences among brands were related to the smoked lengths of the cigarettes and the masses of consumed tobacco. Mentholation and whether a cigarette was classified as light or regular did not significantly affect emissions. Aging was determined not to be a significant factor for the target compounds. There were, however, deposition losses of the less volatile compounds to chamber surfaces.

  20. Extended Research on Detection of Deception Using Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2006-06-01

    A system that captures and analyzes volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from skin surfaces may offer a viable alternative method to the polygraph instrument currently in use for detecting deception in U.S. government settings. Like the involuntary autonomic central nervous system response data gathered during polygraph testing, VOC emissions from the skin may provide data that can be used to detect stress caused by deception. Detecting VOCs, then, may present a noninvasive, non-intrusive method for observing, recording, and quantifying evidence of stress or emotional change.

  1. Variation in plant volatiles and attraction of the parasitoid Diadegma semiclausum (Hellén).

    PubMed

    Bukovinszky, T; Gols, R; Posthumus, M A; Vet, L E M; Van Lenteren, J C

    2005-03-01

    Differences in allelochemistry of plants may influence their ability to attract parasitoids. We studied responses of Diadegma semiclausum (Hellén), a parasitoid of the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.), to inter- and intraspecific variation in odor blends of crucifers and a non-crucifer species. Uninfested Brussels sprout (Brassica oleracea L. gemmifera), white mustard (Sinapis alba L.), a feral Brassica oleracea, and malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) were compared for their attractivity to D. semiclausum in a Y-tube bioassay. Odors from all plants were more attractive to the parasitoid than clean air. However, tested against each other, parasitoids preferred the volatile blend from the three cruciferous species over that of malting barley. Wasps also discriminated between uninfested crucifers: mustard was as attractive as feral B. oleracea, and both were more attractive than Brussels sprout. Attractivity of uninfested plants was compared with that of plants infested by larvae of the host P. xylostella. Host-infested mustard and Brussels sprout were more attractive than uninfested conspecifics. Interestingly, the volatile blends of uninfested white mustard and infested Brussels sprout were equally attractive. We also compared the volatile composition of different plant sources by collecting headspace samples and analysing them with GC-MS. Similarities of volatile profiles were determined by hierarchic clustering and non-metric scaling based on the Horn-index. Due to the absence of several compounds in its blend, the volatile profile of barley showed dissimilarities from blends of crucifers. The odor profile of white mustard was distinctly different from the two Brassicaceae. Feral Brassica oleracea odor profile was different from infested Brussels sprout, but showed overlap with uninfested Brussels sprout. Odor blends from infested and uninfested Brussels sprout were similar, and mainly quantitative differences were found. D. semiclausum appears to

  2. Emission of isoprene from common Indian plant species and its implications for regional air quality.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rashmi; Singh, Abhai Pratap; Singh, M P; Kumar, Animesh; Varshney, C K

    2008-09-01

    Isoprene is most dominant volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted by many plants. In this study 40 common Indian plant species were examined for isoprene emission using dynamic flow through enclosure chamber technique. Isoprene emission rates of plants species were found to vary from undetectable to 69.5 microg g(-1) h(-1) (Madhuca latifolia). Besides, an attempt has been made to evaluate suitability of 80 common Indian plant species for planting programmes. Out of 80 species, 29 species were moderate to high emitters (10 to < or =25 microg g(-1) h(-1)), 12 species were low emitter emitters (1 to < or =10 microg g(-1) h(-1)) and remaining 39 species were found to be negligible or non emitters (<1 microg g(-1) h(-1)) of isoprene. About 50% plant species selected for planting programmes in India were found to be moderate to high emitters of isoprene. PMID:17952698

  3. Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources. Final report, March 1988-September 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.J.; Probert, J.A.; Piccot, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    The report describes a global inventory of anthropogenic volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions that includes a separate inventory for each of seven pollutant groups--paraffins, olefins, aromatics, formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. The inventory, one input to atmospheric chemistry models required to estimate the global atmospheric concentration of ozone, is part of an assessment of the potential environmental impacts associated with global climate change. Study results show total global anthropogenic emissions of about 121 million short tons of VOCs per year. The U.S. is the largest emitter with 21% of the total. Globally, fuelwood combustion and savanna burning are the largest sources, together accounting for over 35% of global VOC emissions. The approach used to develop the inventory involved: (1) identifying the major anthropogenic sources of VOC emissions in the U.S. and grouping them into categories; (2) developing emission factors by dividing the U.S. emissions by the amount of production or consumption of the related commodity in the U.S.; (3) multiplying the U.S. emission factors by production/consumption statistics for other countries to yield global VOC emission estimates; and (4) geographically distributing the emissions.

  4. Anthropogenic emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimont, Zbigniew; Streets, David G.; Gupta, Shalini; Cofala, Janusz; Lixin, Fu; Ichikawa, Yoichi

    Inventories of emissions of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOC) in China are reported for the years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2010, and 2020. For 1990 and 1995, historical activity data were assembled for more than 70 processes that lead to the release of NMVOC. Appropriate emission factors were developed, based on Western, Asian and Chinese experience. It is estimated that emissions were 11.1 Tg in 1990 and 13.1 Tg in 1995, principally from the combustion of biofuels and coal in small combustors. All emissions are presented at provincial level. Using appropriate growth factors derived from anticipated economic, population, and lifestyle changes, and factoring in regulatory changes and technology improvements, we estimate that emissions could grow to 15.6 Tg in 2000, 17.2 Tg in 2010, and 18.2 Tg in 2020. Though activity growth rates are much higher than these increases would imply, technology improvements mediate the increases. Emissions from solvent use, paint use, and transport become increasingly important as time goes on. The sectoral distribution and per capita level of China's emissions are compared with those of other countries. Finally, gridded NMVOC emission fields are presented at 1°×1° resolution, and speciation of the emissions into 16 chemical types is reported.

  5. STANDARD PRACTICE FOR FULL-SCALE CHAMBER DETERMINATION OF VOLATILE ORAGNIC EMISSIONS FROM INDOOR MATERIALS/PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Practice is intended for determining volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from materials and products (building materials, material systems, furniture, consumer products, etc.) and equipment (printers, photocopiers, air cleaners, etc.) under environmental and product-usa...

  6. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Geron, Chris; Gu, Lianhong; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas

    2015-12-17

    Here, leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower – NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for themore » species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus).« less

  7. Catalytic Control of Typical Particulate Matters and Volatile Organic Compounds Emissions from Simulated Biomass Burning.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaxin; Tian, Guangkai; Zhou, Meijuan; Huang, Zhiwei; Lu, Chenxi; Hu, Pingping; Gao, Jiayi; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Tang, Xingfu

    2016-06-01

    Emissions of particulate matters (PMs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from open burning of biomass often cause severe air pollution; a viable approach is to allow biomass to burn in a furnace to collectively control these emissions, but practical control technologies for this purpose are lacking. Here, we report a hollandite manganese oxide (HMO) catalyst that can efficiently control both typical PMs and VOCs emissions from biomass burning. The results reveal that typical alkali-rich PMs such as KCl particles are disintegrated and the K(+) ions are trapped in the HMO "single-walled" tunnels with a great trapping capacity. The K(+)-trapping HMO increases the electron density of the lattice oxygen and the redox ability, thus promoting the combustion of soot PMs and the oxidation of typical VOCs such as aldehydes and acetylates. This could pave a way to control emissions from biomass burning concomitant with its utilization for energy or heat generation. PMID:27128185

  8. Drought and root herbivory interact to alter the response of above-ground parasitoids to aphid infested plants and associated plant volatile signals.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Wright, Denis J; Bruce, Toby J A; Staley, Joanna T

    2013-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40-55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity) of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial communities may be

  9. Drought and Root Herbivory Interact to Alter the Response of Above-Ground Parasitoids to Aphid Infested Plants and Associated Plant Volatile Signals

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Muhammad; Wright, Denis J.; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Staley, Joanna T.

    2013-01-01

    Multitrophic interactions are likely to be altered by climate change but there is little empirical evidence relating the responses of herbivores and parasitoids to abiotic factors. Here we investigated the effects of drought on an above/below-ground system comprising a generalist and a specialist aphid species (foliar herbivores), their parasitoids, and a dipteran species (root herbivore).We tested the hypotheses that: (1) high levels of drought stress and below-ground herbivory interact to reduce the performance of parasitoids developing in aphids; (2) drought stress and root herbivory change the profile of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) emitted by the host plant; (3) parasitoids avoid ovipositing in aphids feeding on plants under drought stress and root herbivory. We examined the effect of drought, with and without root herbivory, on the olfactory response of parasitoids (preference), plant volatile emissions, parasitism success (performance), and the effect of drought on root herbivory. Under drought, percentage parasitism of aphids was reduced by about 40–55% compared with well watered plants. There was a significant interaction between drought and root herbivory on the efficacy of the two parasitoid species, drought stress partially reversing the negative effect of root herbivory on percent parasitism. In the absence of drought, root herbivory significantly reduced the performance (e.g. fecundity) of both parasitoid species developing in foliar herbivores. Plant emissions of VOCs were reduced by drought and root herbivores, and in olfactometer experiments parasitoids preferred the odour from well-watered plants compared with other treatments. The present work demonstrates that drought stress can change the outcome of interactions between herbivores feeding above- and below-ground and their parasitoids, mediated by changes in the chemical signals from plants to parasitoids. This provides a new insight into how the structure of terrestrial communities may

  10. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds emission profiles from hot road bitumens.

    PubMed

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2014-07-01

    A procedure for the investigation and comparison of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emission profiles to the atmosphere from road bitumens with various degrees of oxidation is proposed. The procedure makes use of headspace analysis and gas chromatography with universal as well as selective detection, including gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studies revealed that so-called vacuum residue, which is the main component of the charge, contains variable VOC concentrations, from trace to relatively high ones, depending on the extent of thermal cracking in the boiler of the vacuum distillation column. The VOC content in the oxidation product, so-called oxidized paving bitumen, is similarly varied. There are major differences in VOC emission profiles between vacuum residue and oxidized bitumens undergoing thermal cracking. The VOC content in oxidized bitumens, which did not undergo thermal cracking, increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumens. The studies revealed that the total VOC content increases from about 120 ppm for the raw vacuum residue to about 1900 ppm for so-called bitumen 35/50. The amount of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the volatile fraction of fumes of oxidized bitumens increases with the degree of oxidation of bitumen and constitutes from 0.34% to 3.66% (w/w). The contribution of volatile nitrogen compounds (VNCs) to total VOC content remains constant for the investigated types of bitumens (from 0.16 to 0.28% (w/w) of total VOCs). The results of these studies can also find use during the selection of appropriate bitumen additives to minimize their malodorousness. The obtained data append the existing knowledge on VOC emission from oxidized bitumens. They should be included in reports on the environmental impact of facilities in which hot bitumen binders are used. PMID:24875867

  11. The Salicylic Acid-Mediated Release of Plant Volatiles Affects the Host Choice of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xiaobin; Chen, Gong; Tian, Lixia; Peng, Zhengke; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) causes serious crop losses worldwide by transmitting viruses. We have previously shown that salicylic acid (SA)-related plant defenses directly affect whiteflies. In this study, we applied exogenous SA to tomato plants in order to investigate the interaction between SA-induced plant volatiles and nonviruliferous B. tabaci B and Q or B- and Q-carrying tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). The results showed that exogenous SA caused plants to repel nonviruliferous whiteflies, but the effect was reduced when the SA concentration was low and when the whiteflies were viruliferous. Exogenous SA increased the number and quantity of plant volatiles—especially the quantity of methyl salicylate and δ-limonene. In Y-tube olfactometer assays, methyl salicylate and δ-limonene repelled the whiteflies, but the repellency was reduced for viruliferous Q. We suggest that the release of plant volatiles as mediated by SA affects the interaction between whiteflies, plants, and viruses. Further studies are needed to determine why viruliferous Q is less sensitive than nonviruliferous Q to repellent plant volatiles. PMID:27376280

  12. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua.

    PubMed

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  13. Synthetic pheromones and plant volatiles alter the expression of chemosensory genes in Spodoptera exigua

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Xinlong; Qian, Kai; Du, Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Pheromone and plant odorants are important for insect mating, foraging food sources and oviposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms regulating pheromone and odorant signaling, we employed qRT-PCR to study the circadian rhythms of ABP, OBP, PBP, and OR gene expression in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua and their responses after a pre-exposure to sex pheromone compounds or plant volatiles. The neuronal responses of male S. exigua to 20 chemical compounds were recorded at three specific time periods using the electroantennogram. The results showed a circadian rhythm in the expression profiles of some chemosensory genes in the antennae similar to their behavioral rhythm. The expression profiles of OR3, OR6, OR11, OR13, OR16, OR18, Orco, ABP2, OBP1, OBP7, and PBP1, and EAG responses to chemical compounds, as well as their circadian rhythm were significantly affected after exposure to synthetic sex pheromones and plant volatiles. These findings provide the first evidence that the gene expression of chemosensory genes and olfactory sensitivity to sex pheromones are affected by pre-exposing insects to pheromone compounds and plant volatiles. It helps to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying pheromone activity, and the application of sex pheromones and plant volatiles in mating disruption or mass trapping. PMID:26611815

  14. Inhibition of oviposition by volatiles of certain plants and chemicals in the leafhopperAmrasca devastons (distant).

    PubMed

    Saxena, K N; Basit, A

    1982-02-01

    Oviposition by the leafhopperAmrasca devastans (Distant) on its susceptible host plant, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum var. PS-10), was inhibited by the volatiles of certain plants and by the vapors of some chemicals occurring in various plants when these were presented at a distance from the ovipositional substrate. The effectiveness of the volatiles of the plants for inhibiting the oviposition decreased in the order: eucalyptus > coriander=castor=tomato > lime,Ocimum being without effect. Among the volatile plant chemicals tested, the inhibitory effects decreased in the order: citral=carvacrol > citronellol=farnesol = geraniol=eucalyptus oil > neem oil=Cymbopogan oil. These chemicals served as volatile antiovipositants and did not reduce the arrival/stay of the insects on the host plants. Carvacrol had a slight toxic effect on the nymphs, but none of the volatiles was toxic to the adults. PMID:24414944

  15. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

    2013-10-01

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and

  16. Formaldehyde and other volatile organic chemical emissions in four FEMA temporary housing units.

    PubMed

    Maddalena, Randy; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P; Apte, Michael G

    2009-08-01

    Indoor concentrations of 33 volatile organic chemicals were measured in four unoccupied temporary housing units (THUs) belonging to the U.S. Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). The highest level contaminants in the THUs include formaldehyde, acetic acid, and 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (TXIB) with median concentrations of 440, 425, and 36 ppb, respectively. A number of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were higher than published concentrations in other dwellings, but whole THU emission factors for most chemicals were either lower than or similar to values reported for newly constructed homes. However, several chemicals exceeded previously measured new building emission rates by over a factor of 5. Materials were collected from the THUs, and emission factors were determined using small chambers to identify the potential source of indoor contaminants. The individual materials were grouped by material type, and emissions were used to derive exposure concentrations for comparison to reference values. Using material loading factors and ventilation rates that are relevant to the trailers, all of the material types we tested had at least two chemicals (formaldehyde and nonanal) with derived concentrations in excess of chronic reference exposure levels or odor thresholds. The extensive use of composite wood products, sealants, and vinyl coverings, combined with the low air exchange rates relative to material surface areas, may explain the high concentrations of some VOCs and formaldehyde. PMID:19731654

  17. Drought-tolerance of wheat improved by rhizosphere bacteria from harsh environments: enhanced biomass production and reduced emissions of stress volatiles.

    PubMed

    Timmusk, Salme; Abd El-Daim, Islam A; Copolovici, Lucian; Tanilas, Triin; Kännaste, Astrid; Behers, Lawrence; Nevo, Eviatar; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Stenström, Elna; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates. PMID:24811199

  18. Drought-Tolerance of Wheat Improved by Rhizosphere Bacteria from Harsh Environments: Enhanced Biomass Production and Reduced Emissions of Stress Volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Timmusk, Salme; Abd El-Daim, Islam A.; Copolovici, Lucian; Tanilas, Triin; Kännaste, Astrid; Behers, Lawrence; Nevo, Eviatar; Seisenbaeva, Gulaim; Stenström, Elna; Niinemets, Ülo

    2014-01-01

    Water is the key resource limiting world agricultural production. Although an impressive number of research reports have been published on plant drought tolerance enhancement via genetic modifications during the last few years, progress has been slower than expected. We suggest a feasible alternative strategy by application of rhizospheric bacteria coevolved with plant roots in harsh environments over millions of years, and harboring adaptive traits improving plant fitness under biotic and abiotic stresses. We show the effect of bacterial priming on wheat drought stress tolerance enhancement, resulting in up to 78% greater plant biomass and five-fold higher survivorship under severe drought. We monitored emissions of seven stress-related volatiles from bacterially-primed drought-stressed wheat seedlings, and demonstrated that three of these volatiles are likely promising candidates for a rapid non-invasive technique to assess crop drought stress and its mitigation in early phases of stress development. We conclude that gauging stress by elicited volatiles provides an effectual platform for rapid screening of potent bacterial strains and that priming with isolates of rhizospheric bacteria from harsh environments is a promising, novel way to improve plant water use efficiency. These new advancements importantly contribute towards solving food security issues in changing climates. PMID:24811199

  19. Volatile Semiochemicals Released from Undamaged Cotton Leaves (A Systemic Response of Living Plants to Caterpillar Damage).

    PubMed Central

    Rose, USR.; Manukian, A.; Heath, R. R.; Tumlinson, J. H.

    1996-01-01

    Cotton plants (Gossypium hirsutum L.), attacked by herbivorous insects release volatile semiochemicals (chemical signals) that attract natural enemies of the herbivores to the damaged plants. We found chemical evidence that volatiles are released not only at the damaged site but from the entire cotton plant. The release of volatiles was detected from upper, undamaged leaves after 2 to 3 d of continuous larval damage on lower leaves of the same plant. Compounds released systemically were (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-[beta]-ocimene, linalool, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, (E)-[beta]-farnesene, (E,E)-[alpha]-farnesene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene. All systemically released compounds are known to be induced by caterpillar damage and are not released in significant amounts by undamaged plants. Other compounds, specifically indole, isomeric hexenyl butyrates, and 2-methylbutyrates, known to be released by cotton in response to caterpillar damage, were not released systemically. However, when upper, undamaged leaves of a caterpillar-damaged plant were damaged with a razor blade, they released isomeric hexenyl butyrates, 2-methylbutyrates, and large amounts of constitutive compounds in addition to the previously detected induced compounds. Control plants, damaged with a razor blade in the same way, did not release isomeric hexenyl butyrates or 2-methylbutyrates and released significantly smaller amounts of constitutive compounds. Indole was not released systemically, even after artificial damage. PMID:12226304

  20. The Influence of Host Plant Volatiles on the Attraction of Longhorn Beetles to Pheromones.

    PubMed

    Collignon, R Maxwell; Swift, Ian P; Zou, Yunfan; McElfresh, J Steven; Hanks, Lawrence M; Millar, Jocelyn G

    2016-03-01

    Host plant volatiles have been shown to strongly synergize the attraction of some longhorn beetle species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to their pheromones. This synergism is well documented among species that infest conifers, but less so for angiosperm-infesting species. To explore the extent of this phenomenon in the Cerambycidae, we first tested the responses of a cerambycid community to a generic pheromone blend in the presence or absence of chipped material from host plants as a source of host volatiles. In the second phase, blends of oak and conifer volatiles were reconstructed, and tested at low, medium, and high release rates with the pheromone blend. For conifer-infesting species in the subfamilies Spondylidinae and Lamiinae, conifer volatiles released at the high rate synergized attraction of some species to the pheromone blend. When comparing high-release rate conifer blend with high-release rate α-pinene as a single component, species responses varied, with Asemum nitidum LeConte being most attracted to pheromones plus α-pinene, whereas Neospondylis upiformis (Mannerheim) were most attracted to pheromones plus conifer blend and ethanol. For oak-infesting species in the subfamily Cerambycinae, with the exception of Phymatodes grandis Casey, which were most attracted to pheromones plus ethanol, neither synthetic oak blend nor ethanol increased attraction to pheromones. The results indicate that the responses to combinations of pheromones with host plant volatiles varied from synergistic to antagonistic, depending on beetle species. Release rates of host plant volatiles also were important, with some high release rates being antagonistic for oak-infesting species, but acting synergistically for conifer-infesting species. PMID:26980612

  1. 3-pentanol: a new attractant present in volatile emissions from the ambrosia beetle, Megaplatypus mutatus.

    PubMed

    Gatti Liguori, Pablo; Zerba, Eduardo; Alzogaray, Raul A; Gonzalez Audino, Paola

    2008-11-01

    Megaplatypus mutatus (=Platypus mutatus) (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) is an ambrosia beetle that is native to South America. It attacks only standing live trees and causes severe stem breakage and death in commercial poplar (Populus) plantations. Previous work showed that male M. mutatus emits a sex pheromone composed mainly of (+)-sulcatol and sulcatone. We collected male volatile emissions during the hours of maximum emergence by using a specific polar microextraction phase; analyzed the extract by GC-MS; and tested the biological activity of selected compounds in the extract with a walking behavioral assay. Female M. mutatus emerged primarily between 7 and 11 h. In the chemical analyses of volatiles, a third compound, 3-pentanol, was identified in a small percentage of samples. Walking behavioral bioassays with video image analysis showed that at the doses tested, 3-pentanol elicited an attractive response from females. PMID:18850328

  2. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  3. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions in a Temperature Forest and a Bamboo Forest in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Jianhui; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Duhl, Tiffany; Hao, Nan; van der A, Ronald; Yu, Shuquan; Wang, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Emission fluxes of Biogenic Volatile Organic compounds (BVOC), solar radiation (including global radiation, Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR), etc.), meteorological parameters were carried out in Changbai temperature forest during growing seasons of 2010 and 2011 and Linan subtropical bamboo forest from July 2012 to Jan. 2013 in China. A REA (Relaxed Eddy Accumulation) system was used to measure BVOC emissions on an above-canopy tower. Isoprene and monoterpenes showed obvious diurnal and seasonal variations in these two forests, their daily maxima occurred around noon. The average emission fluxes (mg m-2 h-1) were 0.889 for isoprene and 0.143 for monoterpene in Changbai temperate forest in 2011 growing season, 0.95 for isopreneor and 0.012 for monoterpene in Linan bamboo forest during the whole campaign. Based on PAR energy balance, empirical models of BVOC emissions in these temperate and subtropical forests were developed, the estimated emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes were in agreement with observations. Applying these empirical models, BVOC emissions in Changbai temperate forest during growing seasons and in Linan subtropical bamboo forest from July 2012 to Jan. 2013 were calculated. The relationships between surface measurements of BVOC emissions and HCHO vertical column densities retrieved from the satellite were found in these two forests.

  4. Non-methane volatile organic compound emission inventories in Beijing during Olympic Games 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Junhua; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Xie, Yangyang

    2011-12-01

    Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) play important roles in ground-level ozone and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. To evaluate the effectiveness of air quality control measures in Beijing in 2008, NMVOC emission inventories were compiled for June, July, August, and September with emission factors and updated activity data. Total NMVOC emissions were 22.6, 20.2, 14.9, and 14.6 Gg in June, July, August, and September, respectively. Anthropogenic NMVOC emissions were 45% lower in August than June; vehicles, solvent utilization, industrial processing, and miscellaneous sources declined by 66, 48, 15, and 75%, respectively. Anthropogenic NMVOC emissions increased in September compared with August. NMVOC emissions from petroleum storage and transport varied little during these months because of the installation of low-fugitive facilities. Reduced emissions from vehicles, industrial processing, and petroleum storage and transport contributed to the total anthropogenic reduction. Inventory uncertainties were evaluated to be [-51%, +126%], [-56%, +146%], [-58%, +161%], and [-52%, +133%] in June, July, August, and September, respectively, at the 95% confidence level.

  5. Emission and speciation of non-methane volatile organic compounds from anthropogenic sources in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuxiao; Chatani, Satoru; Klimont, Zbigniew; Cofala, Janusz; Hao, Jiming

    An emission inventory of non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) from anthropogenic sources in China was compiled for the year 2005. The NMVOC emissions were 20.1 Tg, of which industrial and domestic solvent use, road transportation, and bio-fuel combustion contributed 28.6%, 23.4%, and 18.0%, respectively. Emissions were speciated into 40 species according to their atmospheric photochemical reactivity, toxicity, and model applicability. Of the total emissions, alkanes account for 29.8%, followed by aromatics (21.9%), alkenes and alkynes (21.0%), and carbonyls (17.8%). Emissions at the provincial level were spatially allocated onto grids with a resolution of 36 km×36 km, according to population distribution. Furthermore, the provincial and sectoral emissions of nine toxic species, including n-hexane, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, benzene, toluene, xylene, methanol, formaldehyde, and acraldehyde, are also analyzed. Finally, the national total emissions were considered with an uncertainty of [-44%,+109%] in 95% confidence interval, by using the Monte Carlo method.

  6. Volatile emissions during storing of green food waste under different aeration conditions.

    PubMed

    Agapiou, A; Vamvakari, J P; Andrianopoulos, A; Pappa, A

    2016-05-01

    Controlled field experiments were carried out for monitoring the emissions of three plastic commercial household waste bins, which were adapted for studying the effect of aeration process in the evolved volatiles, during house storing of green food waste for 2 weeks, prior to collection. Three experimental scenarios were examined based on no aeration ("NA," closed commercial waste bin), diffusion-based aeration ("DA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes), and enforced aeration ("EA," closed commercial waste bin with tiny holes and enforced aeration). The monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from organic household kitchen waste was performed using solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) analysis. Portable sensors were also used for monitoring selected gases and parameters of environmental, bioprocess, and health interest (e.g., CO2, O2, H2S, CH4, NH3, % RH, waste temperatures). VOC emissions are strongly dependent on the waste material. The most frequent VOCs identified over the storing waste, showing over 50 % appearance in all examined samples, were terpenes (e.g., di-limonene, beta-myrcene, delta-3-carene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinolene, linalool, etc.), sulfides (dimethyl disulfide), aromatics (benzene, 1-methyl-2-(2-propenyl)), alkanes (e.g., decane, dodecane), ketones (2-propanone), esters (e.g., acetic acid ethyl ester, acetic acid methyl ester), and alcohols (e.g., 3-cyclohexen-1-ol, 4-methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)). The prominent role of terpenes in the "pre-compost" odor and especially that of di-limonene was highlighted. In all examined scenarios, the emitted volatiles were increased at raised temperatures and later decreased in time. Aeration of waste bins slightly affected the volatilization process resulting in higher profiles of VOCs; uniformity in the composition of VOCs was also noted. Slight modifications of commercial waste bins may favor the initiation of home composting. PMID

  7. 40 CFR 180.1127 - Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Biochemical pesticide plant floral volatile attractant compounds: cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, 4-methoxy cinnamaldehyde, 3-phenyl propanol, 4-methoxy phenethyl alcohol, indole, and 1,2,4-trimethoxybenzene; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1127 Section...

  8. Electrophysiological responses of the rice leaffolder, cnaphalocrocis medinalis (lepidoptera: pyralidae), to rice plant volatiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The electrophysiological activities of 38 synthetic volatiles that were known to be released from the rice plants (Poaceae: Oryza spp.) were studied using electroantennogram (EAG) recording technique on male and female antennae of the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) (Lepidoptera: ...

  9. Evaluation of herbivore-induced plant volatiles for monitoring lacewings in Washington apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated five herbivore-induced plant volatiles plus a male-produced pheromone as attractants for adult lacewings in Washington apple orchards in 2008. We found that several of the attractants or combinations of attractants could be used to monitor three common lacewing species in our trials. ...

  10. A retention index calculator simplifies identification of plant volatile organic compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant volatiles (PVOCs) are important targets for studies in natural products, chemotaxonomy and biochemical ecology. The complexity of PVOC profiles often limits research to studies targeting only easily identified compounds. With the availability of mass spectral libraries and recent growth of ret...

  11. Emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds from open crop burning in Yangtze River Delta region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, H.; Kudo, S.; Pan, X.; Inomata, S.; Saito, S.; Kanaya, Y.; Wang, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were made by gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) at Rudong, a rural area of Central East China in June 2010. During the campaign we identified several plumes originated from open biomass burning by the simultaneous enhancements of carbon monoxide and acetonitrile. Based on positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis, the contribution of biomass burning was in the range from 60 to 80% for the plumes. We found that oxygenated VOCs were predominant for these events. The emission ratios of OVOCs to CO for open crop burnings derived in this work were found to be high. Combined with the updated CO emissions of 12.7 Tg per year from crop burning, we estimated OVOC emissions from crop burning can be about 1.2 Tg per year, accounting for substantial amount of VOCs emitted from crop burning.

  12. On the role of plant volatiles in anthropogenic global climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unger, Nadine

    2014-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions from terrestrial ecosystems undergo rapid oxidation in the atmosphere that affects multiple warming and cooling climate pollutants. Since the preindustrial, BVOC-chemistry-climate interactions have been strongly influenced by anthropogenic changes in land cover, pollution emissions, and the physical climate state. Here, an Earth system model is applied to quantify the effects of BVOC emissions on the global radiation balance in the 1850s and 2000s including changes to tropospheric ozone, methane, and direct aerosol-radiation interactions. The net chemical forcing of global climate due to all known anthropogenic influences on BVOC emissions is -0.17 Wm-2 (cooling) that offsets the +0.10 Wm-2 (warming) due to anthropogenic VOC emissions from fossil fuel use and industry for this time period. BVOC emissions need to be included in assessments of anthropogenic radiative forcing.

  13. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  14. Fungal succession in relation to volatile organic compounds emissions from Scots pine and Norway spruce leaf litter-decomposing fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isidorov, Valery; Tyszkiewicz, Zofia; Pirożnikow, Ewa

    2016-04-01

    Leaf litter fungi are partly responsible for decomposition of dead material, nutrient mobilization and gas fluxes in forest ecosystems. It can be assumed that microbial destruction of dead plant materials is an important source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted into the atmosphere from terrestrial ecosystems. However, little information is available on both the composition of fungal VOCs and their producers whose community can be changed at different stages of litter decomposition. The fungal community succession was investigated in a litter bag experiment with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle litter. The succession process can be divided into a several stages controlled mostly by changes in litter quality. At the very first stages of decomposition the needle litter was colonized by ascomycetes which can use readily available carbohydrates. At the later stages, the predominance of Trichoderma sp., the known producers of cellulolytic enzymes, was documented. To investigate the fungi-derived VOCs, eight fungi species were isolated. As a result of gas chromatographic analyses, as many as 75C2sbnd C15 fungal volatile compounds were identified. Most components detected in emissions were very reactive substances: the principal groups of VOCs were formed by monoterpenes, carbonyl compounds and aliphatic alcohols. It was found that production of VOCs by fungi is species specific: only 10 metabolites were emitted into the gas phase by all eight species. The reported data confirm that the leave litter decomposition is important source of reactive organic compounds under the forest canopy.

  15. Volatile constituents of Melissa officinalis leaves determined by plant age.

    PubMed

    Nurzyńska-Wierdak, Renata; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Szymczak, Grazyna

    2014-05-01

    The present study investigated changes in the content and chemical composition of the essential oil extracted by hydrodistillation from air-dried Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) leaves in the first and second year of plant growth. The lemon balm oil was analysed by GC-MS and GC-FID. The presence of 106 compounds, representing 100% of the oil constituents, was determined in the oil. The predominant components were geranial (45.2% and 45.1%) and neral (32.8% and 33.8%); their proportions in the examined samples of the oil obtained from one- and two-year-old plants were comparable. However, the age of lemon balm plants affected the concentration of other constituents and the proportions of the following compounds were subject to especially high fluctuations: citronellal (8.7% and 0.4%), geraniol (trace amounts and 0.6%), and geranyl acetate (0.5% and 3.0%), as well as, among others, isogeranial, E-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D, and carvacrol. The essential oil of two-year-old plants was characterized by a richer chemical composition than the oil from younger plants. PMID:25026727

  16. Contribution of developing foliage to canopy emissions of volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bäck, J.; Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.

    2012-04-01

    Biogenic sources play a key role in volatile organic compounds (VOC) budget especially in rural areas. The evergreen coniferous forests are the main source of VOCs in many boreal regions. Significant seasonality in emission strength from coniferous trees has been reported, which mostly has been related to prevailing temperatures. Emission modeling is based on parameterizations obtained from short term field campaigns or intermittent measurements from mature foliage during the maximun emission period in mid-summer. However, the developing foliage may significantly differ in emission patterns (both quality and quantity) from the mature foliage, and this variability has not been accounted for in regional modeling approaches. Therefore long-term online emission measurements from developing biomass are necessary. We set up an automated system consisting of several dynamic shoot enclosures and a PTR-MS (Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer) at the SMEAR II station (Station for Measuring forest Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relationships) in southern Finland. Emissions from both mature and developing Scots pine shoots were measured for three years over the whole spring and growing season, and the shoot and needle growth were measured simultaneously. Emission rates were calculated based on needle mass in the end of growing season, and compared with those of mature shoot. The developing shoots emitted significantly more methanol (M33), acetone (M59), isoprene + MBO (M69) and monoterpenes (M137) than the mature ones. Needle elongation rate correlated with the ratio between the emissions from developing and mature shoot. After the needle elongation period in late July, emissions from the current year shoots were equal or less than those from the previous year's shoot. The conditions during the growing season affect needle biomass growth and thus also the emission capacity of the mature foliage in the following year. During springs 2009 and 2010 the monoterpene emission rates

  17. Projection of anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions in China for the period 2010-2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Cheng, Shuiyuan

    2011-12-01

    The future (2010-2020) anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions in China were projected in this study using 2005 as the reference year. The projections are based on the assumptions of a lower population growth rate (less than 1%), continuous economic development with high GDP growth, and increased urbanization. The results show that the national VOCs emissions would continuously increase from 19.4 Tg in 2005 to 25.9 Tg in 2020, even if China's legislative standards for VOCs emissions are implemented effectively in the future (assumed as control scenario I). The contributions of various emission sources were found to differ greatly in the period of 2010-2020. Solvent utilization would become the largest contributor rising from 22% to 37%, along with an increase for industrial processes from 17% to 24%. However, road vehicle emissions would rapidly decrease from 25% to 11% due to the strict VOCs emission limit standards in China, along with the decrease for stationary fuel combustion from 23% to 16% caused by the reduction of domestic biofuel consumption. Additionally, there would be a notable divergence among provincial emissions. The developed eastern and coastal regions would emit more VOCs than the relatively underdeveloped western and inland regions. Moreover, this divergence grows in the future. When we assumed stricter control measures for solvent utilization and industrial processes (control scenario II) for that period, the projections revealed national VOCs emissions per year would remain at about 20 Tg, if exhaust after-treatment systems are installed in newly-built factories (after 2005) for the most important industrial sources, and the market shares of "low/zero-VOCs" products in paints, adhesives and printing ink raise to the present levels of developed countries. The emission abatements of the two types of measures were estimated to be similar. While scenario II indicates that the sectoral and provincial differences of VOCs emissions

  18. Stand-off detection of plant-produced volatile organic compounds using short-range Raman LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Lewis; Barnett, Cleon; Brown, Christopher; Crawford, Devron; Tumlinson, James

    2004-03-01

    Several plant species release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) when under stresses such as herbivore feeding attack. The release of these plant-produced VOCs (i.e. terpenes) triggers the release of active biochemical defenses, which target the attacker. In some cases, the VOCs send cues to nearby carnivorous predators to attract them to the feeding herbivore. Volatile compounds are released both locally by damaged leaves and systemically by the rest of the plant. These compounds are released in large quantities, which facilitate detection of pests in the field by parasitoids. Detecting the plant"s VOC emissions as a function of various parameters (e.g. ambient temperature, atmospheric nitrogen levels, etc.) is essential to designing effective biological control systems. In addition these VOC releases may serve as early warning indicator of chemo-bio attacks. By combining Raman spectroscopy techniques with Laser Remote Sensing (LIDAR) systems, we are developing a Standoff detection system. Initial results indicate that is it possible to detect and differentiate between various terpenes, plant species, and other chemical compounds at distances greater than 12 meters. Currently, the system uses the 2nd harmonic of a Nd:YAG; however plans are underway to improve the Raman signal by moving the illumination wavelength into the solar-blind UV region. We report on our initial efforts of designing and characterizing this in a laboratory proof of concept system. We envision that this effort will lead to the design of a portable field-deployable system to rapidly characterize, with a high spatial resolution, large crops and other fields.

  19. Emission of volatile organic compounds from religious and ritual activities in India.

    PubMed

    Dewangan, Shippi; Chakrabarty, Rajan; Zielinska, Barbara; Pervez, Shamsh

    2013-11-01

    Worshipping activity is a customary practice related with many religions and cultures in various Asian countries, including India. Smoke from incense burning in religious and ritual places produces a large number of health-damaging and carcinogenic air pollutants include volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde, benzene, 1,3 butadiene, styrene, etc. This study evaluates real-world VOCs emission conditions in contrast to other studies that examined emissions from specific types of incense or biomass material. Sampling was conducted at four different religious places in Raipur City, District Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India: (1) Hindu temples, (2) Muslim graveyards (holy shrines), (3) Buddhist temples, and (4) marriage ceremony. Concentrations of selected VOCs, respirable particulate matter (aerodynamic diameter, <5 μm), carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide were sampled from the smoke plumes. Benzene has shown highest emission factor (EF) among selected volatile organic compounds in all places. All the selected religious and ritual venues have shown different pattern of VOC EFs compared to laboratory-based controlled chamber studies. PMID:23709262

  20. Volatile emissions from Central Atlantic Magmatic Province Basalts: Mass assumptions and environmental consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHone, J. Gregory

    Mesozoic basins that contain extrusive basalts of the 200 Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) presently total about 320,000 km2. However, CAMP dikes and sills similar to those that fed the basin basalts are also spread widely across an area greater than 10 million km2 within four continents. In addition, basalts of the east coast margin igneous province (ECMIP) of North America, which cause the east coast magnetic anomaly, covered about 110,000 km2 with 1.3 million km3 of extrusive lavas. If only half of the continental CAMP area was originally covered by 200 m of surface flows, the total volume of CAMP and ECMIP lavas exceeded 2.3 million km3. Weighted averages for the volatile contents of 686 CAMP tholeiitic dikes and sills, in weight %, are: CO2 = 0.117; S = 0.052; F = 0.035; and Cl = 0.050. Atmospheric emissions of volatiles from flood basalts are conservatively estimated as 50% to 70% of the volatile content of the sub-volcanic magmas, mainly exsolved into gaseous plumes from lava curtains at the erupting fissures. Total volcanic emissions of these gases therefore ranged between 1.11×1012 and 5.19×1012 metric tons, enough for major worldwide environmental problems. Radiometric and stratigraphic dates indicate that most CAMP volcanic activity was brief, widespread, and close to the Tr-J boundary, which is marked by a profound mass extinction. More precise information about the timing, duration, and chemical emissions of volcanic episodes is needed to support a model for CAMP in the extinction event.

  1. Anthropogenic Emissions of Highly Reactive Volatile Organic Compounds (HRVOCs) Inferred from Oversampling of OMI HCHO Columns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Lei; Jacob, Daniel; Mickley, Loretta; Marais, Eloise; Zhang, Aoxing; Cohan, Daniel; Yoshida, Yasuko; Duncan, Bryan; Abad, Gonzalo Gonzalez; Chance, Kelly; DeSmedt, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns provide top-down constraints on emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOCs). This approach has been used previously to constrain emissions of isoprene from vegetation, but application to US anthropogenic emissions has been stymied by lack of a discernable HCHO signal. Here we show that oversampling of HCHO data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for 2005 - 2008 enables quantitative detection of urban and industrial plumes in eastern Texas including Houston, Port Arthur, and Dallas-Fort Worth. By spatially integrating the individual urban-industrial HCHO plumes observed by OMI we can constrain the corresponding HCHO-weighted HRVOC emissions. Application to the Houston plume indicates a HCHO source of 260 plus or minus 110 kmol h-1 and implies a factor of 5.5 plus or minus 2.4 underestimate of anthropogenic HRVOC emissions in the US Environmental Protection Agency inventory. With this approach we are able to monitor the trend in HRVOC emissions over the US, in particular from the oil-gas industry, over the past decade.

  2. Variations in the emissions of volatile organic compounds from the toner for a specific photocopier.

    PubMed

    Henschel, D B; Fortmann, R C; Roache, N F; Liu, X

    2001-05-01

    A laboratory thermal desorption apparatus was used to measure emissions from a number of nominally identical photocopier toners--manufactured to meet the specifications of one specific model copier--when these toners were heated to fuser temperature (180-200 degrees C). The objective was to assess how potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from the toner for a given copier can vary, depending upon the production run and the supplier. Tests were performed on a series of toner (and associated raw polymer feedstock) samples obtained directly from a toner manufacturer, representing two production runs using a nonvented extrusion process, and on toner cartridges purchased from two local retailers, representing three different production lots (histories unknown). The results showed that the retailer toners consistently had up to 350% higher emissions of some major compounds (expressed as microgram of compound emitted/g of toner), and up to 100% lower emissions of others, relative to the manufacturer toners (p < or = 0.01). The manufacturer toners from one production run had emissions of certain compounds, and of total VOCs, that were modestly higher (13-18%) than those from the other run (p < or = 0.01). The emission differences between the retailer and manufacturer toners are probably due to differences in the manufacturing processes and/or feedstocks used to produce the toners from these different sources. PMID:11355458

  3. Emission characteristics of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds in cow dung combustion.

    PubMed

    Park, Duckshin; Barabad, Mona L; Lee, Gwangjae; Kwon, Soon-Bark; Cho, Youngmin; Lee, Duckhee; Cho, Kichul; Lee, Kiyoung

    2013-11-19

    Biomass fuel is used for cooking and heating, especially in developing countries. Combustion of biomass fuel can generate high levels of indoor air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This study characterized PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion in a controlled experiment. Dung from grass-fed cows was dried and combusted using a dual-cone calorimeter. Heat fluxes of 10, 25, and 50 kW/m(2) were applied. The concentrations of PM and VOCs were determined using a dust spectrometer and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, respectively. PM and VOC emission factors were much higher for the lower heat flux, implying a fire ignition stage. When the heat flux was 50 kW/m(2), the CO2 emission factor was highest and the PM and VOC emission factors were lowest. Particle concentrations were highest in the 0.23-0.3 μm size range at heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m(2). Various toxic VOCs, including acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, benzene, and toluene, were detected at high concentrations. Although PM and VOC emission factors at 50 kW/m(2) were lower, they were high enough to cause extremely high indoor air pollution. The characteristics of PM and VOC emissions from cow dung combustion indicated potential health effects of indoor air pollution in developing countries. PMID:24180364

  4. Characteristics and reactivity of volatile organic compounds from non-coal emission sources in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Qiusheng; Yan, Yulong; Li, Hongyan; Zhang, Yiqiang; Chen, Laiguo; Wang, Yuhang

    2015-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were sampled from non-coal emission sources including fuel refueling, solvent use, industrial and commercial activities in China, and 62 target species were determined by gas chromatography-mass selective detector (GC-MSD). Based on the results, source profiles were developed and discussed from the aspects of composition characteristics, potential tracers, BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) diagnostic ratios and chemical reactivity. Compared with vehicle exhausts and liquid fuels, the major components in refueling emissions of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), gasoline and diesel were alkenes and alkanes. Oppositely, aromatics were the most abundant group in emissions from auto-painting, book binding and plastic producing. Three groups contributed nearly equally in printing and commercial cooking emissions. Acetone in medical producing, chloroform and tetrachloroethylene in wet- and dry-cleaning, as well as TEX in plastic producing etc. were good tracers for the respective sources. BTEX ratios showed that some but not all VOCs sources could be distinguished by B/T, B/E and B/X ratios, while T/E, T/X and E/X ratios were not suitable as diagnostic indicators of different sources. The following reactivity analysis indicated that emissions from gasoline refueling, commercial cooking, auto painting and plastic producing had high atmospheric reactivity, and should be controlled emphatically to prevent ozone pollution, especially when there were large amounts of emissions for them.

  5. Anthropogenic emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds inferred from oversampling of OMI HCHO columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Mickley, L. J.; Marais, E. A.; Cohan, D. S.; Yoshida, Y.; Duncan, B. N.; Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO) columns provide top-down constraints on emissions of highly reactive volatile organic compounds (HRVOCs). This approach has been used previously to constrain emissions of isoprene from vegetation, but application to US anthropogenic emissions has been stymied by lack of a discernable HCHO signal. Here we show that oversampling of HCHO data from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for 2005-2008 enables quantitative detection of urban and industrial plumes in eastern Texas including Houston, Port Arthur, and Dallas/Fort Worth. By spatially integrating the individual urban/industrial HCHO plumes observed by OMI we can constrain the corresponding HCHO-weighted HRVOC emissions. Application to the Houston plume indicates a HCHO source of 260±110 kmol h-1 and implies a factor of 5.5±2.4 underestimate of anthropogenic HRVOC emissions in the US Environmental Protection Agency inventory. This approach allows us to monitor trends in HRVOC emissions over the US, in particular from the urban areas and oil/gas industry.

  6. Differences in volatile profiles of turnip plants subjected to single and dual herbivory above- and belowground.

    PubMed

    Pierre, Prisca S; Jansen, Jeroen J; Hordijk, Cornelis A; van Dam, Nicole M; Cortesero, Anne-Marie; Dugravot, Sébastien

    2011-04-01

    Plants attacked by herbivorous insects emit volatile organic compounds that are used by natural enemies to locate their host or prey. The composition of the blend is often complex and specific. It may vary qualitatively and quantitatively according to plant and herbivore species, thus providing specific information for carnivorous arthropods. Most studies have focused on simple interactions that involve one species per trophic level, and typically have investigated the aboveground parts of plants. These investigations need to be extended to more complex networks that involve multiple herbivory above- and belowground. A previous study examined whether the presence of the leaf herbivore Pieris brassicae on turnip plants (Brassica rapa subsp. rapa) influences the response of Trybliographa rapae, a specialist parasitoid of the root feeder Delia radicum. It showed that the parasitoid was not attracted by volatiles emitted by plants under simultaneous attack. Here, we analyzed differences in the herbivore induced plant volatile (HIPV) mixtures that emanate from such infested plants by using Orthogonal Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA). This multivariate model focuses on the differences between odor blends, and highlights the relative importance of each compound in an HIPV blend. Dual infestation resulted in several HIPVs that were present in both isolated infestation types. However, HIPVs collected from simultaneously infested plants were not the simple combination of volatiles from isolated forms of above- and belowground herbivory. Only a few specific compounds characterized the odor blend of each type of damaged plant. Indeed, some compounds were specifically induced by root herbivory (4-methyltridecane and salicylaldehyde) or shoot herbivory (methylsalicylate), whereas hexylacetate, a green leaf volatile, was specifically induced after dual herbivory. It remains to be determined whether or not these minor quantitative variations, within the

  7. Uptake, metabolism, and volatilization of selenium by terrestrial plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green technology of phytoremediation has being developed for the management of metal(loid)-contaminated soils and waters via the processes of phytoextraction, and phytovolatilization. Based upon these processes a plant management remediation strategy for selenium (Se) has been developed for the ...

  8. Disruption of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) oviposition by the application of host plant volatiles

    PubMed Central

    Anfora, Gianfranco; Vitagliano, Silvia; Larsson, Mattias C; Witzgall, Peter; Tasin, Marco; Germinara, Giacinto S; De Cristofaro, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Phthorimaea operculella is a key pest of potato. The authors characterised the P. operculella olfactory system, selected the most bioactive host plant volatiles and evaluated their potential application in pest management. The electrophysiological responses of olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) housed in long sensilla trichodea of P. operculella to plant volatiles and the two main sex pheromone components were evaluated by the single-cell recording (SCR) technique. The four most SCR-active volatiles were tested in a laboratory oviposition bioassay and under storage warehouse conditions. RESULTS The sensitivity of sensilla trichodea to short-chained aldehydes and alcohols and the existence of ORNs tuned to pheromones in females were characterised. Male recordings revealed at least two types of ORN, each of which typically responded to one of the two pheromone components. Hexanal, octanal, nonanal and 1-octen-3-ol significantly disrupted the egg-laying behaviour in a dose-dependent manner. Octanal reduced the P. operculella infestation rate when used under storage conditions. CONCLUSIONS This work provides new information on the perception of plant volatiles and sex pheromones by P. operculella. Laboratory and warehouse experiments show that the use of hexanal, octanal, nonanal and 1-octen-3-ol as host recognition disruptants and/or oviposition deterrents for P. operculella control appears to be a promising strategy. © 2013 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:23794160

  9. Composition of volatile in micropropagated and field grown aromatic plants from Tuscany Islands.

    PubMed

    Pistelli, Laura; Noccioli, Cecilia; D'Angiolillo, Francesca; Pistelli, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Aromatic plant species present in the natural Park of Tuscany Archipelago are used as flavoring agents and spices, as dietary supplements and in cosmetics and aromatherapy. The plants are usually collected from wild stands, inducing a depletion of the natural habitat. Therefore, micropropagation of these aromatic plants can play a role in the protection of the natural ecosystem, can guarantee a massive sustainable production and can provide standardized plant materials for diverse economical purposes. The aim of this study is to compare the volatile organic compounds produced by the wild plants with those from in vitro plantlets using headspace solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) followed by capillary gas-chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Typical plants of this natural area selected for this work were Calamintha nepeta L., Crithmum maritimum L., Lavandula angustifolia L., Myrtus communis L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Salvia officinalis L. and Satureja hortensis L. Different explants were used: microcuttings with vegetative apical parts, axillary buds and internodes. Sterilization percentage, multiplication rate and shoot length, as well as root formation were measured. The volatile aromatic profiles produced from in vitro plantlets were compared with those of the wild plants, in particular for C. maritimum, R. officinalis, S. officinalis and S. hortensis. This study indicated that the micropropagation technique can represent a valid alternative to produce massive and sterile plant material characterised by the same aromatic flavour as in the wild grown plants. PMID:23441303

  10. Effects of rigorous emission controls on reducing ambient volatile organic compounds in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Wu, Rongrong; Li, Yaqi; Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong; Zeng, Liming

    2016-07-01

    102 volatile organic compound (VOC) species were measured online using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/flame ionization detector (GC-MS/FID) at an urban site in Beijing in 11 August to 3 September 2015, when a series of rigorous air quality control measures were implemented in Beijing city and neighbouring provinces. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to identify emission sources from 1h averaged values of VOC data. Based on the online VOC data and the PMF analysis results, the effectiveness of different control measures were investigated. The PMF results were compared with an emission inventory data. Results show that the rigorous air quality restrictions implemented were successful. The averaged ambient VOC mixing ratios during the emission control period and non-control period were 27.53 and 45.42ppbv, respectively. The mixing ratios of total VOC during the control period were reduced by 40%. Alkanes were the most abundant chemical group in the two periods, followed by oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Almost all quantified VOC species decreased during the control period. Tracers of industrial sources and vehicle exhaust reduced most, including some halocarbons, esters and aromatics. Eight sources were resolved by online PMF analysis for ambient VOCs in Beijing. Contributions of those sources varied significantly during the control and non-control period. Compared with the values before control, contributions of vehicle-related sources were most reduced, followed by solvent utilization. Reductions of vehicle-related sources, solvent utilization, secondary formation, fuel combustion, and biogenic were responsible for 65%, 19%, 10%, 5%, and 1% of the reductions in ambient VOCs. Both PMF results and emission inventory data indicated that the control measure on traffic was very effective in reducing ambient VOCs in Beijing, with the emission reductions of about 50%. PMID:27039059

  11. NATURAL EMISSIONS OF NON-METHANE VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, CARBON MONOXIDE, AND OXIDES OF NITROGEN FROM NORTH AMERICA. (R825259)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The magnitudes, distributions, controlling processes and uncertainties associated with North American natural emissions of oxidant precursors are reviewed. Natural emissions are responsible for a major portion of the compounds, including non-methane volatile o...

  12. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS FROM LATEX PAINT-PART 2. TEST HOUSE STUDIES AND INDOOR AIR QUALITY (IAQ) MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emission models developed using small chamber data were combined with an Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) model to analyze the impact of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from latex paint on indoor environments. Test house experiments were conducted to verify the IAQ model's pred...

  13. Cancer risks from soil emissions of volatile organic compounds at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dibley, V. R., LLNL

    1998-02-01

    The emission isolation flux chamber (EIFC) methodology was applied to Superfund investigations at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300 to determine if on-site workers were exposed to VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface and what, if any, health risks could be attributed to the inhalation of the VOCs volatilizing from the subsurface. During July and August of 1996, twenty, eighteen, and twenty six VOC soil vapor flux samples were collected in the Building 830, 832, and 854 areas, respectively using EIFCS. The VOC concentrations in the vapor samples were used to calculate soil flux rates which were used as input into an air dispersion model to calculate ambient air exposure-point concentrations. The exposure-point concentrations were compared to EPA Region IX Preliminary Remediation Goals (PRGs). Buildings 830 and 832 exposure-point concentrations were less then the PRGs therefore no cancer risks were calculated. The cancer risks for Building 854 ranged from 1.6 x 10{sup -7} to 2.1 x 10{sup -6}. The resultant inhalation cancer risks were all within the acceptable range, implying that on-site workers were not exposed to VOC vapors volatilizing from the subsurface soil that could have significant cancer risks. Therefore remediation in these areas would not be necessary.

  14. Strong emissive nanofibers of organogels for the detection of volatile acid vapors.

    PubMed

    Xue, Pengchong; Sun, Jiabao; Yao, Boqi; Gong, Peng; Zhang, Zhenqi; Qian, Chong; Zhang, Yuan; Lu, Ran

    2015-03-16

    Two L-phenylalanine derivatives with 5,8-bis(2-(carbazol-3-yl)vinyl)quinoxaline (PCQ) and 5,8-bis[2-(carbazol-3-yl)]-2,3-dimethylquinoxaline (DCQ) as fluorophores were synthesized, and their photophysical properties were measured and compared. The two compounds were found to gelate some organic solvents and self-assemble into 1D nanofibers in gels. The wet gel of PCQ emitted a weak orange fluorescence, but the DCQ gel had a strong green one. This result can be due to the presence of two methyl groups and the nonplanar conformation of fluorophore in DCQ. The gel film of DCQ also showed significantly stronger fluorescence than that of PCQ. Thus, the wet gel and xerogel film of DCQ were selected to study their sensing properties to acids. The yellow wet gel of DCQ transformed into a brown sol upon the addition of 0.2 equiv trifluoroacetic acid (TFA), accompanied by emission quenching. The xerogel film of DCQ rapidly responded to volatile acids, such as TFA, HCl, and HOAc. The fluorescence of the xerogel film was gradually quenched with increased concentration of volatile acid vapors. The fibrous film exhibited low detection limits for volatile acid. The detection limits of the thin films for TFA, HCl, and HOAc reached 43, 122, and 950 ppb, respectively. PMID:25393379

  15. A Global inventory of volatile organic compound emissions from anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccot, Stephen D.; Watson, Joel J.; Jones, Julian W.

    1992-06-01

    As part of an effort to assess the potential impacts associated with global climate change, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Research and Development is supporting global atmospheric chemistry research by developing global scale estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions (excluding methane). Atmospheric chemistry models require, as one input, an emissions inventory of VOCs. Consequently, a global inventory of anthropogenic VOC emissions has been developed. The inventory includes VOC estimates for seven classes of VOCs: paraffins, olefins, aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylene), formaldehyde, other aldehydes, other aromatics, and marginally reactive compounds. These classes represent general classes of VOC compounds which possess different chemical reactivities in the atmosphere. The technical approach used to develop this inventory involved four major steps. The first step was to identify the major anthropogenic sources of VOC emissions in the United States and to group these sources into 28 general source groups. Source groups were developed to represent general categories such as "sources associated with oil and natural gas production" and more specific categories such as savanna buming. Emission factors for these source groups were then developed using different techniques and data bases. For example, emission factors for oil and natural gas production were estimated by dividing the United States' emissions from oil and gas production operations by the amount of oil and natural gas produced in the United States. Multiplication of these emission factors by production/consumption statistics for other countries yielded global VOC emission estimates for specific source groups within those countries. The final step in development of the VOC inventory was to distribute emissions into 10° by 10° grid cells using detailed maps of population and industrial activity. The results of this study show total global anthropogenic VOC emissions of

  16. Contribution of flowering trees to urban atmospheric biogenic volatile organic compound emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baghi, R.; Helmig, D.; Guenther, A.; Duhl, T.; Daly, R.

    2012-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) from urban trees during and after blooming were measured during spring and early summer 2009 in Boulder, Colorado. Air samples were collected onto solid adsorbent cartridges from branch enclosures on the following trees: crabapple, horse chestnut, honey locust and hawthorn. These species constitute ~65% of the insect-pollinated fraction of the flowering tree canopy (excluding catkin-producing trees) from the total street area managed by the City of Boulder. Samples were subsequently analyzed for C10 - C15 BVOC by thermal desorption and gas chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector and a mass spectrometer (GC/FID/MS). Identified emissions and emission rates from these four tree species during the flowering phase were found to vary over a wide range. Monoterpene emissions were identified for honey locust, horse chestnut and hawthorn. Sesquiterpene emissions were observed in horse chestnut and hawthorn samples. Crabapple flowers were found to emit significant amounts of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. Floral BVOC emissions were found to increase with temperature, generally exhibiting exponential temperature dependence. Changes in BVOC speciation during and after the flowering period were observed for every tree studied. Emission rates were significantly higher during the blooming compared to the vegetative state for crabapple and honey locust. Total normalized (30oC) monoterpene emissions from honey locust were 4.3 fold higher during flowering (5.26 μgC g-1h-1) than after flowering (1.23 μgC g-1h-1). The total normalized BVOC emission rate from crabapple (93 μgC g-1h-1) during the flowering period is of the same order as isoprene emissions from oak trees, which are among the highest BVOC emissions observed to date. These findings illustrate that during the relatively brief springtime flowering period, floral emissions constitute by far the most significant contribution to the BVOC flux from these

  17. Host-mediated volatile polymorphism in a parasitic plant influences its attractiveness to pollinators.

    PubMed

    Troncoso, Alejandra J; Cabezas, Nancy J; Faúndez, Eric H; Urzúa, Alejandro; Niemeyer, Hermann M

    2010-02-01

    Host-plants can mediate the interactions between herbivores and their mutualists and also between parasitic plants and their mutualists. The present study reveals how a hemiparasitic plant parasitizing three host species gives rise to three distinct hemiparasite-host neighborhoods which differ in terms of volatile composition and pollinator attractiveness. The study was performed in a population of the mistletoe Tristerix verticillatus infecting three different species of hosts occurring in sympatry within a small area, thus exposing all individuals studied to similar abiotic conditions and pollinator diversity; we assessed the effect of hosts on the hemiparasites' visual and olfactory cues for pollinator attraction. During the study period, the hemiparasite individuals were flowering but the hosts were past their flowering stage. We collected volatile organic compounds from the hemiparasite and its hosts, measured floral display characteristics and monitored bird and insect visitors to inflorescences of T. verticillatus. We showed that: (1) floral patches did not differ in terms of floral display potentially involved in the attraction of pollinators, (2) hosts and hemiparasites on each host were discriminated as distinct chemical populations in terms of their volatile chemical profiles, (3) insect visitation rates differed between hemiparasites parasitizing different hosts, and (4) volatile compounds from the host and the hemiparasite influenced the visitation of hemiparasite flowers by insects. The study showed that a species regarded as "ornithophilic" by its floral morphology was actually mostly visited by insects that interacted with its sexual organs during their visits and carried its pollen, and that host-specific plant-volatile profiles within the T. verticillatus population were associated with differential attractiveness to pollinating insects. PMID:19890665

  18. Circadian Regulation of the PhCCD1 Carotenoid Cleavage Dioxygenase Controls Emission of β-Ionone, a Fragrance Volatile of Petunia Flowers1

    PubMed Central

    Simkin, Andrew J.; Underwood, Beverly A.; Auldridge, Michele; Loucas, Holly M.; Shibuya, Kenichi; Schmelz, Eric; Clark, David G.; Klee, Harry J.

    2004-01-01

    Carotenoids are thought to be the precursors of terpenoid volatile compounds that contribute to flavor and aroma. One such volatile, β-ionone, is important to fragrance in many flowers, including petunia (Petunia hybrida). However, little is known about the factors regulating its synthesis in vivo. The petunia genome contains a gene encoding a 9,10(9′,10′) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase, PhCCD1. The PhCCD1 is 94% identical to LeCCD1A, an enzyme responsible for formation of β-ionone in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum; Simkin AJ, Schwartz SH, Auldridge M, Taylor MG, Klee HJ [2004] Plant J [in press]). Reduction of PhCCD1 transcript levels in transgenic plants led to a 58% to 76% decrease in β-ionone synthesis in the corollas of selected petunia lines, indicating a significant role for this enzyme in volatile synthesis. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed that PhCCD1 is highly expressed in corollas and leaves, where it constitutes approximately 0.04% and 0.02% of total RNA, respectively. PhCCD1 is light-inducible and exhibits a circadian rhythm in both leaves and flowers. β-Ionone emission by flowers occurred principally during daylight hours, paralleling PhCCD1 expression in corollas. The results indicate that PhCCD1 activity and β-ionone emission are likely regulated at the level of transcript. PMID:15516502

  19. Integrative Analyses of Nontargeted Volatile Profiling and Transcriptome Data Provide Molecular Insight into VOC Diversity in Cucumber Plants (Cucumis sativus).

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Tian, Peng; Zhang, Fengxia; Qin, Hao; Miao, Han; Chen, Qingwen; Hu, Zhongyi; Cao, Li; Wang, Meijiao; Gu, Xingfang; Huang, Sanwen; Chen, Mingsheng; Wang, Guodong

    2016-09-01

    Plant volatile organic compounds, which are generated in a tissue-specific manner, play important ecological roles in the interactions between plants and their environments, including the well-known functions of attracting pollinators and protecting plants from herbivores/fungi attacks. However, to date, there have not been reports of holistic volatile profiling of the various tissues of a single plant species, even for the model plant species. In this study, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 85 volatile chemicals, including 36 volatile terpenes, in 23 different tissues of cucumber (Cucumis sativus) plants using solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Most volatile chemicals were found to occur in a highly tissue-specific manner. The consensus transcriptomes for each of the 23 cucumber tissues were generated with RNA sequencing data and used in volatile organic compound-gene correlation analysis to screen for candidate genes likely to be involved in cucumber volatile biosynthetic pathways. In vitro biochemical characterization of the candidate enzymes demonstrated that TERPENE SYNTHASE11 (TPS11)/TPS14, TPS01, and TPS15 were responsible for volatile terpenoid production in the roots, flowers, and fruit tissues of cucumber plants, respectively. A functional heteromeric geranyl(geranyl) pyrophosphate synthase, composed of an inactive small subunit (type I) and an active large subunit, was demonstrated to play a key role in monoterpene production in cucumber. In addition to establishing a standard workflow for the elucidation of plant volatile biosynthetic pathways, the knowledge generated from this study lays a solid foundation for future investigations of both the physiological functions of cucumber volatiles and aspects of cucumber flavor improvement. PMID:27457123

  20. Emissions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds and Observations of VOC Oxidation at Harvard Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKinney, K. A.; Pho, T.; Vasta, A.; Lee, B. H.

    2009-12-01

    The contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to oxidant concentrations and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in forested environments depends on the emission rates of these compounds. Recent findings have suggested that the emission rates of BVOCs and the range of species emitted could be larger than previously thought. In this study, Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to obtain fast (<1 Hz) measurements of the predominant BVOC species, including isoprene, monoterpenes, and oxygenated BVOCs, above the canopy at Harvard Forest (Petersham, MA) during the summers of 2005, 2007, and 2008. Together with vertical wind data, these measurements are used to determine fluxes of BVOCs out of the forest using the virtual disjunct eddy covariance method. Concentrations of additional VOCs, including methyl vinyl ketone + methacrolein and terpene oxidation products were also measured. Isoprene is the dominant emitted species, with peak emission rates and midday mixing ratios of ca. 4 mg isoprene m-2 h-1 and ca. 5 ppbv, respectively. Isoprene emission rates are expected to vary with temperature and radiation (PAR) levels, and are compared to standard emission algorithms based on these parameters. Interannual variability in isoprene emission rates is also observed, and contributing factors are explored. In contrast to isoprene, maximum monoterpene concentrations typically were less than 1 ppbv and occurred in the early evening, with a local minimum at midday. Monoterpene fluxes are about an order of magnitude smaller than those of isoprene. The amplitude of the flux diurnal cycle suggests monoterpene emissions at Harvard Forest may exhibit light dependence as well as temperature dependence. Fluxes of oxygenated VOCs, including methanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, and oxygenated terpenes that have rarely been observed previously, are also reported, and the dependence of their emission rates on factors such as time of year

  1. Fundamental mass transfer modeling of emission of volatile organic compounds from building materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodalal, Awad Saad

    In this study, a mass transfer theory based model is presented for characterizing the VOC emissions from building materials. A 3-D diffusion model is developed to describe the emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from individual sources. Then the formulation is extended to include the emissions from composite sources (system comprising an assemblage of individual sources). The key parameters for the model (The diffusion coefficient of the VOC in the source material D, and the equilibrium partition coefficient k e) were determined independently (model parameters are determined without the use of chamber emission data). This procedure eliminated to a large extent the need for emission testing using environmental chambers, which is costly, time consuming, and may be subject to confounding sink effects. An experimental method is developed and implemented to measure directly the internal diffusion (D) and partition coefficients ( ke). The use of the method is illustrated for three types of VOC's: (i) Aliphatic Hydrocarbons, (ii) Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ( iii) Aldehydes, through typical dry building materials (carpet, plywood, particleboard, vinyl floor tile, gypsum board, sub-floor tile and OSB). Then correlations for predicting D and ke based solely on commonly available properties such as molecular weight and vapour pressure were proposed for each product and type of VOC. These correlations can be used to estimate the D and ke when direct measurement data are not available, and thus facilitate the prediction of VOC emissions from the building materials using mass transfer theory. The VOC emissions from a sub-floor material (made of the recycled automobile tires), and a particleboard are measured and predicted. Finally, a mathematical model to predict the diffusion coefficient through complex sources (floor adhesive) as a function of time was developed. Then this model (for diffusion coefficient in complex sources) was used to predict the emission rate from

  2. Volatile organic chemical emissions from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials and implications for indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.

    2003-09-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from structural insulated panel (SIP) materials were investigated. Specimens of newly produced SIPs and associated panel adhesives were obtained from two relatively large manufacturers. Additionally, specimens of the oriented strand board (OSB) used as the inner and outer sheathing and the extruded polystyrene core for the SIP were obtained from one manufacturer. Using small-scale chambers, emissions of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and other VOCs from SIPs, OSB and polystyrene were measured over a period of four months and from the adhesives over two months. SIP specimens overlaid by gypsum board panels were also tested over four months. The predominant VOCs emitted by the SIPs included acetic acid, pentanal, hexanal and styrene. The emissions of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were relatively low. Acetic acid and the aldehydes derived from the OSB, while styrene derived from the polystyrene. One of the SIPs emitted toluene and methyl acetate. The adhesives primarily emitted a mixture of hydrocarbons. The emission rates of most VOCs from the SIP/gypsum board assemblies were approximately the same or higher than their respective emission rates from the unfinished SIPs. Modeling using VOC emission factors obtained for the SIP/gypsum board assemblies demonstrated the potential for SIP materials to degrade indoor air quality in houses. A field study to investigate VOC concentrations and emission rates in SIP houses relative to closely matched conventionally constructed houses is necessary to determine the actual impacts of SIPs. If significant impacts are observed, to it may be desirable to develop control measures to reduce the emissions of VOCs from SIPs, such as the substitution of lower emitting materials or the use of vapor diffusion barriers.

  3. Large drought-induced variations in oak leaf volatile organic compound emissions during PINOT NOIR 2012.

    PubMed

    Geron, Chris; Daly, Ryan; Harley, Peter; Rasmussen, Rei; Seco, Roger; Guenther, Alex; Karl, Thomas; Gu, Lianhong

    2016-03-01

    Leaf-level isoprene and monoterpene emissions were collected and analyzed from five of the most abundant oak (Quercus) species in Central Missouri's Ozarks Region in 2012 during PINOT NOIR (Particle Investigations at a Northern Ozarks Tower - NOx, Oxidants, Isoprene Research). June measurements, prior to the onset of severe drought, showed isoprene emission rates and leaf temperature responses similar to those previously reported in the literature and used in Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) emission models. During the peak of the drought in August, isoprene emission rates were substantially reduced, and response to temperature was dramatically altered, especially for the species in the red oak subgenus (Erythrobalanus). Quercus stellata (in the white oak subgenus Leucobalanus), on the other hand, increased its isoprene emission rate during August, and showed no decline at high temperatures during June or August, consistent with its high tolerance to drought and adaptation to xeric sites at the prairie-deciduous forest interface. Mid-late October measurements were conducted after soil moisture recharge, but were affected by senescence and cooler temperatures. Isoprene emission rates were considerably lower from all species compared to June and August data. The large differences between the oaks in response to drought emphasizes the need to consider BVOC emissions at the species level instead of just the whole canopy. Monoterpene emissions from Quercus rubra in limited data were highest among the oaks studied, while monoterpene emissions from the other oak species were 80-95% lower and less than assumed in current BVOC emission models. Major monoterpenes from Q. rubra (and in ambient air) were p-cymene, α-pinene, β-pinene, d-limonene, γ-terpinene, β-ocimene (predominantly1,3,7-trans-β-ocimene, but also 1,3,6-trans-β-ocimene), tricyclene, α-terpinene, sabinene, terpinolene, and myrcene. Results are discussed in the context of canopy flux studies

  4. Evaluation of total volatile organic compound emissions from adhesives based on chamber tests.

    PubMed

    Guo, H; Murray, F; Wilkinson, S

    2000-02-01

    In 1997, Homeswest in western Australia and Murdoch University developed a project to construct low-allergen houses (LAHs) in a newly developed suburb. Before the construction of LAHs, all potential volatile organic compound (VOC) emission materials used in LAHs are required to be measured to ensure that they are low total VOC (TVOC) emission materials. This program was developed based on this purpose. In recent times, the number of complaints about indoor air pollution caused by VOCs has increased. A number of surveys of indoor VOCs have indicated that many indoor materials contribute to indoor air pollution. Although some studies have been conducted on the characteristics of VOC emissions from adhesives, most of them were focused on VOC emissions from floor adhesives. Few measurements of VOC emissions from adhesives used for wood, fabrics, and leather are available. Furthermore, most research on VOC emissions from adhesives has been done in countries with cool climates, where ventilation rates in the indoor environment are lower than those in Mediterranean climates, due to energy conservation. VOCs emitted from adhesives have not been sufficiently researched to prepare an emission inventory to predict indoor air quality and to determine both exposure levels for the Australian population and the most appropriate strategies to reduce exposure. An environmental test chamber with controlled temperature, relative humidity, and airflow rate was used to evaluate emissions of TVOCs from three adhesives used frequently in Australia. The quantity of TVOC emissions was measured by a gas chromatography/flame ionization detector. The primary VOCs emitted from each adhesive were detected by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The temporal change of TVOC concentrations emitted from each adhesive was tested. A double-exponential equation was then developed to evaluate the characteristics of TVOC emissions from these three adhesives. With this double-exponential model, the

  5. Volatile organic compound analysis in wood combustion and meat cooking emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Zielinska, B.; McDonald, J.

    1999-07-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOC). Emissions were diluted 60--100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection with the aid of a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab, University of California, Riverside. Meat type, fat content, and cooking appliance were changed in different tests. VOCs were collected using stainless-steel 6 L canisters and Tenax cartridges, whereas for carbonyl compound collection 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated C{sub 18} SepPack cartridges were used. Analysis of VOC collected with canisters and Tenax cartridges was conducted by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) and by GC/FID/ECD (flame ionization detection/electron capture detection). DNPH-impregnated cartridges were analyzed for fourteen C{sub 1}--C{sub 7} carbonyl compounds, using the HPLC method. The results of these measurements are discussed.

  6. Surface irrigation reduces the emission of volatile 1,3-dichloropropene from agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Ashworth, D J; Yates, S R

    2007-04-01

    Low-cost, practicable techniques are required to limit the release of volatile organic compound-containing fumigants such as 1,3-D to the atmosphere. In this study, we aimed to quantify 1,3-D diffusion and emission from laboratory soil columns maintained under realistic conditions and thereby assess the efficacy of soil irrigation as a technique for reducing emissions. In two soils (one relatively high, and one relatively low, in organic matter), irrigation led to a limiting of upward diffusion of the fumigant and to the maintenance of higher soil gas concentrations. Therefore, rather than being emitted from the column, the 1,3-D was maintained in the soil where it was ultimately degraded. As a consequence, emission of 1,3-D from the irrigated columns was around half of thatfrom the nonirrigated columns. It is concluded that surface irrigation represents an effective, low-cost, and readily practicable approach to lessening the environmental impact of 1,3-D fumigant use. In addition, the higher organic matter soil exhibited emissions of around one-fifth of the lower organic matter soil in both irrigated and nonirrigated treatments, due to markedly enhanced degradation of the fumigant. Organic matter amendment of soils may, therefore, also represent an extremely effective, relatively low-cost approach to reducing 1,3-D emissions. PMID:17438768

  7. Volatile compounds emission from canopy fine litterfall in a hemiboreal mixed forest at Järvselja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portillo-Estrada, Miguel; Noe, Beate; Noe, Steffen M.

    2013-04-01

    The seasonal distribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) emissions from canopy fine litterfall was investigated over a period of two years. Three stands of a hemiboreal mixed forest were studied. The stands presented different dominant tree species: (1) Norway spruce, (2) Scots pine, and (3) Silver birch and Downy birch. The litterfall was monthly collected in litter traps. The BVOC emission of litter was sampled by placing the litter into a glass jar equipped with a vent tube and pumping the head space air through a VOC adsorbing tube (carbotrap). Adsorbed BVOCs were analyzed in a GC-MS. Fifteen compounds were quantified. Seasonal differences in the total emission of BVOCs were found, defined by a maximum in summer and a minimum in autumn and winter. During summer months, litter emissions were dominated by limonene, α-pinene, camphene and 3-carene in the three litter types, accounting for 70-75 % of total BVOC emitted in June. 3-Carene, α-pinene and β-pinene were the main compounds emitted during winter time, accounting for 50-60 % of total BVOC emitted in January. Stand to stand differences were assessed. The spruce and birch dominated stands showed more similarities in their BVOC emission pattern if compared to the pine dominated stand. Together with the litterfall data, an estimation of the annual total BVOC emitted by the soil litter layer is presented for each stand type.

  8. Semivolatile and volatile organic compound emissions from wood-fired hydronic heaters.

    PubMed

    Aurell, Johanna; Gullett, Brian K; Tabor, Dennis; Touati, Abderrahmane; Oudejans, Lukas

    2012-07-17

    Emissions including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were sampled from different wood-fired hydronic heater (HH) technologies. Four commercially available HH technologies were studied: a single-stage conventional combustor with natural updraft, a three-stage downdraft combustion system, a bottom-fed pellet burner, and a two-stage heater with both a combustion and gasification chamber. The fuel consisted of three wood types (red oak, white pine, and white ash), one hardwood pellet brand, and one fuel mixture containing 95% red oak and 5% residential refuse by weight. The various HHs and fuel combinations were tested in a realistic homeowner fuel-charging scenario. Differences in emission levels were found between HH technologies and fuel types. PCDD/PCDF emissions ranged from 0.004 to 0.098 ng toxic equivalency/MJ(input) and PAHs from 0.49 to 54 mg/MJ(input). The former was increased by the presence of 5% by weight refuse. The white pine fuel had the highest PAH emission factor, while the bottom fed pellet burner had the lowest. The major VOCs emitted were benzene, acetylene, and propylene. The highest emissions of PAHs, VOCs, and PCDDs/PCDFs were observed with the conventional unit, likely due to the rapid changes in combustion conditions effected by the damper opening and closing. PMID:22765760

  9. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sources: A Pilot Study in Northeastern Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds can be emitted from multiple sources, and as such, it would be useful for a facility to be able to distinguish emissions originating inside battery limits (ISBL) from those originating from external sources. A field campaign of ambient air sampling was conducted at the Phillips 66 Research Center located in Northeastern Oklahoma. The surface measurement campaign included ambient air measurement using two hour and six hour time-integrated canister sampling and measurement of meteorological data. A total of 238 ambient air samples were collected between February and April of 2015 and the concentrations of 55 different hydrocarbons were measured in each of these samples. C2-C5 alkanes were the most dominant hydrocarbons measured during this study with their mean concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 13.6 ppb. The data analysis identified oil and gas production as the primary source of emission. The results and their analysis will be discussed.

  10. Production of extremely low volatile organic compounds from biogenic emissions: Measured yields and atmospheric implications

    SciTech Connect

    Jokinen, Tuija; Berndt, Torsten; Makkonen, Risto; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Junninen, Heikki; Paasonen, Pauli; Stratmann, Frank; Herrmann, Hartmut; Guenther, Alex B.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, M.; Ehn, Mikael K.; Sipila, Mikko

    2015-06-09

    Extremely low volatility organic compounds (ELVOC) are suggested to promote aerosol particle formation and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production in the atmosphere. We show that the capability of biogenic VOC (BVOC) to produce ELVOC depends strongly on their chemical structure and relative oxidant levels. BVOC with an endocyclic double bond, representative emissions from, e.g., boreal forests, efficiently produce ELVOC from ozonolysis. Compounds with exocyclic double bonds or acyclic compounds including isoprene, emission representative of the tropics, produce minor quantities of ELVOC, and the role of OH radical oxidation is relatively larger. Implementing these findings into a global modeling framework shows that detailed assessment of ELVOC production pathways is crucial for understanding biogenic secondary organic aerosol and atmospheric CCN formation.

  11. Occurrence and fate of volatile siloxanes in a municipal wastewater treatment plant of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Shi, Yali; Cai, Yaqi

    2013-02-01

    The occurrence and fate of four cyclic and two linear volatile siloxanes were studied in a municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Beijing City, China. Aqueous and sludge samples were analyzed by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In the studied WWTP, four cyclic analogs (D3-D6) had significantly higher concentrations and frequencies than the two linear analogs [Octamethyltrisiloxane (L3) and Decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4)], with inputs into the WWTP ranging from 78.2 to 387.7 kg/year. Removal efficiencies of volatile cyclic siloxanes in two parallel secondary treatment processes ranged from 59.3 to 92.7%. For volatile cyclic siloxanes, relative fractions of mass loss by adsorption to sludge ranged from 8.3 to 53.0%, and their adsorption capacities were significantly affected by the dissolved organic matter. Besides adsorption, they were eliminated mainly in anaerobic units (44.4-84.3%). Through in vitro biodegradation experiments, we concluded that in the anaerobic compartments, Hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3) and Dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) were eliminated mostly by volatilization, while Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and Decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) may be eliminated by both volatilization and degradation. Furthermore, microbe catalysis hydrolysis was identified as one of the main degradation pathways for D4 and D5 in anaerobic compartments. PMID:23182664

  12. Measurements of Methane Emissions and Volatile Organic Compounds from Shale Gas Operations in the Marcellus Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omara, M.; Subramanian, R.; Sullivan, M.; Robinson, A. L.; Presto, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Marcellus Shale is the most expansive shale gas reserve in play in the United States, representing an estimated 17 to 29 % of the total domestic shale gas reserves. The rapid and extensive development of this shale gas reserve in the past decade has stimulated significant interest and debate over the climate and environmental impacts associated with fugitive releases of methane and other pollutants, including volatile organic compounds. However, the nature and magnitude of these pollutant emissions remain poorly characterized. This study utilizes the tracer release technique to characterize total fugitive methane release rates from natural gas facilities in southwestern Pennsylvania and West Virginia that are at different stages of development, including well completion flowbacks and active production. Real-time downwind concentrations of methane and two tracer gases (acetylene and nitrous oxide) released onsite at known flow rates were measured using a quantum cascade tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectrometer (QC-TILDAS, Aerodyne, Billerica, MA) and a cavity ring down spectrometer (Model G2203, Picarro, Santa Clara, CA). Evacuated Silonite canisters were used to sample ambient air during downwind transects of methane and tracer plumes to assess volatile organic compounds (VOCs). A gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector was used to quantify VOCs following the EPA Method TO-14A. A preliminary assessment of fugitive emissions from actively producing sites indicated that methane leak rates ranged from approximately 1.8 to 6.2 SCFM, possibly reflecting differences in facility age and installed emissions control technology. A detailed comparison of methane leak rates and VOCs emissions with recent published literature for other US shale gas plays will also be discussed.

  13. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants.

    PubMed

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2014-09-15

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles (GLV). These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  14. Influence of microwave frequency electromagnetic radiation on terpene emission and content in aromatic plants

    PubMed Central

    Soran, Maria-Loredana; Stan, Manuela; Niinemets, Ülo; Copolovici, Lucian

    2015-01-01

    Influence of environmental stress factors on both crop and wild plants of nutritional value is an important research topic. The past research has focused on rising temperatures, drought, soil salinity and toxicity, but the potential effects of increased environmental contamination by human-generated electromagnetic radiation on plants have little been studied. Here we studied the influence of microwave irradiation at bands corresponding to wireless router (WLAN) and mobile devices (GSM) on leaf anatomy, essential oil content and volatile emissions in Petroselinum crispum, Apium graveolens and Anethum graveolens. Microwave irradiation resulted in thinner cell walls, smaller chloroplasts and mitochondria, and enhanced emissions of volatile compounds, in particular, monoterpenes and green leaf volatiles. These effects were stronger for WLAN-frequency microwaves. Essential oil content was enhanced by GSM-frequency microwaves, but the effect of WLAN-frequency microwaves was inhibitory. There was a direct relationship between microwave-induced structural and chemical modifications of the three plant species studied. These data collectively demonstrate that human-generated microwave pollution can potentially constitute a stress to the plants. PMID:25050479

  15. Influence of the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum on tomato host plant volatiles and psyllid vector settlement.

    PubMed

    Mas, Flore; Vereijssen, Jessica; Suckling, David M

    2014-12-01

    Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (CLso) is an unculturable bacterium vectored by the tomato potato psyllid (TPP) Bactericera cockerelli and has been associated with Zebra chip disease in potato and with other economically relevant symptoms observed in solanaceous crops. By altering their host and vector's biological system, pathogens are able to induce changes that benefit them by increasing their transmission rate. Understanding these changes can enable better targeting of mechanisms to control pathogen outbreaks. Here, we explored how the CLso infectious status affects the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the tomato plant, and whether the CLso infectious status of TPP influences host plant settlement. These chemical and behavioral changes can ultimately affect the rate of encounter between the host and the vector. Results from headspace volatile collection of tomato plants showed that CLso infected tomato plants emitted a qualitatively and quantitatively different blend of VOCs compared to sham-infected plants. By a factorial experiment, we showed that CLso negative (CLso-) TPP preferred to settle 70 % more often on infected tomato plants, while CLso positive (CLso+) TPP were found 68 % more often on sham-infected tomato plants. These results provide new evidence in favor of both host and vector manipulation by CLso. PMID:25378121

  16. Microextraction techniques for the determination of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds from plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cui; Wang, Juan; Li, Donghao

    2013-10-17

    Vegetables and fruits are necessary for human health, and traditional Chinese medicine that uses plant materials can cure diseases. Thus, understanding the composition of plant matrix has gained increased attention in recent years. Since plant matrix is very complex, the extraction, separation and quantitation of these chemicals are challenging. In this review we focus on the microextraction techniques used in the determination of volatile and semivolatile organic compounds (such as esters, alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, terpenes, sesquiterpene, phenols, acids, plant secondary metabolites and pesticides) from plants (e.g., fruits, vegetables, medicinal plants, tree leaves, etc.). These microextraction techniques include: solid phase microextraction (SPME), stir-bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), single drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME), and gas purge microsyringe extraction (GP-MSE). We have taken into consideration papers published from 2008 to the end of January 2013, and provided critical and interpretative review on these techniques, and formulated future trends in microextraction for the determination of volatile and semivolatile compounds from plants. PMID:24091369

  17. Monitoring the dynamic emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds from Cryptomeria japonica by enclosure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Tzu-Cheng; Chen, Yu-Han; Chen, Ying-Ju; Cheng, Sen-Sung; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-12-01

    Research on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from trees is essential in the world since these BVOCs play an important role in the atmospheric process which may further influence on the air quality. However, little is known about BVOCs emitted from trees in the field in Taiwan. Hence, this study intends to establish an enclosure technique coupled with in situ sampling to facilitate the collection of BVOCs emitted from Cryptomeria japonica leaves. Furthermore, the emission model derived from the relationship between emission rate and temperature was applied to estimate the emission of BVOCs in the field. Results from GC-MS showed that the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves contain 14 monoterpenoids and 4 sesquiterpenoid. The emission rate of the major constituent, sabinene, was 0.42 μg h-1 g-1 around noon on September 11, 2013. Sabinene varies with the changing temperature inside the bag. These findings indicated that the enclosure technique can collect the BVOCs emitted from intact leaves and monitor the dynamic changes in emission. Two determinants, basal emission rate (at 30 °C) and β coefficient, of sabinene were further measured, and they were 1.29 μg h-1 g-1 and 0.18 °C-1, respectively. By using these two determinants and data of meteorology and forest resource, the emission of monoterpenes from C. japonica stand was estimated to be 1.13 mg m-2 h-1 in July in Xitou area. Taken together, the results provide valuable information for estimation of BVOCs from tree species in Taiwan for the first time.

  18. Emission of reduced malodorous sulfur gases from wastewater treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.

    1999-03-01

    The emission of malodorous gaseous compounds from wastewater collection and treatment facilities is a growing maintenance and environmental problem. Numerous gaseous compounds with low odor detection thresholds are emitted from these facilities. Sulfur-bearing gases represent compounds with the lowest odor detection threshold. Using solid adsorbent preconcentration and gas chromatographic methods, the quantity and composition of reduced malodorous sulfur gases emitted from various steps of the treatment process were determined in wastewater treatment plants in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Hydrogen sulfide, which is a malodorous, corrosive, and potentially toxic gas, was the most dominant volatile reduced sulfur (S) compound measured. Concentrations were not only more than the odor detection threshold of hydrogen sulfide, but above levels that may affect health during long-term exposure. The concentrations of methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and carbonyl sulfide were significantly less than hydrogen sulfide. However, even though emissions of reduced sulfur gases other than hydrogen sulfide were low, previous studies suggested that long-term exposure to such levels may cause respiratory problems and other symptoms.

  19. Volatile organic compounds from vegetation in southern Yunnan Province, China: Emission rates and some potential regional implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geron, Chris; Owen, Sue; Guenther, Alex; Greenberg, Jim; Rasmussen, Rei; Hui Bai, Jian; Li, Qing-Jun; Baker, Brad

    Little information is currently available regarding emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in southern Asia. To address the need for BVOC emission estimates in regional atmospheric chemistry simulations, 95 common plant species were screened for emissions of BVOC in and near the Xishuangbanna Tropical Biological Gardens in southern Yunnan Province, Peoples' Republic of China in February 2003. In situ measurements with leaf cuvettes and branch bag enclosures were used in combination with portable gas chromatography, flame ionization, photoionization, and mass spectral detection to identify and quantify BVOC emissions. Forty-four of the species examined emitted isoprene at rates exceeding 20 μg C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1. An emphasis was placed on the genus Ficus, which is important in the region and occupies a wide range of ecological niches. Several species in the footprint of a nearby flux tower were also examined. Several palm species and an abundant fern ( Cyclosorus parasiticus) emitted substantial amounts of isoprene, and probably accounted for observed daytime mean isoprene fluxes from the understory of a Hevea brasiliensis plantation of 1.0 and 0.15 mg C m -2 h -1 during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These measurements verify that both the forest floor and canopy in this region can be sources of isoprene. Monoterpene emissions exceeded 1.0 μg-C g -1 (leaf dry weight) h -1 from only 4 of 38 species surveyed, including some Ficus species and H. brasiliensis. However most of the trees of the latter species were sparsely foliated due to dry season senescence, and emission factors are approximately an order of magnitude lower than those reported during the wet season. BVOC emission rates and physiology of many species are impacted by reduced moisture availability, especially Mangifera indica. South Asia is a region undergoing rapid landuse change and forest plantation establishment, with large increases in area of high BVOC

  20. Volatile emissions and gas geochemistry of Hot Spring Basin, Yellowstone National Park, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Werner, C.; Hurwitz, S.; Evans, William C.; Lowenstern, J. B.; Bergfeld, D.; Heasler, H.; Jaworowski, C.; Hunt, A.

    2008-01-01

    We characterize and quantify volatile emissions at Hot Spring Basin (HSB), a large acid-sulfate region that lies just outside the northeastern edge of the 640??ka Yellowstone Caldera. Relative to other thermal areas in Yellowstone, HSB gases are rich in He and H2, and mildly enriched in CH4 and H2S. Gas compositions are consistent with boiling directly off a deep geothermal liquid at depth as it migrates toward the surface. This fluid, and the gases evolved from it, carries geochemical signatures of magmatic volatiles and water-rock reactions with multiple crustal sources, including limestones or quartz-rich sediments with low K/U (or 40*Ar/4*He). Variations in gas chemistry across the region reflect reservoir heterogeneity and variable degrees of boiling. Gas-geothermometer temperatures approach 300????C and suggest that the reservoir feeding HSB is one of the hottest at Yellowstone. Diffuse CO2 flux in the western basin of HSB, as measured by accumulation-chamber methods, is similar in magnitude to other acid-sulfate areas of Yellowstone and is well correlated to shallow soil temperatures. The extrapolation of diffuse CO2 fluxes across all the thermal/altered area suggests that 410 ?? 140??t d- 1 CO2 are emitted at HSB (vent emissions not included). Diffuse fluxes of H2S were measured in Yellowstone for the first time and likely exceed 2.4??t d- 1 at HSB. Comparing estimates of the total estimated diffuse H2S emission to the amount of sulfur as SO42- in streams indicates ~ 50% of the original H2S in the gas emission is lost into shallow groundwater, precipitated as native sulfur, or vented through fumaroles. We estimate the heat output of HSB as ~ 140-370??MW using CO2 as a tracer for steam condensate, but not including the contribution from fumaroles and hydrothermal vents. Overall, the diffuse heat and volatile fluxes of HSB are as great as some active volcanoes, but they are a small fraction (1-3% for CO2, 2-8% for heat) of that estimated for the entire

  1. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation. PMID:19728494

  2. Induction of Volatile Terpene Biosynthesis and Diurnal Emission by Methyl Jasmonate in Foliage of Norway Spruce1

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diane M.; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Bohlmann, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Terpenoids are characteristic constitutive and inducible defense chemicals of conifers. The biochemical regulation of terpene formation, accumulation, and release from conifer needles was studied in Norway spruce [Picea abies L. (Karst)] saplings using methyl jasmonate (MeJA) to induce defensive responses without inflicting physical damage to terpene storage structures. MeJA treatment caused a 2-fold increase in monoterpene and sesquiterpene accumulation in needles without changes in terpene composition, much less than the 10- and 40-fold increases in monoterpenes and diterpenes, respectively, observed in wood tissue after MeJA treatment (D. Martin, D. Tholl, J. Gershenzon, J. Bohlmann [2002] Plant Physiol 129: 1003–1018). At the same time, MeJA triggered a 5-fold increase in total terpene emission from foliage, with a shift in composition to a blend dominated by oxygenated monoterpenes (e.g. linalool) and sesquiterpenes [e.g. (E)-β-farnesene] that also included methyl salicylate. The rate of linalool emission increased more than 100-fold and that of sesquiterpenes increased more than 30-fold. Emission of these compounds followed a pronounced diurnal rhythm with the maximum amount released during the light period. The major MeJA-induced volatile terpenes appear to be synthesized de novo after treatment, rather than being released from stored terpene pools, because they are almost completely absent from needle oleoresin and are the major products of terpene synthase activity measured after MeJA treatment. Based on precedents in other species, the induced emission of terpenes from Norway spruce foliage may have ecological and physiological significance. PMID:12857838

  3. Characteristics of volatile organic compounds from motorcycle exhaust emission during real-world driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jiun-Horng; Huang, Pei-Hsiu; Chiang, Hung-Lung

    2014-12-01

    The number of motorcycles has increased significantly in Asia, Africa, Latin American and Europe in recent years due to their reasonable price, high mobility and low fuel consumption. However, motorcycles can emit significant amounts of air pollutants; therefore, the emission characteristics of motorcycles are an important consideration for the implementation of control measures for motorcycles in urban areas. Results of this study indicate that most volatile organic compound (VOC) emission factors were in the range of several decades mg/km during on-road driving. Toluene, isopentane, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene were the most abundant VOCs in motorcycle exhaust, with emission factors of hundreds mg/km. Motorcycle exhaust was 15.4 mg/km for 15 carbonyl species. Acetaldehyde, acetone, formaldehyde and benzaldehyde were the major carbonyl species, and their emission factors ranged from 1.4 to 3.5 mg/km 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, 1-butene, toluene, o-xylene, 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene, propene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, isoprene, m-diethylbenzene, and m-ethyltoluene were the main ozone formation potential (OFP) species, and their OFP was 200 mg-O3/km or higher.

  4. Mercury Emission From Plants Depends on Reduction by Ascorbate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, S.; Ernst, D.; Fleischmann, F.; Battke, F.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of vegetation for the ecological Hg cycle has been recognized recently. One step in this cycle is the poorly understood phytogenic reduction of dissolved Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0) which had initially been reported for common reed growing on Hg-contaminated sediments. The hitherto unknown mechanism of this reduction was the objective of our investigations. Young barley and European-beech plants were cultivated for 24 h and 2 days, respectively, on a sterile hydroponic medium containing 20-40 µM HgCl2. Within 10 min after seclusion in a closed exposure system, the Hg(0) emission from the encapsulated aerial part of the plants reached 10 times the control value in a plant-free system and was proportional to the Hg(II) concentration in the medium. At 20 µM Hg(II) in the medium, a flux of 12.8 µg Hg(0)/m2/h was estimated for beech leaves. The phytogenic Hg(II) reduction was further examined by addition of powderized homogenates from deep-frozen leaves (barley, beech, Arabidopsis thaliana) or from needles (Norway spruce) to solutions of 1-5 µM Hg(II). These samples consistently produced a strong transient Hg(0) release at neutral pH that was even reinforced in alkaline medium and vanished at acidic pH. The very same pH dependence was observed after addition of pure L(+)-ascorbate (AA) instead of plant material to the HgCl2 solutions, whereas the reductants NADPH and GSH produced only little or no Hg(0), respectively. At neutral and alkaline pH, the Hg(II)-reducing capacity of spruce needle homogenates was 2 - 4 times that of beech leaves, which paralleled a 6-fold difference in AA concentrations. Homogenates from whole wildtype-plants of Arabidopsis reduced 8-times more Hg(II) than those from the AA-deficient mutant vtc1-1 (AA concentration 30% of wild type). A comparison of literature data on AA concentrations revealed for wetland plants a range from 0.3 µmol/g DW (Phragmites communis) over 15.0 (Typha latifolia) to < 34.1 (Spartina altiflora), and

  5. Effects of changing power plant NOx emissions on ozone in the eastern United States: Proof of concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. J.; McKeen, S. A.; Trainer, M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.; Swanson, A.; Holloway, J. S.; Sueper, D. T.; Fortin, T.; Parrish, D. D.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Flocke, F.; Peckham, S. E.; Grell, G. A.; Kowal, D.; Cartwright, J.; Auerbach, N.; Habermann, T.

    2006-06-01

    Recent decreases in nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2) emissions from eastern U.S. power plants and their effects on regional ozone are studied. Using the EPA 1999 National Emission Inventory as a reference emission data set, NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates at selected power plants are updated to their summer 2003 levels using Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS) measurements. The validity of the CEMS data is established by comparison to observations made on the NOAA WP-3 aircraft as part of the 2004 New England Air Quality Study. The impacts of power plant NOx emission decreases on O3 are investigated using the WRF-Chem regional chemical forecast model. Summertime NOx emission rates decreased by approximately 50% between 1999 and 2003 at the subset of power plants studied. The impact of NOx emission reductions on ozone was moderate during summer 2004 because of relatively cool temperatures and frequent synoptic disturbances. Effects in individual plant plumes vary depending on the plant's NOx emission strength, the proximity of other NOx sources, and the availability of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and sunlight. This study provides insight into the ozone changes that can be anticipated as power plant NOx emission reductions continue to be implemented throughout the United States.

  6. Priming of Production in Maize of Volatile Organic Defence Compounds by the Natural Plant Activator cis-Jasmone.

    PubMed

    Oluwafemi, Sunday; Dewhirst, Sarah Y; Veyrat, Nathalie; Powers, Stephen; Bruce, Toby J A; Caulfield, John C; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A

    2013-01-01

    cis-Jasmone (CJ) is a natural plant product that activates defence against herbivores in model and crop plants. In this study, we investigated whether CJ could prime defence in maize, Zea mays, against the leafhopper, Cicadulina storeyi, responsible for the transmission of maize streak virus (MSV). Priming occurs when a pre-treatment, in this case CJ, increases the potency and speed of a defence response upon subsequent attack on the plant. Here, we tested insect responses to plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. Our initial experiments showed that, in this system, there was no significant response of the herbivore to CJ itself and no difference in response to VOCs collected from unexposed plants compared to CJ exposed plants, both without insects. VOCs were then collected from C. storeyi-infested maize seedlings with and without CJ pre-treatment. The bioassay revealed a significant preference by this pest for VOCs from infested seedlings without the CJ pre-treatment. A timed series of VOC collections and bioassays showed that the effect was strongest in the first 22 h of insect infestation, i.e. before the insects had themselves induced a change in VOC emission. Chemical analysis showed that treatment of maize seedlings with CJ, followed by exposure to C. storeyi, led to a significant increase in emission of the defensive sesquiterpenes (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, (E)-α-bergamotene, (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, known to act as herbivore repellents. The chemical analysis explains the behavioural effects observed in the olfactometer, as the CJ treatment caused plants to emit a blend of VOCs comprising more of the repellent components in the first 22 h of insect infestation than control plants. The speed and potency of VOC emission was increased by the CJ pre-treatment. This is the first indication that CJ can prime plants for enhanced production of defensive VOCs antagonist towards herbivores. PMID

  7. Priming of Production in Maize of Volatile Organic Defence Compounds by the Natural Plant Activator cis-Jasmone

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi, Sunday; Dewhirst, Sarah Y.; Veyrat, Nathalie; Powers, Stephen; Bruce, Toby J. A.; Caulfield, John C.; Pickett, John A.; Birkett, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    cis-Jasmone (CJ) is a natural plant product that activates defence against herbivores in model and crop plants. In this study, we investigated whether CJ could prime defence in maize, Zea mays, against the leafhopper, Cicadulina storeyi, responsible for the transmission of maize streak virus (MSV). Priming occurs when a pre-treatment, in this case CJ, increases the potency and speed of a defence response upon subsequent attack on the plant. Here, we tested insect responses to plant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using a Y-tube olfactometer bioassay. Our initial experiments showed that, in this system, there was no significant response of the herbivore to CJ itself and no difference in response to VOCs collected from unexposed plants compared to CJ exposed plants, both without insects. VOCs were then collected from C. storeyi-infested maize seedlings with and without CJ pre-treatment. The bioassay revealed a significant preference by this pest for VOCs from infested seedlings without the CJ pre-treatment. A timed series of VOC collections and bioassays showed that the effect was strongest in the first 22 h of insect infestation, i.e. before the insects had themselves induced a change in VOC emission. Chemical analysis showed that treatment of maize seedlings with CJ, followed by exposure to C. storeyi, led to a significant increase in emission of the defensive sesquiterpenes (E)-(1R,9S)-caryophyllene, (E)-α-bergamotene, (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, known to act as herbivore repellents. The chemical analysis explains the behavioural effects observed in the olfactometer, as the CJ treatment caused plants to emit a blend of VOCs comprising more of the repellent components in the first 22 h of insect infestation than control plants. The speed and potency of VOC emission was increased by the CJ pre-treatment. This is the first indication that CJ can prime plants for enhanced production of defensive VOCs antagonist towards herbivores. PMID

  8. Possible role of plant volatiles in tolerance against huanglongbing in citrus

    PubMed Central

    Hijaz, Faraj; Nehela, Yasser; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    abstract Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in protecting plants from insect and pathogen attack. In this study, we investigated the leaf volatile profiles of 14 citrus varieties. The VOC in citrus leaves were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 4six volatile compounds were identified in the n-hexane extract from citrus leaves. Most of the detected compounds belonged to 3 main groups (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes). Principle component analysis was used to examine the relative distribution of the studied varieties to each other. Interestingly, volatile profiles of varieties that are tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) were different from those of the susceptible ones. Tolerant and moderately-tolerant cultivars contained relatively higher amounts of volatiles than susceptible varieties. In addition, tolerant varieties were also higher in specific compounds which are known for their antimicrobial activities. These compounds include Aldehydes (undecanal, neral, geranial, and citronellal) and some monoterpenes such as linalool, d-limonene, myrcene, α- and β- phellandrene. In addition, some sesquiterpene compounds including t-caryophellene, γ-elemene, β-elemene, germacrene D, and geranyl acetate were higher in tolerant and moderately tolerant cultivars. Severinia buxifolia which is known for its tolerance to CLas and many other pathogens contained higher levels of santalenes and coumarins. Our results indicated that citrus leaf volatiles might play a role in citrus tolerance to CLas. The results of this study may help in understanding of the mechanism of citrus tolerance against CLas. PMID:26829496

  9. Possible role of plant volatiles in tolerance against huanglongbing in citrus.

    PubMed

    Hijaz, Faraj; Nehela, Yasser; Killiny, Nabil

    2016-03-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) play an important role in protecting plants from insect and pathogen attack. In this study, we investigated the leaf volatile profiles of 14 citrus varieties. The VOC in citrus leaves were extracted with n-hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Overall, 4six volatile compounds were identified in the n-hexane extract from citrus leaves. Most of the detected compounds belonged to 3 main groups (monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and aliphatic aldehydes). Principle component analysis was used to examine the relative distribution of the studied varieties to each other. Interestingly, volatile profiles of varieties that are tolerant to Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) were different from those of the susceptible ones. Tolerant and moderately-tolerant cultivars contained relatively higher amounts of volatiles than susceptible varieties. In addition, tolerant varieties were also higher in specific compounds which are known for their antimicrobial activities. These compounds include Aldehydes (undecanal, neral, geranial, and citronellal) and some monoterpenes such as linalool, d-limonene, myrcene, α- and β- phellandrene. In addition, some sesquiterpene compounds including t-caryophellene, γ-elemene, β-elemene, germacrene D, and geranyl acetate were higher in tolerant and moderately tolerant cultivars. Severinia buxifolia which is known for its tolerance to CLas and many other pathogens contained higher levels of santalenes and coumarins. Our results indicated that citrus leaf volatiles might play a role in citrus tolerance to CLas. The results of this study may help in understanding of the mechanism of citrus tolerance against CLas. PMID:26829496

  10. Sweet scents from good bacteria: Case studies on bacterial volatile compounds for plant growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-hui; Song, Geun Cheol; Ryu, Choong-Min

    2016-04-01

    Beneficial bacteria produce diverse chemical compounds that affect the behavior of other organisms including plants. Bacterial volatile compounds (BVCs) contribute to triggering plant immunity and promoting plant growth. Previous studies investigated changes in plant physiology caused by in vitro application of the identified volatile compounds or the BVC-emitting bacteria. This review collates new information on BVC-mediated plant-bacteria airborne interactions, addresses unresolved questions about the biological relevance of BVCs, and summarizes data on recently identified BVCs that improve plant growth or protection. Recent explorations of bacterial metabolic engineering to alter BVC production using heterologous or endogenous genes are introduced. Molecular genetic approaches can expand the BVC repertoire of beneficial bacteria to target additional beneficial effects, or simply boost the production level of naturally occurring BVCs. The effects of direct BVC application in soil are reviewed and evaluated for potential large-scale field and agricultural applications. Our review of recent BVC data indicates that BVCs have great potential to serve as effective biostimulants and bioprotectants even under open-field conditions. PMID:26177913

  11. Estimating European volatile organic compound emissions using satellite observations of formaldehyde from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curci, G.; Palmer, P. I.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Visconti, G.

    2010-12-01

    Emission of non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere stems from biogenic and human activities, and their estimation is difficult because of the many and not fully understood processes involved. In order to narrow down the uncertainty related to VOC emissions, which negatively reflects on our ability to simulate the atmospheric composition, we exploit satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO), an ubiquitous oxidation product of most VOCs, focusing on Europe. HCHO column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) reveal a marked seasonal cycle with a summer maximum and winter minimum. In summer, the oxidation of methane and other long-lived VOCs supply a slowly varying background HCHO column, while HCHO variability is dominated by most reactive VOC, primarily biogenic isoprene followed in importance by biogenic terpenes and anthropogenic VOCs. The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE qualitatively reproduces the temporal and spatial features of the observed HCHO column, but display regional biases which are attributed mainly to incorrect biogenic VOC emissions, calculated with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosol from Nature (MEGAN) algorithm. These "bottom-up" or a-priori emissions are corrected through a Bayesian inversion of the OMI HCHO observations. Resulting "top-down" or a-posteriori isoprene emissions are lower than "bottom-up" by 40% over the Balkans and by 20% over Southern Germany, and higher by 20% over Iberian Peninsula, Greece and Italy. We conclude that OMI satellite observations of HCHO can provide a quantitative "top-down" constraint on the European "bottom-up" VOC inventories.

  12. Estimating European volatile organic compound emissions using satellite observations of formaldehyde from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curci, G.; Palmer, P. I.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Visconti, G.

    2010-08-01

    Emission of non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere stems from biogenic and human activities, and their estimation is difficult because of the many and not fully understood processes involved. In order to narrow down the uncertainty related to VOC emissions, which negatively reflects on our ability to simulate the atmospheric composition, we exploit satellite observations of formaldehyde (HCHO), an ubiquitous oxidation product of most VOCs, focusing on Europe. HCHO column observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) reveal a marked seasonal cycle with a summer maximum and winter minimum. In summer, the oxidation of methane and other long-lived VOCs supply a slowly varying background HCHO column, while HCHO variability is dominated by most reactive VOC, primarily biogenic isoprene followed in importance by biogenic terpenes and anthropogenic VOCs. The chemistry-transport model CHIMERE qualitatively reproduces the temporal and spatial features of the observed HCHO column, but display regional biases which are attributed mainly to incorrect biogenic VOC emissions, calculated with the Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosol from Nature (MEGAN) algorithm. These "bottom-up" or a-priori emissions are corrected through a Bayesian inversion of the OMI HCHO observations. Resulting "top-down" or a-posteriori isoprene emissions are lower than "bottom-up" by 40% over the Balkans and by 20% over Southern Germany, and higher by 20% over Iberian Peninsula, Greece and Italy. The inversion is shown to be robust against assumptions on the a-priori and the inversion parameters. We conclude that OMI satellite observations of HCHO can provide a quantitative "top-down" constraint on the European "bottom-up" VOC inventories.

  13. A study on dynamic volatile organic compound emission characterization of water-based paints.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Min; Hu, Wei-Hsing; Fang, Wen-Bing; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Chang, Chang-Tang; Ching, Hsiao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from surface coatings have caused growing public concern for air quality. Even the low-emitted VOC impact from water-based paints on indoor air quality in urban areas has caused concern. This paper presents experimental data using a mathematical model to simulate dynamic VOC emissions from water-based paints that is based on mass transfer and molecular diffusion theories. A series of field-analogous experiments were carried out to continuously measure the VOCs emitted from two typical water-based paints using a gas chromatography-flame-ionization detector monitor in an artificial wind tunnel system. In the study cases, the mass flux of VOCs emitted from the water-based paints was up to 50 microg/m2sec. It was found that the time needed to completely emit VOCs from water-based paints is just hundreds of seconds. However, the order of magnitude of the VOC emission rate from water-based paints is not lower than that from some dry building materials and solvent-based paints. The experimental data were used to produce a useful semiempirical correlation to estimate the VOC emission rates for water-based paints. This correlation is valid under appropriate conditions as suggested by this work with a statistical deviation of +/- 7.6%. With this correlation, it seems feasible to predict the dynamic emission rates for VOCs during a painting process. This correlation is applicable for assessing the hazardous air pollutant impact on indoor air quality or for environmental risk assessment. Associated with the dynamic VOC emission characterization, the air-exchange rate effect on the VOC emission rates is also discussed. PMID:21305886

  14. An overview of plant volatile metabolomics, sample treatment, and reporting considerations with emphasis on mechanical damage and biological control of weeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction – The technology for the collection and analysis of plant emitted volatiles for understanding chemical cues of plant-plant, plant-insect, or plant-microbe interactions has increased over the years. Consequently, the in situ collection, analysis, and identification of volatiles are consi...

  15. A Binary Host Plant Volatile Lure Combined With Acetic Acid to Monitor Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Knight, A L; Basoalto, E; Katalin, J; El-Sayed, A M

    2015-10-01

    Field studies were conducted in the United States, Hungary, and New Zealand to evaluate the effectiveness of septa lures loaded with ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (nonatriene) alone and in combination with an acetic acid co-lure for both sexes of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.). Additional studies were conducted to evaluate these host plant volatiles and acetic acid in combination with the sex pheromone, (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol (codlemone). Traps baited with pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid placed within orchards treated either with codlemone dispensers or left untreated caught significantly more males, females, and total moths than similar traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid in some assays. Similarly, traps baited with codlemone/pear ester/nonatriene + acetic acid caught significantly greater numbers of moths than traps with codlemone/pear ester + acetic acid lures in some assays in orchards treated with combinational dispensers (dispensers loaded with codlemone/pear ester). These data suggest that monitoring of codling moth can be marginally improved in orchards under variable management plans using a binary host plant volatile lure in combination with codlemone and acetic acid. These results are likely to be most significant in orchards treated with combinational dispensers. Significant increases in the catch of female codling moths in traps with the binary host plant volatile blend plus acetic acid should be useful in developing more effective mass trapping strategies. PMID:26314018

  16. Numerical model to quantify biogenic volatile organic compound emissions: The Pearl River Delta region as a case study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuemei; Situ, Shuping; Chen, Weihua; Zheng, Junyu; Guenther, Alex; Fan, Qi; Chang, Ming

    2016-08-01

    This article compiles the actual knowledge of the biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions estimated using model methods in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, one of the most developed regions in China. The developed history of BVOC emission models is presented briefly and three typical emission models are introduced and compared. The results from local studies related to BVOC emissions have been summarized. Based on this analysis, it is recommended that local researchers conduct BVOC emission studies systematically, from the assessment of model inputs, to compiling regional emission inventories to quantifying the uncertainties and evaluating the model results. Beyond that, more basic researches should be conducted in the future to close the gaps in knowledge on BVOC emission mechanisms, to develop the emission models and to refine the inventory results. This paper can provide a perspective on these aspects in the broad field of research associated with BVOC emissions in the PRD region. PMID:27521938

  17. Effect of vegetation removal and water table drawdown on the non-methane biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in boreal peatland microcosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Rinnan, Åsmund; Räty, Sanna; Holopainen, Jarmo K.; Holopainen, Toini; Rinnan, Riikka

    2010-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important in the global atmospheric chemistry and their feedbacks to global warming are uncertain. Global warming is expected to trigger vegetation changes and water table drawdown in boreal peatlands, such changes have only been investigated on isoprene emission but never on other BVOCs. We aimed at distinguishing the BVOCs released from vascular plants, mosses and peat in hummocks (dry microsites) and hollows (wet microsites) of boreal peatland microcosms maintained in growth chambers. We also assessed the effect of water table drawdown (-20 cm) on the BVOC emissions in hollow microcosms. BVOC emissions were measured from peat samples underneath the moss surface after the 7-week-long experiment to investigate whether the potential effects of vegetation and water table drawdown were shown. BVOCs were sampled using a conventional chamber method, collected on adsorbent and analyzed with GC-MS. In hummock microcosms, vascular plants increased the monoterpene emissions compared with the treatment where all above-ground vegetation was removed while no effect was detected on the sesquiterpenes, other reactive VOCs (ORVOCs) and other VOCs. Peat layer from underneath the surface with intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. In hollow microcosms, intact vegetation had the highest sesquiterpene emissions. Water table drawdown decreased monoterpene and other VOC emissions. Specific compounds could be closely associated to the natural/lowered water tables. Peat layer from underneath the surface of hollows with intact vegetation had the highest emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and ORVOCs whereas water table drawdown decreased those emissions. The results suggest that global warming would change the BVOC emission mixtures from boreal peatlands following changes in vegetation composition and water table drawdown.

  18. The influence of semi-volatile and reactive primary emissions on the abundance and properties of global organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Farina, S. C.; Robinson, A. L.; Adams, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Semi-volatile and reactive primary organic aerosols are modeled on a global scale using the GISS GCM II' "unified" climate model. We employ the volatility basis set framework to simulate emissions, chemical reactions and phase partitioning of primary and secondary organic aerosol (POA and SOA). The model also incorporates the emissions and reactions of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) as a source of organic aerosol (OA), one that has been missing in most prior work. Model predictions are evaluated against a broad set of observational constraints including mass concentrations, degree of oxygenation, volatility and isotopic composition. A traditional model that treats POA as non-volatile and non-reactive is also compared to the same set of observations to highlight the progress made in this effort. The revised model predicts a global dominance of SOA and brings the POA/SOA split into better agreement with ambient measurements. This change is due to traditionally defined POA evaporating and the evaporated vapors oxidizing to form non-traditional SOA. IVOCs (traditionally not included in chemical transport models) oxidize to form condensable products that account for a third of total OA, suggesting that global models have been missing a large source of OA. Predictions of the revised model for the SOA fraction at 17 different locations compared much better to observations than predictions from the traditional model. Model-predicted volatility is compared with thermodenuder data collected at three different field campaigns: FAME-2008, MILAGRO-2006 and SOAR-2005. The revised model predicts the OA volatility much more closely than the traditional model. When compared against monthly averaged OA mass concentrations measured by the IMPROVE network, predictions of both the revised and traditional model lie within a factor of two in summer and mostly within a factor of five during winter. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the winter comparison can be

  19. A robust, simple, high-throughput technique for time-resolved plant volatile analysis in field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Kallenbach, Mario; Oh, Youngjoo; Eilers, Elisabeth J.; Veit, Daniel; Baldwin, Ian T.; Schuman, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Plant volatiles (PVs) mediate interactions between plants and arthropods, microbes, and other plants, and are involved in responses to abiotic stress. PV emissions are therefore influenced by many environmental factors, including herbivore damage, microbial invasion, and cues from neighboring plants, but also light regime, temperature, humidity, and nutrient availability. Thus an understanding of the physiological and ecological functions of PVs must be grounded in measurements reflecting PV emissions under natural conditions. However, PVs are usually sampled in the artificial environments of laboratories or climate chambers. Sampling of PVs in natural environments is difficult, limited by the need to transport, maintain, and power instruments, or use expensive sorbent devices in replicate. Ideally, PVs should be measured in natural settings with high replication, spatiotemporal resolution, and sensitivity, and at modest costs. Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS), a sorbent commonly used for PV sampling, is available as silicone tubing (ST) for as little as 0.60 €/m (versus 100-550 € apiece for standard PDMS sorbent devices). Small (mm-cm) ST pieces (STs) can be placed in any environment and used for headspace sampling with little manipulation of the organism or headspace. STs have sufficiently fast absorption kinetics and large capacity to sample plant headspaces on a timescale of minutes to hours, and thus can produce biologically meaningful “snapshots” of PV blends. When combined with thermal desorption (TD)-GC-MS analysis – a 40-year-old and widely available technology – STs yield reproducible, sensitive, spatiotemporally resolved, quantitative data from headspace samples taken in natural environments. PMID:24684685

  20. Occurrence of preformed volatile nitrosamines in preparations of some Nigerian medicinal plants: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E

    2003-04-01

    Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria were analysed for preformed volatile N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosamines were analyzed by chemiluminescence detection on a thermal energy analyzer (TEA) following gas chromatographic (GC) separation. Only N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 1.2-3.4 microg/kg was detected in four out of the 29 sample preparations. These preliminary data suggest that medicinal plant preparations may be due in part to microbial contamination, contributing to N-nitroso compound burden in many developing countries where ethnomedicine in still widely practised. PMID:12615127

  1. Volatile organic compound emissions from unconventional natural gas production: Source signatures and air quality impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarthout, Robert F.

    Advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing over the past two decades have allowed access to previously unrecoverable reservoirs of natural gas and led to an increase in natural gas production. Intensive unconventional natural gas extraction has led to concerns about impacts on air quality. Unconventional natural gas production has the potential to emit vast quantities of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. Many VOCs can be toxic, can produce ground-level ozone or secondary organic aerosols, and can impact climate. This dissertation presents the results of experiments designed to validate VOC measurement techniques, to quantify VOC emission rates from natural gas sources, to identify source signatures specific to natural gas emissions, and to quantify the impacts of these emissions on potential ozone formation and human health. Measurement campaigns were conducted in two natural gas production regions: the Denver-Julesburg Basin in northeast Colorado and the Marcellus Shale region surrounding Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An informal measurement intercomparison validated the canister sampling methodology used throughout this dissertation for the measurement of oxygenated VOCs. Mixing ratios of many VOCs measured during both campaigns were similar to or higher than those observed in polluted cities. Fluxes of natural gas-associated VOCs in Colorado ranged from 1.5-3 times industry estimates. Similar emission ratios relative to propane were observed for C2-C6 alkanes in both regions, and an isopentane:n-pentane ratio ≈1 was identified as a unique tracer for natural gas emissions. Source apportionment estimates indicated that natural gas emissions were responsible for the majority of C2-C8 alkanes observed in each region, but accounted for a small proportion of alkenes and aromatic compounds. Natural gas emissions in both regions accounted for approximately 20% of hydroxyl radical reactivity, which could hinder federal ozone standard

  2. Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile Aerosol and Trace-Species Emissions (EXCAVATE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Branham, H.-S.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Miller, T. M.; Viggiano, A. A.; Blake, D. R.; Boudries, H.; Canagaratna, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Experiment to Characterize Aircraft Volatile and Trace Species Emissions (EXCAVATE) was conducted at Langley Research Center (LaRC) in January 2002 and focused upon assaying the production of aerosols and aerosol precursors by a modern commercial aircraft, the Langley B757, during ground-based operation. Remaining uncertainty in the postcombustion fate of jet fuel sulfur contaminants, the need for data to test new theories of particle formation and growth within engine exhaust plumes, and the need for observations to develop air quality models for predicting pollution levels in airport terminal areas were the primary factors motivating the experiment. NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) and the Ultra Effect Engine Technology (UEET) Program sponsored the experiment which had the specific objectives of determining ion densities; the fraction of fuel S converted from S(IV) to S(VI); the concentration and speciation of volatile aerosols and black carbon; and gas-phase concentrations of long-chain hydrocarbon and PAH species, all as functions of engine power, fuel composition, and plume age.

  3. Ambient orchard volatiles from California almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The volatile emissions of various plant parts of almonds have been studied via various techniques in the past. These analyses have typically been performed on single cultivars and hence may not be representative of the volatiles found in an entire almond orchard. Recent reports suggest some almond v...

  4. Volatiles from Plants Induced by Multiple Aphid Attacks Promote Conidial Performance of Lecanicillium lecanii

    PubMed Central

    Avery, Pasco Bruce; Qasim, Muhammad; Fang, Dalin; Wang, Liande

    2016-01-01

    Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are clues that help predatory insects search for food. The hypothesis that entomopathogenic fungi, which protect plants, benefit from the release of HIPVs was tested. The plant Arabidopsis thaliana was used as the source of HIPVs. The insect herbivore Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) was used as the inducer, and the fungal pathogen of the aphid Lecanicillium lecanii was exposed to HIPVs to test our hypothesis. When exposed to aphid-induced A. thaliana volatiles, the mortality of aphids pre-treated with a conidial suspension of L. lecanii, the conidial germination and the appressorial formation were significantly increased compared with the control. The decan-3-ol and 4-methylpentyl isothiocyanate that were detected in the headspace seemed to have positive and negative affection, respectively. Moreover, HIPVs generated from groups of eight aphids per plant promoted significantly increased conidial germination and appressorial formation compared with HIPVs from groups of one, two and four aphids per plant. Our results demonstrated that the pathogenicity of the entomopathogenic fungus L. lecanii was enhanced when exposed to HIPVs and that the HIPVs were affected by the number of insect herbivores that induced them. PMID:26999795

  5. Pseudomonas strains naturally associated with potato plants produce volatiles with high potential for inhibition of Phytophthora infestans.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan; Weisskopf, Laure

    2015-02-01

    Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

  6. Pseudomonas Strains Naturally Associated with Potato Plants Produce Volatiles with High Potential for Inhibition of Phytophthora infestans

    PubMed Central

    Hunziker, Lukas; Bönisch, Denise; Groenhagen, Ulrike; Bailly, Aurélien; Schulz, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria emit volatile organic compounds with a wide range of effects on bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. The antifungal potential of bacterial volatiles has been investigated with a broad span of phytopathogenic organisms, yet the reaction of oomycetes to these volatile signals is largely unknown. For instance, the response of the late blight-causing agent and most devastating oomycete pathogen worldwide, Phytophthora infestans, to bacterial volatiles has not been assessed so far. In this work, we analyzed this response and compared it to that of selected fungal and bacterial potato pathogens, using newly isolated, potato-associated bacterial strains as volatile emitters. P. infestans was highly susceptible to bacterial volatiles, while fungal and bacterial pathogens were less sensitive. Cyanogenic Pseudomonas strains were the most active, leading to complete growth inhibition, yet noncyanogenic ones also produced antioomycete volatiles. Headspace analysis of the emitted volatiles revealed 1-undecene as a compound produced by strains inducing volatile-mediated P. infestans growth inhibition. Supplying pure 1-undecene to P. infestans significantly reduced mycelial growth, sporangium formation, germination, and zoospore release in a dose-dependent manner. This work demonstrates the high sensitivity of P. infestans to bacterial volatiles and opens new perspectives for sustainable control of this devastating pathogen. PMID:25398872

  7. Volatile N-nitrosamines in environmental tobacco smoke: Sampling, analysis, emission factors, and indoor air exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Mahanama, K.R.R.; Daisey, J.M.

    1996-05-01

    A more convenient sampling and analysis method for the volatile N-nitrosamines (VNA) in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), using commercially available Thermosorb/N cartridges, was developed and validated. Using the method, emission factors for the two major VNA in ETS were determined in a room-sized environmental chamber for six commercial cigarette brands, which together accounted for 62.5% of the total market in California in 1990. The average emission factors were 565{+-}115 and 104{+-}20 ng per cigarette for N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, respectively. The emission factors were used to estimate VNA exposures from ETS in a typical office building and an average residence. Indoor concentrations of N,N-dimethylnitrosamine from ETS for these modeled scenarios were less than 10% of the reported median outdoor concentration. This median outdoor concentration, however, includes many measurements made in source-dominated areas and may be considerably higher than one based on more representative sampling of outdoor air. 35 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Dairy Farming and their effect on San Joaquin Valley Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, D. R.; Yang, M.; Meinardi, S.; Krauter, C.; Rowland, F. S.

    2009-05-01

    The San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District of California issued a report identifying dairies as a main source of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs). A dairy study funded by the California Air Resources Board commenced shortly after the report was issued. Our University of California Irvine group teamed with California State University Fresno to determine the major sources of VOCs from various dairy operations and from a variety of dairy types. This study identified ethanol and methanol as two gases produced in major quantities throughout the dairies in the San Joaquin valley as by-products of yeast fermentation of silage. Three different types of sampling protocols were employed in order to determine the degree of enhancement of the target oxygenates in the valley air shed. Their sources, emission profiles, and emission rates were determined from whole air samples collected at various locations at the six dairies studied. An assessment of the impact of dairy emissions in the valley was achieved by using data obtained on low altitude NASA DC-8 flights through the valley, and from ground level samples collected though out the valley in a grid like design. Our data suggest that a significant amount of O3 production in the valley may come from methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde (a photochemical by-product ethanol oxidation). Our findings indicate that improvement to valley air quality may be obtained by focusing on instituting new silage containment practices and regulations.

  9. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  10. Capturing in Vivo Plant Metabolism by Real-Time Analysis of Low to High Molecular Weight Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Barrios-Collado, César; García-Gómez, Diego; Zenobi, Renato; Vidal-de-Miguel, Guillermo; Ibáñez, Alfredo J; Martinez-Lozano Sinues, Pablo

    2016-02-16

    We have deployed an efficient secondary electrospray ionization source coupled to an Orbitrap mass analyzer (SESI-MS) to investigate the emissions of a Begonia semperflorens. We document how hundreds of species can be tracked with an unparalleled time resolution of 2 min during day-night cycles. To further illustrate the capabilities of this system for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis, we subjected the plant to mechanical damage and monitored its response. As a result, ∼1200 VOCs were monitored displaying different kinetics. To validate the soundness of our in vivo measurements, we fully characterized some key compounds via tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and confirmed their expected behavior based on prior gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) studies. For example, β-caryophyllene, which is directly related to photosynthesis, was found to show a periodic day-night pattern with highest concentrations during the day. We conclude that the capability of SESI-MS to capture highly dynamic VOC emissions and wide analyte coverage makes it an attractive tool to complement GC/MS in plant studies. PMID:26814403

  11. Volatile organic compound emissions from green waste composting: Characterization and ozone formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Anuj; Alaimo, Christopher P.; Horowitz, Robert; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Kleeman, Michael J.; Green, Peter G.

    2011-04-01

    Composting of green waste separated from the disposed solid waste stream reduces biodegradable inputs into landfills, and contributes valuable soil amendments to agriculture. Agencies in regions with severe air quality challenges, such as California's San Joaquin Valley (SJV), have raised concerns about gases emitted during the composting process, which are suspected to contribute to persistent high levels of ground-level ozone formation. The goal of the current study is to thoroughly characterize volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from green waste compost piles of different ages (fresh tipped piles, 3-6 day old windrows, and 2-3 week old windrows). Multiple sampling and analytical approaches were applied to ensure the detection of most gaseous organic components emitted. More than 100 VOCs were detected and quantified in this study, including aliphatic alkanes, alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, biogenic organics, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans, acids, esters, ether, halogenated hydrocarbons and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS). Alcohols were found to be the dominating VOC in the emissions from a compost pile regardless of age, with fluxes ranging from 2.6 to 13.0 mg m -2 min -1 with the highest emissions coming from the younger composting windrows (3-6 days). Average VOC emissions other than alcohols were determined to be 2.3 mg m -2 min -1 from younger windows, which was roughly two times higher than either the fresh tipping pile (1.2 mg m -2 min -1) or the older windrows (1.4 mg m -2 min -1). It was also observed that the older windrows emit a slightly larger proportion of more reactive compounds. Approximately 90% of the total VOCs were found to have maximum incremental reactivity of less than 2. Net ozone formation potential of the emissions was also assessed.

  12. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D. D.; Blake, D. R.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2009-01-01

    Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-median midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 14.1±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h, respectively. For comparison the adjusted CAM2004 emission inventory estimates toluene fluxes of 10 mg/m2/h along the footprint of the flight-track. Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10-15 g/g) including the International airport (e.g. 3-5 g/g) and a mean flux (concentration) ratio of 3.2±0.5 g/g (3.9±0.3 g/g) across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (BTEX- Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m, p, o-Xylenes) compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN), we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >87% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds in the MCMA (2-13%).

  13. Emissions of volatile organic compounds inferred from airborne flux measurements over a megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karl, T.; Apel, E.; Hodzic, A.; Riemer, D.; Blake, D.; Wiedinmyer, C.

    2008-07-01

    Toluene and benzene are used for assessing the ability to measure disjunct eddy covariance (DEC) fluxes of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) using Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) on aircraft. Statistically significant correlation between vertical wind speed and mixing ratios suggests that airborne VOC eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements using PTR-MS are feasible. City-average midday toluene and benzene fluxes are calculated to be on the order of 15.5±4.0 mg/m2/h and 4.7±2.3 mg/m2/h respectively. These values argue for an underestimation of toluene and benzene emissions in current inventories used for the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA). Wavelet analysis of instantaneous toluene and benzene measurements during city overpasses is tested as a tool to assess surface emission heterogeneity. High toluene to benzene flux ratios above an industrial district (e.g. 10 15) including the International airport (e.g. 3 5) and a mean flux (concentration) ratio of 3.2±0.5 (3.9±0.3) across Mexico City indicate that evaporative fuel and industrial emissions play an important role for the prevalence of aromatic compounds. Based on a tracer model, which was constrained by BTEX (Benzene/Toluene/Ethylbenzene/m,p,o-Xylenes) compound concentration ratios, the fuel marker methyl-tertiary-butyl-ether (MTBE) and the biomass burning marker acetonitrile (CH3CN), we show that a combination of industrial, evaporative fuel, and exhaust emissions account for >90% of all BTEX sources. Our observations suggest that biomass burning emissions play a minor role for the abundance of BTEX compounds (0 10%) in the MCMA.

  14. Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) induced volatile emissions scale with the degree of infection in Quercus robur

    PubMed Central

    Copolovici, Lucian; Väärtnõu, Fred; Estrada, Miguel Portillo; Niinemets, Ülo

    2015-01-01

    Oak powdery mildew (Erysiphe alphitoides) is a major foliar pathogen of Quercus robur often infecting entire tree stands. In this study, foliage photosynthetic characteristics and constitutive and induced volatile emissions were studied in Q. robur leaves asking whether the changes in foliage physiological traits are quantitatively associated with the degree of leaf infection, and whether infection changes the light responses of physiological traits. Infection by E. alphitoides reduced net assimilation rate by 3.5-fold, and isoprene emission rate by 2.4-fold and increased stomatal conductance by 1.6-fold in leaves with the largest degree of infection of ca. 60%. These alterations in physiological activity were quantitatively associated with the fraction of leaf area infected. In addition, light-saturation of net assimilation and isoprene emission was reached at lower light intensity in infected leaves, and infection also reduced the initial quantum yield of isoprene emission. Infection-induced emissions of lipoxygenase pathway volatiles and monoterpenes were light-dependent and scaled positively with the degree of infection. Overall, this study indicates that the reduction of foliage photosynthetic activity and constitutive emissions and the onset of stress volatile emissions scales with the degree of infection, but also that infection modifies the light responses of foliage physiological activities. PMID:25428827

  15. Kimberlina: a zero-emissions demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pronske, K.

    2007-06-15

    FutureGen may be getting the headlines, but it is not the only superclean demonstration plant in town. In fact, you could argue that other technologies are further down the evolutionary timeline. Case in point: Clean Energy Systems' adaptation of rocket engine technology to radically change the way fuel is burned. The result is a true zero-emissions power plant. Its most distinctive element is an oxy-combustor, similar to one used in rocket engines, that generates steam by burning clean, gaseous fuel in the presence of gaseous oxygen and water. The clean fuel is prepared by processing a conventional fossil fuel such as coal-derived syngas, refinery residues, biomass or biodigester gas, or natural or landfill gas. Combustion takes place at near-stoichiometric conditions to produce a mixture of steam and CO{sub 2} at high temperature and pressure. The steam conditions are suitable for driving a conventional or advanced steam turbine-generator, or a gas turbine modified to be driven by high-temperature steam or to do work as an expansion unit at intermediate pressure. After pressure through the turbine(s), the steam/CO{sub 2} mixture is condensed, cooled, and separated into water and CO{sub 2}. The CO{sub 2} can be sequestered and/or purified and sold for commercial use. Durability and performance tests carried out between March 2005 and March 2006 produced excellent results. CO and NOx emissions are considerably low than those of combined-cycle power plants fuelled by natural gas and using selective catalytic reduction for NOx control. Work is continuing under an NETL grant. Progress and plans are reported in the article. 7 figs.

  16. Occupational hygiene in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols at two solid waste management plants in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Lehtinen, Jenni; Tolvanen, Outi; Nivukoski, Ulla; Veijanen, Anja; Hänninen, Kari

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Odorous VOCs: acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene. ► VOC concentrations did not exceed occupational exposure limit concentrations. ► 2,3-Butanedione as the health effecting compound is discussed. ► Endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems in waste treatment. - Abstract: Factors affecting occupational hygiene were measured at the solid waste transferring plant at Hyvinkää and at the optic separation plant in Hämeenlinna. Measurements consisted of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and bioaerosols including microbes, dust and endotoxins. The most abundant compounds in both of the plants were aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons, esters of carboxylic acids, ketones and terpenes. In terms of odour generation, the most important emissions were acetic acid, 2,3-butanedione, ethyl acetate, alpha-pinene and limonene due to their low threshold odour concentrations. At the optic waste separation plant, limonene occurred at the highest concentration of all single compounds of identified VOCs. The concentration of any single volatile organic compound did not exceed the occupational exposure limit (OEL) concentration. However, 2,3-butanedione as a health risk compound is discussed based on recent scientific findings linking it to lung disease. Microbe and dust concentrations were low at the waste transferring plant. Only endotoxin concentrations may cause health problems; the average concentration inside the plant was 425 EU/m{sup 3} which clearly exceeded the threshold value of 90 EU/m{sup 3}. In the wheel loader cabin the endotoxin concentrations were below 1 EU/m{sup 3}. High microbial and endotoxin concentrations were measured in the processing hall at the optic waste separation plant. The average concentration of endotoxins was found to be 10,980 EU/m{sup 3}, a concentration which may cause health risks. Concentrations of viable fungi were quite high in few measurements in the control room. The most

  17. Floral volatiles in a sapromyiophilous plant and their importance in attracting house fly pollinators.

    PubMed

    Zito, Pietro; Dötterl, Stefan; Sajeva, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    Floral scent in sapromyiophilous plants often consists of complex blends with not only fetid (e.g., sulfides) but also sweet (e.g., terpenoids) volatile organic compounds, and a recent study suggests that both groups of compounds are involved in pollinator attraction. However, little is known about the number and identity of compounds involved in pollinator attraction in these deceptive plants that mimic breeding sites of fly pollinators. In the present paper, we studied flower volatiles of sapromyiophilous Periploca laevigata and their capability to elicit biological responses in one of the pollinator species, Musca domestica. Floral volatiles were collected by dynamic headspace and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and electrophysiological (GC/EAD) and behavioral assays (two choice olfactometer) were conducted. In the floral scent of P. laevigata, we detected 44 compounds, of which indole, β-caryophyllene, and germacrene D, as well as dimethyl trisulfide, which was present in trace amounts, were electrophysiologically active in the antennae of M. domestica. However, when we evaluated in behavioral experiments the attractiveness of the electrophysiologically active compounds (complete mixture against partial mixtures or against single compounds), we found that indole was the only attractive compound for the flies. PMID:25833217

  18. Impact of alternative fuels on emissions characteristics of a gas turbine engine - part 2: volatile and semivolatile particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul I; Allan, James D; Lobo, Prem; Coe, Hugh; Christie, Simon; Wilson, Christopher; Hagen, Donald; Whitefield, Philip; Raper, David; Rye, Lucas

    2012-10-01

    The work characterizes the changes in volatile and semivolatile PM emissions from a gas turbine engine resulting from burning alternative fuels, specifically gas-to-liquid (GTL), coal-to-liquid (CTL), a blend of Jet A-1 and GTL, biodiesel, and diesel, to the standard Jet A-1. The data presented here, compares the mass spectral fingerprints of the different fuels as measured by the Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer. There were three sample points, two at the exhaust exit plane with dilution added at different locations and another probe located 10 m downstream. For emissions measured at the downstream probe when the engine was operating at high power, all fuels produced chemically similar organic PM, dominated by C(x)H(y) fragments, suggesting the presence of long chain alkanes. The second largest contribution came from C(x)H(y)O(z) fragments, possibly from carbonyls or alcohols. For the nondiesel fuels, the highest loadings of organic PM were from the downstream probe at high power. Conversely, the diesel based fuels produced more organic material at low power from one of the exit plane probes. Differences in the composition of the PM for certain fuels were observed as the engine power decreased to idle and the measurements were made closer to the exit plane. PMID:22913312

  19. Orientation of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) to Plant-Host Volatiles in a Novel Diffusion-Cage Olfactometer.

    PubMed

    Otienoburu, Philip E; Nikbakhtzadeh, Mahmood R; Foster, Woodbridge A

    2016-01-01

    A novel diffusion-cage olfactometer tested the responses of Anopheles gambiae Giles to plant volatiles. Green-leaf volatiles are often released from cut or injured plant tissue and may alter the headspace of plants used in olfactometer assays. The diffusion-cage olfactometer is designed for use with whole, intact plants, hence giving a more realistic behavioral assay. Its simple plastic construction, ease of assembly, and accommodation to whole plants makes it a useful tool for measuring mosquito orientation to plant volatiles within large enclosures. We compared its performance to that of the more commonly used T-tube wind-tunnel olfactometer, by testing the orientation of mosquitoes to volatiles of a few prevalent plants of eastern Africa reportedly utilized by An. gambiae for sugar: Parthenium hysterophorus (Asteraceae), Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae), Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), and Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae). Results indicate that the diffusion-cage olfactometer is an effective alternative to conventional wind-tunnel olfactometers, to test mosquito orientation to plant volatiles under seminatural conditions. PMID:26502752

  20. Salt Lakes of Western Australia - Emissions of natural volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Tobias; Krause, Torsten; Schöler, Heinfried; Kamilli, Katharina; Held, Andreas; Zetzsch, Cornelius; Ofner, Johannes; Junkermann, Wolfgang; Atlas, Elliot

    2013-04-01

    Western Australia is a semi-/arid region that is heavily influenced by global climate change and agricultural land use. The area is known for its many saline lakes with a wide range of hydrogeochemical parameters. This area has been repeatedly investigated since 2006 and consists of ephemeral saline and saline groundwater sourced lakes with a pH reaching from 2.5 to 7.1. The semi-/arid region was originally covered by natural eucalyptus forests, but land-use has changed considerably after large scale deforestation from 1950 to 1970. Today the region is mostly used for growing wheat and live stock. The deforestation led to a rising groundwater table, bringing dissolved salts and minerals to the surface. In the last decades, a concurrent alteration of rain periods has been observed. A reason could be the regional formation of ultra-fine particles that were measured with car-based and airborne instruments around the salt lakes in several campaigns between 2006 and 2011. These ultra-fine particles emitted from the lakes and acting as cloud condensation nuclei can modify cloud microphysics and thus suppress rain events [1]. New data from a campaign in 2012 accentuates the importance of these hyper saline environments for the local climate. Ground-based particle measurements around the salt lakes in 2012 were accompanied by novel chamber experiments directly on the lakes. The 1.5 m³ cubic chamber was constructed from transparent PTFE foil permitting photochemistry within while preventing dilution of the air due to lateral wind transport. This experimental setup allows linking the measured data directly to the chemistry of and above the salt lakes. Another advantage of the PTFE chamber is the enrichment of volatile organic compounds (VOC) that are emitted from salt lakes as possible precursors for the ultra-fine particles. Chamber air was sampled using stainless steel canisters. Sediment, crust and water samples were taken for investigation of potential VOC emissions in

  1. An Evaluation of Hazardous Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Tank Barges in Memphis, TN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many urban centers have population centers near river ports, which may be affected by volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from tank barge traffic. This study will examine Memphis, Tennessee and West Memphis, Arkansas. Both cities (located ...

  2. BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND EMISSIONS (BVOCS) I. IDENTIFICATIONS FROM THREE CONTINENTAL SITES IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Vegetation composition and biomass were surveyed for three specific sites in Atlanta, GA; near Rhinelander, WI; and near Hayden, CO. At each research site, emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the dominant vegetation species were sampled by enclosing bran...

  3. CONTROL OF INDUSTRIAL VOC (VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND) EMISSIONS BY CATALYTIC INCINERATION. VOLUME 1. ASSESSMENT OF CATALYTIC INCINERATION AND COMPETING CONTROLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is part of a two-phase EPA effort to assess the performance, suitability, and costs of various technologies to control emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In Phase 1, information was assembled from the literature on the use and cost of using catalytic incin...

  4. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emissions from feedlot pen surface materials as affected by within pen location, moisture, and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pen location, moisture, and temperature on emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from surface materials obtained from feedlot pens where beef cattle were fed a diet containing 30% wet distillers grain plus solubles. Surface material...

  5. A NONSTEADY-STATE ANALYTICAL MODEL TO PREDICT GASEOUS EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM LANDFILLS. (R825689C072)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    A general mathematical model is developed to predict emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from hazardous or sanitary landfills. The model is analytical in nature and includes important mechanisms occurring in unsaturated subsurface landfill environme...

  6. IMPACTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND LAND COVER CHANGE ON BIOGENIC VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS (BVOCS) EMISSIONS IN TEXAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Significant amounts of vegetation and forests in eastern and central Texas are the source of substantial emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which, when mixed with nitrogen oxides from anthropogenic sources, can lead to ozone formation. The biogenic emis...

  7. AN IMPROVED MODEL FOR ESTIMATING EMISSIONS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FROM FORESTS IN THE EASTERN UNITED STATES (Journal)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional estimates of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are important inputs for models of atmospheric chemistry and carbon budgets. Since forests are the primary emitters of BVOCs, it is important to develop reliable estimates of their areal coverage and BVOC e...

  8. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  9. Multiple effects of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens volatile compounds: plant growth promotion and growth inhibition of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Asari, Shashidar; Matzén, Staffan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Bejai, Sarosh; Meijer, Johan

    2016-06-01

    Biotic interactions through volatile organic compounds (VOC) are frequent in nature. This investigation aimed to study the role of ITALIC! BacillusVOC for the beneficial effects on plants observed as improved growth and pathogen control. Four ITALIC! Bacillus amyloliquefacienssubsp. ITALIC! plantarumstrains were screened for VOC effects on ITALIC! Arabidopsis thalianaCol-0 seedlings and ITALIC! Brassicafungal phytopathogens. VOC from all four ITALIC! Bacillusstrains could promote growth of ITALIC! Arabidopsisplants resulting in increased shoot biomass but the effects were dependent on the growth medium. Dose response studies with UCMB5113 on MS agar with or without root exudates showed significant plant growth promotion even at low levels of bacteria. ITALIC! BacillusVOC antagonized growth of several fungal pathogens ITALIC! in vitro However, the plant growth promotion efficacy and fungal inhibition potency varied among the ITALIC! Bacillusstrains. VOC inhibition of several phytopathogens indicated efficient microbial antagonism supporting high rhizosphere competence of the ITALIC! Bacillusstrains. GC-MS analysis identified several VOC structures where the profiles differed depending on the growth medium. The ability of ITALIC! Bacillusstrains to produce both volatile and soluble compounds for plant growth promotion and disease biocontrol provides examples of rhizosphere microbes as an important ecosystem service with high potential to support sustainable crop production. PMID:27053756

  10. [Emission strength and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in Shanghai during 2010 EXPO].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Li; Chen, Chang-Hong; Huang, Hai-Ying; Wang, Qian; Chen, Yi-Ran; Huang, Cheng; Li, Li; Zhang, Gang-Feng; Chen, Ming-Hua; Lou, Sheng-Rong; Qiao, Li-Ping

    2012-12-01

    The emission strength of VOCs was estimated in the study, based on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measurement results. Air mass backward trajectories were computed and cluster analysis was done combining with the corresponding air pollution indexes and VOCs concentrations. Source apportionment of VOCs was studied using receptor model. According to this study, VOCs emission in Shanghai per hour resulted in the VOCs concentration increment of (5.98 +/- 3.18) x 10(-9) during 2010 EXPO (from 1st May to 31st October in 2010), which was decreased by about 1 x 10(-9) compared to that in the same period of 2009. Under the control of the air masses roughly from the east (40%), the API was lower than 50. Influenced by the air masses from the northwest, the air quality was the worst with the average API higher than 70. The air masses from the southwest also resulted in bad air quality, with API higher than 60. The air masses originated from the west accounted for 25%, followed by the south and north air mass (20%). The VOCs concentrations were positively related to API in the same air mass, R2 = 0.599. During the 2010 EXPO, the emission related to vehicles including exhaust and gasoline evaporation contributed the largest amount of VOCs, approximately about -40%, followed by industry including industrial processes and coal combustion (30% - 40%), and solvent use and painting (20%). The biogenic emission was also considerable and accounted for 6% of VOCs in summer. PMID:23379136

  11. A novel laboratory system for determining fate of volatile organic compounds in planted systems

    SciTech Connect

    Orchard, B.J.; Doucette, W.J.; Chard, J.K; Bugbee, B.

    2000-04-01

    Contradictory observations regarding the uptake and translocation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by plants have been reported, most notably for trichloroethylene (TCE). Experimental artifacts resulting from the use of semistatic or low-flow laboratory systems may account for part of the discrepancy. Innovative plant growth chambers are required to rigorously quantify the movement of VOCs through higher plants while maintaining a natural plant environment. The plant must be sealed in a chamber that allows rapid exchange of air to remove the water vapor lost in transpiration, to resupply the CO{sub 2} consumed in photosynthesis, and to resupply the O{sub 2} consumed in root-zone respiration. Inadequate airflow through the foliar region results in high humidity, which dramatically reduces transpiration and may reduce contaminant flux. Oxygen depletion in static root zones induces root stress, which can increase root membrane permeability. The root zone must be separated from the shoots to differentiate between plant uptake and foliar deposition. Here the authors describe the design, construction, and testing of a dual-vacuum, continuous high-flow chamber systems for accurately determining the fate of VOCs plants. The system provides a natural plant environment, complete root/shoot separation, the ability to quantify phytovolatilization and mineralization in both root and shoot compartments, continuous root-zone aeration, and high mass recovery.

  12. Promotion of plant growth by Pseudomonas fluorescens strain SS101 via novel volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong-Soon; Dutta, Swarnalee; Ann, Mina; Raaijmakers, Jos M; Park, Kyungseok

    2015-05-29

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) play key roles in modulating plant growth and induced systemic resistance (ISR) to pathogens. Despite their significance, the physiological functions of the specific VOCs produced by Pseudomonas fluorescens SS101 (Pf.SS101) have not been precisely elucidated. The effects of Pf.SS101 and its VOCs on augmentation of plant growth promotion were investigated in vitro and in planta. A significant growth promotion was observed in plants exposed Pf.SS101 under both conditions, suggesting that its VOCs play a key role in promoting plant growth. Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) and a gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometer (GC-MS) system were used to characterize the VOCs emitted by Pf.SS101 and 11 different compounds were detected in samples inoculated this bacterium, including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene. Application of these compounds resulted in enhanced plant growth. This study suggests that Pf.SS101 promotes the growth of plants via the release of VOCs including 13-Tetradecadien-1-ol, 2-butanone and 2-Methyl-n-1-tridecene, thus increasing understanding of the role of VOCs in plant-bacterial inter-communication. PMID:25892516

  13. A plant chamber system with downstream reaction chamber to study the effects of pollution on biogenic emissions.

    PubMed

    Timkovsky, J; Gankema, P; Pierik, R; Holzinger, R

    2014-01-01

    A system of two plant chambers and a downstream reaction chamber has been set up to investigate the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and possible effects of pollutants such as ozone. The system can be used to compare BVOC emissions from two sets of differently treated plants, or to study the photochemistry of real plant emissions under polluted conditions without exposing the plants to pollutants. The main analytical tool is a proton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) which allows online monitoring of biogenic emissions and chemical degradation products. The identification of BVOCs and their oxidation products is aided by cryogenic trapping and subsequent in situ gas chromatographic analysis. PMID:25068256

  14. Volatile organic compound concentrations and emission rates measured over one year in a new manufactured house

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nabinger, Steven J.; Persily, Andrew K.

    2004-09-01

    A study to measure indoor concentrations and emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including formaldehyde, was conducted in a new, unoccupied manufactured house installed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) campus. The house was instrumented to continuously monitor indoor temperature and relative humidity, heating and air conditioning system operation, and outdoor weather. It also was equipped with an automated tracer gas injection and detection system to estimate air change rates every 2 h. Another automated system measured indoor concentrations of total VOCs with a flame ionization detector every 30 min. Active samples for the analysis of VOCs and aldehydes were collected indoors and outdoors on 12 occasions from August 2002 through September 2003. Individual VOCs were quantified by thermal desorption to a gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector (GC/MS). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Weather conditions changed substantially across the twelve active sampling periods. Outdoor temperatures ranged from 7 C to 36 C. House air change rates ranged from 0.26 h{sup -1} to 0.60 h{sup -1}. Indoor temperature was relatively constant at 20 C to 24 C for all but one sampling event. Indoor relative humidity (RH) ranged from 21% to 70%. The predominant and persistent indoor VOCs included aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, pentanal, hexanal and nonanal) and terpene hydrocarbons (e.g., a-pinene, 3-carene and d-limonene), which are characteristic of wood product emissions. Other compounds of interest included phenol, naphthalene, and other aromatic hydrocarbons. VOC concentrations were generally typical of results reported for other new houses. Measurements of total VOCs were used to evaluate short-term changes in indoor VOC concentrations. Most of the VOCs probably derived from indoor sources. However, the wall cavity was an apparent source of

  15. Measurement of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Xiu-Xiu; Bian, Lei; Luo, Zong-Xiu; Chen, Zong-Mao

    2015-12-01

    Determination of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air is important to understand chemical communication between plants and insects and will aid the development of semiochemicals from plants for pest control. In this study, a thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method was developed to measure ultra-trace levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. The desorption parameters of TD, including sorbent tube material, tube desorption temperature, desorption time, and cold trap temperature, were selected and optimized. In GC-MS analysis, the selected ion monitoring mode was used for enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. This method was sufficiently sensitive to detect part-per-trillion levels of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. Laboratory and field evaluation revealed that the method presented high precision and accuracy. Field studies indicated that the background odor of tea plantations contained some common volatile plant compounds, such as (Z)-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate, and (E)-ocimene, at concentrations ranging from 1 to 3400 ng m(-3). In addition, the background odor in summer was more abundant in quality and quantity than in autumn. Relative to previous methods, the TD-GC-MS method is more sensitive, permitting accurate qualitative and quantitative measurements of volatile plant compounds in field ambient air. PMID:26493981

  16. Emission of volatile organic compounds from solid waste disposal sites and importance of heat management.

    PubMed

    Urase, Taro; Okumura, Hiroyuki; Panyosaranya, Samerjai; Inamura, Akihiro

    2008-12-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a solid waste disposal site for municipal solid wastes was quantified. The VOCs contained in the landfill gas taken at the site were benzene, toluene, xylenes, ethyl benzenes, and trimethyl benzenes, while the concentrations of chlorinated compounds were very low. The concentration of benzene in the landfill gas samples ranged from below the detection limit to 20 mg m(-3), and the ratio of benzene to toluene ranged from 0.2 to 8. The higher concentrations of VOCs in landfill gas and in leachates were observed with the samples taken at high temperature areas of the target site. Polystyrene plastic waste was identified as one of the sources of VOCs in solid waste disposal sites at a high temperature condition. The appropriate heat management in landfill sites is an important countermeasure to avoid unusually high emission of VOCs because the heat generated by the biodegradation of organic solid wastes may promote the release of VOCs, especially in the case of sites which receive both biodegradable and plastic wastes. PMID:19039069

  17. Leaf volatile emissions of Betula pendula during autumn coloration and leaf fall.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Jarmo K; Heijari, Juha; Oksanen, Elina; Alessio, Giorgio A

    2010-10-01

    Deciduous trees remobilize the nitrogen in leaves during the process of autumn coloration, thus providing a high quality food source for aphids preparing to lay over-wintering eggs. It has been suggested that aphids may use volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to: (a) select leaves where nutrient remobilization has started and induced defenses are reduced; and (b) detect the time of leaf abscission. We analyzed VOCs emitted by the foliage of Betula pendula Roth. during autumn coloration and from leaf litter just after leaf fall. We tested the hypothesis that costly, photosynthesis-related terpenes and other herbivore-induced VOCs related to attraction of aphid parasitoids and predators are reduced during the coloration process. We also investigated if the VOC emission profile of abscising leaves is different from that of early stage yellowing leaves. Enemy-luring compounds (E)-β-ocimene, linalool, and (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT) were emitted only from the green foliage. Methyl salicylate (MeSa), known to recruit predatory bugs and attract migrant aphids, was emitted until the first stage of color change. Cis-3-hexenol, an indicator of cellular disintegration, became dominant in the emissions from abscising leaves and from fresh leaf litter. We discuss the ecological significance of the observed changes in birch leaf VOC profiles during the process of autumn senescence. PMID:20838885

  18. Microbial volatile organic compound emissions from Stachybotrys chartarum growing on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Stachybotrys chartarum is a filamentous mold frequently identified among the mycobiota of water-damaged building materials. Growth of S. chartarum on suitable substrates and under favorable environmental conditions leads to the production of secondary metabolites such as mycotoxins and microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs). The aim of this study was to characterize MVOC emission profiles of seven toxigenic strains of S. chartarum, isolated from water-damaged buildings, in order to identify unique MVOCs generated during growth on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tile coupons. Inoculated coupons were incubated and monitored for emissions and growth using a closed glass environmental growth chamber maintained at a constant room temperature. Gas samples were collected from the headspace for three to four weeks using Tenax TA tubes. Results Most of the MVOCs identified were alcohols, ketones, ethers and esters. The data showed that anisole (methoxybenzene) was emitted from all of the S. chartarum strains tested on both types of substrates. Maximum anisole concentration was detected after seven days of incubation. Conclusions MVOCs are suitable markers for fungal identification because they easily diffuse through weak barriers like wallpaper, and could be used for early detection of mold growth in hidden cavities. This study identifies the production of anisole by seven toxigenic strains of Stachybotrys chartarum within a period of one week of growth on gypsum wallboard and ceiling tiles. These data could provide useful information for the future construction of a robust MVOC library for the early detection of this mold. PMID:24308451

  19. Variation in biogenic volatile organic compound emission pattern of Fagus sylvatica L. due to aphid infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joó, É.; Van Langenhove, H.; Šimpraga, M.; Steppe, K.; Amelynck, C.; Schoon, N.; Mü