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Sample records for planted ancient woodland

  1. Ancient woodlands: modern threats.

    PubMed

    Rackham, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This review discusses the following adverse influences on long-established forests, wood-pastures, and savannas in Europe and other continents: destruction and fragmentation; depletion; pollution and eutrophication; fire and lack of fire; excessive shade; excessive numbers of deer; invasive species and cultivars; infilling of savanna; climate change; and globalization of plant diseases. Human influences on the world's mainland forests and savannas have been pervasive throughout the Holocene, to the extent that recovering 'virgin forest' becomes a somewhat nebulous conservation objective. Present and future threats arise both from increasing human activities and from withdrawal of the human activities that have shaped forests in the past. The severity of different threats depends on so many factors, especially the properties of different plants and animals, that generalization is impossible; however, in the long term, spread of pathogens is probably the most serious threat. PMID:18771472

  2. Phytoliths in woody plants from the Miombo woodlands of Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Mercader, Julio; Bennett, Tim; Esselmont, Chris; Simpson, Steven; Walde, Dale

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims There are no descriptions of phytoliths produced by plants from the ‘Zambezian’ zone, where Miombo woodlands are the dominant element of the largest single phytochorion in sub-Saharan Africa. The preservation of phytoliths in fossil records of Africa makes phytoliths a tool to study early plant communities. Paleo-ethnobotanical interpretation of phytoliths relies on the comparison of ancient types with morphotypes extracted from living reference collections. Methods Phytoliths were extracted from plant samples representing 41 families, 77 genera and 90 species through sonic cleaning, dry ashing and acid treatment; and phytoliths thus extracted were quantified. For each species, an average of 216 phytoliths were counted. The percentage of each morphotype identified per species was calculated, and types were described according to the descriptors from the International Code for Phytolith Nomenclature. Phytolith assemblages were subject to discriminant analysis, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Key Results Phytoliths were grouped into 57 morphotypes (two were articulated forms and 55 were discrete shapes), and provide a reference collection of phytolith assemblages produced by Miombo woody species. Common and unique morphotypes are described and taxonomic and grouping variables are looked into from a statistical perspective. Conclusions The first quantitative taxonomy of phytoliths from Miombos is presented here, including new types and constituting the most extensive phytolith key for any African ecoregion. Evidence is presented that local woody species are hypervariable silica producers and their phytolith morphotypes are highly polymorphic. The taxonomic significance of these phytoliths is largely poor, but there are important exceptions that include the morphotypes produced by members from >10 families and orders. The typical phytolithic signal that would allow scientists to identify ancient woodlands of

  3. Avian use of natural versus planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakker, K.K.; Higgins, K.F.

    2003-01-01

    We compared avian use of naturally occurring and planted woodlands in eastern South Dakota, USA, to evaluate whether planted woodlands support the same avian communities as natural woodlands. A stratified cluster sample was used to randomly select 307 public areas in which to survey planted (n = 425) and natural (n = 99) woodland patches. Eighty-five species of birds were detected in eastern South Dakota woodlands, 36 of which occurred in ??? 5 of 524 patches surveyed. The probability of occurrence for 8 of 13 woodland-obligate species was significantly greater in natural woodland habitats than in planted woodland habitats. Four of these species breed in relatively high numbers in eastern South Dakota. Only one woodland-obligate occurred less frequently in natural woodlands. Probability of occurrence for 6 edge and generalist species, including the brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater [Boddaert]), was significantly higher in planted woodlands. The avian community of planted woodlands was dominated by edge and generalist species. The homogeneous vegetation structure typical of planted woodlands does not appear to provide the habitat characteristics needed by woodland-obligate birds. We conclude that planted woodlands do not support significant numbers of woodland-obligate species and may negatively impact grassland-nesting birds by attracting edge and generalist bird species and predators into previously treeless habitats. Planted woodlands cannot be considered equal replacement habitats for natural woodland patches when managing for nongame woodland bird species. However, the preservation and maintenance of natural woodlands is critical for woodland-obligate species diversity in the northern Great Plains.

  4. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  5. Taxonomic homogenization of woodland plant communities over 70 years

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Sally A.; Newton, Adrian C.; Morecroft, Michael D.; Bealey, Clive E.; Bullock, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Taxonomic homogenization (TH) is the increasing similarity of the species composition of ecological communities over time. Such homogenization represents a form of biodiversity loss and can result from local species turnover. Evidence for TH is limited, reflecting a lack of suitable historical datasets, and previous analyses have generated contrasting conclusions. We present an analysis of woodland patches across a southern English county (Dorset) in which we quantified 70 years of change in the composition of vascular plant communities. We tested the hypotheses that over this time patches decreased in species richness, homogenized, or shifted towards novel communities. Although mean species richness at the patch scale did not change, we found increased similarity in species composition among woodlands over time. We concluded that the woodlands have undergone TH without experiencing declines in local diversity or shifts towards novel communities. Analysis of species characteristics suggested that these changes were not driven by non-native species invasions or climate change, but instead reflected reorganization of the native plant communities in response to eutrophication and increasingly shaded conditions. These analyses provide, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence of TH in the UK and highlight the potential importance of this phenomenon as a contributor to biodiversity loss. PMID:19625318

  6. Diversity of Woodland Communities and Plant Species along an Altitudinal Gradient in the Guancen Mountains, China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Dongping; Zhang, Jin-Tun; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    Study on plant diversity is the base of woodland conservation. The Guancen Mountains are the northern end of Luliang mountain range in North China. Fifty-three quadrats of 10 m × 20 m of woodland communities were randomly established along an altitudinal gradient. Data for species composition and environmental variables were measured and recorded in each quadrat. To investigate the variation of woodland communities, a Two-Way Indicator Species Analysis (TWINSPAN) and a Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) were conducted, while species diversity indices were used to analyse the relationships between species diversity and environmental variables in this study. The results showed that there were eight communities of woodland vegetation; each of them had their own characteristics in composition, structure, and environment. The variation of woodland communities was significantly related to elevation and also related to slope, slope aspect, and litter thickness. The cumulative percentage variance of species-environment relation for the first three CCA axes was 93.5%. Elevation was revealed as the factor which most influenced community distribution and species diversity. Species diversity was negatively correlated with elevation, slope aspect, and litter thickness, but positively with slope. Species richness and heterogeneity increased first and then decreased but evenness decreased significantly with increasing elevation. Species diversity was correlated with slope, slope aspect, and litter thickness. PMID:22566768

  7. Mycorrhizal status of plant species in the Chaco Serrano Woodland from central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fracchia, Sebastian; Aranda, Adriana; Gopar, Analia; Silvani, Vanesa; Fernandez, Laura; Godeas, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    We examined the mycorrhizal type of 128 plant species in two patches of native vegetation of the Chaco Serrano Woodland, central Argentina, the largest dry forest area in South America. Of the 128 plant species investigated (belonging to 111 genera in 53 families), 114 were colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AM), orchid mycorrhizal associations were present in the five terrestrial orchid species analyzed, one ectomycorrhiza was only present in Salix humboldtiana Willd., and 96 harbored a dark septate endophyte (DSE) association. Co-occurrence of AM and DSE was observed in 88 plant species. We determine morphological types of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Arum, Paris, and intermediate AM structures) and report the mycorrhizal status in 106 new species, 12 of which are endemic to central Argentina and two, Aa achalensis Schltr. and Buddleja cordobensis Griseb., are declared to be vulnerable species. Root colonization in the Chaco Serrano Woodland is widespread and should be considered in revegetation programs due to the deterioration of this particular ecosystem. Considering the predominance of AM and DSE associations and the various potential benefits that these associations may bring to plant establishment, they should receive special attention in conservation and reforestation of these woodlands. PMID:19184128

  8. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    PubMed Central

    Matern, Andrea; Drees, Claudia; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Assmann, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form Carabus violaceus s. str. and the subspecies Carabus violaceus purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. Carabus violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property. PMID:21738433

  9. Declines in woodland salamander abundance associated with non-native earthworm and plant invasions.

    PubMed

    Maerz, John C; Nuzzo, Victoria A; Blossey, Bernd

    2009-08-01

    Factors that negatively affect the quality of wildlife habitat are a major concern for conservation. Non-native species invasions, in particular, are perceived as a global threat to the quality of wildlife habitat. Recent evidence indicates that some changes to understory plant communities in northern temperate forests of North America, including invasions by 3 non-native plant species, are facilitated by non-native earthworm invasion. Furthermore, non-native earthworm invasions cause a reduction in leaf litter on the forest floor, and the loss of forest leaf litter is commonly associated with declines in forest fauna, including amphibians. We conducted a mark-recapture study of woodland salamander abundance across plant invasion fronts at 10 sites to determine whether earthworm or plant invasions were associated with reduced salamander abundance. Salamander abundance declined exponentially with decreasing leaf litter volume. There was no significant relationship between invasive plant cover and salamander abundance, independent of the effects of leaf litter loss due to earthworm invasion. An analysis of selected salamander prey abundance (excluding earthworms) at 4 sites showed that prey abundance declined with declining leaf litter. The loss of leaf litter layers due to non-native earthworm invasions appears to be negatively affecting woodland salamander abundance, in part, because of declines in the abundance of small arthropods that are a stable resource for salamanders. Our results demonstrate that earthworm invasions pose a significant threat to woodland amphibian fauna in the northeastern United States, and that plant invasions are symptomatic of degraded amphibian habitat but are not necessarily drivers of habitat degradation. PMID:19236449

  10. Decreased summer drought affects plant productivity and soil carbon dynamics in Mediterranean woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrufo, M. F.; Alberti, G.; Inglima, I.; Marjanović, H.; Lecain, D.; Zaldei, A.; Peressotti, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-06-01

    Precipitation patterns are expected to change in the Mediterranean region within the next decades, with projected decreases in total rainfall and increases in extreme events. We manipulated precipitation patterns in a Mediterranean woodland, dominated by Arbutus unedo L., to study the effects of changing precipitation regimes on above-ground net primary production (ANPP) and soil C dynamics, specifically plant-derived C input to soil and soil respiration (SR). Experimental plots were exposed to either a 20 % reduction of throughfall or to water addition targeted at maintaining soil water content above a minimum of 10 % v/v. Treatments were compared to control plots which received ambient precipitation. The throughfall manipulation experiment started in 2004 and we report data up to the 2009 growing season. Enhanced soil moisture during summer months highly stimulated annual stem primary production, litter fall, SR and net annual plant-derived C input to soil which on average increased by 130 %, 26 %, 50 % and 220 %, respectively, as compared to control. In contrast, the 20 % reduction in throughfall (equivalent to 10 % reduction of precipitation) did not significantly change soil moisture at the site, and therefore did not significantly affect ANPP or SR. We conclude that minor changes (around 10 % reduction) in precipitation amount are not likely to significantly affect ANPP or soil C dynamics in Mediterranean woodland. However, if summer rain increases, C cycling will significantly accelerate but soil C stocks are not likely to be changed in the short-term. More studies involving modelling of long term C dynamics are needed to predict if the estimated increases in soil C input under wet conditions is going to be sustained and if labile C is being substituted to stable C, with a negative effect on long term soil C stocks.

  11. Decreased summer drought affects plant productivity and soil carbon dynamics in a Mediterranean woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotrufo, M. F.; Alberti, G.; Inglima, I.; Marjanović, H.; Lecain, D.; Zaldei, A.; Peressotti, A.; Miglietta, F.

    2011-09-01

    Precipitation patterns are expected to change in the Mediterranean region within the next decades, with projected decreases in total rainfall and increases in extreme events. We manipulated precipitation patterns in a Mediterranean woodland, dominated by Arbutus unedo L., to study the effects of changing precipitation regimes on above-ground net primary production (ANPP) and soil C dynamics, specifically plant-derived C input to soil and soil respiration (SR). Experimental plots were exposed to either a 20 % reduction of throughfall or to water addition targeted at maintaining soil water content above a minimum of 10 % v/v. Treatments were compared to control plots which received ambient precipitation. Enhanced soil moisture during summer months highly stimulated annual stem primary production, litter fall, SR and net annual plant-derived C input to soil which on average increased by 130 %, 26 %, 58 % and 220 %, respectively, as compared to the control. In contrast, the 20 % reduction in throughfall (equivalent to 10 % reduction in precipitation) did not significantly change soil moisture at the site, and therefore did not significantly affect ANPP or SR. We conclude that minor changes (around 10 % reduction) in precipitation amount are not likely to significantly affect ANPP or soil C dynamics in Mediterranean woodlands. However, if summer rain increases, C cycling will significantly accelerate but soil C stocks are not likely to be changed in the short-term. More studies involving modelling of long-term C dynamics are needed to predict if the estimated increases in soil C input under wet conditions is going to be sustained and if labile C is being substituted to stable C, with a negative effect on long-term soil C stocks.

  12. Plant Functional Variability in Response to Late-Quaternary Climate Change Recorded in Ancient Packrat Middens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmgren, C. A.; Potts, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    Responses of plant functional traits to environmental variability are of enduring interest because they constrain organism performance and ecosystem function. However, most inferences regarding plant functional trait response to climatic variability have been limited to the modern period. To better understand plant functional response to long-term climate variability and how adjustments in leaf morphology may contribute to patterns of species establishment, persistence, or extirpation, we measured specific leaf area (SLA) from macrofossils preserved in ancient packrat middens collected along the Arizona/New Mexico border, USA. Our record spanned more than 32,000 years and included six woodland and Chihuahuan Desert species: Berberis cf. haematocarpa, Juniperus cf. coahuilensis, Juniperus osteosperma, Larrea tridentata, Prosopis glandulosa and Parthenium incanum. We predicted that regional climatic warming and drying since the late Pleistocene would result in intraspecific decreases in SLA. As predicted, SLA was positively correlated with midden age for three of the six species (L. tridentata, J. osteosperma, B. cf. haematocarpa). SLA was also negatively correlated with December (L. tridentata, J. cf. coahuilensis) or June (B. cf. haematocarpa, J. osteosperma) insolation. A unique record of vegetation community dynamics, plant macrofossils preserved in packrat middens also represent a rich and largely untapped source of information on long-term trends in species functional response to environmental change.

  13. Impact and insights from ancient repetitive elements in plant genomes.

    PubMed

    Maumus, Florian; Quesneville, Hadi

    2016-04-01

    Transposable elements and other repeated sequences are predominant contributors to most plant genomes. The vast majority of repeated elements accumulate mutations to the extent of becoming anonymous sequences, also known as 'genomic dark matter' which is also thought to contribute significantly to the composition of plant genomes. This review aims to highlight recent methods and analyses suggesting that ancient repeats have profound effects on plant genome biology. PMID:26874965

  14. Ancient ecology of 15-million-year-old browsing mammals within C3 plant communities from Panama.

    PubMed

    MacFadden, Bruce J; Higgins, Pennilyn

    2004-06-01

    Middle Miocene mammals are known from approximately 15 million-year-old sediments exposed along the Panama Canal of Central America, a region that otherwise has an exceedingly poor terrestrial fossil record. These land mammals, which represent a part of the ancient terrestrial herbivore community, include an oreodont Merycochoerus matthewi, small camel-like protoceratid artiodactyl Paratoceras wardi, two horses Anchitherium clarencei and Archaeohippus sp., and two rhinos Menoceras barbouri and Floridaceras whitei. Bulk and serial carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of the tooth enamel carbonate allow reconstruction of the ancient climate and ecology of these fossil mammals. Ancient Panama had an equable climate with seasonal temperature and rainfall fluctuations less than those seen today. The middle Miocene terrestrial community consisted predominantly, or exclusively, of C3 plants, i.e., there is no evidence for C4 grasses. Statistically different mean carbon isotope values for the mammalian herbivores indicate niche partitioning of the C3 plant food resources. The range of individual carbon isotope analyses, i.e., delta13C from -15.9 to -10.1 per thousand, indicates herbivores feeding on diverse plants from different habitats with extrapolated delta13C values of -29.9 to -24.2 per thousand, possibly ranging from dense forest to more open country woodland. The ecological niches of individual mammalian herbivore species were differentiated either by diet or body size. PMID:15148598

  15. Vascular plants promote ancient peatland carbon loss with climate warming.

    PubMed

    Walker, Tom N; Garnett, Mark H; Ward, Susan E; Oakley, Simon; Bardgett, Richard D; Ostle, Nicholas J

    2016-05-01

    Northern peatlands have accumulated one third of the Earth's soil carbon stock since the last Ice Age. Rapid warming across northern biomes threatens to accelerate rates of peatland ecosystem respiration. Despite compensatory increases in net primary production, greater ecosystem respiration could signal the release of ancient, century- to millennia-old carbon from the peatland organic matter stock. Warming has already been shown to promote ancient peatland carbon release, but, despite the key role of vegetation in carbon dynamics, little is known about how plants influence the source of peatland ecosystem respiration. Here, we address this issue using in situ (14)C measurements of ecosystem respiration on an established peatland warming and vegetation manipulation experiment. Results show that warming of approximately 1 °C promotes respiration of ancient peatland carbon (up to 2100 years old) when dwarf-shrubs or graminoids are present, an effect not observed when only bryophytes are present. We demonstrate that warming likely promotes ancient peatland carbon release via its control over organic inputs from vascular plants. Our findings suggest that dwarf-shrubs and graminoids prime microbial decomposition of previously 'locked-up' organic matter from potentially deep in the peat profile, facilitating liberation of ancient carbon as CO2. Furthermore, such plant-induced peat respiration could contribute up to 40% of ecosystem CO2 emissions. If consistent across other subarctic and arctic ecosystems, this represents a considerable fraction of ecosystem respiration that is currently not acknowledged by global carbon cycle models. Ultimately, greater contribution of ancient carbon to ecosystem respiration may signal the loss of a previously stable peatland carbon pool, creating potential feedbacks to future climate change. PMID:26730448

  16. Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantification of ecosystem services, such as carbon (C) storage, can demonstrate the benefits of managing for both production and habitat conservation in agricultural landscapes. In this study, we evaluated C stocks and woody plant diversity across vineyard blocks and adjoining woodland ecosystems (wildlands) for an organic vineyard in northern California. Carbon was measured in soil from 44 one m deep pits, and in aboveground woody biomass from 93 vegetation plots. These data were combined with physical landscape variables to model C stocks using a geographic information system and multivariate linear regression. Results Field data showed wildlands to be heterogeneous in both C stocks and woody tree diversity, reflecting the mosaic of several different vegetation types, and storing on average 36.8 Mg C/ha in aboveground woody biomass and 89.3 Mg C/ha in soil. Not surprisingly, vineyard blocks showed less variation in above- and belowground C, with an average of 3.0 and 84.1 Mg C/ha, respectively. Conclusions This research demonstrates that vineyards managed with practices that conserve some fraction of adjoining wildlands yield benefits for increasing overall C stocks and species and habitat diversity in integrated agricultural landscapes. For such complex landscapes, high resolution spatial modeling is challenging and requires accurate characterization of the landscape by vegetation type, physical structure, sufficient sampling, and allometric equations that relate tree species to each landscape. Geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques are useful for integrating the above variables into an analysis platform to estimate C stocks in these working landscapes, thereby helping land managers qualify for greenhouse gas mitigation credits. Carbon policy in California, however, shows a lack of focus on C stocks compared to emissions, and on agriculture compared to other sectors. Correcting these policy shortcomings could create incentives

  17. The primary control on ancient land plant diversity is climate

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Reproductive strategy and competition have been proposed as determinants of ancient land plant diversity. However climate is the primary control on modern plant productivity and diversity and may be the primary control on ancient diversity. For Silurian through Mid-Carboniferous land plants, the most profound diversity collapse and the greatest diversity increase occurred during times of global climate change. In the middle to late Frasnian, land plant diversity fell precipitously and remained low through the middle Famennian. Global warming probably triggered this event. Climate models suggest global warming at the end of Frasnian; the cosmopolitan faunas and floras of the Famennian indicate a uniform global climate. The diverse floras of the late Givetian and early Frasnian show pronounced latitudinal differentiation which disappeared after the diversity collapse. The depauperate floras of the late Frasnian--middle Famennian fall into two or three biogeographic units, each of which spans a large paleolatitudinal range. Land plant diversity remained constant during the Early Carboniferous and rose dramatically at the Mid-Carboniferous boundary at the onset of, and perhaps in response to, Southern Hemisphere glaciation. Polar glaciation contributes to ever wet, ever warm tropical climate because polar high pressure zones confine the intertropical convergence zone to a narrow latitudinal belt near the equator. As land plant diversity rose, the paleoequatorial coal belt of the Late Carboniferous became established, suggesting a correlation between increases in land plant diversity and tropical precipitation.

  18. Decreased summer drought affects plant productivity and soil carbon dynamics in Mediterranean woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precipitation patters are expected to change in the Mediterranean region within the next decades, with projected decreases in total rain fall and increases in extreme events. We manipulated precipitation patterns in a Mediterranean woodland, dominated by Arbustus unedo L., in Central Italy, to study...

  19. Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples.

    PubMed Central

    Dev, S

    1999-01-01

    Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health, and illness. Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Medicinal preparations are invariably complex mixtures, based mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various Ayurvedic preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific scrutiny since the middle of the nineteenth century, although in a sporadic fashion. The first significant contribution from Ayurvedic materia medica came with the isolation of the hypertensive alkaloid from the sarpagandha plant (Rouwolfia serpentina), valued in Ayurveda for the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, and insanity. This was the first important ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants. With the gradual coming of age of chemistry and biology, disciplines central to the study of biologic activities of natural products, many Ayurvedic plants have been reinvestigated. Our work on Commiphora wightti gum-resin, valued in Ayurveda for correcting lipid disorders, has been described in some detail; based on these investigations, a modern antihyperlipoproteinemic drug is on the market in India and some other countries. There has also been concordance for a few other Ayurvedic crude drugs such as Asparagus racemosus, Cedrus deodara, and Psoralea corylifolia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10504143

  20. Woodland Detection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Richard B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents tips on nature observation during a woodland hike in the Adirondacks. Discusses engraver beetles and Dutch elm disease, birds' nests, hornets' nests, caterpillar webs, deer and bear signs, woodpecker holes, red squirrels, porcupine and beaver signs, and galls. (SV)

  1. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Boutz, Amanda L.; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductionsmore » in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent

  2. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    PubMed Central

    Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-01-01

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and persistent

  3. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.; Collins, Cathy D.; Hahn, Philip G.; Mattingly, W. Brett; Veldman, Joseph W.; Walker, Joan L.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility of

  4. Land-use history and contemporary management inform an ecological reference model for longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities.

    PubMed

    Brudvig, Lars A; Orrock, John L; Damschen, Ellen I; Collins, Cathy D; Hahn, Philip G; Mattingly, W Brett; Veldman, Joseph W; Walker, Joan L

    2014-01-01

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils (which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients-i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility of

  5. Land-Use History and Contemporary Management Inform an Ecological Reference Model for Longleaf Pine Woodland Understory Plant Communities.

    SciTech Connect

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Orrock, John L.; Damschen, Ellen I.; et al, et al

    2014-01-23

    Ecological restoration is frequently guided by reference conditions describing a successfully restored ecosystem; however, the causes and magnitude of ecosystem degradation vary, making simple knowledge of reference conditions insufficient for prioritizing and guiding restoration. Ecological reference models provide further guidance by quantifying reference conditions, as well as conditions at degraded states that deviate from reference conditions. Many reference models remain qualitative, however, limiting their utility. We quantified and evaluated a reference model for southeastern U.S. longleaf pine woodland understory plant communities. We used regression trees to classify 232 longleaf pine woodland sites at three locations along the Atlantic coastal plain based on relationships between understory plant community composition, soils lol(which broadly structure these communities), and factors associated with understory degradation, including fire frequency, agricultural history, and tree basal area. To understand the spatial generality of this model, we classified all sites together. and for each of three study locations separately. Both the regional and location-specific models produced quantifiable degradation gradients–i.e., progressive deviation from conditions at 38 reference sites, based on understory species composition, diversity and total cover, litter depth, and other attributes. Regionally, fire suppression was the most important degrading factor, followed by agricultural history, but at individual locations, agricultural history or tree basal area was most important. At one location, the influence of a degrading factor depended on soil attributes. We suggest that our regional model can help prioritize longleaf pine woodland restoration across our study region; however, due to substantial landscape-to-landscape variation, local management decisions should take into account additional factors (e.g., soil attributes). Our study demonstrates the utility

  6. Plant and soil surface responses to a combination of shrub removal and grazing in a shrub-encroached woodland.

    PubMed

    Daryanto, Stefani; Eldridge, David J

    2010-12-01

    Shrub encroachment into open woodland is a widespread phenomenon in semi-arid woodlands worldwide. Encroachment or woody thickening, is thought to result from overgrazing, changes in fire regimes and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Eighteen years after one-off shrub removal by ploughing we assessed the effects of four different land management systems resulting from two levels each of grazing (grazed, ungrazed) with and without ploughing, on the cover of landscape units, soil surface condition, diversity of understorey plants and density of shrubs. We recorded 2-7 times more patches under conventional conservation (unploughed-ungrazed) than the others treatments, and plant cover and diversity were greater on the two conservation (ungrazed) plots, irrespective of ploughing. Soils under shrubs and log mounds had greater indices of infiltration, stability and nutrients. Shrub density under the active pastoral (ploughed-grazed) treatment was two and a half times greater than that in other treatments, but results were not significant. The effects of different treatments on shrubs were largely species-specific. Overall, our results suggest that ploughing does not provide long-term control of encroaching shrubs. PMID:20696514

  7. Limits to Understory Plant Restoration Following Fuel-Reduction Treatments in a Piñon-Juniper Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, Miranda D.; Zelikova, Tamara J.; Barger, Nichole N.

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments.

  8. Limits to understory plant restoration following fuel-reduction treatments in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Miranda D; Zelikova, Tamara J; Barger, Nichole N

    2014-11-01

    National fuel-reduction programs aim to reduce the risk of wildland fires to human communities and to restore forest and rangeland ecosystems to resemble their historical structure, function, and diversity. There are a number of factors, such as seed bank dynamics, post-treatment climate, and herbivory, which determine whether this latter goal may be achieved. Here, we examine the short-term (2 years) vegetation response to fuel-reduction treatments (mechanical mastication, broadcast burn, and pile burn) and seeding of native grasses on understory vegetation in an upland piñon-juniper woodland in southeast Utah. We also examine how wildlife herbivory affects the success of fuel-reduction treatments. Herbaceous cover increased in response to fuel-reduction treatments in all seeded treatments, with the broadcast burn and mastication having greater increases (234 and 160 %, respectively) in herbaceous cover than the pile burn (32 %). In the absence of seeding, herbaceous cover only increased in the broadcast burn (32 %). Notably, fuel-reduction treatments, but not seeding, strongly affected herbaceous plant composition. All fuel-reduction treatments increased the relative density of invasive species, especially in the broadcast burn, which shifted the plant community composition from one dominated by perennial graminoids to one dominated by annual forbs. Herbivory by wildlife reduced understory plant cover by over 40 % and altered plant community composition. If the primary management goal is to enhance understory cover while promoting native species abundance, our study suggests that mastication may be the most effective treatment strategy in these upland piñon-juniper woodlands. Seed applications and wildlife exclosures further enhanced herbaceous cover following fuel-reduction treatments. PMID:25064466

  9. Woodland Decomposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, J.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the role of the main organisms involved in woodland decomposition and discusses some of the variables affecting the rate of nutrient cycling. Suggests practical work that may be of value to high school students either as standard practice or long-term projects. (CW)

  10. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon–juniper woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Pangle, Robert E.; Limousin, Jean -Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A.; Yepez, Enrico A.; Hudson, Patrick J.; Boutz, Amanda L.; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T.; McDowell, Nate G.

    2015-03-23

    Plant hydraulic conductance (ks) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between ks and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (EC) and conductance (GC). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and ks under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and ks in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in ks under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant ks also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (gs) and net photosynthesis (An) declined strongly with decreasing ks. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant ks was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy EC and GC. Our data indicate that significant reductions in ks precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon–juniper woodlands can be

  11. Prolonged experimental drought reduces plant hydraulic conductance and transpiration and increases mortality in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    PubMed

    Pangle, Robert E; Limousin, Jean-Marc; Plaut, Jennifer A; Yepez, Enrico A; Hudson, Patrick J; Boutz, Amanda L; Gehres, Nathan; Pockman, William T; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Plant hydraulic conductance (k s) is a critical control on whole-plant water use and carbon uptake and, during drought, influences whether plants survive or die. To assess long-term physiological and hydraulic responses of mature trees to water availability, we manipulated ecosystem-scale water availability from 2007 to 2013 in a piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and juniper (Juniperus monosperma) woodland. We examined the relationship between k s and subsequent mortality using more than 5 years of physiological observations, and the subsequent impact of reduced hydraulic function and mortality on total woody canopy transpiration (E C) and conductance (G C). For both species, we observed significant reductions in plant transpiration (E) and k s under experimentally imposed drought. Conversely, supplemental water additions increased E and k s in both species. Interestingly, both species exhibited similar declines in k s under the imposed drought conditions, despite their differing stomatal responses and mortality patterns during drought. Reduced whole-plant k s also reduced carbon assimilation in both species, as leaf-level stomatal conductance (g s) and net photosynthesis (A n) declined strongly with decreasing k s. Finally, we observed that chronically low whole-plant k s was associated with greater canopy dieback and mortality for both piñon and juniper and that subsequent reductions in woody canopy biomass due to mortality had a significant impact on both daily and annual canopy E C and G C. Our data indicate that significant reductions in k s precede drought-related tree mortality events in this system, and the consequence is a significant reduction in canopy gas exchange and carbon fixation. Our results suggest that reductions in productivity and woody plant cover in piñon-juniper woodlands can be expected due to reduced plant hydraulic conductance and increased mortality of both piñon pine and juniper under anticipated future conditions of more frequent and

  12. The effects of seeding sterile triticale on a native plant community after wildfire in a pinyon pinemountain mahogany woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waitman, B.A.; Draper, T.M.; Esque, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    Post-fire seeding with grasses is a common practice for emergency rehabilitation of burned woodlands. However, most post-seeding monitoring does not address consequences to native flora. In November 2004, the US Forest Service hand-seeded triticale (Triticosecale Wittm. ex A. Camus), a sterile wheatrye hybrid, on a small burned area in the Spring Mountains of southern Nevada, United States. A monitoring project using paired plots was designed to quantify the effects of seeding triticale on density and species richness of native annual and perennial plants, cover of perennial plants, and aboveground production of annual plants. We did not find any effects of triticale seeding on annual plant species or most responses of perennial plants. However, the density of woody perennial seedlings was significantly lower 2 years after triticale was added. Although we found a smaller impact from seeding with exotic grass than other studies, quantifiable costs to native vegetation were observed. We caution against the use of non-native grass for seeding in areas with naturally low perennial recruitment. ?? IAWF 2009.

  13. Rapid nitrogen transfer from ectomycorrhizal pines to adjacent ectomycorrhizal and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants in a California oak woodland.

    PubMed

    He, Xinhua; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Zasoski, Robert J; Southworth, Darlene; Horwath, William R

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen transfer among plants in a California oak woodland was examined in a pulse-labeling study using 15N. The study was designed to examine N movement among plants that were mycorrhizal with ectomycorrhizas (EM), arbuscular mycorrhizas (AM), or both. Isotopically enriched N (K15NO3-) was applied to gray pine (Pinus sabiniana) foliage (donor) and traced to neighboring gray pine, blue oak (Quercus douglasii), buckbrush (Ceanothus cuneatus) and herbaceous annuals (Cynosurus echinatus, Torilis arvensis and Trifolium hirtum). After 2 wk, needles of 15N-treated pines and foliage from nearby annuals were similarly enriched, but little 15N had appeared in nontreated (receiver) pine needles, oak leaves or buckbrush foliage. After 4 wk foliar and root samples from pine, oak, buckbrush and annuals were significantly 15N-enriched, regardless of the type of mycorrhizal association. The rate of transfer during the first and second 2-wk periods was similar, and suggests that 15N could continue to be mobilized over longer times. PMID:16539611

  14. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie G.; DiManno, Nicole; D’Antonio, Carla M.

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of “nurse plants” an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability.

  15. Evaluating nurse plants for restoring native woody species to degraded subtropical woodlands

    PubMed Central

    Yelenik, Stephanie G; DiManno, Nicole; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2015-01-01

    Harsh habitats dominated by invasive species are difficult to restore. Invasive grasses in arid environments slow succession toward more desired composition, yet grass removal exacerbates high light and temperature, making the use of “nurse plants” an appealing strategy. In this study of degraded subtropical woodlands dominated by alien grasses in Hawai'i, we evaluated whether individuals of two native (Dodonaea viscosa, Leptocophylla tameiameia) and one non-native (Morella faya) woody species (1) act as natural nodes of recruitment for native woody species and (2) can be used to enhance survivorship of outplanted native woody species. To address these questions, we quantified the presence and persistence of seedlings naturally recruiting beneath adult nurse shrubs and compared survival and growth of experimentally outplanted seedlings of seven native woody species under the nurse species compared to intact and cleared alien-grass plots. We found that the two native nurse shrubs recruit their own offspring, but do not act as establishment nodes for other species. Morella faya recruited even fewer seedlings than native shrubs. Thus, outplanting will be necessary to increase abundance and diversity of native woody species. Outplant survival was the highest under shrubs compared to away from them with few differences between nurse species. The worst habitat for native seedling survival and growth was within the unmanaged invasive grass matrix. Although the two native nurse species did not differentially affect outplant survival, D. viscosa is the most widespread and easily propagated and is thus more likely to be useful as an initial nurse species. The outplanted species showed variable responses to nurse habitats that we attribute to resource requirements resulting from their typical successional stage and nitrogen fixation capability. PMID:25709807

  16. Evaluating and Characterizing Ancient Whole-Genome Duplications in Plants with Gene Count Data

    PubMed Central

    Tiley, George P.; Ané, Cécile; Burleigh, J. Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have helped shape the genomes of land plants, and recent evidence suggests that the genomes of all angiosperms have experienced at least two ancient WGDs. In plants, WGDs often are followed by rapid fractionation, in which many homeologous gene copies are lost. Thus, it can be extremely difficult to identify, let alone characterize, ancient WGDs. In this study, we use a new maximum likelihood estimator to test for evidence of ancient WGDs in land plants and estimate the fraction of new genes copies that are retained following a WGD using gene count data, the number of gene copies in gene families. We identified evidence of many putative ancient WGDs in land plants and found that the genome fractionation rates vary tremendously among ancient WGDs. Analyses of WGDs within Brassicales also indicate that background gene duplication and loss rates vary across land plants, and different gene families have different probabilities of being retained following a WGD. Although our analyses are largely robust to errors in duplication and loss rates and the choice of priors, simulations indicate that this method can have trouble detecting multiple WGDs that occur on the same branch, especially when the gene retention rates for ancient WGDs are very low. They also suggest that we should carefully evaluate evidence for some ancient plant WGD hypotheses. PMID:26988251

  17. Evaluating and Characterizing Ancient Whole-Genome Duplications in Plants with Gene Count Data.

    PubMed

    Tiley, George P; Ané, Cécile; Burleigh, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Whole-genome duplications (WGDs) have helped shape the genomes of land plants, and recent evidence suggests that the genomes of all angiosperms have experienced at least two ancient WGDs. In plants, WGDs often are followed by rapid fractionation, in which many homeologous gene copies are lost. Thus, it can be extremely difficult to identify, let alone characterize, ancient WGDs. In this study, we use a new maximum likelihood estimator to test for evidence of ancient WGDs in land plants and estimate the fraction of new genes copies that are retained following a WGD using gene count data, the number of gene copies in gene families. We identified evidence of many putative ancient WGDs in land plants and found that the genome fractionation rates vary tremendously among ancient WGDs. Analyses of WGDs within Brassicales also indicate that background gene duplication and loss rates vary across land plants, and different gene families have different probabilities of being retained following a WGD. Although our analyses are largely robust to errors in duplication and loss rates and the choice of priors, simulations indicate that this method can have trouble detecting multiple WGDs that occur on the same branch, especially when the gene retention rates for ancient WGDs are very low. They also suggest that we should carefully evaluate evidence for some ancient plant WGD hypotheses. PMID:26988251

  18. Woody Plant Encroachment Paradox: Rivers Rebound as Degraded Grasslands Convert to Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, B. P.; Huang, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The related phenomena of degradation and woody plant encroachment have transformed huge tracts of semiarid and subhumid rangelands. This transformation may have enormous consequences for regional water supplies, but to date few assessments have been done at scales larger than that of small catchments. Woody plant encroachment in particular is assumed to reduce groundwater recharge and, hence, baseflow to streams. For the study reported on in this paper, we analyzed the long-term (85 years) streamflow trends of four major river basins in the Edwards Plateau region of Central Texas. This region, in which springs are abundant because of the karst geology, has undergone both degradation and woody plant encroachment. We found that, contrary to common and widespread perceptions, streamflows have not been declining. In fact, the contribution of baseflow (supplied by springs and groundwater) has doubled—even though woody plant cover has expanded and rainfall amounts have remained relatively constant. We attribute this increase in springflow to a general landscape recovery that has taken place concurrent with woody plant expansion—a recovery brought about by lower grazing pressure and improved land management. Our results indicate that for drylands where the geology supports springs, it is degradation and not woody plant encroachment that leads to regional-scale declines in groundwater recharge and baseflows. Further, our results indicate that when woody plant expansion follows on the heels of degradation, it may even help reverse these declines.

  19. Assessment of carbon in woody plants and soil across a vineyard-woodland landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Mediterranean-type biome is rich in biological diversity and species endemism yet it supports large centers of human population and agriculture. Wine-grape production constitutes a major land use in this biome, and the mosaic of vines and native plant communities found in vineyard landscapes rep...

  20. Hotspots of Community Change: Temporal Dynamics Are Spatially Variable in Understory Plant Composition of a California Oak Woodland

    PubMed Central

    Spotswood, Erica N.; Bartolome, James W.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Community response to external drivers such climate and disturbance can lead to fluctuations in community composition, or to directional change. Temporal dynamics can be influenced by a combination of drivers operating at multiple spatial scales, including external landscape scale drivers, local abiotic conditions, and local species pools. We hypothesized that spatial variation in these factors can create heterogeneity in temporal dynamics within landscapes. We used understory plant species composition from an 11 year dataset from a California oak woodland to compare plots where disturbance was experimentally manipulated with the removal of livestock grazing and a prescribed burn. We quantified three properties of temporal variation: compositional change (reflecting the appearance and disappearance of species), temporal fluctuation, and directional change. Directional change was related most strongly to disturbance type, and was highest at plots where grazing was removed during the study. Temporal fluctuations, compositional change, and directional change were all related to intrinsic abiotic factors, suggesting that some locations are more responsive to external drivers than others. Temporal fluctuations and compositional change were linked to local functional composition, indicating that environmental filters can create subsets of the local species pool that do not respond in the same way to external drivers. Temporal dynamics are often assumed to be relatively static at the landscape scale, provided disturbance and climate are continuous. This study shows that local and landscape scale factors jointly influence temporal dynamics creating hotspots that are particularly responsive to climate and disturbance. Thus, adequate predictions of response to disturbance or to changing climate will only be achieved by considering how factors at multiple spatial scales influence community resilience and recovery. PMID:26222069

  1. Woody plant encroachment paradox: Rivers rebound as degraded grasslands convert to woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Bradford P.; Huang, Yun

    2010-04-01

    The related phenomena of degradation and woody plant encroachment have transformed huge tracts of rangelands. Woody encroachment is assumed to reduce groundwater recharge and streamflow. We analyzed the long-term (85 years) trends of four major river basins in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas. This region, in which springs are abundant because of the karst geology, has undergone degradation and woody encroachment. We found that, contrary to widespread perceptions, streamflows have not been declining. The contribution of baseflow has doubled—even though woody cover has expanded and rainfall amounts have remained constant. We attribute this increase in springflow to a landscape recovery that has taken place concurrently with woody expansion—a recovery brought about by lower grazing pressure. Our results indicate that for drylands where the geology supports springs, it is degradation and not woody encroachment that leads to regional-scale declines in groundwater recharge and streamflows.

  2. Influence of soil water repellency on seedling emergence and plant survival in a burned semi-arid woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite post-fire reseeding efforts, Pinus-Juniperus (piñon-juniper) woodlands often become invaded by annual weeds that out-compete native species, degrade ecological processes, and modify natural fire patterns. In order to develop successful post-fire restoration approaches in these communities, i...

  3. Status and limiting factors of three rare plant species in the coastal lowlands and mid-elevation woodlands of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; VanDeMark, Joshua R.; Euaparadorn, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Two endangered plant species (Portulaca sclerocarpa, `ihi mākole, and Sesbania tomentosa, `ōhai) and a species of concern (Bobea timonioides, `ahakea) native to the coastal lowlands and dry mid-elevation woodlands of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park were studied for more than two years to determine their stand structure, short-term mortality rates, patterns of reproductive phenology, success of fruit production, seed germination rates in the greenhouse, presence of soil seed bank, and survival of both natural and planted seedlings. The role of rodents as fruit and seed predators was evaluated using exclosures and seed offerings in open and closed stations or cages. Rodents were excluded from randomly selected plants of P. sclerocarpa and from branches of S. tomentosa, and flower and fruit production were compared to that of adjacent unprotected plants. Tagged S. tomentosa fruit were also monitored monthly to detect rodent predation.

  4. Ancient signals: comparative genomics of green plant CDPKs

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Louis-Philippe; Sheen, Jen; Séguin, Armand

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are multifunctional proteins combining calcium-binding and signaling capabilities within a single gene product. This unique versatility enables multiple plant biological processes to be controlled, including developmental programs and stress responses. The genome of flowering plants typically encodes around 30 CDPK homologs that cluster in four conserved clades. In this Review, we take advantage of the recent availability of genome sequences from green algae and early land plants to examine how well the previously described CDPK family from angiosperms compares to the broader evolutionary states associated with early diverging green plant lineages. Our analysis suggests that the current architecture of the CDPK family was shaped during the colonization of the land by plants, whereas CDPKs from ancestor green algae have continued to evolve independently. PMID:24342084

  5. An ancient tripartite symbiosis of plants, ants and scale insects.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Shouhei; Quek, Swee-Peck; Itioka, Takao; Inamori, Keita; Sato, Yumiko; Murase, Kaori; Itino, Takao

    2008-10-22

    In the Asian tropics, a conspicuous radiation of Macaranga plants is inhabited by obligately associated Crematogaster ants tending Coccus (Coccidae) scale insects, forming a tripartite symbiosis. Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that the plants and the ants have been codiversifying over the past 16-20 million years (Myr). The prevalence of coccoids in ant-plant mutualisms suggest that they play an important role in the evolution of ant-plant symbioses. To determine whether the scale insects were involved in the evolutionary origin of the mutualism between Macaranga and Crematogaster, we constructed a cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene phylogeny of the scale insects collected from myrmecophytic Macaranga and estimated their time of origin based on a COI molecular clock. The minimum age of the associated Coccus was estimated to be half that of the ants, at 7-9Myr, suggesting that they were latecomers in the evolutionary history of the symbiosis. Crematogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages did not exhibit specificity towards Coccus mtDNA lineages, and the latter was not found to be specific towards Macaranga taxa, suggesting that patterns of associations in the scale insects are dictated by opportunity rather than by specialized adaptations to host plant traits. PMID:18611850

  6. An ancient tripartite symbiosis of plants, ants and scale insects

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Shouhei; Quek, Swee-Peck; Itioka, Takao; Inamori, Keita; Sato, Yumiko; Murase, Kaori; Itino, Takao

    2008-01-01

    In the Asian tropics, a conspicuous radiation of Macaranga plants is inhabited by obligately associated Crematogaster ants tending Coccus (Coccidae) scale insects, forming a tripartite symbiosis. Recent phylogenetic studies have shown that the plants and the ants have been codiversifying over the past 16–20 million years (Myr). The prevalence of coccoids in ant–plant mutualisms suggest that they play an important role in the evolution of ant–plant symbioses. To determine whether the scale insects were involved in the evolutionary origin of the mutualism between Macaranga and Crematogaster, we constructed a cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene phylogeny of the scale insects collected from myrmecophytic Macaranga and estimated their time of origin based on a COI molecular clock. The minimum age of the associated Coccus was estimated to be half that of the ants, at 7–9 Myr, suggesting that they were latecomers in the evolutionary history of the symbiosis. Crematogaster mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages did not exhibit specificity towards Coccus mtDNA lineages, and the latter was not found to be specific towards Macaranga taxa, suggesting that patterns of associations in the scale insects are dictated by opportunity rather than by specialized adaptations to host plant traits. PMID:18611850

  7. Ancient horizontal transfer of transaldolase-like protein gene and its role in plant vascular development.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zefeng; Zhou, Yong; Huang, Jinling; Hu, Yunyun; Zhang, Enying; Xie, Zhengwen; Ma, Sijia; Gao, Yun; Song, Song; Xu, Chenwu; Liang, Guohua

    2015-04-01

    A major event in land plant evolution is the origin of vascular tissues, which ensure the long-distance transport of water, nutrients and organic compounds. However, the molecular basis for the origin and evolution of plant vascular tissues remains largely unknown. Here, we investigate the evolution of the land plant TAL-type transaldolase (TAL) gene and its potential function in rice (Oryza sativa) based on phylogenetic analyses and transgenic experiments, respectively. TAL genes are only present in land plants and bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that land plant TAL genes are derived from Actinobacteria through an ancient horizontal gene transfer (HGT) event. Further evidence reveals that land plant TAL genes have undergone positive selection and gained several introns following its acquisition by the most recent common ancestor of land plants. Transgenic plant experiments show that rice TAL is specifically expressed in vascular tissues and that knockdown of TAL expression leads to changes in both the number and pattern of vascular bundles. Our findings show that the ancient HGT of TAL from bacteria probably plays an important role in plant vascular development and adaptation to land environments. PMID:25420550

  8. The Sphagnum microbiome: new insights from an ancient plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Kostka, Joel E; Weston, David J; Glass, Jennifer B; Lilleskov, Erik A; Shaw, A Jonathan; Turetsky, Merritt R

    2016-07-01

    57 I. 57 II. 58 III. 59 IV. 59 V. 61 VI. 62 63 References 63 SUMMARY: Peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum play a major role in global carbon storage and dominate many northern peatland ecosystems, which are currently being subjected to some of the most rapid climate changes on Earth. A rapidly expanding database indicates that a diverse community of microorganisms is intimately associated with Sphagnum, inhabiting the tissues and surface of the plant. Here we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the Sphagnum microbiome and provide a perspective for future research directions. Although the majority of the microbiome remains uncultivated and its metabolic capabilities uncharacterized, prokaryotes and fungi have the potential to act as mutualists, symbionts, or antagonists of Sphagnum. For example, methanotrophic and nitrogen-fixing bacteria may benefit the plant host by providing up to 20-30% of Sphagnum carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Next-generation sequencing approaches have enabled the detailed characterization of microbiome community composition in peat mosses. However, as with other ecologically or economically important plants, our knowledge of Sphagnum-microbiome associations is in its infancy. In order to attain a predictive understanding of the role of the microbiome in Sphagnum productivity and ecosystem function, the mechanisms of plant-microbiome interactions and the metabolic potential of constituent microbial populations must be revealed. PMID:27173909

  9. The history of the plant embryo. Terminology and visualization from ancient until modern times.

    PubMed

    Ingensiep, Hans Werner

    2004-01-01

    Since ancient times comparisons between embryonic forms of humans, animals, and plants are known. In deciphering a plant embryo and its development, one applied a specific zoomorphic terminology. Until the 17th century naturalists who studied plants were inspired by the concepts of ancient natural philosophy. Since then plant embryos are visualized by drawings and diagrammatic sketches. In the 18th century the embryo became an important issue in debates concerning theories of generation and the analogy between animal egg and vegetable seed was emphasized. Due to the cell theory and refined microscopic techniques around 1850 botanists described the 'plant embryo' as an aggregate of cells. The 20th century profited of further technical improvements, e.g. microphotography, SEM, and plant tissue culture. The spell of the word embryo integrated morphological and morphogenetic data in botany and served as a code to decipher botanic forms. The paper presents a short history of the concept of 'plant embryo' and focuses on its distinct meanings over centuries, supported by different images. PMID:16302691

  10. Drought Impacts on Ancient Maya Maize Agriculture Inferred from Isotopic Analyses of Plant Biomarkers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Maya lowlands of southeastern Mexico and northern Central America coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax hydrogen and carbon analyses in two lake sediment cores from the Yucatan and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change and assess drought impacts on maize agriculture In the Maya lowlands plant-wax hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) are controlled by the isotopic composition of precipitation and evapotranspiration, and are highly sensitive to changes in aridity. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) are largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δD would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analyses of plant-wax δD and δ13C from two lake sediment cores in the Maya lowlands indicate co-evolving changes in hydroclimate and C4 plant coverage over the past 4000 years. Compound-specific radiocarbon analyses of plant-waxes provide independent chronologies for these plant-wax stable isotope records, and plant-wax δD records developed using these chronologies agree closely with other regional records of hydroclimate change. Trends in plant-wax δD and δ13C diverge following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend

  11. Exploring the Woodland Floor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banner, Pat

    1974-01-01

    The article discusses the often ignored information that can be discovered by examining ground characteristics in woods and forests. Woodland cycles, the food chain, animal habitats, and nature's recycling are included. (KM)

  12. Development of an efficient transformation method by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and high throughput spray assay to identify transgenic plants for woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) using NPTII selection.

    PubMed

    Pantazis, Christopher J; Fisk, Sarah; Mills, Kerri; Flinn, Barry S; Shulaev, Vladimir; Veilleux, Richard E; Dan, Yinghui

    2013-03-01

    KEY MESSAGE : We developed an efficient Agrobacterium -mediated transformation method using an Ac/Ds transposon tagging construct for F. vesca and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to identify its transformants for strawberry functional genomics. Genomic resources for Rosaceae species are now readily available, including the Fragaria vesca genome, EST sequences, markers, linkage maps, and physical maps. The Rosaceae Genomic Executive Committee has promoted strawberry as a translational genomics model due to its unique biological features and transformability for fruit trait improvement. Our overall research goal is to use functional genomic and metabolic approaches to pursue high throughput gene discovery in the diploid woodland strawberry. F. vesca offers several advantages of a fleshy fruit typical of most fruit crops, short life cycle (seed to seed in 12-16 weeks), small genome size (206 Mbb/C), small plant size, self-compatibility, and many seeds per plant. We have developed an efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated strawberry transformation method using kanamycin selection, and high throughput paromomycin spray assay to efficiently identify transgenic strawberry plants. Using our kanamycin transformation method, we were able to produce up to 98 independent kanamycin resistant insertional mutant lines using a T-DNA construct carrying an Ac/Ds transposon Launchpad system from a single transformation experiment involving inoculation of 22 leaf explants of F. vesca accession 551572 within approx. 11 weeks (from inoculation to soil). Transgenic plants with 1-2 copies of a transgene were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Using our paromomycin spray assay, transgenic F. vesca plants were rapidly identified within 10 days after spraying. PMID:23160638

  13. The dynamics of functional classes of plant genes in rediploidized ancient polyploids

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To understand the particular evolutionary patterns of plant genomes, there is a need to systematically survey the fate of the subgenomes of polyploids fixed as whole genome duplicates, including patterns of retention of duplicate, triplicate, etc. genes. Results We measure the simultaneous dynamics of duplicate orthologous gene loss in rosids, in asterids, and in monocots, as influenced by biological functional class. This pan-angiosperm view confirms common tendencies and consistency through time for both ancient and more recent whole genome polyploidization events. Conclusions The gene loss analysis represents an assessment of post-polyploidization evolution, at the level of individual gene families within and across sister genomes. Functional analysis confirms universal trends previously reported for more recent plant polyploidy events: genes involved with regulation and responses were retained in multiple copies, while genes involved with metabolic and catalytic processes tended to lose copies, across all three groups of plants. PMID:24564814

  14. Changes in avian and plant communities of aspen woodlands over 12 years after livestock removal in the Northwestern Great Basin.

    PubMed

    Earnst, Susan L; Dobkin, David S; Ballard, Jennifer A

    2012-10-01

    Riparian and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlands are centers of avian abundance and diversity in the western United States, but they have been affected adversely by land use practices, particularly livestock grazing. In 1990, cattle were removed from a 112,500-ha national wildlife refuge in southeastern Oregon. Thereafter, we monitored changes in vegetation and bird abundance in years 1-3 (phase 1) and 10-12 (phase 2) in 17 riparian and 9 snow-pocket aspen plots. On each 1.5-ha plot, we sampled vegetation in 6 transects. Three times during each breeding season, observers recorded all birds 50 m to each side of the plot's 150-m centerline for 25 minutes. We analyzed data with multivariate analysis of variance and paired t tests with p values adjusted for multiple comparisons. In both periods, riparian and snow-pocket aspen produced extensive regeneration of new shoots (stems/ha and 7079 stems/ha, respectively). By phase 2, a 64% increase in medium-diameter trees in riparian stands indicated successful recruitment into the overstory, but this pattern was not seen in snow-pocket stands, where the density of trees was over 2 times greater. By phase 2 in riparian and snow-pocket stands, native forb cover had increased by 68% and 57%, respectively, mesic shrub cover had increased by 29% and 58%, and sagebrush cover had decreased by 24% and 31%. Total avian abundance increased by 33% and 39% in riparian and snow-pocket aspen, respectively, ground or understory nesters increased by 133% and 67% and overstory nesters increased by 34% and 33%. Similarly, ground or understory foragers increased by 25% and 32%, aerial foragers by 55% and 57%, and overstory foragers by 66% and 43%. We interpreted the substantial regeneration of aspen shoots, increased densities of riparian forbs and shrubs, and increased avian abundances as a multitrophic-level response to the total removal of livestock and as substantial movement toward recovery of biological integrity. PMID:22889077

  15. Changes in avian and plant communities of aspen woodlands over 12 years after livestock removal in the northwestern Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earnst, Susan L.; Dobkin, David S.; Ballard, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Riparian and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodlands are centers of avian abundance and diversity in the western United States, but they have been affected adversely by land use practices, particularly livestock grazing. In 1990, cattle were removed from a 112,500-ha national wildlife refuge in southeastern Oregon. Thereafter, we monitored changes in vegetation and bird abundance in years 1–3 (phase 1) and 10–12 (phase 2) in 17 riparian and 9 snow-pocket aspen plots. On each 1.5-ha plot, we sampled vegetation in 6 transects. Three times during each breeding season, observers recorded all birds 50 m to each side of the plot's 150-m centerline for 25 minutes. We analyzed data with multivariate analysis of variance and paired t tests with p values adjusted for multiple comparisons. In both periods, riparian and snow-pocket aspen produced extensive regeneration of new shoots (x̄ = 2646 stems/ha and 7079 stems/ha, respectively). By phase 2, a 64% increase in medium-diameter trees in riparian stands indicated successful recruitment into the overstory, but this pattern was not seen in snow-pocket stands, where the density of trees was over 2 times greater. By phase 2 in riparian and snow-pocket stands, native forb cover had increased by 68% and 57%, respectively, mesic shrub cover had increased by 29% and 58%, and sagebrush cover had decreased by 24% and 31%. Total avian abundance increased by 33% and 39% in riparian and snow-pocket aspen, respectively, ground or understory nesters increased by 133% and 67% and overstory nesters increased by 34% and 33%. Similarly, ground or understory foragers increased by 25% and 32%, aerial foragers by 55% and 57%, and overstory foragers by 66% and 43%. We interpreted the substantial regeneration of aspen shoots, increased densities of riparian forbs and shrubs, and increased avian abundances as a multitrophic-level response to the total removal of livestock and as substantial movement toward recovery of biological integrity.

  16. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n=2x=14) is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (206Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation, and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (F. × ananassa) as well as othe...

  17. Contrasting root associated fungi of three common oak-woodland plant species based on molecular identification: host specificity or non-specific amplification?

    PubMed

    Douhan, Greg W; Petersen, Carolyn; Bledsoe, Caroline S; Rizzo, David M

    2005-07-01

    An increasingly popular approach used to identify arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi in planta is to amplify a portion of AM fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU-rDNA) from whole root DNA extractions using the primer pair AM1-NS31, followed by cloning and sequencing. We used this approach to study the AM fungal community composition of three common oak-woodland plant species: a grass (Cynosurus echinatus), blue oak (Quercus douglasii), and a forb (Torilis arvensis). Significant diversity of AM fungi were found in the roots of C. echinatus, which is consistent with previous studies demonstrating a high degree of AM fungal diversity from the roots of various hosts. In contrast, clones from Q. douglasii and T. arvensis were primarily from non-AM fungi of diverse origins within the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. This work demonstrates that caution must be taken when using this molecular approach to determine in planta AM fungal diversity if non-sequence based methods such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, or temperature gradient gel electrophoresis are used. PMID:15772816

  18. Using Geographical Information Systems to identify and target sites for creation and restoration of native woodlands: a case study of the Chiltern Hills, UK.

    PubMed

    Lee, John T; Bailey, Neil; Thompson, Stewart

    2002-01-01

    Rare and threatened habitats in Europe must be restored and enhanced in accordance with the European Union's Habitats and Species Directive. In the United Kingdom, conservation and expansion objectives for species and habitats are outlined in the Species Action Plans and Habitat Action Plans. Site identification for these measures has to date been ad hoc without consideration of either the existing "stock" of the natural resource or the ability of the surrounding land use to deliver the enhancement (enlargement) of a given habitat. Using a Geographical Information System, we outline a targeting system for creating new woodland in association with existing ancient woodland in the Chiltern Hills Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty. The aim was to create woodland blocks of at least 100 ha, as being of the most benefit to biodiversity. We identified existing patches of woodland between 20 and 50 ha as cores for habitat expansion and classified land use in terms of its suitability and proximity to these core areas for tree planting to meet the targets of the statutory body. Our results suggest that the targeting method employed is a useful tool for habitat restoration. PMID:11876071

  19. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aquatic flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae has a classic Gondwanan distribution, as it is found in Australia, India and New Zealand. To shed light on the biogeographic history of this apparently ancient branch of angiosperm phylogeny, we dated the family in the context of other seed-plant divergences, and evaluated its biogeography using parsimony and likelihood methods. We also explicitly tested the effect of different extinction rates on biogeographic inferences. Results We infer that the stem lineage of Hydatellaceae originated in the Lower Cretaceous; in contrast, its crown originated much more recently, in the early Miocene, with the bulk of its diversification after the onset of the Pliocene. Biogeographic reconstructions predict a mix of dispersal and vicariance events, but considerations of geological history preclude most vicariance events, besides a split at the root of the family between southern and northern clades. High extinction rates are plausible in the family, and when these are taken into account there is greater uncertainty in biogeographic inferences. Conclusions A stem origin for Hydatellaceae in the Lower Cretaceous is consistent with the initial appearance of fossils attributed to its sister clade, the water lilies. In contrast, the crown clade is young, indicating that vicariant explanations for species outside Australia are improbable. Although long-distance dispersal is likely the primary driver of biogeographic distribution in Hydatellaceae, we infer that the recent drying out of central Australia divided the family into tropical vs. subtropical/temperate clades around the beginning of the Miocene. PMID:24884487

  20. Private Woodland Owners' Perspectives on Multifunctionality in English Woodlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urquhart, Julie; Courtney, Paul; Slee, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Increasing emphasis is being placed in forest policies to deliver public goods such as biodiversity, recreation, landscape and carbon sequestration, alongside timber production. In light of this, it is important to understand how woodland owners themselves perceive their role in delivering these multiple benefits. With up to 80% of woodland in…

  1. Great Basin semi-arid woodland dynamics during the late quaternary

    SciTech Connect

    Wigand, P.E.; Hemphill, M.L.; Sharpe, S.E.

    1995-09-01

    Semi-arid woodlands have dominated the middle elevations of Great Basin mountain ranges during the Holocene where subalpine woodlands prevailed during the Pleistocene. Ancient woodrat middens, and in a few cases pollen records indicate in the late Pleistocene and early Holocene woodland history lowered elevation of subalpine woodland species. After a middle Holocene retrenchment at elevations in excess of 500 meters above today, Juniper-dominated semi-arid woodland reached its late Holocene maximum areal extent during the Neoglacial (2 to 4 ka). These records, along with others indicate contracting semi-arid woodland after the Neoglacial about 1.9 ka. Desert shrub community expansion coupled with increased precariousness of wetland areas in the southern Great Basin between 1.9 and 1.5 ka coincide with shrinking wet-lands in the west-central and northern Great Basin. Coincident greater grass abundance in northern Great Basin sagebrush steppe, reaching its maximum between 1.5 and 1.2 ka, corresponds to dramatic increases in bison remains in the archaeological sites of the northern Intermontane West. Pollen and woodrat midden records indicate that this drought ended about 1.5 ka. Succeeding ameliorating conditions resulted in the sudden northward and downward expansion of pinon into areas that had been dominated by juniper during the Neoglacial. Maximum areal extent of pinon dominated semi-arid woodland in west-central Nevada was centered at 1.2 ka. This followed by 100 years the shift in dominance from juniper to pinon in southern Nevada semi-arid woodlands. Great Basin woodlands suffered from renewed severe droughts between .5 to .6 ka. Effectively wetter conditions during the {open_quotes}Little Ice Age{close_quotes} resulted in re-expansion of semi-arid woodland. Activities related to European settlement in the Great Basin have modified prehistoric factors or imposed new ones that are affecting woodland response to climate.

  2. Choosing the Best Plant for the Job: A Cost-Effective Assay to Prescreen Ancient Plant Remains Destined for Shotgun Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wales, Nathan; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Cappellini, Enrico; Gilbert, M. Thomas P

    2012-01-01

    DNA extracted from ancient plant remains almost always contains a mixture of endogenous (that is, derived from the plant) and exogenous (derived from other sources) DNA. The exogenous ‘contaminant’ DNA, chiefly derived from microorganisms, presents significant problems for shotgun sequencing. In some samples, more than 90% of the recovered sequences are exogenous, providing limited data relevant to the sample. However, other samples have far less contamination and subsequently yield much more useful data via shotgun sequencing. Given the investment required for high-throughput sequencing, whenever multiple samples are available, it is most economical to sequence the least contaminated sample. We present an assay based on quantitative real-time PCR which estimates the relative amounts of fungal and bacterial DNA in a sample in comparison to the endogenous plant DNA. Given a collection of contextually-similar ancient plant samples, this low cost assay aids in selecting the best sample for shotgun sequencing. PMID:23029156

  3. Back to Gondwanaland: can ancient vicariance explain (some) Indian Ocean disjunct plant distributions?

    PubMed

    Pirie, Michael D; Litsios, Glenn; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Salamin, Nicolas; Kissling, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Oceans, or other wide expanses of inhospitable environment, interrupt present day distributions of many plant groups. Using molecular dating techniques, generally incorporating fossil evidence, we can estimate when such distributions originated. Numerous dating analyses have recently precipitated a paradigm shift in the general explanations for the phenomenon, away from older geological causes, such as continental drift, in favour of more recent, long-distance dispersal (LDD). For example, the 'Gondwanan vicariance' scenario has been dismissed in various studies of Indian Ocean disjunct distributions. We used the gentian tribe Exaceae to reassess this scenario using molecular dating with minimum (fossil), maximum (geological), secondary (from wider analyses) and hypothesis-driven age constraints. Our results indicate that ancient vicariance cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the early origins of Exaceae across Africa, Madagascar and the Indian subcontinent unless a strong assumption is made about the maximum age of Gentianales. However, both the Gondwanan scenario and the available evidence suggest that there were also several, more recent, intercontinental dispersals during the diversification of the group. PMID:26063747

  4. Back to Gondwanaland: can ancient vicariance explain (some) Indian Ocean disjunct plant distributions?

    PubMed Central

    Pirie, Michael D.; Litsios, Glenn; Bellstedt, Dirk U.; Salamin, Nicolas; Kissling, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Oceans, or other wide expanses of inhospitable environment, interrupt present day distributions of many plant groups. Using molecular dating techniques, generally incorporating fossil evidence, we can estimate when such distributions originated. Numerous dating analyses have recently precipitated a paradigm shift in the general explanations for the phenomenon, away from older geological causes, such as continental drift, in favour of more recent, long-distance dispersal (LDD). For example, the ‘Gondwanan vicariance’ scenario has been dismissed in various studies of Indian Ocean disjunct distributions. We used the gentian tribe Exaceae to reassess this scenario using molecular dating with minimum (fossil), maximum (geological), secondary (from wider analyses) and hypothesis-driven age constraints. Our results indicate that ancient vicariance cannot be ruled out as an explanation for the early origins of Exaceae across Africa, Madagascar and the Indian subcontinent unless a strong assumption is made about the maximum age of Gentianales. However, both the Gondwanan scenario and the available evidence suggest that there were also several, more recent, intercontinental dispersals during the diversification of the group. PMID:26063747

  5. High-throughput sequencing of ancient plant and mammal DNA preserved in herbivore middens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Dáithí C.; Pearson, Stuart G.; Fullagar, Richard; Chase, Brian M.; Houston, Jayne; Atchison, Jennifer; White, Nicole E.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Clarke, Edward; Macphail, Mike; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Haile, James; Bunce, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The study of arid palaeoenvironments is often frustrated by the poor or non-existent preservation of plant and animal material, yet these environments are of considerable environmental importance. The analysis of pollen and macrofossils isolated from herbivore middens has been an invaluable source of information regarding past environments and the nature of ecological fluctuations within arid zones. The application of ancient DNA (aDNA) techniques to hot, arid zone middens remains unexplored. This paper attempts to retrieve and characterise aDNA from four Southern Hemisphere fossil middens; three located in hot, arid regions of Australia and one sample from South Africa's Western Cape province. The middens are dated to between 30,490 (±380) and 710 (±70) cal yr BP. The Brockman Ridge midden in this study is potentially the oldest sample from which aDNA has been successfully extracted in Australia. The application of high-throughput sequencing approaches to profile the biotic remains preserved in midden material has not been attempted to date and this study clearly demonstrates the potential of such a methodology. In addition to the taxa previously detected via macrofossil and palynological analyses, aDNA analysis identified unreported plant and animal taxa, some of which are locally extinct or endemic. The survival and preservation of DNA in hot, arid environments is a complex and poorly understood process that is both sporadic and rare, but the survival of DNA through desiccation may be important. Herbivore middens now present an important source of material for DNA metabarcoding studies of hot, arid palaeoenvironments and can potentially be used to analyse middens in these environments throughout Australia, Africa, the Americas and the Middle East.

  6. Combined hydrogen and carbon isotopes of plant waxes as an indicator of drought impacts on ancient Maya agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, P. M.; Pagani, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Brenner, M.; Hodell, D. A.; Curtis, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that a series of droughts in the Yucatan Peninsula coincided with the Terminal Classic decline of the Classic Maya civilization (ca. 1250 to 1000 years BP). However, there is little evidence directly linking climatic change and changes in human activities in this region. In this study we combine plant-wax δD, δ13C, and Δ14C analyses in two lake sediment cores from southeastern Mexico and northern Guatemala to develop coupled records of hydroclimate variability and human-driven vegetation change. Plant-wax specific Δ14C ages indicate a large input of pre-aged plant waxes into lake sediment. Comparison of plant-wax δD records with other regional hydroclimate proxy records suggest that plant-wax ages are evenly distributed around plant-wax radiocarbon ages, and that applying an age model based on plant-wax radiocarbon ages is appropriate for these lake sediments. We evaluate how differences in plant-wax age distributions influence stable isotope records to assess the age uncertainty associated with records of climate and vegetation change derived from plant-wax stable isotopes. In this low-elevation tropical environment plant-wax δ13C is largely controlled by the relative abundance of C3 and C4 plants. The ancient Maya practiced widespread maize (C4) agriculture and strongly influenced regional C3-C4 vegetation dynamics. Under natural conditions C4 plant coverage and plant-wax δ13C would tend to co-vary positively since C4 plants are well adapted for dry conditions. Under ancient Maya land-use, however, this relationship is likely to be decoupled, since drought would have disrupted C4 agriculture. Combined analysis of plant-wax δD and δ13C from both lakes indicates increasingly divergent trends following ca. 3500 years BP, around the onset of widespread ancient Maya agriculture. After this time high plant-wax δD values tend to correspond with low plant-wax δ13C values and vice versa. This pattern is consistent with

  7. The Genome of Selaginella: A Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting, 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema

    Banks, Jody [Purdue University

    2013-01-22

    Jody Banks from Purdue University on "The Genome of Selaginella, a Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  8. The Genome of Selaginella: A Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting, 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, Jody

    2012-03-21

    Jody Banks from Purdue University on "The Genome of Selaginella, a Remnant of an Ancient Vascular Plant Lineage" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  9. An evaluation of woodland reclamation on strip-mined lands in east Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsira, Bryan; Risenhoover, Ken L.

    1994-09-01

    We compared the composition and structural characteristics of reclaimed and native woody plant communities near Fairfield, Texas, to evaluate the effectiveness of woodland reclamation 3 11 years since establishment. Species composition, foliage density, canopy cover, and woody plant densities were recorded in plots randomly placed along transects bisecting blocks of reclaimed and native woodlands. During summer, vertical foliage densities at heights ≤2 m were similar among native and reclaimed areas. Foliage density and canopy cover declined in reclaimed blocks during winter, but remained relatively constant in native woodlands, where evergreens and vines were more common. Canopy cover was absent in reclaimed woodlands <6 years old but increased with age in 6 to 11-year-old blocks. These data indicated that approximately 27 years will be needed before trees in reclaimed blocks will achieve the stature of canopy trees in native woodlands. Reclaimed woodlands contained different woody plant species and had lower woody stem densities compared to native woodlands. On average, stem densities in reclaimed blocks were six times lower than densities in native woodlands. Comparisons with planting records indicate that survival of most commonly planted woody species was low. Only green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica), Russian oliver (Elaeagnus commutata), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), and redbud (Cercis canadensis) had estimated survival rates >50%. Reclamation procedures used at Big Brown Mine (BBM) during 1981 1988 have not produced woodland habitats with vegetative characteristics comparable to premined woodlands and may not be providing the cover needed to encourage use by certain wildlife species. Procedures for improving woodland reclamation are recommended.

  10. Prescribed burning in mid and late successional juniper woodlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western juniper woodlands of the western United States have expanded rapidly since settlement in the late 1800’s. To recover shrub steppe and other plant communities requires that invasive junipers be controlled. We have evaluated recovery of several plant associations after combinations of junipe...

  11. The influence of woodland encroachment on runoff and erosion in sagebrush steppe systems, Great Basin, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have expanded 10 to 30% in the past 30 years and now occupy nearly 20 million hectares of sagebrush shrub steppe in the Great Basin Region and Colorado Plateau, USA. The conversion of sagebrush steppe to pinyon and juniper woodlands has been linked to changes in plant co...

  12. Complexities of nitrogen isotope biogeochemistry in plant-soil systems: implications for the study of ancient agricultural and animal management practices

    PubMed Central

    Szpak, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen isotopic studies have the potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1) agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage) and (2) animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens). The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts. PMID:25002865

  13. Re-annotation of the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fragaria vesca is a low-growing, small-fruited diploid strawberry species commonly called woodland strawberry. It is native to temperate regions of Eurasia and North America and while it produces edible fruits, it is most highly useful as an experimental perennial plant system that can serve as a mo...

  14. The Influence of Encroaching Woodland on Grassland Enzymatic Activities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass-dominated ecosystems around the world are experiencing woody plant invasion due to human land uses. Vast regions in southern Texas have been transformed from open grasslands to subtropical thorn woodlands during the past 150 yrs. The assumption is that the soil microbial activity in the remain...

  15. The effects of different soil cover management practices on plant biodiversity and soil properties in Mediterranean ancient olive orchards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madzaric, Suzana; Aly, Adel; Ladisa, Gaetano; Calabrese, Generosa

    2014-05-01

    The effects of different soil cover management practices on plant biodiversity and soil properties in Mediterranean ancient olive orchards Madzaric S., Aly A., Ladisa G. and Calabrese G. The loss of natural plant cover due to the inappropriate soil cover management is often a decisive factor for soil degradation in Mediterranean area. This accompanied with typical climate, characterized by cool, wet winters and hot and dry summers leads to soil erosion and loss of productivity. Due to simplification of agricultural practice and to the attempt to decrease cost of production, keeping soil bare is a widespread agricultural practice in Mediterranean ancient olive orchards (AOOs). The consequences of this are degradation of soil quality and reduction of plant biodiversity. In last year's some alternative practices are proposed in order to protect soil and biodiversity. One of these practices is the "grassing" i.e. covering the soil by selected autochthonous plant species. Objectives of our study are: (1) to evaluate impact of different soil cover management practices on soil properties and plant biodiversity in AOOs and (2) to define a minimum indicators' set (Minimum Data Set - MDS) to evaluate the effectiveness of different agricultural practices in environmental performance of AOOs. A comparison was carried on considering two management systems (conventional vs. organic) and three agricultural practices: conventional with bare soil (CON), organic with soil covered by selected autochthonous species (MIX) and organic left to the native vegetation (NAT). In general a clear positive influence of organic management system was recognized. Some soil quality indicators (physical, chemical and biological) showed responsiveness in describing the effects of management system and agricultural practices on soil properties. The both approaches with vegetation cover on the soil surface (either sowing of mixture or soil left to the natural plant cover) performed better than

  16. Biodiversity effects and rates of spread of nonnative eucalypt woodlands in central California.

    PubMed

    Fork, Susanne; Woolfolk, Andrea; Akhavan, Antonia; Van Dyke, Eric; Murphy, Shirley; Candiloro, Bree; Newberry, Todd; Schreibman, Sondra; Salisbury, Joshua; Wasson, Kerstin

    2015-12-01

    Woodlands comprised of planted, nonnative trees are increasing in extent globally, while native woodlands continue to decline due to human activities. The ecological impacts of planted woodlands may include changes to the communities of understory plants and animals found among these nonnative trees relative to native woodlands, as well as invasion of adjacent habitat areas through spread beyond the originally planted areas. Eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) are among the most widely planted trees worldwide, and are very common in California, USA. The goals of our investigation were to compare the biological communities of nonnative eucalypt woodlands to native oak woodlands in coastal central California, and to examine whether planted eucalypt groves have increased in size over the past decades. We assessed site and habitat attributes and characterized biological communities using understory plant, ground-dwelling arthropod, amphibian, and bird communities as indicators. Degree of difference between native and nonnative woodlands depended on the indicator used. Eucalypts had significantly greater canopy height and cover, and significantly lower cover by perennial plants and species richness of arthropods than oaks. Community composition of arthropods also differed significantly between eucalypts and oaks. Eucalypts had marginally significantly deeper litter depth, lower abundance of native plants with ranges limited to western North America, and lower abundance of amphibians. In contrast to these differences, eucalypt and oak groves had very similar bird community composition, species richness, and abundance. We found no evidence of "invasional meltdown," documenting similar abundance and richness of nonnatives in eucalypt vs. oak woodlands. Our time-series analysis revealed that planted eucalypt groves increased 271% in size, on average, over six decades, invading adjacent areas. Our results inform science-based management of California woodlands, revealing that while

  17. Phylogenomic analysis demonstrates a pattern of rare and ancient horizontal gene transfer between plants and fungi.

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas A; Soanes, Darren M; Foster, Peter G; Leonard, Guy; Thornton, Christopher R; Talbot, Nicholas J

    2009-07-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries and is an important evolutionary phenomenon in the ancestry of many microbes. The role of HGT in plant evolutionary history is, however, largely unexplored. Here, we compare the genomes of six plant species with those of 159 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and identify 1689 genes that show the highest similarity to corresponding genes from fungi. We constructed a phylogeny for all 1689 genes identified and all homolog groups available from the rice (Oryza sativa) genome (3177 gene families) and used these to define 14 candidate plant-fungi HGT events. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of these 14 data sets, using methods that account for site rate heterogeneity, demonstrated support for nine HGT events, demonstrating an infrequent pattern of HGT between plants and fungi. Five HGTs were fungi-to-plant transfers and four were plant-to-fungi HGTs. None of the fungal-to-plant HGTs involved angiosperm recipients. These results alter the current view of organismal barriers to HGT, suggesting that phagotrophy, the consumption of a whole cell by another, is not necessarily a prerequisite for HGT between eukaryotes. Putative functional annotation of the HGT candidate genes suggests that two fungi-to-plant transfers have added phenotypes important for life in a soil environment. Our study suggests that genetic exchange between plants and fungi is exceedingly rare, particularly among the angiosperms, but has occurred during their evolutionary history and added important metabolic traits to plant lineages. PMID:19584142

  18. Comparative proteomic analysis of developing rhizomes of the ancient vascular plant Equisetum hyemale and different monocot species.

    PubMed

    Salvato, Fernanda; Balbuena, Tiago S; Nelson, William; Rao, R Shyama Prasad; He, Ruifeng; Soderlund, Carol A; Gang, David R; Thelen, Jay J

    2015-04-01

    The rhizome is responsible for the invasiveness and competitiveness of many plants with great economic and agricultural impact worldwide. Besides its value as an invasive organ, the rhizome plays a role in the establishment and massive growth of forage, providing biomass for biofuel production. Despite these features, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that contribute to rhizome growth, development, and function in plants. In this work, we characterized the proteome of rhizome apical tips and elongation zones from different species using a GeLC-MS/MS (one-dimensional electrophoresis in combination with liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry) spectral-counting proteomics strategy. Five rhizomatous grasses and an ancient species were compared to study the protein regulation in rhizomes. An average of 2200 rhizome proteins per species were confidently identified and quantified. Rhizome-characteristic proteins showed similar functional distributions across all species analyzed. The over-representation of proteins associated with central roles in cellular, metabolic, and developmental processes indicated accelerated metabolism in growing rhizomes. Moreover, 61 rhizome-characteristic proteins appeared to be regulated similarly among analyzed plants. In addition, 36 showed conserved regulation between rhizome apical tips and elongation zones across species. These proteins were preferentially expressed in rhizome tissues regardless of the species analyzed, making them interesting candidates for more detailed investigative studies about their roles in rhizome development. PMID:25716083

  19. Plants of the Olympic Coastal Forests: ancient knowledge of materials and medicines and future heritage.

    PubMed

    Forlines, D R; Tavenner, T; Malan, J C; Karchesy, J J

    1992-01-01

    The indigenous people of the west coast of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula have used a wide variety of forest plants for centuries to make materials and medicines. The late David Forlines shared at least eight generations of the knowledge of uses of these plants for materials and medicines with us in hopes that this information might be used 'to help science catch up with the old people.' Dyes, paints and adhesives were some of the materials made. The medicines were often administered as teas, but in some cases, fresh plant material was required. Some parallels were found to European and Chinese uses of similar species. Plants from the family Rosaceae had the greatest number of medicinal uses, but several other plant families known to contain polyphenols were also encountered. The role of polyphenols in the use of these plants is difficult to estimate because in many cases the plants have not been studied chemically. A preliminary screening indicated that many of the plants were rich in procyanidins and associated compounds. PMID:1417699

  20. Alkylresorcinol biosynthesis in plants: new insights from an ancient enzyme family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkylresorcinols are members of an extensive family of bioactive compounds referred to as phenolic lipids, which occur primarily in plants, fungi, and bacteria. In plants, alkylresorcinols and their derivatives are thought to serve important roles as phytoanticipins and allelochemicals, although di...

  1. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products—specifically, herbs and tree resins—were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  2. Ancient Egyptian herbal wines.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Mirzoian, Armen; Hall, Gretchen R

    2009-05-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the beginning of advanced ancient Egyptian culture, ca. 3150 B.C., and continuing for millennia have revealed that a range of natural products--specifically, herbs and tree resins--were dispensed by grape wine. These findings provide chemical evidence for ancient Egyptian organic medicinal remedies, previously only ambiguously documented in medical papyri dating back to ca. 1850 B.C. They illustrate how humans around the world, probably for millions of years, have exploited their natural environments for effective plant remedies, whose active compounds have recently begun to be isolated by modern analytical techniques. PMID:19365069

  3. Phenolic Compounds from the Fruits of Medemia argun, a Food and Medicinal Plant of Ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Masullo, Milena; Hamed, Arafa I; Mahalel, Usama A; Pizza, Cosimo; Piacente, Sonia

    2016-03-01

    Medemia argun is a mysterious and little known monotypic fan palm from the Nubian Desert Oases of southern Egypt and northern Sudan. Its fruits have been found in the tombs from the 5th Dynasty (ca. 2500 BC) to Roman times (6-7th century AD), including the celebrated tomb of Tutankhamun. In ancient Egypt, the fruits of this palm were widely distributed and were highly valued, as confirmed by their frequent occurrence in offerings in the tombs. In order to elucidate the chemical composition of the phenolic fraction, phytochemical investigation of the BuOH extract of fruits was carried out to afford eight compounds (1-8), among which was the new 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylacetophenone 2-0-β-D-glucopyranoside (1). With the aim to investigate if the high shelf life of M argun fruits could be related to the occurrence of antioxidant principles that were able to prevent oxidative reactions, the evaluation was carried out of the in vitro antioxidant activity by Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay of the extract and isolated compounds. PMID:27169174

  4. New long-proboscid lacewings of the mid-Cretaceous provide insights into ancient plant-pollinator interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Many insects with long-proboscid mouthparts are among the pollinators of seed plants. Several cases of the long-proboscid pollination mode are known between fossil insects (e.g., true flies, scorpionflies, and lacewings) and various extinct gymnosperm lineages, beginning in the Early Permian and increasing during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. However, details on the morphology of lacewing proboscides and the relevant pollination habit are largely lacking. Here we report on three lacewing species that belong to two new genera and a described genus from mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. All these species possess relatively long proboscides, which are considered to be modified from maxillary and labial elements, probably functioning as a temporary siphon for feeding on nectar. Remarkably, these proboscides range from 0.4–1.0 mm in length and are attributed to the most diminutive ones among the contemporary long-proboscid insect pollinators. Further, they clearly differ from other long-proboscid lacewings which have a much longer siphon. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that these Burmese long-proboscid lacewings belong to the superfamily Psychopsoidea but cannot be placed into any known family. The present findings represent the first description of the mouthparts of long-proboscid lacewings preserved in amber and highlight the evolutionary diversification of the ancient plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:27149436

  5. New long-proboscid lacewings of the mid-Cretaceous provide insights into ancient plant-pollinator interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Xing-Yue

    2016-01-01

    Many insects with long-proboscid mouthparts are among the pollinators of seed plants. Several cases of the long-proboscid pollination mode are known between fossil insects (e.g., true flies, scorpionflies, and lacewings) and various extinct gymnosperm lineages, beginning in the Early Permian and increasing during the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. However, details on the morphology of lacewing proboscides and the relevant pollination habit are largely lacking. Here we report on three lacewing species that belong to two new genera and a described genus from mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber of Myanmar. All these species possess relatively long proboscides, which are considered to be modified from maxillary and labial elements, probably functioning as a temporary siphon for feeding on nectar. Remarkably, these proboscides range from 0.4-1.0 mm in length and are attributed to the most diminutive ones among the contemporary long-proboscid insect pollinators. Further, they clearly differ from other long-proboscid lacewings which have a much longer siphon. The phylogenetic analysis indicates that these Burmese long-proboscid lacewings belong to the superfamily Psychopsoidea but cannot be placed into any known family. The present findings represent the first description of the mouthparts of long-proboscid lacewings preserved in amber and highlight the evolutionary diversification of the ancient plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:27149436

  6. The monosaccharide transporter gene family in land plants is ancient and shows differential subfamily expression and expansion across lineages

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Deborah A; Hill, Jeffrey P; Thomas, Michael A

    2006-01-01

    subfamilies of the Arabidopsis MST gene family are ancient in land plants and show differential subfamily expression and lineage-specific subfamily expansions. Patterns of gene expression in Arabidopsis and correlation of highly represented genes with best match homologs in early lineages suggests that broadly expressed genes are often highly conserved, and that most genes have more limited expression. PMID:16923188

  7. PII in higher plants: a modern role for an ancient protein.

    PubMed

    Uhrig, R Glen; Ng, Kenneth K S; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2009-09-01

    PII in prokaryotic organisms is a crucial integrator of cellular carbon, nitrogen and energy levels. In higher plants, however, its role remains significantly less clear. Previous findings suggest that PII-N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) complex formation controls l-arginine biosynthesis, whereas other work implicates PII in regulating chloroplastic NO2(-) uptake. Together, these findings indicate that PII has evolved from a central metabolic role in prokaryotes towards a more specialized role in eukaryotes. Furthermore, recent genomic and bioinformatic findings reveal tissue-specific expression of PII in higher plants, with transcriptional expression patterns suggestive of a link between PII and storage protein production during seed development. This review focuses on the unique structural, biochemical and biological aspects of PII in higher plants. PMID:19720555

  8. All that is gold does not glitter? Age, taxonomy, and ancient plant DNA quality

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JinHee; Lee, HyeJi

    2015-01-01

    More than 600 herbarium samples from four distantly related groups of flowering plants were used for DNA extraction and subsequent measurements of DNA purity and concentration. We did not find any significant relation between DNA purity and the age of the sample. However, DNA yields were different between plant groups studied. We believe that there there should be no reservations about “old” samples if the goal is to extract more DNA of better purity. We argue that the older herbarium samples are the mine for the future DNA studies, and have the value not less than the “fresh” specimens. PMID:26244108

  9. All that is gold does not glitter? Age, taxonomy, and ancient plant DNA quality.

    PubMed

    Choi, JinHee; Lee, HyeJi; Shipunov, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    More than 600 herbarium samples from four distantly related groups of flowering plants were used for DNA extraction and subsequent measurements of DNA purity and concentration. We did not find any significant relation between DNA purity and the age of the sample. However, DNA yields were different between plant groups studied. We believe that there there should be no reservations about "old" samples if the goal is to extract more DNA of better purity. We argue that the older herbarium samples are the mine for the future DNA studies, and have the value not less than the "fresh" specimens. PMID:26244108

  10. Development of soil hydraulic soil properties below ancient forest, planted forest and grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Nicole; Otten, Wilfred; Schmidt, Sonja; Bengough, Glyn; Bonell, Mike; Shah, Nadeem

    2014-05-01

    A number of serious flood events in recent years have focused attention on flood prevention and mitigation and modelling work suggests that climate change will lead to an increase in the intensity and frequency of flood events in many areas. To understand how soil hydraulic characteristics develops in relation to facilitating the infiltration and storage of storm rainfall, a hypothetical pedogensis sequence was first developed and then tested by investigating a grassland site and four Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) forests of different ages in the Scottish Highlands. These sites are: grassland, six and 45 year-old Scots pine plantations, remnant 300 year old individual Scots pines and a 4000 year old Caledonian Forest. The soil characteristics measured were: field saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) using a constant head well permeameter, root numbers and proportion were estimated from soil pits and soil cores were taken for three different soil depths (0.06 - 0.10, 0.16 - 0.20 and 0.26 to 0.40m) for laboratory measurements to estimate organic matter, soil water release curves, macro-pores, and X - ray tomography measured pore connectivity and soil pore structure. It was observed that cutting down of the plantation increased organic matter because of the increase of dead biomass and decreased pore connectivity, which resulted in reduced hydraulic conductivity during the early years of re-afforestation. Where older trees were left, after cutting and removing younger trees; the range of OM, hydraulic conductivity, pore connectivity, and macropores remained similar to and older Scots pine plantation (45 years old). The undisturbed Ancient Caledonian remnant forest (approximately 4000 years old) was observed to have remarkably heterogeneous soil characteristics, providing extreme values of Kfs (12 to 4992 mm hr-1), OM, and macropores. Such ranges of soil characteristics were considered to be the optimum to reduce local flooding, because the soil matrix could

  11. Proxy comparison in ancient peat sediments: pollen, macrofossil and plant DNA

    PubMed Central

    Parducci, Laura; Väliranta, Minna; Salonen, J. Sakari; Ronkainen, Tiina; Matetovici, Irina; Fontana, Sonia L.; Eskola, Tiina; Sarala, Pertti; Suyama, Yoshihisa

    2015-01-01

    We compared DNA, pollen and macrofossil data obtained from Weichselian interstadial (age more than 40 kyr) and Holocene (maximum age 8400 cal yr BP) peat sediments from northern Europe and used them to reconstruct contemporary floristic compositions at two sites. The majority of the samples provided plant DNA sequences of good quality with success amplification rates depending on age. DNA and sequencing analysis provided five plant taxa from the older site and nine taxa from the younger site, corresponding to 7% and 15% of the total number of taxa identified by the three proxies together. At both sites, pollen analysis detected the largest (54) and DNA the lowest (10) number of taxa, but five of the DNA taxa were not detected by pollen and macrofossils. The finding of a larger overlap between DNA and pollen than between DNA and macrofossils proxies seems to go against our previous suggestion based on lacustrine sediments that DNA originates principally from plant tissues and less from pollen. At both sites, we also detected Quercus spp. DNA, but few pollen grains were found in the record, and these are normally interpreted as long-distance dispersal. We confirm that in palaeoecological investigations, sedimentary DNA analysis is less comprehensive than classical morphological analysis, but is a complementary and important tool to obtain a more complete picture of past flora. PMID:25487333

  12. Breeding bird response to juniper woodland expansion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenstock, Steven S.; van Riper, Charles, III

    2001-01-01

    In recent times, pinyon (Pinus spp.)-juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have expanded into large portions of the Southwest historically occupied by grassland vegetation. From 1997a??1998, we studied responses of breeding birds to one-seed juniper (J. monosperma) woodland expansion at 2 grassland study areas in northern Arizona. We sampled breeding birds in 3 successional stages along a grassland-woodland gradient: un-invaded grassland, grassland undergoing early stages of juniper establishment, and developing woodland. Species composition varied greatly among successional stages and was most different between endpoints of the gradient. Ground-nesting grassland species predominated in uninvaded grassland but declined dramatically as tree density increased. Tree- and cavity-nesting species increased with tree density and were most abundant in developing woodland. Restoration of juniper-invaded grasslands will benefit grassland-obligate birds and other wildlife.

  13. Large-scale proteome comparative analysis of developing rhizomes of the ancient vascular plant equisetum hyemale.

    PubMed

    Balbuena, Tiago Santana; He, Ruifeng; Salvato, Fernanda; Gang, David R; Thelen, Jay J

    2012-01-01

    Horsetail (Equisetum hyemale) is a widespread vascular plant species, whose reproduction is mainly dependent on the growth and development of the rhizomes. Due to its key evolutionary position, the identification of factors that could be involved in the existence of the rhizomatous trait may contribute to a better understanding of the role of this underground organ for the successful propagation of this and other plant species. In the present work, we characterized the proteome of E. hyemale rhizomes using a GeLC-MS spectral-counting proteomics strategy. A total of 1,911 and 1,860 non-redundant proteins were identified in the rhizomes apical tip and elongation zone, respectively. Rhizome-characteristic proteins were determined by comparisons of the developing rhizome tissues to developing roots. A total of 87 proteins were found to be up-regulated in both horsetail rhizome tissues in relation to developing roots. Hierarchical clustering indicated a vast dynamic range in the regulation of the 87 characteristic proteins and revealed, based on the regulation profile, the existence of nine major protein groups. Gene ontology analyses suggested an over-representation of the terms involved in macromolecular and protein biosynthetic processes, gene expression, and nucleotide and protein binding functions. Spatial difference analysis between the rhizome apical tip and the elongation zone revealed that only eight proteins were up-regulated in the apical tip including RNA-binding proteins and an acyl carrier protein, as well as a KH domain protein and a T-complex subunit; while only seven proteins were up-regulated in the elongation zone including phosphomannomutase, galactomannan galactosyltransferase, endoglucanase 10 and 25, and mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase subunits alpha and beta. This is the first large-scale characterization of the proteome of a plant rhizome. Implications of the findings were discussed in relation to other underground organs and related

  14. Large-Scale Proteome Comparative Analysis of Developing Rhizomes of the Ancient Vascular Plant Equisetum Hyemale

    PubMed Central

    Balbuena, Tiago Santana; He, Ruifeng; Salvato, Fernanda; Gang, David R.; Thelen, Jay J.

    2012-01-01

    Horsetail (Equisetum hyemale) is a widespread vascular plant species, whose reproduction is mainly dependent on the growth and development of the rhizomes. Due to its key evolutionary position, the identification of factors that could be involved in the existence of the rhizomatous trait may contribute to a better understanding of the role of this underground organ for the successful propagation of this and other plant species. In the present work, we characterized the proteome of E. hyemale rhizomes using a GeLC-MS spectral-counting proteomics strategy. A total of 1,911 and 1,860 non-redundant proteins were identified in the rhizomes apical tip and elongation zone, respectively. Rhizome-characteristic proteins were determined by comparisons of the developing rhizome tissues to developing roots. A total of 87 proteins were found to be up-regulated in both horsetail rhizome tissues in relation to developing roots. Hierarchical clustering indicated a vast dynamic range in the regulation of the 87 characteristic proteins and revealed, based on the regulation profile, the existence of nine major protein groups. Gene ontology analyses suggested an over-representation of the terms involved in macromolecular and protein biosynthetic processes, gene expression, and nucleotide and protein binding functions. Spatial difference analysis between the rhizome apical tip and the elongation zone revealed that only eight proteins were up-regulated in the apical tip including RNA-binding proteins and an acyl carrier protein, as well as a KH domain protein and a T-complex subunit; while only seven proteins were up-regulated in the elongation zone including phosphomannomutase, galactomannan galactosyltransferase, endoglucanase 10 and 25, and mannose-1-phosphate guanyltransferase subunits alpha and beta. This is the first large-scale characterization of the proteome of a plant rhizome. Implications of the findings were discussed in relation to other underground organs and related

  15. The carbon isotope composition of ancient CO2 based on higher-plant organic matter.

    PubMed

    Gröcke, Darren R

    2002-04-15

    Carbon isotope ratios in higher-plant organic matter (delta(13)C(plant)) have been shown in several studies to be closely related to the carbon isotope composition of the ocean-atmosphere carbon reservoir, and, in particular, the isotopic composition of CO(2). These studies have primarily been focused on geological intervals in which major perturbations occur in the oceanic carbon reservoir, as documented in organic carbon and carbonates phases (e.g. Permian-Triassic and Triassic-Jurassic boundary, Early Toarcian, Early Aptian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM)). All of these events, excluding the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, record negative carbon isotope excursions, and many authors have postulated that the cause of such excursions is the massive release of continental-margin marine gas-hydrate reservoirs (clathrates). Methane has a very negative carbon isotope composition (delta(13)C, ca. 60 per thousand ) in comparison with higher-plant and marine organic matter, and carbonate. The residence time of methane in the ocean-atmosphere reservoir is short (ca. 10 yr) and is rapidly oxidized to CO(2), causing the isotopic composition of CO(2) to become more negative from its assumed background value (delta(13)C, ca. -7 per thousand ). However, to date, only the Early Toarcian, Early Aptian and PETM are well-constrained chronometric sequences that could attribute clathrate release as a viable cause to create such rapid negative delta(13)C excursions. Notwithstanding this, the isotopic analysis of higher-plant organic matter (e.g. charcoal, wood, leaves, pollen) has the ability to (i) record the isotopic composition of palaeoatmospheric CO(2) in the geological record, (ii) correlate marine and non-marine stratigraphic successions, and (iii) confirm that oceanic carbon perturbations are not purely oceanographic in their extent and affect the entire ocean-atmosphere system. A case study from the Isle of Wight, UK, indicates that the

  16. Non-psychotropic plant cannabinoids: new therapeutic opportunities from an ancient herb.

    PubMed

    Izzo, Angelo A; Borrelli, Francesca; Capasso, Raffaele; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2009-10-01

    Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol binds cannabinoid (CB(1) and CB(2)) receptors, which are activated by endogenous compounds (endocannabinoids) and are involved in a wide range of physiopathological processes (e.g. modulation of neurotransmitter release, regulation of pain perception, and of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and liver functions). The well-known psychotropic effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which are mediated by activation of brain CB(1) receptors, have greatly limited its clinical use. However, the plant Cannabis contains many cannabinoids with weak or no psychoactivity that, therapeutically, might be more promising than Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. Here, we provide an overview of the recent pharmacological advances, novel mechanisms of action, and potential therapeutic applications of such non-psychotropic plant-derived cannabinoids. Special emphasis is given to cannabidiol, the possible applications of which have recently emerged in inflammation, diabetes, cancer, affective and neurodegenerative diseases, and to Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin, a novel CB(1) antagonist which exerts potentially useful actions in the treatment of epilepsy and obesity. PMID:19729208

  17. Ancient Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  18. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    SciTech Connect

    Stahle, David

    2003-02-12

    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  19. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages.

    PubMed

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J; Ali, Jason R; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age lineages, we find concentrations in several regions - both tropical and temperate - parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  20. Global hotspots in the present-day distribution of ancient animal and plant lineages

    PubMed Central

    Procheş, Şerban; Ramdhani, Syd; Perera, Sandun J.; Ali, Jason R.; Gairola, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    The current distribution of biotic lineages that emerged in the deep time has both theoretical and practical implications, in particular for understanding the processes that have forged present-day biodiversity and informing local and regional-scale conservation efforts. To date however, there has been no examination of such patterns globally across taxa and geological time. Here we map the diversity of selected extant seed plant and tetrapod vertebrate lineages that were already in existence either in the latest Triassic or latest Cretaceous. For Triassic-age linages, we find concentrations in several regions – both tropical and temperate – parts of North America, Europe, East and South-east Asia, northern South America, and New Zealand. With Cretaceous-age lineages, high values are relatively uniformly distributed across the tropics, with peak the values along the Andes, in South-east Asia and Queensland, but also in the temperate Cape Mountains. These patterns result from a combination of factors, including land area, geographic isolation, climate stability and mass extinction survival ability. While the need to protect many of these lineages has been long recognised, a spatially-explicit approach is critical for understanding and maintaining the factors responsible for their persistence, and this will need to be taken forward across finer scales. PMID:26498226

  1. The genome of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)

    PubMed Central

    Shulaev, Vladimir; Sargent, Daniel J; Crowhurst, Ross N; Mockler, Todd C; Folkerts, Otto; Delcher, Arthur L; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Mockaitis, Keithanne; Liston, Aaron; Mane, Shrinivasrao P; Burns, Paul; Davis, Thomas M; Slovin, Janet P; Bassil, Nahla; Hellens, Roger P; Evans, Clive; Harkins, Tim; Kodira, Chinnappa; Desany, Brian; Crasta, Oswald R; Jensen, Roderick V; Allan, Andrew C; Michael, Todd P; Setubal, Joao Carlos; Celton, Jean-Marc; Rees, D Jasper G; Williams, Kelly P; Holt, Sarah H; Ruiz Rojas, Juan Jairo; Chatterjee, Mithu; Liu, Bo; Silva, Herman; Meisel, Lee; Adato, Avital; Filichkin, Sergei A; Troggio, Michela; Viola, Roberto; Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Wang, Hao; Dharmawardhana, Palitha; Elser, Justin; Raja, Rajani; Priest, Henry D; Bryant, Douglas W; Fox, Samuel E; Givan, Scott A; Wilhelm, Larry J; Naithani, Sushma; Christoffels, Alan; Salama, David Y; Carter, Jade; Girona, Elena Lopez; Zdepski, Anna; Wang, Wenqin; Kerstetter, Randall A; Schwab, Wilfried; Korban, Schuyler S; Davik, Jahn; Monfort, Amparo; Denoyes-Rothan, Beatrice; Arus, Pere; Mittler, Ron; Flinn, Barry; Aharoni, Asaph; Bennetzen, Jeffrey L; Salzberg, Steven L; Dickerman, Allan W; Velasco, Riccardo; Borodovsky, Mark; Veilleux, Richard E; Folta, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca (2n = 2x = 14), is a versatile experimental plant system. This diminutive herbaceous perennial has a small genome (240 Mb), is amenable to genetic transformation and shares substantial sequence identity with the cultivated strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) and other economically important rosaceous plants. Here we report the draft F. vesca genome, which was sequenced to ×39 coverage using second-generation technology, assembled de novo and then anchored to the genetic linkage map into seven pseudochromosomes. This diploid strawberry sequence lacks the large genome duplications seen in other rosids. Gene prediction modeling identified 34,809 genes, with most being supported by transcriptome mapping. Genes critical to valuable horticultural traits including flavor, nutritional value and flowering time were identified. Macrosyntenic relationships between Fragaria and Prunus predict a hypothetical ancestral Rosaceae genome that had nine chromosomes. New phylogenetic analysis of 154 protein-coding genes suggests that assignment of Populus to Malvidae, rather than Fabidae, is warranted. PMID:21186353

  2. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  3. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the ‘intersection effect’). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  4. At the Crossroads: Does the Configuration of Roadside Vegetation Affect Woodland Bird Communities in Rural Landscapes?

    PubMed

    Hall, Mark; Nimmo, Dale; Bennett, Andrew F

    2016-01-01

    In agricultural regions worldwide, linear networks of vegetation such as hedges, fencerows and live fences provide habitat for plant and animal species in heavily modified landscapes. In Australia, networks of remnant native vegetation along roadsides are a distinctive feature of many rural landscapes. Here, we investigated the richness and composition of woodland-dependent bird communities in networks of eucalypt woodland vegetation along roadsides, in an agricultural region in which >80% of native woodland and forest vegetation has been cleared. We stratified sites in a) cross sections and b) linear strips of roadside vegetation, to test the influence on woodland birds of site location and configuration in the linear network (the 'intersection effect'). We also examined the influence of tree size at the site, the amount of wooded vegetation surrounding the site, and the abundance of an aggressive native species, the noisy miner Manorina melanocephala. Birds were surveyed at 26 pairs of sites (cross section or linear strip) on four occasions. A total of 66 species was recorded, including 35 woodland species. The richness of woodland bird species was influenced by site configuration, with more species present at cross sections, particularly those with larger trees (>30 cm diameter). However, the strongest influence on species richness was the relative abundance of the noisy miner. The richness of woodland birds at sites where noisy miners were abundant was ~20% of that where miners were absent. These results recognise the value of networks of roadside vegetation as habitat for woodland birds in depleted agricultural landscapes; but highlight that this value is not realised for much of this vast vegetation network because of the dominance of the noisy miner. Nevertheless, roadside vegetation is particularly important where the configuration of networks create nodes that facilitate movement. Globally, the protection, conservation and restoration of such linear

  5. Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)

  6. Ancient DNA

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the characterization of Pleistocene mammal populations and discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments. Increasingly, ancient genetic information is providing a unique means to test assumptions used in evolutionary and population genetics studies to reconstruct the past. Initial results have revealed surprisingly complex population histories, and indicate that modern phylogeographic studies may give misleading impressions about even the recent evolutionary past. With the advent and uptake of appropriate methodologies, ancient DNA is now positioned to become a powerful tool in biological research and is also evolving new and unexpected uses, such as in the search for extinct or extant life in the deep biosphere and on other planets. PMID:15875564

  7. Grassland to woodland transitions: Dynamic response of microbial community structure and carbon use patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creamer, Courtney A.; Filley, Timothy R.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Rowe, Helen I.

    2016-06-01

    Woodland encroachment into grasslands is a globally pervasive phenomenon attributed to land use change, fire suppression, and climate change. This vegetation shift impacts ecosystem services such as ground water allocation, carbon (C) and nutrient status of soils, aboveground and belowground biodiversity, and soil structure. We hypothesized that woodland encroachment would alter microbial community structure and function and would be related to patterns in soil C accumulation. To address this hypothesis, we measured the composition and δ13C values of soil microbial phospholipids (PLFAs) along successional chronosequences from C4-dominated grasslands to C3-dominated woodlands (small discrete clusters and larger groves) spanning up to 134 years. Woodland development increased microbial biomass, soil C and nitrogen (N) concentrations, and altered microbial community composition. The relative abundance of gram-negative bacteria (cy19:0) increased linearly with stand age, consistent with decreases in soil pH and/or greater rhizosphere development and corresponding increases in C inputs. δ13C values of all PLFAs decreased with time following woody encroachment, indicating assimilation of woodland C sources. Among the microbial groups, fungi and actinobacteria in woodland soils selectively assimilated grassland C to a greater extent than its contribution to bulk soil. Between the two woodland types, microbes in the groves incorporated relatively more of the relict C4-C than those in the clusters, potentially due to differences in below ground plant C allocation and organo-mineral association. Changes in plant productivity and C accessibility (rather than C chemistry) dictated microbial C utilization in this system in response to shrub encroachment.

  8. Spatial structuring of arbuscular mycorrhizal communities in benchmark and modified temperate eucalypt woodlands.

    PubMed

    Prober, Suzanne M; Bissett, A; Walker, C; Wiehl, G; McIntyre, S; Tibbett, M

    2015-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are crucial to the functioning of the plant-soil system, but little is known about the spatial structuring of AMF communities across landscapes modified by agriculture. AMF community composition was characterized across four sites in the highly cleared south-western Australian wheatbelt that were originally dominated by forb-rich eucalypt woodlands. Environmentally induced spatial structuring in AMF composition was examined at four scales: the regional scale associated with location, the site scale associated with past management (benchmark woodlands with no agricultural management history, livestock grazing, recent revegetation), the patch scale associated with trees and canopy gaps, and the fine scale associated with the herbaceous plant species beneath which soils were sourced. Field-collected soils were cultured in trap pots; then, AMF composition was determined by identifying spores and through ITS1 sequencing. Structuring was strongest at site scales, where composition was strongly related to prior management and associated changes in soil phosphorus. The two fields were dominated by the genera Funneliformis and Paraglomus, with little convergence back to woodland composition after revegetation. The two benchmark woodlands were characterized by Ambispora gerdemannii and taxa from Gigasporaceae. Their AMF communities were strongly structured at patch scales associated with trees and gaps, in turn most strongly related to soil N. By contrast, there were few patterns at fine scales related to different herbaceous plant species, or at regional scales associated with the 175 km distance between benchmark woodlands. Important areas for future investigation are to identify the circumstances in which recolonization by woodland AMF may be limited by fungal propagule availability, reduced plant diversity and/or altered chemistry in agricultural soils. PMID:24879562

  9. [Ancientness and maturity: two complementary qualities of forest ecosystems].

    PubMed

    Cateau, Eugénie; Larrieu, Laurent; Vallauri, Daniel; Savoie, Jean-Marie; Touroult, Julien; Brustel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Ancientness and maturity are two major qualities of forest ecosystems. They are components of naturalness and are affected by human impact. These qualities and the associated terms are often mixed up and incorrectly used. We have carried out a synthesis in order to propose an adapted French terminology based on international literature. The topics of ancientness and maturity for biodiversity and soil characteristics are explained. This review leads us to submit different potential thresholds for ancientness and maturity. An analysis on ancientness and maturity on forest data for France leads to the conclusion that about 29% of all forests can be considered "ancient woodland", and less than 3% of the even-age forest is older than the harvesting age. PMID:25455000

  10. First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO2.

    PubMed

    Field, Katie J; Rimington, William R; Bidartondo, Martin I; Allinson, Kate E; Beerling, David J; Cameron, Duncan D; Duckett, Jeffrey G; Leake, Jonathan R; Pressel, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that Mucoromycotina, an ancient and partially saprotrophic fungal lineage, associates with the basal liverwort lineage Haplomitriopsida casts doubt on the widely held view that Glomeromycota formed the sole ancestral plant-fungus symbiosis. Whether this association is mutualistic, and how its functioning was affected by the fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration that followed plant terrestrialization in the Palaeozoic, remains unknown. We measured carbon-for-nutrient exchanges between Haplomitriopsida liverworts and Mucoromycotina fungi under simulated mid-Palaeozoic (1500 ppm) and near-contemporary (440 ppm) CO2 concentrations using isotope tracers, and analysed cytological differences in plant-fungal interactions. Concomitantly, we cultured both partners axenically, resynthesized the associations in vitro, and characterized their cytology. We demonstrate that liverwort-Mucoromycotina symbiosis is mutualistic and mycorrhiza-like, but differs from liverwort-Glomeromycota symbiosis in maintaining functional efficiency of carbon-for-nutrient exchange between partners across CO2 concentrations. Inoculation of axenic plants with Mucoromycotina caused major cytological changes affecting the anatomy of plant tissues, similar to that observed in wild-collected plants colonized by Mucoromycotina fungi. By demonstrating reciprocal exchange of carbon for nutrients between partners, our results provide support for Mucoromycotina establishing the earliest mutualistic symbiosis with land plants. As symbiotic functional efficiency was not compromised by reduced CO2 , we suggest that other factors led to the modern predominance of the Glomeromycota symbiosis. PMID:25230098

  11. A spruce gene map infers ancient plant genome reshuffling and subsequent slow evolution in the gymnosperm lineage leading to extant conifers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Seed plants are composed of angiosperms and gymnosperms, which diverged from each other around 300 million years ago. While much light has been shed on the mechanisms and rate of genome evolution in flowering plants, such knowledge remains conspicuously meagre for the gymnosperms. Conifers are key representatives of gymnosperms and the sheer size of their genomes represents a significant challenge for characterization, sequencing and assembling. Results To gain insight into the macro-organisation and long-term evolution of the conifer genome, we developed a genetic map involving 1,801 spruce genes. We designed a statistical approach based on kernel density estimation to analyse gene density and identified seven gene-rich isochors. Groups of co-localizing genes were also found that were transcriptionally co-regulated, indicative of functional clusters. Phylogenetic analyses of 157 gene families for which at least two duplicates were mapped on the spruce genome indicated that ancient gene duplicates shared by angiosperms and gymnosperms outnumbered conifer-specific duplicates by a ratio of eight to one. Ancient duplicates were much more translocated within and among spruce chromosomes than conifer-specific duplicates, which were mostly organised in tandem arrays. Both high synteny and collinearity were also observed between the genomes of spruce and pine, two conifers that diverged more than 100 million years ago. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that much genomic evolution has occurred in the seed plant lineage before the split between gymnosperms and angiosperms, and that the pace of evolution of the genome macro-structure has been much slower in the gymnosperm lineage leading to extent conifers than that seen for the same period of time in flowering plants. This trend is largely congruent with the contrasted rates of diversification and morphological evolution observed between these two groups of seed plants. PMID:23102090

  12. Ancient genomics

    PubMed Central

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten E.; Ávila-Arcos, María C.; Barnett, Ross; Campos, Paula F.; Cappellini, Enrico; Ermini, Luca; Fernández, Ruth; da Fonseca, Rute; Ginolhac, Aurélien; Hansen, Anders J.; Jónsson, Hákon; Korneliussen, Thorfinn; Margaryan, Ashot; Martin, Michael D.; Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Raghavan, Maanasa; Rasmussen, Morten; Velasco, Marcela Sandoval; Schroeder, Hannes; Schubert, Mikkel; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Wales, Nathan; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when testing specific hypotheses related to the past. PMID:25487338

  13. First evidence of mutualism between ancient plant lineages (Haplomitriopsida liverworts) and Mucoromycotina fungi and its response to simulated Palaeozoic changes in atmospheric CO2

    PubMed Central

    Field, Katie J; Rimington, William R; Bidartondo, Martin I; Allinson, Kate E; Beerling, David J; Cameron, Duncan D; Duckett, Jeffrey G; Leake, Jonathan R; Pressel, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The discovery that Mucoromycotina, an ancient and partially saprotrophic fungal lineage, associates with the basal liverwort lineage Haplomitriopsida casts doubt on the widely held view that Glomeromycota formed the sole ancestral plant–fungus symbiosis. Whether this association is mutualistic, and how its functioning was affected by the fall in atmospheric CO2 concentration that followed plant terrestrialization in the Palaeozoic, remains unknown. We measured carbon-for-nutrient exchanges between Haplomitriopsida liverworts and Mucoromycotina fungi under simulated mid-Palaeozoic (1500 ppm) and near-contemporary (440 ppm) CO2 concentrations using isotope tracers, and analysed cytological differences in plant–fungal interactions. Concomitantly, we cultured both partners axenically, resynthesized the associations in vitro, and characterized their cytology. We demonstrate that liverwort–Mucoromycotina symbiosis is mutualistic and mycorrhiza-like, but differs from liverwort–Glomeromycota symbiosis in maintaining functional efficiency of carbon-for-nutrient exchange between partners across CO2 concentrations. Inoculation of axenic plants with Mucoromycotina caused major cytological changes affecting the anatomy of plant tissues, similar to that observed in wild-collected plants colonized by Mucoromycotina fungi. By demonstrating reciprocal exchange of carbon for nutrients between partners, our results provide support for Mucoromycotina establishing the earliest mutualistic symbiosis with land plants. As symbiotic functional efficiency was not compromised by reduced CO2, we suggest that other factors led to the modern predominance of the Glomeromycota symbiosis. PMID:25230098

  14. Woodland Biology for Hundreds of Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colman, Margaret

    1982-01-01

    Describes outdoor biology activities in a woodland area at a private boys school in England. Activities included studies of areas within the woods, winter trips, and wood and pond animals. Includes comments on preparing for and teaching the activities. (Author/JN)

  15. Energy Flow in a Woodland Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aston, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    The study of energy flow in a woodland ecosystem was attempted during a seven-day field course, using simple equipment. It is possible to quantify or estimate many of the components, and the methods used are described. Suggestions are made for maximizing education return from the available time and labor. (Author/BB)

  16. Woodland Culture Area. Native American Curriculum Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Cathy; Fernandes, Roger

    One in a series of Native American instructional materials, this booklet introduces elementary students to the tribes of the woodland culture area, extending from the Mississippi River to the Atlantic Ocean and from Florida to the Great Lakes. Written in simple language, the booklet provides an overview of the regional culture, as well as,…

  17. Exclusive conservation of mitochondrial group II intron nad4i548 among liverworts and its use for phylogenetic studies in this ancient plant clade.

    PubMed

    Volkmar, U; Groth-Malonek, M; Heinrichs, J; Muhle, H; Polsakiewicz, M; Knoop, V

    2012-03-01

    Liverworts occupy a pivotal position in land plant (embryophyte) phylogeny as the presumed earliest-branching major clade, sister to all other land plants, including the mosses, hornworts, lycophytes, monilophytes and seed plants. Molecular support for this earliest dichotomy in land plant phylogeny comes from strikingly different occurrences of introns in mitochondrial genes distinguishing liverworts from all other embryophytes. Exceptionally, however, the nad5 gene--the mitochondrial locus hitherto used most widely to elucidate early land plant phylogeny--carries a group I type intron that is shared between liverworts and mosses. We here explored whether a group II intron, the other major type of organellar intron, would similarly be conserved in position across the entire diversity of extant liverworts and could be of use for phylogenetic analyses in this supposedly most ancient embryophyte clade. To this end, we investigated the nad4 gene as a candidate locus possibly featuring different introns in liverworts as opposed to the non-liverwort embryophyte (NLE) lineage. We indeed found group II intron nad4i548 universally conserved in a wide phylogenetic sampling of 55 liverwort taxa, confirming clade specificity and surprising evolutionary stability of plant mitochondrial introns. As expected, intron nad4i548g2 carries phylogenetic information in its variable sequences, which confirms and extends previous cladistic insights on liverwort evolution. We integrate the new nad4 data with those of the previously established mitochondrial nad5 and the chloroplast rbcL and rps4 genes and present a phylogeny based on the fused datasets. Notably, the phylogenetic analyses suggest a reconsideration of previous phylogenetic and taxonomic assignments for the genera Calycularia and Mylia and resolve a sister group relationship of Ptilidiales and Porellales. PMID:21973214

  18. Ancient Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  19. Tomato Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1) and Putative Orthologs Comprise an Ancient Family of Cutin Synthase-like (CUS) Proteins that are Conserved among Land Plants

    PubMed Central

    Yeats, Trevor H.; Huang, Wenlin; Chatterjee, Subhasish; Viart, Hélène M-F.; Clausen, Mads H.; Stark, Ruth E.; Rose, Jocelyn K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aerial epidermis of all land plants is covered with a hydrophobic cuticle that provides essential protection from desiccation, and so its evolution is believed to have been prerequisite for terrestrial colonization. A major structural component of apparently all plant cuticles is cutin, a polyester of hydroxy fatty acids. However, despite its ubiquity, the details of cutin polymeric structure and the mechanisms of its formation and remodeling are not well understood. We recently reported that cutin polymerization in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit occurs via transesterification of hydroxyacylglycerol precursors, catalyzed by the GDSL-motif lipase/hydrolase family protein (GDSL) Cutin Deficient 1 (CD1). Here we present additional biochemical characterization of CD1 and putative orthologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and the moss Physcomitrella patens, which represent a distinct clade of cutin synthases within the large GDSL super-family. We demonstrate that members of this ancient and conserved family of cutin synthase-like (CUS) proteins act as polyester synthases with negligible hydrolytic activity. Moreover, solution-state NMR analysis indicates that CD1 catalyzes the formation of primarily linear cutin oligomeric products in vitro. These results reveal a conserved mechanism of cutin polyester synthesis in land plants, and suggest that elaborations of the linear polymer, such as branching or cross-linking, may require additional, as yet unknown, factors. PMID:24372802

  20. Santa Barbara microwave backscattering model for woodlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.; Day, J.; Sun, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Santa Barbara microwave backscattering model for woodland vegetation with discontinuous tree canopies is described, with an emphasis on the construction of the model from probability-weighted sub-components. The modelling approach is to treat individual tree crowns as scatterers and attenuators, using the probabilities of scattering and attenuation to compute total backscatter. Four major model components are defined: surface backscattering, crown volume scattering, multi-path interactions between crown and ground, and double-bounce trunk-ground interactions. Each component is divided into subcomponents having distinct scattering and attenuation paths. The scattering of each subcomponent is computed and weighted by the probability of its occurrence. Total backscatter from a simulated woodland stand is computed by incoherent summation of the components. Recent revisions to the model have modified the subcomponent definitions and improved the probability formulation.

  1. Ancient Bedforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  2. GENERAL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS WOODLANDS AVENUE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW, MAIN ENTRANCE GATES, LOOKING SOUTH ACROSS WOODLANDS AVENUE. IN 1933, A CITY OF PHILADELPHIA LAND CONDEMNATION REQUIRED THE DEMOLITION OF AN EXISTING GATEWAY COMPLETED IN 1857 ON PLANS BY JOHN MCARTHUR, JR. PAUL CRET DESIGNED THE NEW GATES IN 1936. THEY WERE COMPLETED THE FOLLOWING YEAR AND MOVED TO THEIR PRESENT LOCATION IN 1948 AFTER ANOTHER CITY LAND CONDEMNATION. - Woodlands Cemetery, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  4. Are molecular and isotopic patterns in modern plants representative of ancient floras? Examples from Paleocene and Eocene floras and sediments in the Bighorn Basin (WY, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diefendorf, A. F.; Freeman, K. H.; Wing, S. L.; Currano, E. D.

    2011-12-01

    In modern ecosystems, climate, biome and plant community are important predictors of carbon isotope patterns recorded in leaves, leaf waxes, and leaf terpenoids. However, it is unclear if modern carbon isotope patterns are useful analogs in the past when climate and atmospheric CO2 conditions were drastically different than today. It is also uncertain if molecular carbon isotope approaches are more robust with respect to reconstructing patterns of atmospheric δ13C compared to bulk isotope approaches. To evaluate these questions, we present a study of carbon isotope values of bulk organic matter and biomarkers for terrestrial plants (di- and triterpenoids and n-alkanes) from the late Paleocene (62 MA) to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO; 52.6 MA) in the Bighorn Basin (WY, USA). We sampled along eight laterally extensive outcrops from the Fort Union and Willwood Formations. Each unit varies in exposure from tens of meters to eighteen kilometers. Sediment lithology includes carbonaceous mudstones, shales, and lignites with total organic carbon ranging from 0.2% to 55%. Climate during this interval, as determined from fossil leaf metrics, warmed from the cooler Paleocene (~10.5°C) to the hot Eocene (~22.2°C) with mean annual precipitation varying from 110 to 170 cm. We collected multiple samples across a laterally extensive outcrop to capture previously reported spatial variability in flora and depositional environment. Carbon isotopes of bulk organic matter, n-alkanes, and di- and triterpenoids (specific for conifers and angiosperms, respectively) were characterized. To determine if plant biomarker relationships from modern plants are applicable to ancient plants, we reconstructed carbon isotope fractionation during photosynthesis (Δleaf) from biomarker carbon isotope values (n-alkanes and terpenoids) and from δ13C values of atmospheric CO2 estimated from planktonic foraminifera. Reconstructed Δleaf values are consistent with predicted Δleaf values when

  5. As Long as it is Not My Land: Landowners and Oak Woodland Conservation in Spain and California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntsinger, L.; Oviedo, J. L.; Plieninger, T.

    2009-04-01

    In Spain and California, landowners have a crucial role to play in the conservation of oak woodlands. The value of environmental services from private oak woodlands used for extensive agriculture has drawn the attention of policymakers and conservationists, and policy strategies for maintenance of traditional extensive agriculture are emergent in both places. These strategies require landowner participation. Surveys of landowners in each place reveal similarities in management practices, goals, attitudes, and demographics, as well as some interesting points of divergence. Despite very different institutional and political contexts, landowner attitudes show some striking similarities. Both favor a degree of government protection of natural resources, but would prefer that this would not include regulation of activities on their own lands. With a relatively stable woodland ecologically, and a high rate of urban out-migration into woodland areas, the more visible initiatives in California today focus on landowner education, and tax relief for temporary or permanent restrictions on land conversion. Non-governmental organizations have taken an increasingly visible role in the brokering of purchased or donated land title restrictions for conservation. These programs have resulted in an apparent decline in oak harvest and some limitations on development, but have not often directly influenced regeneration or management on private lands. In contrast, with more stable patterns of population distribution and less stable woodland ecological dynamics, Spanish incentive programs approach regeneration and management issues more directly, with subsidies for oak planting and maintenance, and price advantages for the products of traditional agriculture. The results of a twenty-year longitudinal study in California show a shift towards an increasing focus on amenities by California oak woodland landowners, whether they are ranch owners with hundreds of hectares of woodland, or

  6. Vegetation community change in Atlantic oak woodlands along a nitrogen deposition gradient.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Kayla; Aherne, Julian

    2016-09-01

    Atlantic old sessile oak woodlands are of high conservation importance in Europe, listed in the European Union (EU) Habitats Directive Annex I, and known for their rich bryophyte communities. Their conservation status ranges from unfavourable to bad across their known distribution, which is predominantly within the UK and Ireland, but also extends into Iberia and Brittany. The objectives of this study were to determine if nitrogen (N) deposition, a known driver of terrestrial biodiversity loss, was a significant predictor of community composition in old sessile oak woodlands (i.e., EU Habitats Directive Annex I class: 91A0), and to identify significant changes in individual plant species and community-level abundance (i.e., change points) along an N deposition gradient. Relevé data from 260 Irish oak woodland plots were evaluated using Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Threshold Indicator Taxa ANalysis (TITAN). Nitrogen deposition accounted for 14% of the explainable variation in the dataset (inertia = 0.069, p < 0.005). A community scale change point of 13.2 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) was indicated by TITAN, which falls within the current recommended critical load (CL) range for acidophilous Quercus-dominated (oak) woodlands (10-15 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). The results suggest that the current CL is sufficient for maintaining a core group of indicator species in old sessile oak woodlands, but many nutrient sensitive species may disappear even at the CL range minimum. PMID:27244687

  7. Plant communities of Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Ronilee A.; Halvorson, William L.; Sawdo, Andell A.; Danielsen, Karen C.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the plant communities on Santa Rosa Island, Channel Islands National Park, was conducted from January through July 1988.  Vegetation data were collected at 296 sites using a releve technique.  The plant communities described include: grassland, coastal marsh, caliche scrub, coastal sage scrub, lupine scrub, baccharis scrub, coastal bluff scrub, coastal dune scrub, mixed chaparral, mixed woodland, torrey pine woodland, closed-cone pine woodland, island oak woodland, riparian woodland, and riparian herbaceous vegetation. The areal extent of each community was mapper on USGS 7.5' topographic maps, and digitized for GIS manipulation.

  8. Mortality and morbidity benefits of air pollution (SO2 and PM10) absorption attributable to woodland in Britain.

    PubMed

    Powe, Neil A; Willis, Kenneth G

    2004-02-01

    Forests in Britain produce social and environmental benefits, in addition to marketable timber outputs. One such non-market benefit is the reduction in air pollution, linked to health impacts (mortality and morbidity). This study assesses the benefits of SO2 and PM10 absorption by trees in terms of extending life expectancy of the population and reducing hospital admissions. Working at a resolution of 1 km2 with woodland over 2 ha, it is estimated that, for Britain as a whole, woodland saves between 5 and 7 deaths, that would otherwise have been brought forward, and between 4 and 6 hospital admissions each year. The economic value of the health effect of woodland is estimated to be at least 900,000 pounds Sterling per year. Smaller areas of woodland, often located closer to population, sometimes strategically planted close to pollution sources, will generate additional air pollution absorption benefits to those estimated here. Researching such benefits would require more detailed data than is available at present for a national study. However, the health benefits of woodland are relatively small in comparison to other non-market forestry benefits. PMID:15160738

  9. PARTITIONING OVERSTORY AND UNDERSTORY EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN A SEMIARID SAVANNA WOODLAND FROM THE ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF WATER VAPOR 1498

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The relative contributions of overstory and understory plant transpiration and soil evaporation to total evapotranspiration (ET) in a semiarid savanna woodland were determined from stable isotope measurements of atmospheric water vapor. The savanna overstory was dominated by the deeply rooted, wood...

  10. Photosynthetic Mechanisms and Paleoecology from Carbon Isotope Ratios in Ancient Specimens of C4 and CAM Plants.

    PubMed

    Troughton, J H; Wells, P V; Mooney, H A

    1974-08-16

    Carbon istotope ratios of modern, 10,000-year-old, and more than 40,000-year-old Atriplex confertifolia (C(4)) material from Nevada caves indicate that the C(4) photosynthetic pathway was operating in these plants over that period. Samples of a plant with crassulacean acid metabolism, Opuntia polyacantha, were also measured, and a shift in the 8(13)C value from -21.9 per mil (more than 40,000 years ago) to -13.9 per mil (10,000 years ago) was observed. This provides unique physiological evidence to support the hypothesis that the late Pleistocene pluvial climate in the region already had become drier about 10,000 years ago. PMID:17791235

  11. Groundlayer vegetation gradients across oak woodland canopy gaps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlovic, N.B.; Grundel, R.; Sluis, W.

    2006-01-01

    Frequency of groundlayer plants was measured across oak woodland canopy gaps at three sites in northwest Indiana to examine how vegetation varied with gap size, direction along the gap edge, and microhabitat. Microhabitats were defined as under the canopy adjacent to the gap, along the gap edge, and within the gap. Gap-sites consisted of gaps plus adjacent tree canopy. Gaps were classified as small (16 ± 1 m2), medium (97 ± 8), and large (310 ± 32). Neither richness nor diversity differed among microhabitats, gap sizes, or edges. Similarity between microhabitats wthin a gap-site increased as the distance between plots decreased and as the difference in PAR decreased, the latter explaining twice the variation in percent dissimilarity compared to Mg concentration, A horizon depth, and litter cover. Diervilla lonicera, Frageria virginiana, Helianthus divaricatus, Polygonatum pubescens, Quercus velutina, Smilacena stellata, and Tradescantia ohiensis decreased, whileTephrosia virginiana and legumes increased in frequency, from canopy to gap, and C4 grasses peaked at the gap edge, independent of gap size. Additional species frequency varied across the microhabitat gradient within specific sites. Sorghastrum nutans was three times more frequent in gaps at large sites than elsewhere. The vegetation in medium-sized gap-sites was more variable than within small and large gap-sites, suggesting greater environmental heterogeneity at that scale. Within gap-sites, vegetation was more heterogeneous within edges and canopies than in gaps. Edges were more similar in composition to gaps than to canopy groundlayer within gap-sites. Few species varied significantly in frequency around the gap edge. The oak woodland groundlayer on sandy substrates can be characterized as a mosaic of forb dominated vegetation that varies across light gradients associated with canopy gaps, transitioning to islands of grassland vegetation when gaps exceed 160 m2.

  12. Ecohydrologic relationships of two juniper woodlands with different precipitation regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.; Deboodt, T.; Fernald, A.; Ray, G.

    2015-12-01

    The significant expansion of juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands throughout the western U.S. during the last two centuries has disrupted important ecological functions and hydrologic processes. The relationships between water and vegetation distribution are highly impacted by the ongoing shift from shrub steppe and grassland to woodland-dominated landscapes. We investigated vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes occurring in two distinct juniper landscapes with different precipitation regimes in the Intermountain West region: A winter snow-dominated (Oregon) and a summer rain-dominated with some winter precipitation (New Mexico) landscape. Results from the Oregon site showed marginal differences (1-2%) in soil moisture in treated vs untreated watersheds throughout the dry and wet seasons. In general, soil moisture was greater in the treated watershed in both seasons. Canopy cover affected soil moisture over time. Perennial grass cover was positively correlated with changes in soil moisture, whereas juniper cover was negatively correlated with changes in soil moisture. Shallow groundwater response observed in upland and valley monitoring wells indicate there are temporary hydrologic connections between upland and valley locations during the winter precipitation season. Results from the New Mexico site provided valuable information regarding timing and intensity of monsoon-driven precipitation and the rainfall threshold (5 mm/15 min) that triggers runoff. Long-term vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes were evaluated based on pre- and post-juniper removal (70%) in three watersheds. In general, less runoff and greater forage response was observed in the treated watersheds. During rainfall events, soil moisture was less under juniper canopy compared with inter-canopy; this difference in soil moisture was intensified during high intensity, short duration rainstorms in the summer months. We found that winter snow precipitation helped recharge soil moisture

  13. SGR: an online genomic resource for the woodland strawberry

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Fragaria vesca, a diploid strawberry species commonly known as the alpine or woodland strawberry, is a versatile experimental plant system and an emerging model for the Rosaceae family. An ancestral F. vesca genome contributed to the genome of the octoploid dessert strawberry (F. ×ananassa), and the extant genome exhibits synteny with other commercially important members of the Rosaceae family such as apple and peach. To provide a molecular description of floral organ and fruit development at the resolution of specific tissues and cell types, RNAs from flowers and early developmental stage fruit tissues of the inbred F. vesca line YW5AF7 were extracted and the resulting cDNA libraries sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq2000. To enable easy access as well as mining of this two-dimensional (stage and tissue) transcriptome dataset, a web-based database, the Strawberry Genomic Resource (SGR), was developed. Description SGR is a web accessible database that contains sample description, sample statistics, gene annotation, and gene expression analysis. This information can be accessed publicly from a web-based interface at http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/strawberry/Default.aspx. The SGR website provides user friendly search and browse capabilities for all the data stored in the database. Users are able to search for genes using a gene ID or description or obtain differentially expressed genes by entering different comparison parameters. Search results can be downloaded in a tabular format compatible with Microsoft excel application. Aligned reads to individual genes and exon/intron structures are displayed using the genome browser, facilitating gene re-annotation by individual users. Conclusions The SGR database was developed to facilitate dissemination and data mining of extensive floral and fruit transcriptome data in the woodland strawberry. It enables users to mine the data in different ways to study different pathways or biological processes during

  14. Dissecting the molecular signatures of apical cell-type shoot meristems from two ancient land plant lineages.

    PubMed

    Frank, Margaret H; Edwards, Molly B; Schultz, Eric R; McKain, Michael R; Fei, Zhangjun; Sørensen, Iben; Rose, Jocelyn K C; Scanlon, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Shoot apical meristem (SAM) structure varies markedly within the land plants. The SAMs of many seedless vascular plants contain a conspicuous inverted, pyramidal cell called the apical cell (AC), which is unidentified in angiosperms. In this study, we use transcriptomic sequencing with precise laser microdissections of meristem subdomains to define the molecular signatures of anatomically distinct zones from the AC-type SAMs of a lycophyte (Selaginella moellendorffii) and a monilophyte (Equisetum arvense). The two model species for this study represent vascular plant lineages that diverged > 400 million yr ago. Our data comprise comprehensive molecular signatures for the distinct subdomains within AC-type SAMs, an anatomical anomaly whose functional significance has been debated in the botanical literature for over two centuries. Moreover, our data provide molecular support for distinct gene expression programs between the AC-type SAMs of Selaginella and Equisetum, as compared with the SAM transcriptome of the angiosperm maize. The results are discussed in light of the functional significance and evolutionary success of the AC-type SAM within the embryophytes. PMID:25900772

  15. The impact of Pleistocene climate change on an ancient arctic–alpine plant: multiple lineages of disparate history in Oxyria digyna

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Geraldine A; Marr, Kendrick L; McCormick, Laurie J; Hebda, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    The ranges of arctic–alpine species have shifted extensively with Pleistocene climate changes and glaciations. Using sequence data from the trnH-psbA and trnT-trnL chloroplast DNA spacer regions, we investigated the phylogeography of the widespread, ancient (>3 million years) arctic–alpine plant Oxyria digyna (Polygonaceae). We identified 45 haplotypes and six highly divergent major lineages; estimated ages of these lineages (time to most recent common ancestor, TMRCA) ranged from ∼0.5 to 2.5 million years. One lineage is widespread in the arctic, a second is restricted to the southern Rocky Mountains of the western United States, and a third was found only in the Himalayan and Altai regions of Asia. Three other lineages are widespread in western North America, where they overlap extensively. The high genetic diversity and the presence of divergent major cpDNA lineages within Oxyria digyna reflect its age and suggest that it was widespread during much of its history. The distributions of individual lineages indicate repeated spread of Oxyria digyna through North America over multiple glacial cycles. During the Last Glacial Maximum it persisted in multiple refugia in western North America, including Beringia, south of the continental ice, and within the northern limits of the Cordilleran ice sheet. Our data contribute to a growing body of evidence that arctic–alpine species have migrated from different source regions over multiple glacial cycles and that cryptic refugia contributed to persistence through the Last Glacial Maximum. PMID:22822441

  16. Woodland successional phase effects vegetation recovery after prescribed fire

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piñon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus L.) woodlands have expanded into big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Beetle) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Prescribed fire in post-settlement piñon-juniper woodlands has been increasingly employed to restore big...

  17. Firewood, food and human niche construction: the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively structuring Scotland's woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Rosie R.; Church, Mike J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades the potential role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers in actively constructing their own niches, through the management of wild plants, has frequently been discussed. It is probable that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers systematically exploited specific woodland resources for food and fuel and influenced the 'natural' abundance or distribution of particular species within Mesolithic environments. Though there has been considerable discussion of the pollen evidence for potential small-scale human-woodland manipulation in Mesolithic Scotland, the archaeobotanical evidence for anthropogenic firewood and food selection has not been discussed in this context. This paper assesses the evidence for the active role of Mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities in systematically exploiting and managing woodlands for food and fuel in Scotland. While taphonomic factors may have impacted on the frequency of specific species in archaeobotanical assemblages, it is suggested that hunter-gatherers in Mesolithic Scotland were systematically using woodland plants, and in particular hazel and oak, for food and fuel. It is argued that the pollen evidence for woodland management is equivocal, but hints at the role of hunter-gatherers in shaping the structure of their environments, through the maintenance or creation of woodland clearings for settlement or as part of vegetation management strategies. It is proposed that Mesolithic hunter-gatherers may have actively contributed to niche construction and that the systematic use of hazel and oak as a fuel may reflect the deliberate pruning of hazel trees to increase nut-yields and the inadvertent - or perhaps deliberate - coppicing of hazel and oak during greenwood collection.

  18. Revisiting the Zingiberales: using multiplexed exon capture to resolve ancient and recent phylogenetic splits in a charismatic plant lineage

    PubMed Central

    Iles, William J.D.; Barrett, Craig F.; Smith, Selena Y.; Specht, Chelsea D.

    2016-01-01

    The Zingiberales are an iconic order of monocotyledonous plants comprising eight families with distinctive and diverse floral morphologies and representing an important ecological element of tropical and subtropical forests. While the eight families are demonstrated to be monophyletic, phylogenetic relationships among these families remain unresolved. Neither combined morphological and molecular studies nor recent attempts to resolve family relationships using sequence data from whole plastomes has resulted in a well-supported, family-level phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships. Here we approach this challenge by leveraging the complete genome of one member of the order, Musa acuminata, together with transcriptome information from each of the other seven families to design a set of nuclear loci that can be enriched from highly divergent taxa with a single array-based capture of indexed genomic DNA. A total of 494 exons from 418 nuclear genes were captured for 53 ingroup taxa. The entire plastid genome was also captured for the same 53 taxa. Of the total genes captured, 308 nuclear and 68 plastid genes were used for phylogenetic estimation. The concatenated plastid and nuclear dataset supports the position of Musaceae as sister to the remaining seven families. Moreover, the combined dataset recovers known intra- and inter-family phylogenetic relationships with generally high bootstrap support. This is a flexible and cost effective method that gives the broader plant biology community a tool for generating phylogenomic scale sequence data in non-model systems at varying evolutionary depths. PMID:26819846

  19. Revisiting the Zingiberales: using multiplexed exon capture to resolve ancient and recent phylogenetic splits in a charismatic plant lineage.

    PubMed

    Sass, Chodon; Iles, William J D; Barrett, Craig F; Smith, Selena Y; Specht, Chelsea D

    2016-01-01

    The Zingiberales are an iconic order of monocotyledonous plants comprising eight families with distinctive and diverse floral morphologies and representing an important ecological element of tropical and subtropical forests. While the eight families are demonstrated to be monophyletic, phylogenetic relationships among these families remain unresolved. Neither combined morphological and molecular studies nor recent attempts to resolve family relationships using sequence data from whole plastomes has resulted in a well-supported, family-level phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships. Here we approach this challenge by leveraging the complete genome of one member of the order, Musa acuminata, together with transcriptome information from each of the other seven families to design a set of nuclear loci that can be enriched from highly divergent taxa with a single array-based capture of indexed genomic DNA. A total of 494 exons from 418 nuclear genes were captured for 53 ingroup taxa. The entire plastid genome was also captured for the same 53 taxa. Of the total genes captured, 308 nuclear and 68 plastid genes were used for phylogenetic estimation. The concatenated plastid and nuclear dataset supports the position of Musaceae as sister to the remaining seven families. Moreover, the combined dataset recovers known intra- and inter-family phylogenetic relationships with generally high bootstrap support. This is a flexible and cost effective method that gives the broader plant biology community a tool for generating phylogenomic scale sequence data in non-model systems at varying evolutionary depths. PMID:26819846

  20. Northern Seasonal Woodland Ponds: Distribution, Biota, and Ecological Linkages with the Surrounding Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batzer, D.; Palik, B.

    2005-05-01

    Seasonal woodland ponds are important landscape features across much of eastern and central North America. Learning more about the ecology of these habitats is a pressing need in the US because federal protections are being reduced. Further, the fates of these habitats are not being monitored because most are too small for inclusion in the National Wetland Inventory. In our northern Minnesota study area, the distribution of seasonal woodland ponds is strongly influenced by glacial landform, with most ponds being associated with ground or end moraines. The habitats support an abundance of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians; these organisms are well adapted for the variable environments existing in ponds and they posses a durability that makes them resistant to most natural variation in conditions. Because of the small size of seasonal woodland ponds, input of plant litter and migration of invertebrates from the surrounding forest into ponds is an important ecological link. However, because ponds support an autochthonous growth of wetland trees, the relationship between ponds and the forest differs from that between streams and forests. Like eastern streams, logging of forests around ponds is a concern, but impacts of peripheral logging on theses wetlands appear less dramatic than for streams.

  1. Relationships of pinon juniper woodland expansion and climate trends in the Walker Basin, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, Jonathon

    Landscapes are in constant flux. Vegetation distributions have changed in conjunction with climate, driven by factors such as Milankovitch cycles and atmospheric composition. Until recently, these changes have occurred gradually. Human populations are altering Earth's systems, including atmospheric composition and land use. This is altering vegetation distributions at landscape scales due to changes in species potential niche, as well as current and historical alteration of their realized niche. Vegetation shifts have the potential to be more pronounced in arid and mountainous environments as resources available to plants such as soil moisture are more limiting. In the Great Basin physiographic region of the western United States, woody encroachment of pinon juniper (Pinus monophylla & Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands is well known, but the drivers of its expansion are not well understood across elevational gradients. Predominant theories of future vegetation distribution change due to a changing climate, predict that montane species will move upslope in response to increasing temperatures. In pinon juniper woodlands, the focus has been on downslope movement of woodlands into other ecosystem types. The drivers for this are typically thought to be historical land uses such as grazing and fire exclusion. However, infilling and establishment is occurring throughout its distribution and relatively little attention has been paid to woodland movement uphill. This study focuses on two mountain ranges within the Walker Lake Basin, so as to understand changes occurring along the full gradient of pinon juniper woodlands, from lower to upper treeline, on both the western and eastern side of the ranges. The overall goal of this study was to understand trends of change (increasing, decreasing canopy density) in pinon juniper woodlands and determine if these trends were related to climate change trends. Trends in both vegetation and climate were analyzed for the entire

  2. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  3. 77 FR 33560 - Eastern Maine Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Woodland Rail, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Eastern Maine Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Woodland Rail, LLC Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated April 30, 2012, Woodland Rail, LLC (Woodland Rail.... The transaction includes a spur track between Woodland Junction, Me., which is engineering station...

  4. Macromoths of northwest forests and woodlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Jeffrey C.; Hammond, Paul C.

    2000-01-01

    The macromoths are a group of families within the order Lepidoptera. The macromoths in the woodlands and forests of the Pacific Northwest are represented by 1,200 species in 12 families: Arctiidae, Dioptidae, Drepanidae, Epiplemidae, Geometridae, Lasiocampidae, Lymantriidae, Noctuidae, Notodontidae, Saturniidae, Sphingidae, and Thyatiridae. In addition to the macromoths, the Lepidoptera are represented by the butterflies and skippers, and the micromoths. Butterflies possess a knob at the tip of the antennae while the tip of the antennae in skippers is typically hooked. The tip of the antennae in macromoths and micromoths is tapered. The differences between macromoths and micromoths is not literally based on size as the names suggest but rather in details of the female reproductive tract and wing venation. These details are discussed and illustrated in most texts on general entomology (Borror et al. 1989) and in books about Lepidoptera (Covell 1984).

  5. Eddy flux and leaf-level measurements of biogenic VOC emissions from mopane woodland of Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A.; Harley, P.; Otter, L.; Veenendaal, E. M.; Hewitt, C. N.; James, A. E.; Owen, S. M.

    2003-07-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions were measured in a mopane woodland near Maun, Botswana in January-February 2001 as part of SAFARI 2000. This landscape is comprised of more than 95% of one woody plant species, Colophospermum mopane (Caesalpinaceae). Mopane woodlands extend over a broad area of southern Africa. A leaf cuvette technique was used to determine the emission capacities of the major vegetation and the temperature and light dependence of the emissions. In addition, relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) measurements of BVOC fluxes were made on a flux tower, where net CO2 emissions were also measured simultaneously. Large light-dependent emissions of terpenes (mostly α-pinene and D-limonene) were observed from the mopane woodland. The diurnal BVOC emissions were integrated and compared with the CO2 flux. Monoterpene flux exceeded 3000 μg C m-2 h-1 during the daytime period, comparable to isoprene fluxes and much higher than terpene fluxes measured in most areas. The terpene flux constituted approximately 25% of the diurnal net carbon exchange (CO2) during the experimental period. Other BVOC emissions may also contribute to the carbon exchange.

  6. Living in Heterogeneous Woodlands – Are Habitat Continuity or Quality Drivers of Genetic Variability in a Flightless Ground Beetle?

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Tamar; Boch, Steffen; Durka, Walter; Fischer, Markus; Gossner, Martin M.; Müller, Jörg; Schöning, Ingo; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2015-01-01

    Although genetic diversity is one of the key components of biodiversity, its drivers are still not fully understood. While it is known that genetic diversity is affected both by environmental parameters as well as habitat history, these factors are not often tested together. Therefore, we analyzed 14 microsatellite loci in Abax parallelepipedus, a flightless, forest dwelling ground beetle, from 88 plots in two study regions in Germany. We modeled the effects of historical and environmental variables on allelic richness, and found for one of the regions, the Schorfheide-Chorin, a significant effect of the depth of the litter layer, which is a main component of habitat quality, and of the sampling effort, which serves as an inverse proxy for local population size. For the other region, the Schwäbische Alb, none of the potential drivers showed a significant effect on allelic richness. We conclude that the genetic diversity in our study species is being driven by current local population sizes via environmental variables and not by historical processes in the studied regions. This is also supported by lack of genetic differentiation between local populations sampled from ancient and from recent woodlands. We suggest that the potential effects of former fragmentation and recolonization processes have been mitigated by the large and stable local populations of Abax parallelepipedus in combination with the proximity of the ancient and recent woodlands in the studied landscapes. PMID:26641644

  7. Distribution of heavy metals in a woodland food web

    SciTech Connect

    Scharenberg, W.; Ebeling, E.

    1996-03-01

    Often investigations deal with the residue situation in contaminated areas and their effects on ecosystems, however, information are rare concerning relatively uncontaminated areas - so called {open_quotes}reference areas{close_quotes}. In such areas we can assume an insignificant influence of pollutants and we can measure the metal flux under relatively natural conditions. Since 1988 we have investigated the nutrient and energy flow as well as the metal flux in an area which is hardly influenced by anthropogenic activities besides some agro-chemical compounds. For example, the deposition and contamination of some plants is relatively low in comparison to other places in North Germany. Also the average of geological background concentrations of soil from Schleswig-Holstein are higher than soil concentrations from Bornhoeved. With this investigation we demonstrate the flux of metals through selected biotic compartments of a relatively uncontaminated woodland. Good indicators accumulating the non essential metals Cd and Pb are beetles and isopods. In contrast ground spiders, although predators, show only low metal concentrations. The essential metals Cu and Zn were relatively homogeneous in concentration in the animals. Zn showed the highest values and beetles seem to accumulate it.

  8. Woodland as working space: where is the restorative green idyll?

    PubMed

    Bingley, Amanda

    2013-08-01

    Much has been written on the beneficial, restorative qualities of 'natural' (non-built) rural or urban 'green' space, including woodland, in promoting mental and physical health when accessed for leisure, sport and education. In contrast, with the exception of rural health studies, there is relatively little debate about the health benefits of 'green space' as work place, especially in woodland and forests. In the developed world, this apparent gap in the literature may be partly due to an assumption of the forest work place as inherently healthy, and also the invisibility of a tiny percentage of the workforce now employed in forestry. However, in the UK and parts of Europe over recent years there has been a small, though significant, increase in opportunities to train and work in woodlands using traditional, sustainable management such as coppicing, and an exploration of health issues of woodland work is timely. This paper reports on findings from a secondary narrative analysis of oral history interviews selected from two phases of the Woodland Recollections Project and newsletters written by local people historically and currently engaged in coppicing and woodland work in North West England. Perceptions of healthy working in green space are examined by applying key concepts of Attention Restoration Theory (ART). Findings suggest that woodland work environments involve many counter-restorative factors that can render the 'green idyll' detrimental to health and wellbeing. To benefit from restorative elements requires drawing on a high level of specialist skills that empower individuals to manage and maintain healthy working practices in these diverse and challenging environments. PMID:23545063

  9. Auxin biosynthesis by the YUCCA6 flavin monooxygenase gene in woodland strawberry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong; Xie, Wei-Fa; Zhang, Ling; Valpuesta, Victoriano; Ye, Zheng-Wen; Gao, Qing-Hua; Duan, Ke

    2014-04-01

    Auxin has been regarded as the main signal molecule coordinating the growth and ripening of fruits in strawberry, the reference genomic system for Rosaceae. The mechanisms regulating auxin biosynthesis in strawberry are largely elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that two YUCCA genes are involved in flower and fruit development in cultivated strawberry. Here, we show that the woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca L.) genome harbors nine loci for YUCCA genes and eight of them encode functional proteins. Transcription pattern in different plant organs was different for all eight FvYUCs. Functionality of the FvYUC6 gene was studied in transgenic strawberry overexpressing FvYUC6, which showed typical high-auxin phenotypes. Overexpression of FvYUC6 also delayed flowering and led to complete male sterility in F. vesca. Additionally, specific repression of FvYUC6 expression by RNA interference significantly inhibited vegetative growth and reduced plant fertility. The development of leaves, roots, flowers, and fruits was greatly affected in FvYUC6-repressed plants. Expression of a subset of auxin-responsive genes was well correlated with the changes of FvYUC6 transcript levels and free indole-3-acetic acid levels in transgenic strawberry. These observations are consistent with an important role of FvYUC6 in auxin synthesis, and support a main role of the gene product in vegetative and reproductive development in woodland strawberry. PMID:24373096

  10. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  11. Studying Ancient History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  12. How resilient are African woodlands to disturbance from shifting cultivation?

    PubMed

    McNicol, Iain M; Ryan, Casey M; Williams, Mathew

    2015-12-01

    Large parts of sub-Saharan Africa are experiencing rapid changes in land use and land cover, driven largely by the expansion of small-scale shifting cultivation. This practice creates complex mosaic landscapes with active agricultural fields and patches of mature woodland, interspersed with remnant patches in various stages of regrowth. Our objective here was to examine the rate and extent to which carbon stocks in trees and soils recover after cultivation, and detail how this disturbance and regrowth affect patterns in tree species composition and diversity over 40 years of succession in a miombo woodland landscape in southeast Tanzania. We sampled 67 areas, including plots previously cleared for cultivation, active fields, and mature woodlands for reference purposes. Sites were further stratified by soil texture to test for associated effects. Tree carbon stocks accumulated at an average rate of 0.83 ± 0.10 Mg C x ha(-1) x yr(-1), with soil texture having no clear impact on accumulation rates. Bulk soil carbon stocks on both soil types appeared unaffected by both the initial land clearance and the subsequent regrowth, which resulted in no significant changes over time. Tree species diversity in regrowing plots developed rapidly and within -10 years was equivalent to that of mature woodland. Many of the species found in mature woodlands reappeared relatively quickly after abandonment, although species composition is expected to take considerably longer to recover, with at least 60-80 years required for the compositional similarity between regrowing and mature woodlands to reach levels similar to that among nearby mature woodlands. Through impacts on β-diversity, disturbance was also found to increase the total number of tree species present in the landscape, with many of the recorded species only found in regrowing woodlands. Our results are of relevance to carbon sequestration projects by helping to inform the potential future carbon and biodiversity benefits

  13. Soil Respiration and Organic Carbon Dynamics with Grassland Conversions to Woodlands in Temperate China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Chen, Weile; Zeng, Hui; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007–Dec. 2008) from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR), shrubland (SH), as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC), deciduous coniferous (DC) and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB), to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China. PMID:24058408

  14. Soil respiration and organic carbon dynamics with grassland conversions to woodlands in temperate china.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zeng, Wenjing; Chen, Weile; Zeng, Hui; Fang, Jingyun

    2013-01-01

    Soils are the largest terrestrial carbon store and soil respiration is the second-largest flux in ecosystem carbon cycling. Across China's temperate region, climatic changes and human activities have frequently caused the transformation of grasslands to woodlands. However, the effect of this transition on soil respiration and soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics remains uncertain in this area. In this study, we measured in situ soil respiration and SOC storage over a two-year period (Jan. 2007-Dec. 2008) from five characteristic vegetation types in a forest-steppe ecotone of temperate China, including grassland (GR), shrubland (SH), as well as in evergreen coniferous (EC), deciduous coniferous (DC) and deciduous broadleaved forest (DB), to evaluate the changes of soil respiration and SOC storage with grassland conversions to diverse types of woodlands. Annual soil respiration increased by 3%, 6%, 14%, and 22% after the conversion from GR to EC, SH, DC, and DB, respectively. The variation in soil respiration among different vegetation types could be well explained by SOC and soil total nitrogen content. Despite higher soil respiration in woodlands, SOC storage and residence time increased in the upper 20 cm of soil. Our results suggest that the differences in soil environmental conditions, especially soil substrate availability, influenced the level of annual soil respiration produced by different vegetation types. Moreover, shifts from grassland to woody plant dominance resulted in increased SOC storage. Given the widespread increase in woody plant abundance caused by climate change and large-scale afforestation programs, the soils are expected to accumulate and store increased amounts of organic carbon in temperate areas of China. PMID:24058408

  15. Stop and smell the flowers: Herbaceous understory significantly contributes to woodland carbon and water fluxes in a semi-arid ecosystem 2025

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Changes in vegetation structure in pulse-driven, water-limited systems can have important and non-linear affects on ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling. Conversion of grasslands to woodlands in these systems through woody plant encroachment also results in greater patch heterogeneity, and ...

  16. Nest survival of clay-colored and vesper sparrows in relation to woodland edge in mixed-grass prairies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, T.A.; Madden, E.M.; Shaffer, T.L.; Pietz, P.J.; Berkey, G.B.; Kadrmas, N.J.

    2006-01-01

    The quantity and quality of northern mixed-grass prairie continues to decline because of conversion to agriculture, invasion of woody and exotic plants, and disruption of important ecological processes that shape grasslands. Declines in grassland bird populations in North Dakota, USA, have coincided with these largely anthropogenic alterations to prairie habitat. In grasslands of north-central and northwestern North Dakota, woody plants have increased due primarily to fire suppression, extirpation of bison (Bos bison), and widescale planting of tree shelter belts. In northern grasslands, effects of woody vegetation on survival of grassland birds are poorly understood, and conclusions are based mainly on studies conducted outside the region. We examined nest survival of clay-colored sparrows (Spizella pallida) and vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus) relative to the distance nests were located from aspen (Populus tremuloides,) woodland edges and relative to other habitat features near the nest. Clay-colored and vesper sparrow nest survival was higher for nests located near woodland edges, nests with greater cover of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis), and nests more concealed by vegetation. Vesper sparrow nest survival increased as the percent cover of tall shrubs near the nest increased. Based on video-camera data, the 13-lined ground squirrel (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus,) was the most common predator of sparrow eggs and young. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were more common far from woodland edges than near, and this pattern may, in part, explain clay-colored and vesper sparrow nest survival in relation to woodland edges. In contrast to our results, studies conducted in other grassland systems generally report lower nest survival for grassland birds nesting near trees and shrubs. This disparity in results demonstrates the need to identify specific nest predators and their distributions with respect to important habitat features because these data can be

  17. Are the long-term effects of mesobrowsers on woodland dynamics substitutive or additive to those of elephants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kane, Christopher A. J.; Duffy, Kevin J.; Page, Bruce R.; Macdonald, David W.

    2011-09-01

    The large spectrum of existing literature on browser-woodland dynamics, both from savanna and temperate biomes, converges towards concluding that all browsers importantly impact woody plants. In this context a crucial question in the current debate about reintroducing elephant culling, is whether the long-term effects of elephants and mesobrowsers are similar. If the two groups impact the same woody species in the same habitats, sufficiently high biomass-densities of mesobrowsers may, following removal of elephants, continue to heavily impact earlier life-history stages of the same suite of woody plants that elephant impacted, preventing these species from maturing. Thus, as existing mature trees die from natural causes and fade from the system, a similar end-point for woodland structure and composition is achieved. We reviewed 49 years of literature on the savanna browser guild, performing a meta-analysis on the disparate data on the guild's woody plant species use (3677 records) and habitat use (894 records). Mesobrowsers' and elephants' extensive overlap in habitat use and staple woody species diet, together with evidence of their influencing each others' abundance and of their dietary separation increasing with resource depletion, implies that the two groups impact the same core woody species in the same habitats. It therefore seems probable that high biomass-density mesobrowsers may have a long-term substitutive effect to that of elephant on woodland dynamics. Consequently management wanting a particular state of savanna woodland, should consider the biomass-density of both groups, rather than just focus on the system's perceived keystone species. Such principles may also apply to temperate and other systems.

  18. Rooting patterns in the pinyon-juniper woodland

    SciTech Connect

    Foxx, T.S.; Tierney, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    An extensive bibliographical study documenting rooting patterns of native and introduced plants of the Western United States resulted in a computerized data base of over 1000 different rooting depth citations. From that data base, average rooting depths and frequencies were determined as related to species, habit, soil type, geographic region, root type, family, root depth to shoot height ratios, and root depth to root lateral ratios. Annual grasses were found to root within 1 m of the soil surface. Median rooting depth of other life forms was 2.0 m with a maximum rooting depth of 61 m. The various life forms had the following median and maximum rooting depths: annual forbs (median of 0.6 m, maximum of 3.0 m), biennial forms (0.8 m, 1.5 m), perennial grasses (1.1 m, 8.2 m), perennial forbs (1.1 m, 39.0 m), subshrubs and vines (1.2 m, 6.4 m), shrubs (2 m, 17.0 m), and trees (1.6 m, 61 m). In addition to the bibliographic study, 21 species common to the pinyon-juniper woodland were excavated from soils derived from volcanic tuff in Northern New Mexico. Rooting patterns and gross morphology were examined. Perennial forbs and grasses occurred within the first 30 cm of the soil surface. Roots of the overstory trees were traced to depths of 6 m and roots of shrubs to depths of 1.8 to 2.6 m. 29 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Ancient DNA from the Schild site in Illinois: Implications for the Mississippian transition in the Lower Illinois River Valley.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Austin W; Raff, Jennifer A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Cook, Della C; Kaestle, Frederika A

    2015-03-01

    Archaeologists have long debated whether rapid cultural change in the archaeological record is due to in situ developments, migration of a new group into the region, or the spread of new cultural practices into an area through existing social networks, with the local peoples adopting and adapting practices from elsewhere as they see fit (acculturation). Researchers have suggested each of these explanations for the major cultural transition that occurred at the beginning of the Mississippian period (AD 1050) across eastern North America. In this study, we used ancient DNA to test competing hypotheses of migration and acculturation for the culture change that occurred between the Late Woodland (AD 400-1050) and Mississippian (AD 1050-1500) periods in the Lower Illinois River Valley. We obtained sequences of the first hypervariable segment of the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) from 39 individuals (17 Late Woodland, 22 Mississippian) interred in the Schild cemetery in western Illinois, and compared these lineages to ancient mtDNA lineages present at other sites in the region. Computer simulations were used to test a null hypothesis of population continuity from Late Woodland to Mississippian times at the Schild site and to investigate the possibility of gene flow from elsewhere in the region. Our results suggest that the Late Woodland to Mississippian cultural transition at Schild was not due to an influx of people from elsewhere. Instead, it is more likely that the transition to Mississippian cultural practices at this site was due to a process of acculturation. PMID:25418693

  20. Seasonal burning of juniper woodlands and spatial recovery of herbaceous vegetation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The decrease in fire activity has been recognized as a main cause of expansion and infilling of North American woodlands. Piñon-juniper (Pinus-Juniperus L.) woodlands in the western United States have expanded in area 2 to 10-fold since the late 1800’s. Woodland control measures using chainsaws, hea...

  1. Quantifying Grassland-to-Woodland Transitions and the Implications for Carbon and Nitrogen Dynamics in the Southwest United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wessman, Carol A.; Archer, Steven R.; Asner, Gregory P.; Bateson, C. Ann

    2004-01-01

    Replacement of grasslands and savannas by shrublands and woodlands has been widely reported in tropical, temperate and high-latitude rangelands worldwide (Archer 1994). These changes in vegetation structure may reflect historical shifts in climate and land use; and are likely to influence biodiversity, productivity, above- and below ground carbon and nitrogen sequestration and biophysical aspects of land surface-atmosphere interactions. The goal of our proposed research is to investigate how changes in the relative abundance of herbaceous and woody vegetation affect carbon and nitrogen dynamics across heterogeneous savannas and shrub/woodlands. By linking actual land-cover composition (derived through spectral mixture analysis of AVIRIS, TM, and AVHRR imagery) with a process-based ecosystem model, we will generate explicit predictions of the C and N storage in plants and soils resulting from changes in vegetation structure. Our specific objectives will be to (1) continue development and test applications of spectral mixture analysis across grassland-to-woodland transitions; (2) quantify temporal changes in plant and soil C and N storage and turnover for remote sensing and process model parameterization and verification; and (3) couple landscape fraction maps to an ecosystem simulation model to observe biogeochemical dynamics under changing landscape structure and climatological forcings.

  2. Beyond cool: adapting upland streams for climate change using riparian woodlands.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephen M; Griffiths, Siân W; Ormerod, Steve J

    2016-01-01

    Managed adaptation could reduce the risks of climate change to the world's ecosystems, but there have been surprisingly few practical evaluations of the options available. For example, riparian woodland is advocated widely as shade to reduce warming in temperate streams, but few studies have considered collateral effects on species composition or ecosystem functions. Here, we use cross-sectional analyses at two scales (region and within streams) to investigate whether four types of riparian management, including those proposed to reduce potential climate change impacts, might also affect the composition, functional character, dynamics and energetic resourcing of macroinvertebrates in upland Welsh streams (UK). Riparian land use across the region had only small effects on invertebrate taxonomic composition, while stable isotope data showed how energetic resources assimilated by macroinvertebrates in all functional guilds were split roughly 50:50 between terrestrial and aquatic origins irrespective of riparian management. Nevertheless, streams draining the most extensive deciduous woodland had the greatest stocks of coarse particulate matter (CPOM) and greater numbers of 'shredding' detritivores. Stream-scale investigations showed that macroinvertebrate biomass in deciduous woodland streams was around twice that in moorland streams, and lowest of all in streams draining non-native conifers. The unexpected absence of contrasting terrestrial signals in the isotopic data implies that factors other than local land use affect the relative incorporation of allochthonous subsidies into riverine food webs. Nevertheless, our results reveal how planting deciduous riparian trees along temperate headwaters as an adaptation to climate change can modify macroinvertebrate function, increase biomass and potentially enhance resilience by increasing basal resources where cover is extensive (>60 m riparian width). We advocate greater urgency in efforts to understand the ecosystem

  3. Ancient dirt DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willerslev, E.

    2007-12-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole genomic studies of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of these processes and the effects of damage on ancient DNA templates has started to provide a more robust basis for research. Recent methodological advances have included the discoveries of DNA preserved in ancient sediments, coprolites, and fossil ice (Ancient Dirt DNA). These findings promise to make possible the reconstructions of entire ecosystems through time and allow for studies of past population genetics in cases where fossils are rare. The advantages and pitfalls connected to the Ancient Dirt DNA approach will be discussed as will recently obtained data relating to Greenland environmental history, long-term bacterial survival and the first human migration into the Americas.

  4. Historic Carbon Isotopic Shifts in Pinyon Pines and Woodland Junipers are Unprecedented During the Quaternary History of These Taxa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Water, P. K.; Leavitt, S. W.; Betancourt, J. L.

    2003-12-01

    Packrat (Neotoma) midden macrofossil records from arid and semiarid western North America provide evidence that pinyon pines and woodland junipers have grown together for at least the past 50,000 radiocarbon years. The midden records show that this association was sustained despite large-scale changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations over the past 50 millenia. Reconstruction of physiological parameters, using 13C analysis of a select sample of pinyon pine and juniper macrofossils from radiocarbon-dated ancient packrat middens, shows distinct physical responses to these changes despite a offset between the carbon isotopic values of the two genera, with pinyon pines having consistently lower 13C values than junipers. Remarkably, analysis of historic (from herbarium sheets) and present-day (from field collections) materials from northern Arizona and the Four-Corners region indicates that the long-term offset between the carbon isotopic values of pinyon pines and woodland junipers has inverted; with the junipers now providing isotopically lighter values than the pinyon pines. This reversal began in the late 1800's to early 1900's and has widened over the past century. The inverted isotopic offsets in the historic period may be due to the unprecedented levels of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the atmosphere.

  5. Hydrologic response to mechanical shredding in a juniper woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodland expansion in the western United States is thought to result in increased catastrophic wildfires throughout its range and has prompted land managers to search for effective fuel control methods. Recently, mechanical shredding (Bull Hog ®) has been used to reduce juni...

  6. Hydrologic response of mechanical mastication in juniper woodland in Utah

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various vegetation control methods have been used to reduce juniper (Juniperus ssp.) woodland encroachment. Mechanical mastication (reducing trees to a mulch residue) has recently been used in some western states. We investigated the hydrologic impacts of rubber tire tracks from the masticating vehi...

  7. Teacher-in-Residence at the Woodland Park Zoo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gantert, Robert L.

    1977-01-01

    Described is a field trip program to the Woodland Park Zoological Gardens, Seattle, Washington, which includes an indoor lecture-discussion and tours of the zoological facility led by docents. An educational survey revealed that fourth graders asked the greatest number of logical animal biology questions and had the highest interest in reading…

  8. Comparative habitat use in a juniper woodland bird community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlacky, D.C., Jr.; Anderson, S.H.

    2004-01-01

    We compared vegetation structure used by 14 bird species during the 1998 and 1999 breeding seasons to determine what habitat features best accounted for habitat division and community organization in Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands of southwestern Wyoming. Habitat use was quantified by measuring 24 habitat variables in 461 bird-centered quadrats, each 0.04 ha in size. Using discriminant function analysis, we differentiated between habitat used by 14 bird species along 3 habitat dimensions: (1) variation in shrub cover, overstory juniper cover, mature tree density, understory height, and decadent tree density; (2) a gradient composed of elevation and forb cover; and (3) variation in grass cover, tree height, seedling/sapling cover, and bare ground/rock cover. Of 14 species considered, 9 exhibited substantial habitat partitioning: Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura), Bewick's Wren (Thryomanes bewickii), Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila caerulea), Mountain Bluebird (Sialia currucoides), Plumbeous Vireo (Vireo plumbeus), Green-tailed Towhee (Pipilo chlorurus), Brewer's Sparrow (Spizella breweri), Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis), and Cassin's Finch (Carpodacus cassinii). Our results indicate juniper bird communities of southwestern Wyoming are organized along a 3-dimensional habitat gradient composed of woodland maturity, elevation, and juniper recruitment. Because juniper birds partition habitat along successional and altitudinal gradients, indiscriminate woodland clearing as well as continued fire suppression will alter species composition. Restoration efforts should ensure that all successional stages of juniper woodland are present on the landscape.

  9. Woodland Adventure for Marginalized Adolescents: Environmental Attitudes, Identity and Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinds, Joe

    2011-01-01

    The present study was concerned with the effects of a residential woodland education program, incorporating both educational and adventure elements, on proenvironmental attitudes and aspects of well-being. Specifically, adolescent participants (N = 25) from a broad range of backgrounds, including some with challenging behavioral characteristics,…

  10. 77 FR 38475 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Woodland, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... amend controlled airspace at Woodland, CA (77 FR 23172). Interested parties were invited to participate... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does.... 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation by reference in...

  11. Scott river riparian woodland revegetation demonstration project, FY 1994. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jopson, T.M.

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate techniques that could lead to the successful restoration of riparian woodland along the Scott River and elsewhere at a reasonable cost. Three sites were selected for the projects on the basis of need for restoration (i.e. the lack of vegetation), the applicability of the site as a demonstration area (how typical of other areas it was), exclusionary fencing, and the willingness of the landowner to participate. Three woody plant species, black cottonwood (Populus nigra), willow (Salix sp.) and Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) were chosen for planting on the site. These species were known to occur naturally in the riparian zone of the river, were relatively easy to grow in the available time, would produce a variety of habitats when mature, and would grow tall enough to provide shade for the water.

  12. Emissions from Miombo Woodland and Dambo Grassland Savanna Fires

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Parikhit; Hobbs, Peter V.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Blake, Donald R.; Gao, Song; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne measurements of trace gases and particles over and downwind of two prescribed savanna fires in Zambia are described. The measurements include profiles through the smoke plumes of condensation nucleus concentrations and normalized excess mixing ratios of particles and gases, emission factors for 42 trace gases and seven particulate species, and vertical profiles of ambient conditions. The fires were ignited in plots of miombo woodland savanna, the most prevalent savanna type in southern Africa, and dambo grassland savanna, an important enclave of miombo woodland ecosystems. Emission factors for the two fires are combined with measurements of fuel loading, combustion factors, and burned area (derived from satellite burn scar retrievals) to estimate the emissions of trace gases and particles from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia and southern Africa during the dry season (May-October) of 2000. It is estimated that the emissions of CO2, CO, total hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides (NOx as NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde, methyl bromide, total particulate matter, and black carbon from woodland and grassland savanna fires during the dry season of 2000 in southern Africa contributed 12.3%, 12.6%, 5.9%, 10.3%, 7.5%, 24.2%, 2.8%, 17.5%, and 11.1%, respectively, of the average annual emissions from all types of savanna fires worldwide. In 2000 the average annual emissions of methane, ethane, ethene, acetylene, propene, formaldehyde, methanol, and acetic acid from the use of biofuels in Zambia were comparable to or exceeded dry season emissions of these species from woodland and grassland savanna fires in Zambia.

  13. 77 FR 33560 - Woodland Rail, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Line of Maine Central Railroad Co.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... Surface Transportation Board Woodland Rail, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Line of Maine Central Railroad Co. Woodland Rail, LLC (Woodland Rail), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of..., Canada. As Woodland Rail acknowledges in its notice, the jurisdiction of the Board only extends to...

  14. Runoff and erosion in a pinon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation patches

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, K.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.; MacDonald, L.

    1999-12-01

    In many semiarid regions, runoff and erosion differ according to vegetation patch type. These differences, although hypothesized to fundamentally affect ecological processes, have been poorly quantified. In a semiarid pinion-juniper woodland [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] in northern New Mexico, the authors measured runoff and erosion from the three patch types that compose these woodlands: Canopy patches (those beneath woody plants), vegetated patched in intercanopy areas, and bare patches in intercanopy areas. The bare intercanopy patches exhibited the highest rates, followed by vegetated intercanopy patches and then by canopy patches. Large convective summer storms, though relatively infrequent, generated much of the runoff and most of the sediment; prolonged frontal storms were capable of generating considerable runoff but little sediment. A portion of the runoff and most of the sediment generated from bare intercanopy patches was redistributed down-slope, probably to adjacent vegetated intercanopy patches, demonstrating connectivity between these two patch types. Their results indicate that there are significant and important differences in runoff and sediment production from the three patch types; that bare intercanopy patches act as sources of both water and sediment for the vegetated intercanopy patches; and that the transfer of water and sediment at small scales is both frequent enough and substantial enough to be considered ecologically significant.

  15. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.P. . Dept. of Geography)

    1993-09-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. Correlation analysis showed that TM Band 4 (near infrared) accounted for 78% of the variability in percent trees (r=[minus] 0.88). In multiple regression, percent trees, total soil loss, and percent total nonliving cover together accounted for nearly 70% of the variability in TM Bands 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. A number of hypotheses have been advanced to explain the apparent accelerated rate of pinyon-juniper spread in the western United States. These include removal of natural plant competition by livestock overgrazing, reduction of wildfires, climatic change, and reinvasion of sites cleared of trees by 19th century settlers.

  16. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. PMID:16380966

  17. Biomass Potentials in Different Maintenance Scenarios of Satoyama Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, T.

    2012-04-01

    Woodlands near human settlements often have long histories of providing people with fuelwood and other organic materials. In Japan, these woodlands are called satoyama. While satoyama woodlands were historically coppiced to provide an essential source of fuelwood, many have been developed into residential areas as a result of the introduction of fossil fuels beginning in the 1960's. Remaining satoyamas were simply abandoned due to the loss of economic value from fuelwood. This has resulted in a loss of other satoyama-related functions such as their ecological function. In response to the abandonment of satoyamas, thousands of volunteer groups have formed since the 1990's to restore satoyama woodlands. However, in spite of the importance of grassroots volunteers, their actual activities are limited in spatial extent due to shortages of manpower, time, and maintenance skill. This suggests that more substantial incentives are necessary, if maintenance of satoyama woodlands is to be extended. This study focused on an increased attention of biomass enegy utilization from satoyama trees as a promising incentive, and estimated biomass potentials in different maintenance scenarios of satoyama woodlands through a case study site in peri-urban Tokyo. This study set four maintenance scenarios; a) ground cover removal, b) light-thinning, c) intensive-thinning, and d) rotational coppicing. Based on the scenarios, the amount of biomass obtained, bioenergy generated, and carbon reduced were estimated respectively by the combination of conducting tree measurement and applying a long-term forest dynamics estimation model. Since there is tradeoff between CO2 reduction through woodenergy utilization and CO2 fixation by standing trees, these two variables were analyzed in tandem. The scenario that produces the most woody biomass was rotational coppicing, the maintenance scenario which also mimics historical management regimes. Despite the lowest potential of CO2 fixation by standing

  18. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    PubMed

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  19. Ancient Chinese constellations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Junjun

    2011-06-01

    China, a country with a long history and a specific culture, has also a long and specific astronomy. Ancient Chinese astronomers observed the stars, named and distributed them into constellations in a very specific way, which is quite different from the current one. Around the Zodiac, stars are divided into four big regions corresponding with the four orientations, and each is related to a totem, either the Azure Dragon, the Vermilion Bird, the White Tiger or the Murky Warrior. We present a general pattern of the ancient Chinese constellations, including the four totems, their stars and their names.

  20. Effects of Cattle Management on Oak Regeneration in Northern Californian Mediterranean Oak Woodlands

    PubMed Central

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n = 4) and only with wildlife (n = 4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

  1. Effects of cattle management on oak regeneration in northern Californian Mediterranean oak woodlands.

    PubMed

    López-Sánchez, Aida; Schroeder, John; Roig, Sonia; Sobral, Mar; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2014-01-01

    Oak woodlands of Mediterranean ecosystems, a major component of biodiversity hotspots in Europe and North America, have undergone significant land-use change in recent centuries, including an increase in grazing intensity due to the widespread presence of cattle. Simultaneously, a decrease in oak regeneration has been observed, suggesting a link between cattle grazing intensity and limited oak regeneration. In this study we examined the effect of cattle grazing on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Née) regeneration in San Francisco Bay Area, California. We studied seedling, sapling and adult density of coast live oak as well as vertebrate herbivory at 8 independent sites under two grazing conditions: with cattle and wildlife presence (n = 4) and only with wildlife (n = 4). The specific questions we addressed are: i) to what extent cattle management practices affect oak density, and ii) what is the effect of rangeland management on herbivory and size of young oak plants. In areas with cattle present, we found a 50% reduction in young oak density, and plant size was smaller, suggesting that survival and growth young plants in those areas are significantly limited. In addition, the presence of cattle raised the probability and intensity of herbivory (a 1.5 and 1.8-fold difference, respectively). These results strongly suggest that the presence of cattle significantly reduced the success of young Q. agrifolia through elevated herbivory. Given the potential impact of reduced recruitment on adult populations, modifying rangeland management practices to reduce cattle grazing pressure seems to be an important intervention to maintain Mediterranean oak woodlands. PMID:25126939

  2. Land-use history, historical connectivity, and land management interact to determine longleaf pine woodland understory richness and composition.

    SciTech Connect

    Brudvig, Lars A.; Damschen, Ellen L.

    2010-08-13

    Restoration and management activities targeted at recovering biodiversity can lead to unexpected results. In part, this is due to a lack of understanding of how site-level characteristics, landscape factors, and land-use history interact with restoration and management practices to determine patterns of diversity. For plants, such factors may be particularly important since plant populations often exhibit lagged responses to habitat loss and degradation. Here, we assess the importance of site-level, landscape, and historical effects for understory plant species richness and composition across a set of 40 longleaf pine Pinus palustris woodlands undergoing restoration for the federally endangered red-cockaded woodpecker in the southeastern United States. Land-use history had an overarching effect on richness and composition. Relative to historically forested sites, sites with agricultural histories (i.e. former pastures or cultivated fields) supported lower species richness and an altered species composition due to fewer upland longleaf pine woodland community members. Landscape effects did not influence the total number of species in either historically forested or post-agricultural sites; however, understory species composition was affected by historical connectivity, but only for post-agricultural sites. The influences of management and restoration activities were only apparent once land-use history was accounted for. Prescribed burning and mechanical overstory thinning were key drivers of understory composition and promoted understory richness in post-agricultural sites. In historically forested sites these activities had no impact on richness and only prescribed fire influenced composition. Our findings reveal complex interplays between site-level, landscape, and historical effects, suggest fundamentally different controls over plant communities in longleaf pine woodlands with varying land-use history, and underscore the importance of considering land

  3. Hydrologic Vulnerability of Western US Rangelands in the Wake of Woodland Encroachment and Increasing Wildfire Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Al-Hamdan, O. Z.; Kormos, P. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have dramatically increased their range in the past 150 years and currently occupy more than 30 million ha of the western US. Range expansion has primarily occurred through encroachment into sagebrush rangelands. Woodland expansion and infill on western rangelands have altered the ecological structure and function of these ecosystems and have made much of the western US prone to large severe wildfires. Early-succession woodlands are now burning in large, high-severity wildfires due to heavy woody-fuel loading and extensive horizontal-to-vertical fuel connectivity. Tree infill on late-succession woodlands coupled with extreme fire weather has increased the occurrence of large, high-severity woodland fires in recent decades. We investigated the effects of woodland encroachment and burning on hydrologic vulnerability at multiple woodlands and at a sagebrush rangeland in the early stages of woodland encroachment. Artificial rainfall and overland flow simulations were paired with vegetation and soil measures to evaluate ecohydrologic ramifications of woodland encroachment and burning at multiple spatial scales and over time. Our results provide insight into the ecohydrologic consequences of landscape-scale conversion of sagebrush rangelands to woodlands and the effects of increasing wildfire across this domain in the western US.

  4. Woodland biodiversity management as a tool for reducing human exposure to Ixodes ricinus ticks: a preliminary study in an english woodland.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Shuttleworth, H; Copley, V; Hansford, K M; Leach, S

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents preliminary findings towards developing a UK-specific approach to reducing public exposure to woodland questing Ixodes ricinus tick populations by harnessing existing biodiversity-enhancing woodland ride (i.e., linear non-wooded herbaceous habitat either side of track within woodland) management strategies. This preliminary study in an English woodland firstly assesses whether ecological and environmental factors determine presence and density of questing Ixodes ricinus along woodland rides. Secondly, it sets these findings in the context of woodland ride management guidelines in England in order to understand what impact ride management strategies might have on numbers of questing ticks and tick survival. Nymph and adult I. ricinus presence and abundance were modelled in relation to relevant microclimate and ecological parameter variables. Predictor variables for increased questing nymph abundance included ride orientation, mat depth, occurrence of bracken/bramble and animal tracks, ride/path width, and sward height. Ticks thrive in the ecotonal habitat of a woodland ride, therefore we urge woodland managers to consider the impact of their ride management on ticks and human exposure to ticks. Possible recommendations for mitigating questing I. ricinus in line with biodiversity management guidelines rides are discussed in this paper and include seasonal mowing regimes, management of mulch/mat, and bracken/bramble management through use of scalloped ride edges. PMID:23181853

  5. Kashaya Pomo Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Jennie; And Others

    The monograph describes more than 200 plants growing within the approximately 300 square miles of the original land of the Kashaya Pomo Indians, which lies along the coast of Sonoma County, California. An introduction provides information on the plant communities represented (redwood forest, mixed evergreen forest, oak woodland, Douglas fir…

  6. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  7. Beijing Ancient Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yunli

    The Beijing Ancient Observatory is now the only complete example of an observatory from the seventeenth century in the world. It is a monument to the prosperity of astronomy in traditional China. Its instruments are emblems of the encounter and amalgamation of Chinese and European Science in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.

  8. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  9. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  10. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  11. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  12. Woodland Survey of Great Britain 1971-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, C. M.; Smart, S. M.; Bunce, R. G. H.

    2015-08-01

    The Woodland Survey of Great Britain is a unique data set, consisting of a detailed range of ecological measurements at a national scale, covering a time span of 30 years. A set of 103 woods spread across Britain were first surveyed in 1971, which were again surveyed in 2000-2003 (for convenience referred to subsequently as the "2001 survey"). Standardised methods of describing the trees, shrubs, ground flora, soils and general habitats present were used for both sets of surveys. The sample of 1648 plots spread through 103 woodland sites located across Britain makes it probably the most extensive quantitative ecological woodland survey undertaken in Britain; it is also notable for the range of sites that have been revisited after such a long interval. The data set provides a unique opportunity to explore the effects of a range of potential drivers of woodland change that operated between 1971 and 2001. The data set is available in four discrete parts, which have been assigned the following DOIs: 10.5285/4d93f9ac-68e3-49cf-8a41-4d02a7ead81a (Kirby et al., 2013b), 10.5285/d6409d40-58fe-4fa7-b7c8-71a105b965b4 (Kirby et al., 2013d), 10.5285/fb1e474d-456b-42a9-9a10-a02c35af10d2 (Kirby et al., 2013c), 10.5285 (Kirby et al., 2013a).

  13. Avian habitat relationships in pinyon-juniper woodland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedgwick, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Habitat relationships of breeding birds were examined in northwestern Colorado in pinyon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland and in openings where most overstory trees had been knocked down by anchor chaining. Vegetation characteristics and physical habitat features were measured in 233 0.04-ha circular plots around singing males of 13 species of birds from 15 May to 15 July 1980. Thirteen-group discriminant function analysis ordinated bird species along three habitat dimensions described by (1) canopy height; (2) slope, shrub size, and shrub species diversity; and (3) percentage canopy cover, large tree density, distance from a habitat edge, litter cover, and green cover. Woodland, open-area, and intermediate edge species were clearly segregated along the first discriminant axis, and species' associations with shrubs, inclination, ground cover, and edges were revealed by the ordinations along the second and third discriminant axes. Two-group discriminant analyses comparing occupied and available plots identified additional and more specific habitat associations. For example, Hermit Thrushes (Catharus guttatus) were associated with mature forested habitats and forest interiors, Virginia's Warblers (Vermivora virginiae) favored steep, oak-covered draws, Rock Wrens (Salpinctes obsoletus) selected areas where percentage log cover and small tree density were high, and Dusky Flycatchers (Empidonax oberholseri) preferred shrubby slopes with scattered large trees near woodland edges.

  14. Woodland recovery following drought-induced tree mortality across an environmental stress gradient.

    PubMed

    Redmond, Miranda D; Cobb, Neil S; Clifford, Michael J; Barger, Nichole N

    2015-10-01

    Recent droughts and increasing temperatures have resulted in extensive tree mortality across the globe. Understanding the environmental controls on tree regeneration following these drought events will allow for better predictions of how these ecosystems may shift under a warmer, drier climate. Within the widely distributed piñon-juniper woodlands of the southwestern USA, a multiyear drought in 2002-2004 resulted in extensive adult piñon mortality and shifted adult woodland composition to a juniper-dominated, more savannah-type ecosystem. Here, we used pre- (1998-2001) and 10-year post- (2014) drought stand structure data of individually mapped trees at 42 sites to assess the effects of this drought on tree regeneration across a gradient of environmental stress. We found declines in piñon juvenile densities since the multiyear drought due to limited new recruitment and high (>50%) juvenile mortality. This is in contrast to juniper juvenile densities, which increased over this time period. Across the landscape, piñon recruitment was positively associated with live adult piñon densities and soil available water capacity, likely due to their respective effects on seed and water availability. Juvenile piñon survival was strongly facilitated by certain types of nurse trees and shrubs. These nurse plants also moderated the effects of environmental stress on piñon survival: Survival of interspace piñon juveniles was positively associated with soil available water capacity, whereas survival of nursed piñon juveniles was negatively associated with perennial grass cover. Thus, nurse plants had a greater facilitative effect on survival at sites with higher soil available water capacity and perennial grass cover. Notably, mean annual climatic water deficit and elevation were not associated with piñon recruitment or survival across the landscape. Our findings reveal a clear shift in successional trajectories toward a more juniper-dominated woodland and highlight the

  15. Antagonistic Roles for KNOX1 and KNOX2 Genes in Patterning the Land Plant Body Plan Following an Ancient Gene Duplication

    PubMed Central

    Furumizu, Chihiro; Alvarez, John Paul; Sakakibara, Keiko; Bowman, John L.

    2015-01-01

    Neofunctionalization following gene duplication is thought to be one of the key drivers in generating evolutionary novelty. A gene duplication in a common ancestor of land plants produced two classes of KNOTTED-like TALE homeobox genes, class I (KNOX1) and class II (KNOX2). KNOX1 genes are linked to tissue proliferation and maintenance of meristematic potentials of flowering plant and moss sporophytes, and modulation of KNOX1 activity is implicated in contributing to leaf shape diversity of flowering plants. While KNOX2 function has been shown to repress the gametophytic (haploid) developmental program during moss sporophyte (diploid) development, little is known about KNOX2 function in flowering plants, hindering syntheses regarding the relationship between two classes of KNOX genes in the context of land plant evolution. Arabidopsis plants harboring loss-of-function KNOX2 alleles exhibit impaired differentiation of all aerial organs and have highly complex leaves, phenocopying gain-of-function KNOX1 alleles. Conversely, gain-of-function KNOX2 alleles in conjunction with a presumptive heterodimeric BELL TALE homeobox partner suppressed SAM activity in Arabidopsis and reduced leaf complexity in the Arabidopsis relative Cardamine hirsuta, reminiscent of loss-of-function KNOX1 alleles. Little evidence was found indicative of epistasis or mutual repression between KNOX1 and KNOX2 genes. KNOX proteins heterodimerize with BELL TALE homeobox proteins to form functional complexes, and contrary to earlier reports based on in vitro and heterologous expression, we find high selectivity between KNOX and BELL partners in vivo. Thus, KNOX2 genes confer opposing activities rather than redundant roles with KNOX1 genes, and together they act to direct the development of all above-ground organs of the Arabidopsis sporophyte. We infer that following the KNOX1/KNOX2 gene duplication in an ancestor of land plants, neofunctionalization led to evolution of antagonistic biochemical

  16. Late Pleistocene woodlands in the Bolson de Mapimi: A refugium for the Chihuahuan Desert Biota?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Devender, Thomas R.; Burgess, Tony L.

    1985-11-01

    Packrat middens radiocarbon dated at 12,280 ± 345 and 12,700 ± 165 yr B.P. record expansions of junipers and papershell pinyon ( Pinus remota) into the desert lowlands of Durango and Coahuila, Mexico (26° N). Extralocal trees and shrubs presently occur 24-580 km in nearly all directions including more subtropical areas to the northeast and southeast. An equable Late Wisconsin climate marked by mild winters with increased precipitation and by cool summers with reduced summer monsoons is proposed. The extensive playas of the Bolson de Mapimi probably held water at that time. The Bolson de Mapimi was not a geographical refugium unaffected by glacial climates, although many Chihuahuan Desert plants and animals probably remain in situ as members of equable woodlands. Equable climates, low extinction rates, and repeated, rapid glacial/interglacial climatic fluctuations may have been important in the evolution and accumulation of species at lower latitudes.

  17. Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling

  18. Spatial partitioning of water use by herbaceous and woody lifeforms in semiarid woodlands

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.D.

    1993-12-31

    Ecological studies of soil moisture, plant water uptake, and community composition in semiarid regions have focused on differences with depth in the soil profile, yet there are many reasons to expect that moisture also varies with the presence or absence of woody vegetation. Plant and soil moisture relationships for three dominant species in a semiarid woodland, Bouteloua gracilis, Juniperus monosperma, and Pinus edulis, were studied for 1.5 years. Soil moisture varied by type of plant cover as well as by depth. Plant water potential and conductance differed among species and was related to spatial variability in soil moisture. Water potential for blue grama was most correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer of intercanopies; juniper water potential was highly correlated with soil moisture in the 0-15 cm layer beneath tree canopies of either species, and pinyon water potential was only weakly correlated with soil moisture in the 15-30 cm depth interval beneath pinyons. Pinyons had consistently greater maximum conductance rates than junipers, even though pinyon conductance was more sensitive to reductions in soil moisture. The results from this study indicate that horizontal differences in the soil moisture profile associated with type of plant cover may be as important as differences in depth for predicting plant-water relationships. A simple model was hypothesized for predicting community composition of three lifeforms: Herbaceous plants, shallow-rooted woody plants, and deeper-rooted woody plants. Distributions of roots of each lifeform and plant-available water were defined with respect to four soil compartments that distinguish upper vs. lower and canopy vs. intercanopy soil regions. The model predicts that multiple combinations of herbaceous and woody biomass can exist at a site and was qualitatively consistent with field data from a climatic gradient.

  19. [Vertical distribution characteristics of N2O emission in tea garden and its adjacent woodland].

    PubMed

    Fan, Li-chao; Han, Wen-yan; Li, Xin; Li, Zhi-xin

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we determined the vertical distribution of N2O emission rates in tea soils and its adjacent woodland soils. The results showed that total nitrogen contents, N2O fluxes and cumulative emissions in the tea garden and woodland decreased with the increasing depth of the soil layer, and their average values were greater in tea garden than in woodland. Generally, pH, soil water soluble organic nitrogen (WSON), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N contents had a downward trend with the increasing depth of soil layer. The WSON, MBN, NO(3-)-N and NH(4+)-N contents from each soil layer were greater in tea garden than in woodland, but the pH value in tea garden was lower than that in woodland. The N2O emission rate was significantly positively related with TN, MBN and NH(4+)-N contents, but not with pH value. The N2O emission rate was significantly correlated with WSON content in woodland, but not in tea garden. The N20 emission rate was significantly correlated with NO(3-)-N concentration in tea garden, but not in woodland. WSON/TN and N2O-N/SMBN were averagely greater than in tea garden in woodland, and SMBN/TN was opposite. These results indicated that tea soil was not conducive to accumulate nitrogen pool, maintain soil quality and its sustainable use compared to woodland. PMID:26785543

  20. Discovering the Ancient Maya From Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use o f limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  1. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  2. Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus Increase in Soil Physical Fractions Following Vegetation Change from Grassland to Woodland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantola, I. B.; Boutton, T. W.; Filley, T. R.; Hallmark, C. T.

    2009-12-01

    Woody plant encroachment has been pervasive in grass-dominated ecosystems around the world during the past century due to livestock grazing, fire suppression, and/or changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry. In the Rio Grande Plains of Texas, subtropical thorn woodlands dominated by N-fixing tree legumes have largely replaced grasslands. This dramatic land cover change has increased above- and belowground primary productivity and accelerated rates of biogeochemical processes in the soil. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of this grassland to woodland transition on C, N, and P concentrations in soil physical fractions that differ in turnover rates. Soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in remnant grasslands and near the centers of woody plant clusters ranging in age from 15 to 90 yrs in a subtropical savanna parkland in southern Texas. Soils were fractionated by wet sieving into five size and density classes: un-sieved whole soil, free light fraction (density <1 g/cm3), macroaggregates (>250 µm), microaggregates (53-250 µm), and free silt and clay (<53 µm). C and N concentrations in each of the fractions were determined by elemental analysis, and total P concentrations were determined by alkaline oxidation and sulfuric acid digestion coupled with ascorbic acid colorimetry. C, N, and P concentrations in whole soil were 2-3X greater in woody clusters than in grasslands. In addition, C, N, and P concentrations all increased linearly with time following woody plant invasion in all fractions except free silt and clay. Most of the newly accrued C, N, and P was in the relatively more labile light fractions and macroaggregates. C:P and N:P ratios increased following woody encroachment, indicating carbon and nitrogen accumulated at a faster rate than phosphorus. Since N and P are generally the most limiting nutrients in terrestrial ecosystems, increased stores of these elements are likely to alter rates of microbial processes, plant-microbe and plant-plant

  3. Ancient human microbiomes

    PubMed Central

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  4. Ancient Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-469, 31 August 2003

    The terraced area in this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image is an outcropping of ancient, sedimentary rock. It occurs in a crater in western Arabia Terra near 10.8oN, 4.5oW. Sedimentary rocks provide a record of past environments on Mars. Field work will likely be required to begin to get a good understanding of the nature of the record these rocks contain. Their generally uniform thickness and repeated character suggests that deposition of fine sediment in this crater was episodic, if not cyclic. These rocks might be indicators of an ancient lake, or they might have been deposited from grains settling out of an earlier, thicker, martian atmosphere. This image covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated from the lower left.

  5. Ancient Chinese Astronomical Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Jennifer Robin

    2004-05-01

    I am interested in the astronomical advances of the Ancient Chinese in measuring the solar day. Their development of gnomon & ruler, sundial, and water clock apparatuses enabled Chinese astronomers to measure the annual solar orbit and solar day more precisely than their contemporaries. I have built one of each of these devices to use in collecting data from Olympia, Washington. I will measure the solar day in the Pacific Northwest following the methodology of the ancient Chinese. I will compare with my data, the available historical Chinese astronomical records and current records from the United States Naval Observatory Master Clock. I seek to understand how ancient Chinese investigations into solar patterns enabled them to make accurate predictions about the movement of the celestial sphere and planets, and to develop analytic tests of their theories. Mayall, R. Newton; Sundials: their construction and use. Dover Publications 2000 North, John; The Norton History of Astronomy and Cosmology W.W. Norton& Co. 1995 Zhentao Xu, David W. Pankenier, Yaotiao Jiang; East Asian archaeoastronomy : historical records of astronomical observations of China, Japan and Korea Published on behalf of the Earth Space Institute by Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, c2000

  6. Traditional food and herbal uses of wild plants in the ancient South-Slavic diaspora of Mundimitar/Montemitro (Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In Europe, only a limited number of cross-cultural comparative field studies or meta-analyses have been focused on the dynamics through which folk plant knowledge changes over space and time, while a few studies have contributed to the understanding of how plant uses change among newcomers. Nevertheless, ethnic minority groups and/or linguistic “isles” in Southern and Eastern Europe may provide wonderful arenas for understanding the various factors that influence changes in plant uses. Methods A field ethnobotanical study was carried out in Mundimitar (Montemitro in Italian), a village of approx. 450 inhabitants, located in the Molise region of South-Eastern Italy. Mundimitar is a South-Slavic community, composed of the descendants of people who migrated to the area during the first half of the 14th century, probably from the lower Neretva valley (Dalmatia and Herzegovina regions). Eighteen key informants (average age: 63.7) were selected using the snowball sampling technique and participated in in-depth interviews regarding their Traditional Knowledge (TK) of the local flora. Results Although TK on wild plants is eroded in Montemitro among the youngest generations, fifty-seven taxa (including two cultivated species, which were included due to their unusual uses) were quoted by the study participants. Half of the taxa have correspondence in the Croatian and Herzegovinian folk botanical nomenclature, and the other half with South-Italian folk plant names. A remarkable link to the wild vegetable uses recorded in Dalmatia is evident. A comparison of the collected data with the previous ethnobotanical data of the Molise region and of the entire Italian Peninsula pointed out a few uses that have not been recorded in Italy thus far: the culinary use of boiled black bryony (Tamus communis) shoots in sauces and also on pasta; the use of squirting cucumber ( Ecballium elaterium) juice for treating malaria in humans; the aerial parts of the elderberry tree

  7. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  8. Invertible canopy reflectance modeling of vegetation structure in semiarid woodland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Janet; Strahler, Alan H.

    1988-01-01

    The Li-Strahler canopy reflectance model, driven by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data, provided regional estimates of tree size and density in two bioclimatic zones in West Africa. This model exploits tree geometry in an inversion technique to predict average tree size and density from reflectance data using a few simple parameters measured in the field (spatial pattern, shape, and size distribution of trees) and in the imagery (spectral signatures of scene components). The model was tested in sparse woodland and wooded grassland in the Sahelian and Sudanian bioclimatic zones in West Africa.

  9. Energy-conserving site design: case study, The Woodlands, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Swanson, M

    1980-03-01

    The Woodlands is a HUD Title VII New Town located north of Houston. It includes 22,000 acres and the plan for the new town consists of 6 residential villages, a town center called the Metro Center and several additional tracts, such as the Trade Center for larger-scale industrial use. Each village is to be structured around one large and several supporting neighborhood centers. Ultimate population is planned to be 150,000. Included in this report are sections on background, team structure and organization, methodological considerations, the conventional and energy-conserving plan, constraints to implementation, and general conclusions and next phases.

  10. Causes and consequences of tree mortality in Piñon-Juniper woodlands. Introducing an ecosystem scale rainfall manipulation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yepez, E. A.; Elliot, J.; White, S. A.; Plaut, J. A.; McDowell, N. G.; Pockman, W. T.

    2007-05-01

    Tree mortality as a consequence of drought is widespread worldwide. In Piñon-Juniper woodlands of the semiarid North American Southwest this phenomenon is patent but the consequences for the functioning of these ecosystems remain largely unknown. Although several factors have been proposed to explain tree mortality following drought (e.g. plant desiccation, bark beetle attack), no substantial experimental evidence has been produced to give mechanistic explanations for the occurrence of these events, nor for the potential effects on the ecosystem carbon and water cycles following this rapid landscape transformation. In this work, we introduce a plant-to-ecosystem rainfall manipulation experiment in Piñon-Juniper woodlands at the Sevilleta LTER in central New Mexico, USA. The goal of our study is to understand the causes (plant-level) and consequences (ecosystem-level) of tree mortality and/or survival following experimental drought in these woodlands. Framed in hydraulic concepts involving the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum, we are investigating how Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma would respond to treatments of rainfall diversion and addition in replicated (n=3) 1600 m2 plots. Within this experimental framework, we are first describing the hydraulic architecture of both species to predict plant allocation patterns (e.g. root vs. leaf area) and assess tree-level water transport capacity and/or failure. We believe that a thorough understanding of the tree hydraulic characteristics controlling transpiration will allow us to make robust predictions about the likelihood of plant death or survival during drought episodes and concomitant effects on the ecosystem rain use efficiency. Pre-treatment results (summer-fall 2006) indicate that transpiration rates per unit of leaf area were highly sensitive to variation in hydraulic conductance in the soil and plants and varied according to the contrasting vulnerabilities to xylem cavitation between P. edulis and J

  11. 75 FR 71463 - Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... (75 FR 49524). Workers at the subject firm are engaged in employment related to the production of... Employment and Training Administration Woodland Mills Corporation Mill Spring, NC; Notice of Revised... of Woodland Mills Corporation, Mill Spring, North Carolina, to apply for Trade Adjustment...

  12. Hydrologic vulnerability of western US rangelands in the wake of woodland encroachment and increasing wildfire activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinyon and juniper woodlands have dramatically increased their range in the past 150 years and currently occupy more than 30 million ha of the western US. Range expansion has primarily occurred through encroachment into sagebrush rangelands. Woodland expansion and infill on western rangelands have a...

  13. 75 FR 44853 - Woodlands Bank, Bluffton, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Woodlands Bank, Bluffton, SC; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is... Receiver for Woodlands Bank, Bluffton, South Carolina (OTS No. 08464), as of July 16, 2010. Dated: July...

  14. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by development phase of Juniperus occidentalis woodland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon- juniper) woodlands have expanded into Artemisia tridentata Beetle (big sagebrush) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Woodland control measures, including prescribed fire, have been increasingly employed to restore sagebr...

  15. Local climatic conditions constrain soil yeast diversity patterns in Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome.

    PubMed

    Yurkov, Andrey M; Röhl, Oliver; Pontes, Ana; Carvalho, Cláudia; Maldonado, Cristina; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2016-02-01

    Soil yeasts represent a poorly known fraction of the soil microbiome due to limited ecological surveys. Here, we provide the first comprehensive inventory of cultivable soil yeasts in a Mediterranean ecosystem, which is the leading biodiversity hotspot for vascular plants and vertebrates in Europe. We isolated and identified soil yeasts from forested sites of Serra da Arrábida Natural Park (Portugal), representing the Mediterranean forests, woodlands and scrub biome. Both cultivation experiments and the subsequent species richness estimations suggest the highest species richness values reported to date, resulting in a total of 57 and 80 yeast taxa, respectively. These values far exceed those reported for other forest soils in Europe. Furthermore, we assessed the response of yeast diversity to microclimatic environmental factors in biotopes composed of the same plant species but showing a gradual change from humid broadleaf forests to dry maquis. We observed that forest properties constrained by precipitation level had strong impact on yeast diversity and on community structure and lower precipitation resulted in an increased number of rare species and decreased evenness values. In conclusion, the structure of soil yeast communities mirrors the environmental factors that affect aboveground phytocenoses, aboveground biomass and plant projective cover. PMID:26568202

  16. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration. PMID:7858632

  17. Urology in ancient India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sakti

    2007-01-01

    The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland. PMID:19675749

  18. Gnomons in Ancient China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  19. Ancient human DNA.

    PubMed

    Kirsanow, Karola; Burger, Joachim

    2012-01-20

    The contribution of palaeogenetic data to the study of various aspects of hominin biology and evolution has been significant, and has the potential to increase substantially with the widespread implementation of next generation sequencing techniques. Here we discuss the present state-of-the-art of ancient human DNA analysis and the characteristics of hominin aDNA that make sequence validation particularly complex. A brief overview of the development of anthropological palaeogenetic analysis is given to illustrate the technical challenges motivating recent technological advancements. PMID:22169595

  20. Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

  1. 76 FR 59670 - Woodland Pulp, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of Pre-Application...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Woodland Pulp, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application, Filing of... Process. b. Project No.: 2492-012. c. Dated Filed: February 28, 2011. d. Submitted By: Woodland Pulp, LLC... Regulations. h. Potential Applicant Contact: Jay Beaudoin, Woodland Pulp, LLC, 144 Main Street,...

  2. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods.

    PubMed

    Buchholz, Sascha; Tietze, Hedwig; Kowarik, Ingo; Schirmel, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera); 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity. PMID:26359665

  3. Effects of a Major Tree Invader on Urban Woodland Arthropods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Biological invasions are a major threat to biodiversity; however, the degree of impact can vary depending on the ecosystem and taxa. Here, we test whether a top invader at a global scale, the tree Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust or false acacia), which is known to profoundly change site conditions, significantly affects urban animal diversity. As a first multi-taxon study of this kind, we analyzed the effects of Robinia dominance on 18 arthropod taxa by pairwise comparisons of woodlands in Berlin, Germany, that were dominated by R. pseudoacacia or the native pioneer tree Betula pendula. As a negative effect, abundances of five arthropod taxa decreased (Chilopoda, Formicidae, Diptera, Heteroptera, Hymenoptera); 13 others were not affected. Woodland type affected species composition of carabids and functional groups in spiders, but surprisingly did not decrease alpha and beta diversity of carabid and spider assemblages or the number of endangered species. Tree invasion thus did not induce biotic homogenization at the habitat scale. We detected no positive effects of alien dominance. Our results illustrate that invasions by a major tree invader can induce species turnover in ground-dwelling arthropods, but do not necessarily reduce arthropod species abundances or diversity and might thus contribute to the conservation of epigeal invertebrates in urban settings. Considering the context of invasion impacts thus helps to set priorities in managing biological invasions and can illustrate the potential of novel ecosystems to maintain urban biodiversity. PMID:26359665

  4. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  5. Communication Media in Ancient Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabusch, David M.

    Interest in early means of communication and in the uses and kinds of media that existed in ancient cultures is starting to grow among communication scholars. Conversation analysis of these cultures is obviously impossible, so that the emphasis must rest with material cultural artifacts. Many ancient cultures used non-verbal codes for dyadic…

  6. Ancient Chinese Literature Reveals Pathways of Eggplant Domestication

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Gang; Knapp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in key traits occurring during the processes of plant domestication have long been subjects of debate. Only in the case of genetic analysis or with extensive plant remains can specific sets of changes be documented. Historical details of the plant domestication processes are rare and other evidence of morphological change can be difficult to obtain, especially for those vegetables that lack a substantial body of archaeological data. Botanical records chronicled in the ancient literature of established ancient civilizations, such as that of China, are invaluable resources for the study and understanding of the process of plant domestication. Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World. Methods Information about eggplant domestication in the ancient Chinese literature was retrieved using a variety of methods. The information obtained was then sorted by taxon, examined and taxonomic identifications verified. Key Results It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 bc. As far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in cultivation. The analysis reveals that the process of domestication of the eggplant in China involved three principal aspects of fruit quality: size, shape and taste. These traits were actively and gradually selected; fruit size changed from small to large, taste changed from not palatable to what was termed at the time sweetish, and that over time, a wider variety of fruit shapes was cultivated. Conclusions The results indicate that, in addition to data gleaned from archaeology and genetics, evidence as to changes in key traits occurring during the process of plant domestication and selective forces responsible for these changes can be traced through the ancient

  7. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  8. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  9. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  10. Ancient and modern environmental DNA.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F; Schmidt, Astrid M Z; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hansen, Anders J; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-19

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  11. Live substrate positively affects root growth and stolon direction in the woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Erica M.; Watson, Maxine A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of clonal plant foraging generally focus on growth responses to patch quality once rooted. Here we explore the possibility of true plant foraging; the ability to detect and respond to patch resource status prior to rooting. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the morphological changes that occur when individual daughter ramets of Fragaria vesca (woodland strawberry) were exposed to air above live (non-sterilized) or dead (sterilized) substrates. Contact between daughter ramets and substrate was prohibited. Daughter ramet root biomass was significantly larger over live versus dead substrate. Root:shoot ratio also increased over live substrate, a morphological response we interpret as indicative of active nutrient foraging. Daughter ramet root biomass was positively correlated with mother ramet size over live but not dead substrate. Given the choice between a live versus a dead substrate, primary stolons extended preferentially toward live substrates. We conclude that exposure to live substrate drives positive nutrient foraging responses in F. vesca. We propose that volatiles emitted from the substrates might be effecting the morphological changes that occur during true nutrient foraging. PMID:26483826

  12. Under-utilisation of organic wastes during brownfield regeneration to community woodland: tackling the barriers.

    PubMed

    Ashwood, Francis E; Doick, Kieron J; Atkinson, Gail E; Chenoweth, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The regeneration of brownfield land to greenspace is a governmental policy objective of many European countries. Healthy vegetation establishment and growth is an essential component of successful greenspace establishment, and research has shown that a planting medium of an appropriate standard for supporting vegetation can be created through amendment of soil-forming materials with organic wastes. However, failed regeneration projects suggest that barriers may exist that prevent the use of suitable quality soil materials. The aim of this research was to identify barriers to the use of organic wastes for improving soil materials for brownfield regeneration to community woodland. We conducted interviews with a range of professionals experienced in regeneration to greenspace, and used content analysis on interview transcripts. A diverse set of barriers was revealed, including a low technical awareness among some professional groups of how to improve soil quality, coupled with a low awareness of the published technical guidance. Other barriers include regulatory and project management issues, which influence the timings and economics of raising brownfield soil quality. We highlight areas in which future efforts may be focused to improve the quality of planting media used in land regeneration. Such effort will improve the sustainability of greenspaces created and complement effective management of organic waste streams. PMID:24293070

  13. Palaeobotanical studies from tropical Africa: relevance to the evolution of forest, woodland and savannah biomes.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Bonnie F

    2004-01-01

    Fossil plants provide data on climate, community composition and structure, all of which are relevant to the definition and recognition of biomes. Macrofossils reflect local vegetation, whereas pollen assemblages sample a larger area. The earliest solid evidence for angiosperm tropical rainforest in Africa is based primarily on Late Eocene to Late Oligocene (ca. 39-26 Myr ago) pollen assemblages from Cameroon, which are rich in forest families. Plant macrofossil assemblages from elsewhere in interior Africa for this time interval are rare, but new work at Chilga in the northwestern Ethiopian Highlands documents forest communities at 28 Myr ago. Initial results indicate botanical affinities with lowland West African forest. The earliest known woodland community in tropical Africa is dated at 46 Myr ago in northern Tanzania, as documented by leaves and fruits from lake deposits. The community around the lake was dominated by caesalpinioid legumes, but included Acacia, for which this, to my knowledge, is the earliest record. This community is structurally similar to modern miombo, although it is different at the generic level. The grass-dominated savannah biome began to expand in the Middle Miocene (16 Myr ago), and became widespread in the Late Miocene (ca. 8 Myr ago), as documented by pollen and carbon isotopes from both West and East Africa. PMID:15519973

  14. Saproxylic beetles of the Po plain woodlands, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Bogliani, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Forest ecosystems play an important role for the conservation of biodiversity, and for the protection of ecological processes. The Po plain woodlands which once covered the whole Plain, today are reduced in isolated highly threatened remnants by modern intensive agriculture. These close to natural floodplain forests are one of the most scarce and endangered ecosystems in Europe. Saproxylic species represent a major part of biodiversity of woodlands. The saproxylic insects are considered one of the most reliable bio-indicators of high-quality mature woodlands and have a very important role in regard to the protection and monitoring of forest biodiversity due to their highly specific living environments. As a result of the dramatic reduction of mature forests and the decreased availability of deadwood most of the saproxylic communities are greatly diminishing. The study was conducted in the Ticino Valley Regional Park and the aim is to contribute to the expansion of knowledge on the saproxylic beetles of Lombardy. We investigated 6 sampling sites belonging to alluvial and riparian mixed forests. For each forest we selected 12 trees. For beetles’ collection we used two different traps: Eclector Traps and Trunk Window Traps (total of 72 traps and 864 samples collected). We determined 4.387 beetles from 87 saproxylic species belonging to 21 families. Of these species 51 were not included in the previous checklist of the Park. By comparing the two different techniques used for catching saproxylic beetles, we found a significantly high difference in species richness between Window Traps (WT) and Eclector Traps (ET) with a higher number of species captured in the Window Traps. However, the combined use of two different types of traps significantly expanded the spectrum of insects captured Among the species reported as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List, we found interesting species such as the Elateridae Calambus bipustulats, the Eucnemidae Melasis buprestoides

  15. Monitoring vegetation dynamics and carbon stock density in miombo woodlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The United Nation’s Program for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) aims to reduce the 20% contribution to global emissions of greenhouse gases from the forest sector, offering a financial value of the carbon stored in forests as an incentive for local communities. The pre-requisite for the setup of a participatory REDD + Program is the monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of baseline carbon stocks and their changes over time. In this study, we investigated miombo woodland’s dynamics in terms of composition, structure and biomass over a 4-year period (2005–2009), and the Carbon Stock Density (CSD) for the year 2009. The study was conducted in the Niassa National Reserve (NNR) in northern Mozambique, which is the 14th largest protected area in the world. Results Mean tree density distributed across 79 species increased slightly between 2005 and 2009, respectively, from 548 to 587 trees ha-1. Julbernardia globiflora (Benth.) was the most important species in this area [importance value index (IVI2005= 61 and IVI2009 = 54)]. The woodlands presented an inverted J-shaped diametric curve, with 69% of the individuals representing the young cohort. Woody biomass had a net increase of 3 Mg ha-1 with the highest growth observed in Dyplorhynchus condilocarpon (Müll.Arg.) Pichon (0.54 Mg ha-1). J. globiflora had a net decrease in biomass of 0.09 Mg ha-1. Total CSD density was estimated at ca. 67 MgC ha-1 ± 24.85 with soils (average 34.72 ± 17.93 MgC ha-1) and woody vegetation (average 29.8 MgC ha-1 ± 13.07) representing the major carbon pools. The results point to a relatively stable ecosystem, but they call for the need to refocus management activities. Conclusions The miombo woodlands in NNR are representative of the woodlands in the eco-region in terms of vegetation structure and composition. They experienced net increase in woody biomass, a considerable recruitment level and low

  16. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  17. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  18. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    PubMed

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  19. Consequences of canopy spatial arrangement in a semiarid woodland for near-ground solar radiation and soil moisture

    SciTech Connect

    Breshears, D.D.; Barnes, F.J.; Rich, P.M.

    1995-06-01

    Canopies of woody plants have been shown to modify the solar radiation and soil moisture patterns beneath them relative to intercanopy locations. However, the role of canopy spatial arrangement in modifying soil moisture patterns has not been investigated. We investigated the consequences of canopy spatial arrangement for soil moisture through time using an index of solar radiation in a pinyon-juniper woodland in northern New Mexico. Solar radiation indices were obtained using hemispherical photographs; soil moisture was measured using time-domain reflectometry (both were measured every 1 m along a 100 m transect). We tested for (1) spatial autocorrelation in soil moisture, (2) spatial autocorrelation in near-ground solar radiation patterns, and (3) relationships between solar radiation and soil moisture. We found spatial autocorrelation for both of the variables individually and correlation between the two variables. The results indicate that soil moisture patterns are modified by canopy spatial arrangement and vary along a continuum of openness, from canopy to intercanopy locations. These findings have implications for calculating water balance within and across woodland sites.

  20. Surveying woodland raptors by broadcast of conspecific vocalizations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, J.A.; Fuller, M.R.; Kopeny, M.

    1990-01-01

    We surveyed for raptors in forests on study areas in five of the eastern United States. For Cooper's Hawks (Accipiter cooperi), Red-shouldered Hawks (Buteo lineatus), and Barred Owls (Strix varia) the contact rates obtained by broadcasting taped vocalizations of conspecifics along roads were significantly greater than contact rates obtained by only looking and listening from the roadside. Broad-winged Hawks (B. platypterus) were detected only after their calls were broadcast. Most raptors were detected within 10 min of the beginning of the broadcasts. Red-tailed Hawks (B. jamaicensis) and Goshawks (A. gentilis) nested infrequently on our study areas, and we were unable to increase detections of these species. Generally, point count transects along woodland roads, from which conspecific vocalizations were broadcast, resulted in higher species specific detection rates than when walking, driving continuously, or only looking and listening for raptors at roadside stops.

  1. Evaporation from Banksia woodland on a groundwater mound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, P.; Greenwood, E. A. N.; Bartle, G. A.; Beresford, J. D.; Watson, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    Annual evaporation from a site within a Banksia woodland on a groundwater mound near Perth, Western Australia, was estimated from measurements of daily evaporation by ventilated chambers on fourteen occasions during a 12-month period. The total evaporation for this period was estimated to be 666 mm (77% of annual rainfall). About two-thirds of the total evaporation came from the ground flora, one-fifth from Banksia trees, and the remainder from the tall shrub Adenanthos cygnorum. Depth to water table, which ranged from 4 to 12 m over the site, had little effect on total evaporation. This work suggests that regular reduction in ground flora foliage, for example, by controlled burning could increase recharge.

  2. Not all kinds of revegetation are created equal: revegetation type influences bird assemblages in threatened Australian woodland ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Lindenmayer, David B; Northrop-Mackie, Amanda R; Montague-Drake, Rebecca; Crane, Mason; Michael, Damian; Okada, Sachiko; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The value for biodiversity of large intact areas of native vegetation is well established. The biodiversity value of regrowth vegetation is also increasingly recognised worldwide. However, there can be different kinds of revegetation that have different origins. Are there differences in the richness and composition of biotic communities in different kinds of revegetation? The answer remains unknown or poorly known in many ecosystems. We examined the conservation value of different kinds of revegetation through a comparative study of birds in 193 sites surveyed over ten years in four growth types located in semi-cleared agricultural areas of south-eastern Australia. These growth types were resprout regrowth, seedling regrowth, plantings, and old growth. Our investigation produced several key findings: (1) Marked differences in the bird assemblages of plantings, resprout regrowth, seedling regrowth, and old growth. (2) Differences in the number of species detected significantly more often in the different growth types; 29 species for plantings, 25 for seedling regrowth, 20 for resprout regrowth, and 15 for old growth. (3) Many bird species of conservation concern were significantly more often recorded in resprout regrowth, seedling regrowth or plantings but no species of conservation concern were recorded most often in old growth. We suggest that differences in bird occurrence among different growth types are likely to be strongly associated with growth-type differences in stand structural complexity.Our findings suggest a range of vegetation growth types are likely to be required in a given farmland area to support the diverse array of bird species that have the potential to occur in Australian temperate woodland ecosystems. Our results also highlight the inherent conservation value of regrowth woodland and suggest that current policies which allow it to be cleared or thinned need to be carefully re-examined. PMID:22493698

  3. Chemical changes to nonaggregated particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to-woodland transition in a subtropical savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, Timothy R.; Boutton, Thomas W.; Liao, Julia D.; Jastrow, Julie D.; Gamblin, David E.

    2008-09-01

    Encroachment of thorn woodlands into grasslands of southern Texas has resulted in greater aboveground and belowground biomass and greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Our previous studies showed that a large percentage of the SOC accrued under invading woody clusters was not stabilized within protective soil aggregates or on mineral-surfaces. Here we evaluated lignin and cutin- and suberin-derived substituted fatty acid (SFA) chemistry to determine if the accrual of nonaggregated particulate organic matter (POM) in woodlands was promoted by inherently greater recalcitrance of tissues from woody versus grass species, and if there was selective input of aboveground versus belowground plant carbon to POM. Woody clusters exhibited reduced concentrations of cutin-derived SFA and cinnamyl phenols within surface litter compared to fresh aboveground plant material. However, root litter exhibited relatively minor changes in biopolymer chemistry compared to fresh root tissue, suggesting it was either more stable or was refreshed at a greater rate. Between 14 and 105 years of woody plant encroachment, SFA in free POM fractions appeared to be consistently derived from root material while SFA within intraaggregate POM were increasingly derived from cutin sources. In addition, the shift from herbaceous to woody input was accompanied by enrichment in the amount of cutin and suberin-derived aliphatics with respect to lignin in both root and surface litter as well as nonaggregated POM. Woody plant encroachment at this site results in the rapid accrual of POM pools that are biochemically recalcitrant, providing a mechanism by which soil organic carbon can accumulate in this sandy soil system. Our results also lend further credence to the hypothesis that aliphatic biopolymers, particularly root-derived suberin, are important components of long-term soil organic carbon stabilization.

  4. Chemical changes to nonagrregtaed particulate soil organic matter following grassland-to woodland transition ina subtropical savanna.

    SciTech Connect

    Filley, T. R.; Boutton, T. W.; Liao, J. D.; Jastrow, J. D.; Gamblin, D. E.; Biosciences Division; Purdue Univ.; Texas A&M

    2008-07-19

    Encroachment of thorn woodlands into grasslands of southern Texas has resulted in greater aboveground and belowground biomass and greater soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks. Our previous studies showed that a large percentage of the SOC accrued under invading woody clusters was not stabilized within protective soil aggregates or on mineral-surfaces. Here we evaluated lignin and cutin- and suberin-derived substituted fatty acid (SFA) chemistry to determine if the accrual of nonaggregated particulate organic matter (POM) in woodlands was promoted by inherently greater recalcitrance of tissues from woody versus grass species, and if there was selective input of aboveground versus belowground plant carbon to POM. Woody clusters exhibited reduced concentrations of cutin-derived SFA and cinnamyl phenols within surface litter compared to fresh aboveground plant material. However, root litter exhibited relatively minor changes in biopolymer chemistry compared to fresh root tissue, suggesting it was either more stable or was refreshed at a greater rate. Between 14 and 105 years of woody plant encroachment, SFA in free POM fractions appeared to be consistently derived from root material while SFA within intraaggregate POM were increasingly derived from cutin sources. In addition, the shift from herbaceous to woody input was accompanied by enrichment in the amount of cutin and suberin-derived aliphatics with respect to lignin in both root and surface litter as well as nonaggregated POM. Woody plant encroachment at this site results in the rapid accrual of POM pools that are biochemically recalcitrant, providing a mechanism by which soil organic carbon can accumulate in this sandy soil system. Our results also lend further credence to the hypothesis that aliphatic biopolymers, particularly root-derived suberin, are important components of long-term soil organic carbon stabilization.

  5. Not All Kinds of Revegetation Are Created Equal: Revegetation Type Influences Bird Assemblages in Threatened Australian Woodland Ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmayer, David B.; Northrop-Mackie, Amanda R.; Montague-Drake, Rebecca; Crane, Mason; Michael, Damian; Okada, Sachiko; Gibbons, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The value for biodiversity of large intact areas of native vegetation is well established. The biodiversity value of regrowth vegetation is also increasingly recognised worldwide. However, there can be different kinds of revegetation that have different origins. Are there differences in the richness and composition of biotic communities in different kinds of revegetation? The answer remains unknown or poorly known in many ecosystems. We examined the conservation value of different kinds of revegetation through a comparative study of birds in 193 sites surveyed over ten years in four growth types located in semi-cleared agricultural areas of south-eastern Australia. These growth types were resprout regrowth, seedling regrowth, plantings, and old growth. Our investigation produced several key findings: (1) Marked differences in the bird assemblages of plantings, resprout regrowth, seedling regrowth, and old growth. (2) Differences in the number of species detected significantly more often in the different growth types; 29 species for plantings, 25 for seedling regrowth, 20 for resprout regrowth, and 15 for old growth. (3) Many bird species of conservation concern were significantly more often recorded in resprout regrowth, seedling regrowth or plantings but no species of conservation concern were recorded most often in old growth. We suggest that differences in bird occurrence among different growth types are likely to be strongly associated with growth-type differences in stand structural complexity. Our findings suggest a range of vegetation growth types are likely to be required in a given farmland area to support the diverse array of bird species that have the potential to occur in Australian temperate woodland ecosystems. Our results also highlight the inherent conservation value of regrowth woodland and suggest that current policies which allow it to be cleared or thinned need to be carefully re-examined. PMID:22493698

  6. Food, dietetics and nutrition in ancient India.

    PubMed

    Manyam, B V

    1995-01-01

    In pre-agricultural era, entire mankind consumed meat as early man was a hunter. Possibly he ate from plants sources which grew in the wilderness. With the advent of agriculture as an outcome of civilization, man acquired the ability to cultivate what he wanted, as by now he was influenced to some extent by the selection of the food that he wanted to eat. All this ultimately led to him taking to vegeterianism, which probably did not occur until approximately 1500 B.C. It is tried in this study to examine the concept of nutrition, balanced diet, appetite, food etiquette, food sanitation and food poisoning etc. in ancient India. PMID:11618846

  7. Soil Phosphatase Activity and Plant-available Phosphorus Increase Following Grassland Invasion by N-fixing Tree Legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grass-dominated ecosystems around the world are experiencing woody plant invasion due to human land uses. Vast regions in southern Texas have been transformed from open grasslands to subtropical thorn woodlands during the past 150 yrs. These woodlands are dominated by N-fixing tree legumes which are...

  8. Astronomy in the Ancient Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri

    This chapter discusses the role of recurrent heavenly phenomena in the formation of ancient cultural traditions. Artifacts bearing witness to astronomical and calendrical practices in the ancient Caucasus are described and we analyze the significance of the "boats of the sun" petroglyphs at Gobustan in Azerbaijan, the solar station at Abuli in Georgia, and the "sky dial" at Carahunge in Armenia. Similarities and differences between the ancient cultures of the region are discussed. Finally, we present the results of the latest field research and new facts and hypotheses.

  9. Response of respiration and nutrient availability to drying and rewetting in soil from a semi-arid woodland depends on vegetation patch and a recent wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Meyer, W. S.; Koerber, G. R.; Marschner, P.

    2015-08-01

    Semi-arid woodlands, which are characterised by patchy vegetation interspersed with bare, open areas, are frequently exposed to wildfire. During summer, long dry periods are occasionally interrupted by rainfall events. It is well known that rewetting of dry soil induces a flush of respiration. However, the magnitude of the flush may differ between vegetation patches and open areas because of different organic matter content, which could be further modulated by wildfire. Soils were collected from under trees, under shrubs or in open areas in unburnt and burnt sandy mallee woodland, where part of the woodland experienced a wildfire which destroyed or damaged most of the aboveground plant parts 4 months before sampling. In an incubation experiment, the soils were exposed to two moisture treatments: constantly moist (CM) and drying and rewetting (DRW). In CM, soils were incubated at 80 % of maximum water holding capacity (WHC) for 19 days; in DRW, soils were dried for 4 days, kept dry for another 5 days, then rewetted to 80 % WHC and maintained at this water content until day 19. Soil respiration decreased during drying and was very low in the dry period; rewetting induced a respiration flush. Compared to soil under shrubs and in open areas, cumulative respiration per gram of soil in CM and DRW was greater under trees, but lower when expressed per gram of total organic carbon (TOC). Organic matter content, available P, and microbial biomass C, but not available N, were greater under trees than in open areas. Wild fire decreased the flush of respiration per gram of TOC in the open areas and under shrubs, and reduced TOC and microbial biomass C (MBC) concentrations only under trees, but had little effect on available N and P concentrations. We conclude that the impact of wildfire and DRW events on nutrient cycling differs among vegetation patches of a native semi-arid woodland which is related to organic matter amount and availability.

  10. Response of respiration and nutrient availability to drying and rewetting in soil from a semi-arid woodland depends on vegetation patch and a recent wild fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Meyer, W. S.; Koerber, G.; Marschner, P.

    2015-06-01

    Semi-arid woodlands, which are characterised by patchy vegetation interspersed with bare, open areas, are frequently exposed to wild fire. During summer, long dry periods are occasionally interrupted by rainfall events. It is well-known that rewetting of dry soil induces a flush of respiration. However, the magnitude of the flush may differ between vegetation patches and open areas because of different organic matter content which could be further modulated by wild fire. Soils were collected from under trees, under shrubs or in open areas in unburnt and burnt sandy Mallee woodland, where part of the woodland experienced a wild fire which destroyed or damaged most of the aboveground plant parts four months before sampling. In an incubation experiment, the soils were exposed to two moisture treatments: constantly moist (CM) and drying and rewetting (DRW). In CM, soils were incubated at 80% of maximum water holding capacity for 19 days; In DRW, soils were dried for four days, kept dry for another five days, then rewet to 80% WHC and maintained at this water content until day 19. Soil respiration decreased during drying and was very low in the dry period; rewetting induced a respiration flush. Compared to soil under shrubs and in open areas, cumulative respiration per g soil in CM and DRW was greater under trees, but lower when expressed per g TOC. Organic matter content, available P, and microbial biomass C, but not available N were greater under trees than in open areas. Wild fire decreased the flush of respiration per g TOC in the open areas and under shrubs, and reduced TOC and MBC concentrations only under trees, but had little effect on available N and P concentrations. We conclude that of the impact wild fire and DRW events on nutrient cycling differ among vegetation patches of a native semiarid woodland which is related to organic matter amount and availability.